WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic packing containers

  1. Corundum Based Composite Block Containing Plastic Phase YB/T 4129-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Chai Junlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition, classifica-tion, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation and quality certificate of corundum block containing plastic phase.

  2. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  3. 7 CFR 906.340 - Container, pack, and container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container, pack, and container marking regulations... AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.340 Container, pack, and container marking regulations. (a) No handler shall handle any variety...

  4. An effective evolutionary algorithm for the multiple container packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Moon Soak; Sang-Wook Lee; Gi-Tae Yeo; Moon-Gu Jeon

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new optimization problem, which is called "The Multiple Container Packing Problem (MCPP)" and proposes a new evolutionary approach for it. The proposed evolutionary approach uses "Adaptive Link Adjustment Evolutionary Algorithm (ALA-EA)" as a basic framework and it incorporates a heuristic local improvement approach into ALA-EA. The first step of the local search algorithm is to raise empty space through the exchange among the packed items and then to improve the fitness value through packing unpacked items into the raised empty space. The second step is to exchange the packed items and the unpacked items one another toward improving the fitness value. The proposed algorithm is compared to the previous evolutionary approaches at the benchmark instances (with the same container capacity) and the modified benchmark instances (with different container capacity) and that the algorithm is proved to be superior to the previous evolutionary approaches in the solution quality.

  5. On plastic flow in notched hexagonal close packed single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajou, Balaji; Kondori, Babak; Benzerga, A. Amine; Joshi, Shailendra P.

    2016-09-01

    The micromechanics of anisotropic plastic flow by combined slip and twinning is investigated computationally in single crystal notched specimens. Constitutive relations for hexagonal close packed materials are used which take into account elastic anisotropy, thirty potential deformation systems, various hardening mechanisms and rate-sensitivity. The specimens are loaded perpendicular to the c-axis but the presence of a notch generates three-dimensional triaxial stress states. The study is motivated by recent experiments on a polycrystalline magnesium alloy. To enable comparisons with these where appropriate, three sets of activation thresholds for the various deformation systems are used. For the conditions that most closely mimic the alloy material, attention is focused on the relative roles of pyramidal and prismatic slip, as well as on the emergence of {1012bar}[101bar1] extension twinning at sufficiently high triaxiality. In all cases, the spatial variations of stress triaxiality and plastic strain, inclusive of various system activities, are quantified along with their evolution upon straining. The implications of these findings in fundamental understanding of ductile failure of HCP alloys in general and Mg alloys in particular are discussed.

  6. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing materials and containers for plant pest... Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials. Plant pests moved into or... packing materials are to be employed in the shipment of plant pests. Approved packing materials for...

  7. 7 CFR 915.306 - Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.306 Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking regulation. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of avocados grown...

  8. 19 CFR 10.462 - Packing materials and containers for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packing materials and containers for shipment. 10... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.462 Packing materials and containers for shipment. (a) Packing materials and containers for shipment, as defined in § 10.450(m), are to be disregarded...

  9. 19 CFR 10.602 - Packing materials and containers for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packing materials and containers for shipment. 10...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.602 Packing materials and containers for shipment. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packing materials and containers for shipment,...

  10. 19 CFR 10.540 - Packing materials and containers for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packing materials and containers for shipment. 10...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.540 Packing materials and containers for shipment. (a) Packing materials and containers for shipment, as defined in § 10.530(j) of this subpart, are to...

  11. Numerical Simulation on Dense Packing of Granular Materials by Container Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The packing of granular materials is a basic and important problem in geomechanics. An approach, which generates dense packing of spheres confined in cylindrical and cuboidal containers in three steps, is introduced in this work. A loose packing structure is first generated by means of a reference lattice method. Then a dense packing structure is obtained in a container by simulating dropping of particles under gravitational forces. Furthermore, a scheme that makes the bottom boundary fluctuate up and down was applied to obtain more denser packing. The discrete element method (DEM was employed to simulate the interactions between particle-particle and particle-boundary during the particles' motions. Finally, two cases were presented to indicate the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  12. Packing Boxes into Multiple Containers Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghani, Deepak; Guha, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    Container loading problems have been studied extensively in the literature and various analytical, heuristic and metaheuristic methods have been proposed. This paper presents two different variants of a genetic algorithm framework for the three-dimensional container loading problem for optimally loading boxes into multiple containers with constraints. The algorithms are designed so that it is easy to incorporate various constraints found in real life problems. The algorithms are tested on data of standard test cases from literature and are found to compare well with the benchmark algorithms in terms of utilization of containers. This, along with the ability to easily incorporate a wide range of practical constraints, makes them attractive for implementation in real life scenarios.

  13. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.815 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  14. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  15. Intelligent 3D packing using a grouping algorithm for automotive container engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyoung Joung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Storing, and the loading and unloading of materials at production sites in the manufacturing sector for mass production is a critical problem that affects various aspects: the layout of the factory, line-side space, logistics, workers’ work paths and ease of work, automatic procurement of components, and transfer and supply. Traditionally, the nesting problem has been an issue to improve the efficiency of raw materials; further, research into mainly 2D optimization has progressed. Also, recently, research into the expanded usage of 3D models to implement packing optimization has been actively carried out. Nevertheless, packing algorithms using 3D models are not widely used in practice, due to the large decrease in efficiency, owing to the complexity and excessive computational time. In this paper, the problem of efficiently loading and unloading freeform 3D objects into a given container has been solved, by considering the 3D form, ease of loading and unloading, and packing density. For this reason, a Group Packing Approach for workers has been developed, by using analyzed truck packing work patterns and Group Technology, which is to enhance the efficiency of storage in the manufacturing sector. Also, an algorithm for 3D packing has been developed, and implemented in a commercial 3D CAD modeling system. The 3D packing method consists of a grouping algorithm, a sequencing algorithm, an orientating algorithm, and a loading algorithm. These algorithms concern the respective aspects: the packing order, orientation decisions of parts, collision checking among parts and processing, position decisions of parts, efficiency verification, and loading and unloading simulation. Storage optimization and examination of the ease of loading and unloading are possible, and various kinds of engineering analysis, such as work performance analysis, are facilitated through the intelligent 3D packing method developed in this paper, by using the results of the 3D

  16. Urban Trash Containers Made of Recycled Plastic Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto Ledur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost and easy-to-handle manufacturing procedure for urban trash containers, made of recycled plastic lumber, was developed focusing on the following aspects: materials selection, materials compounding, plastic sheet manufacturing and mechanical testing, urban trash container design and assembly, and a pilot test. The material, a composite of polyethylene (PE urban waste, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA industrial waste and calcium carbonate, was prepared in a Drais batch mixer. The mixture was hot compression molded as rectangular-shaped sheets of 900 mm length, 600 mm width and 12 mm or 7 mm thickness. These sheets were characterized with regard to mechanical properties, microstructure and UV resistance. An urban trash container prototype was prepared from the plastic sheets and a hundred trash containers were submitted to a pilot test. All the steps, material compounding, plastic sheet processing, and trash container design and manufacturing were optimized in order to give the required physico-mechanical properties, functional characteristics and finish of the urban trash containers.

  17. Mechanism of plasticity Development for Ceramic Dough (Part 2). Investigation on Plasticity by Particle Packing Structure; Seramiku nendo no kasakusei hatsugen mekanizumu 2. Nendo juten kozo to kasakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shuji. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ichikawa, Yukari.; Ishida, Hideki. [INAX Corporation, Aichi (Japan); Shibasaki, Yasuo.; Oda, Kiichi. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Plasticity and packing structure of clay and alumina dough, and of alumina mixed with water-soluble and non-water-soluble plasticizers were investigated. It was found that both plastic clay dough and alumina dough with plasticizers showed a two-peak pore population. When the larger-sized pores increased in volume, the fluidity of the dough was improved. On the otherhand, when the smaller-sized pores decreased in volume, a high rigidity was showed. An aggregate structure was observed in the clay and the dough mixed with water-soluble plasticizer like methyl cellulose. Plasticity was generated when the aggregates were deformed by using the larger-sized pores among each aggregate. The non-water-soluble curdlan did not dissolve in the dough and remained in gel. The larger-sized pores were formed by the gel, whose deformation produced plasticity. It was understood that plasticity is fenerated when either the aggregates or the gel act as a buffer in the dough and enhance deformation of the dough. (author)

  18. Model and algorithm for container ship stowage planning based on bin-packing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ying; Lin, Yan; Ji, Zhuo-Shang

    2005-09-01

    In a general case, container ship serves many different ports on each voyage. A stowage planning for container ship made at one port must take account of the influence on subsequent ports. So the complexity of stowage planning problem increases due to its multi-ports nature. This problem is NP-hard problem. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the problem is decomposed into two sub-problems in this paper. First, container ship stowage problem (CSSP) is regarded as “packing problem”, ship-bays on the board of vessel are regarded as bins, the number of slots at each bay are taken as capacities of bins, and containers with different characteristics (homogeneous containers group) are treated as items packed. At this stage, there are two objective functions, one is to minimize the number of bays packed by containers and the other is to minimize the number of overstows. Secondly, containers assigned to each bays at first stage are allocate to special slot, the objective functions are to minimize the metacentric height, heel and overstows. The taboo search heuristics algorithm are used to solve the subproblem. The main focus of this paper is on the first subproblem. A case certifies the feasibility of the model and algorithm.

  19. Model and algorithm for container ship stowage planning based on bin-packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In a general case, container ship serves many different ports on each voyage. A stowage planning for container ship made at one port must take account of the influence on subsequent ports. So the complexity of stowage planning problem increases due to its multi-ports nature. This problem is NP-hard problem. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the problem is decomposed into two sub-problems in this paper. First, container ship stowage problem (CSSP) is regarded as "packing problem", ship-bays on the board of vessel are regarded as bins, the number of slots at each bay are taken as capacities of bins, and containers with different characteristics (homogeneous containers group) are treated as items packed. At this stage, there are two objective functions, one is to minimize the number of bays packed by containers and the other is to minimize the number of overstows. Secondly, containers assigned to each bays at first stage are allocate to special slot, the objective functions are to minimize the metacentric height, heel and overstows.The taboo search heuristics algorithm are used to solve the subproblem. The main focus of this paper is on the first subproblem. A case certifies the feasibility of the model and algorithm.

  20. Integer Programming Formulations for Approximate Packing Circles in a Rectangular Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Litvinchev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of packing a limited number of unequal circles in a fixed size rectangular container is considered. The aim is to maximize the (weighted number of circles placed into the container or minimize the waste. This problem has numerous applications in logistics, including production and packing for the textile, apparel, naval, automobile, aerospace, and food industries. Frequently the problem is formulated as a nonconvex continuous optimization problem which is solved by heuristic techniques combined with local search procedures. New formulations are proposed for approximate solution of packing problem. The container is approximated by a regular grid and the nodes of the grid are considered as potential positions for assigning centers of the circles. The packing problem is then stated as a large scale linear 0-1 optimization problem. The binary variables represent the assignment of centers to the nodes of the grid. Nesting circles inside one another is also considered. The resulting binary problem is then solved by commercial software. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach and compared with known results.

  1. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition.

  2. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  3. Summary of Calculations Performed to Evaluate the Structural Integrity of the 6-Pack Container Pallet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrousis, C.A.

    1999-10-01

    The 6-Pack Container Pallet is a space-frame structure, designed by Mason & Hanger Corp. to hold six AL-R8 containers together in a convenient bundle. The AL-R8 containers hold nuclear weapon components that require special care and consideration. The primary purpose of the 6-pack assembly is storage, but there is some manipulation as the 6-pack is loaded, moved and stacked. Recently, there has been an upgrade to a new AL-R8-SI container that is heavier than its predecessor was. The analysis discussed herein was conducted to ensure that the increased stresses due to the heavier containers are within design safety limits. At this time, however, there is disagreement as to what the strength requirements for the 6-pack pallet are. Depending on which classification applies to the structure, a factor of safety (yield stress over design stress) of 3.0 or more may need to be satisfied. This report documents strength analyses of loaded 6-packs performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The entire 6-pack assembly was discretized into a mesh with a total of 38682 first-order finite elements. The stresses were found for four characteristic load cases using the implicit code NIKE3D. This was a static strength analysis only. Dynamic loading was not considered. Stability, also, was not addressed. There are two 6-pack pallet designs under consideration: one that uses 1/2 inch diameter bolts and one with 3/8 inch bolts. In both cases, the maximum torque applied to the bolts is 55 in-lbf. This analysis finds the minimum factor of safety based on yield to be less than 3.0 in the main load path of both the 1/2 inch and 3/8 inch diameter bolt designs. In general, the peak stresses found in the 1/2 inch bolt design are less than those of the 3/8 inch bolt design. At the welded ends of the main tube section that spans the length of the pallet, the minimum safety factor is 2.14 when 1/2 inch bolts are used and 1.77 when 3/8 inch bolts are used. Minimum safety factors of

  4. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    122 xii TEST PLAN DEVELOPMENT FOR PLASTIC AM4MINITION CONTAINERS - VOLUME I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project...11 LA 00 Li C:0 z CP -0 133 0( LIE r r ’ D2 U)~ E C IP a g 0- L) LaLn 4’ MOIAIV3H-Q3.~f-trCYin, 20o Tabla 6-D Performance Prediction Model 155ram

  5. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment...

  6. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  7. Strain gradient crystal plasticity analysis of a single crystal containing a cylindrical void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Kysar, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of void size and hardening in a hexagonal close-packed single crystal containing a cylindrical void loaded by a far-field equibiaxial tensile stress under plane strain conditions are studied. The crystal has three in-plane slip systems oriented at the angle 60 degrees with respect...... to one another. Finite element simulations are performed using a strain gradient crystal plasticity formulation with an intrinsic length scale parameter in a non-local strain gradient constitutive framework. For a vanishing length scale parameter the non-local formulation reduces to a local crystal...... to three times higher for smaller void sizes than for larger void sizes in the non-local material....

  8. Final evaluation of characterizing pipe-over-pack containers using high efficiency neutron counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Pete [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanfield, Sean B [AFS; Wachter, Joe [CANBERRA; Cramer, Doug [CANBERRA; Harvill, Joe [WTS

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) packed in Pipe-over-Pack Containers (POC) contain a number of complexities. The POC is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons which presents a difficult waste matrix for correct quantification of material in the container. Currently there are a number ofPOC containers at LANL that require evaluation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. Updated data has been evaluated that finalizes the evaluation of characterizing Pipe-Over-Pack Containers. Currently at LANL, a single instrument has been used to explore the appropriateness of both passive neutron and quantitative gamma ray methods for measuring POC's. The passive neutron approach uses the Reals coincidence count rate to establish plutonium mass and other parameters of interest for TRU waste. The quantitative gamma ray method assumes a homogeneous distribution of radioactive source material with the surrounding material throughout the drum volume. Drums are assayed with a calibration based on the known density of the matrix. Both methods are supplemented by a simultaneous isotopic measurement using Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) to determine the plutonium isotopic composition. If MGA fails to provide a viable isotopic result Fixed Energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies (FRAM) has been used to replace the MGA results. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) may also be used in certain instances. This report will discuss the two methods in detail. Included in the discussion will be descriptions of the setup parameters and calibration techniques for the instrument. A number of test measurements have been performed to compare HENC data with certified historical data. Empty POCs loaded with known sources have also been measured to determine the viability of the technique. A comparison between calorimetry data, historical measurements and HENC data will also be

  9. PACKING CIRCLES WITHIN CIRCULAR CONTAINERS: A NEW HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR THE BALANCE CONSTRAINTS CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Alves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work we propose a heuristic algorithm for the layout optimization for disks installed in a rotating circular container. This is a unequal circle packing problem with additional balance constraints. It proved to be an NP-hard problem, which justifies heuristics methods for its resolution in larger instances. The main feature of our heuristic is based on the selection of the next circle to be placed inside the container according to the position of the system's center of mass. Our approach has been tested on a series of instances up to 55 circles and compared with the literature. Computational results show good performance in terms of solution quality and computational time for the proposed algorithm.

  10. Radial particle-size segregation during packing of particulates into cylindrical containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, C.D.; James, R.V.; Rubin, J.

    1973-01-01

    In a series of experiments, soil materials were placed in long cylindrical containers, using various packing procedures. Soil columns produced by deposition and simultaneous vibratory compaction were dense and axially uniform, but showed significant radial segregation of particle sizes. Similar results were obtained with deposition and simultaneous impact-type compaction when the impacts resulted in significant container "bouncing". The latter procedure, modified to minimize "bouncing" produced dense, uniform soil columns, showing little radial particle-size segregation. Other procedures tested (deposition alone and deposition followed by compaction) did not result in radial segregation, but produced columns showing either relatively low or axially nonuniform densities. Current data suggest that radial particle-size segregation is mainly due to vibration-induced particle circulation in which particles of various sizes have different circulation rates and paths. ?? 1973.

  11. Organic Semiconductor-Containing Supramolecules: Effect of Small Molecule Crystallization and Molecular Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Rancatore, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-21

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. Small molecules (SMs) with unique optical or electronic properties provide an opportunity to incorporate functionality into block copolymer (BCP)-based supramolecules. However, the assembly of supramolecules based on these highly crystalline molecules differs from their less crystalline counterparts. Here, two families of organic semiconductor SMs are investigated, where the composition of the crystalline core, the location (side- vs end-functionalization) of the alkyl solubilizing groups, and the constitution (branched vs linear) of the alkyl groups are varied. With these SMs, we present a systematic study of how the phase behavior of the SMs affects the overall assembly of these organic semiconductor-based supramolecules. The incorporation of SMs has a large effect on the interfacial curvature, the supramolecular periodicity, and the overall supramolecular morphology. The crystal packing of the SM within the supramolecule does not necessarily lead to the assembly of the comb block within the BCP microdomains, as is normally observed for alkyl-containing supramolecules. An unusual lamellar morphology with a wavy interface between the microdomains is observed due to changes in the packing structure of the small molecule within BCP microdomains. Since the supramolecular approach is modular and small molecules can be readily switched out, present studies provide useful guidance toward access supramolecular assemblies over several length scales using optically active and semiconducting small molecules.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  13. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C; Verdier, M

    1993-06-01

    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied. Stedim 6, is anew multilayer film whose inner layer is made of polyethylene. The drugs were in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions and the influence of these was also considered. The remaining concentrations of each drug were determined at regular time intervals in a 24-h period, by a spectrofluorometric method for chlorpromazine hydrochloride and by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for the other drugs. No binding was observed for viloxazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides whatever the infusion solution and the plastic container. A slight retention in PVC bags, but not in Stedim 6 ones, was noted for clomipramine hydrochloride and clorazepate dipotassium salt. This was more marked in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. Diazepam and chlorpromazine hydrochloride were bound both in PVC and Stedim 6 bags, but more in the former and more again in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. The results were explained in terms of the degree of crystallinity of the plastic material and the degree of lipophilicity of the drugs. Practical consequences are discussed.

  14. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  15. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent...

  16. Packing Optimization of Sorbent Bed Containing Dissimilar and Irregular Shaped Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nathan; Guttromson, Jayleen; Piowaty, Hailey

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Cartridge is a packed bed air filter with two different and separate layers of media designed to provide respiratory protection from combustion products after a fire event on the International Space Station (ISS). The first layer of media is a carbon monoxide catalyst and the second layer of media is universal carbon. During development of Fire Cartridge prototypes, the two media beds were noticed to have shifted inside the cartridge. The movement of media within the cartridge can cause mixing of the bed layers, air voids, and channeling, which could cause preferential air flow and allow contaminants to pass through without removal. An optimally packed bed mitigates these risks and ensures effective removal of contaminants from the air. In order to optimally pack each layer, vertical, horizontal, and orbital agitations were investigated and a packed bulk density was calculated for each method. Packed bulk density must be calculated for each media type to accommodate variations in particle size, shape, and density. Additionally, the optimal vibration parameters must be re-evaluated for each batch of media due to variations in particle size distribution between batches. For this application it was determined that orbital vibrations achieve an optimal pack density and the two media layers can be packed by the same method. Another finding was media with a larger size distribution of particles achieve an optimal bed pack easier than media with a smaller size distribution of particles.

  17. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  18. Packing Optimization of an Intentionally Stratified Sorbent Bed Containing Dissimilar Media Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jessica; Guttromson, Jayleen; Holland, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The Fire Cartridge is a packed bed air filter with two different and separate layers of media designed to provide respiratory protection from combustion products after a fire event on the International Space Station (ISS). The first layer of media is a carbon monoxide catalyst made from gold nanoparticles dispersed on iron oxide. The second layer of media is universal carbon, commonly used in commercial respirator filters. Each layer must be optimally packed to effectively remove contaminants from the air. Optimal packing is achieved by vibratory agitations. However, if post-packing movement of the media within the cartridge occurs, mixing of the bed layers, air voids, and channeling could cause preferential air flow and allow contaminants to pass. Several iterations of prototype fire cartridges were developed to reduce post-packing movement of the media within each layer (settling), and to prevent mixing of the two media types. Both types of movement of the media contribute to decreased fire cartridge performance. Each iteration of the fire cartridge design was tested to demonstrate mechanical loads required to cause detrimental movement within the bed, and resulting level of functionality of the media beds after movement was detected. In order to optimally pack each layer, vertical, horizontal, and orbital agitations were tested and a final packed bulk density was calculated for each method. Packed bulk density must be calculated for each lot of catalyst to accommodate variations in particle size, shape, and density. In addition, a physical divider sheet between each type of media was added within the fire cartridge design to further inhibit intermixing of the bed layers.

  19. Clinical Application of Paper-plastic Package's Extension of Autoclave Pack%纸塑包装延长高压灭菌包的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉成华

    2011-01-01

    目的:纸塑包装延长高压灭菌包的临床应用.方法:双层棉包布常规包装高压灭菌按要求存放7d,霉季5d,而纸塑包装可保存6个月.结果:纸塑包装大大延长无菌包的无菌时间.包装安全经济,可靠,并可预防院内感染.%Goal: clinical application of paper-plastic package’s extension of autoclave pack.Method: things regularly packed with double cotton and autoclaving can be stored for 7d, or 5d in mildew season; but thing packed with paper can be stored for 6 months.Result: paper pack greatly expands the asepsis time of sterility pack.The pack is safe and reliable, and can prevent infection in hospital.

  20. New Plastic Nano Seal Packing Characteristics and Applied Research%新型塑性纳米密封填料的特点及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭晟; 张晓侠; 郑卫刚

    2013-01-01

      针对传统填料密封损耗大、寿命短、易泄露等缺点,介绍一种新型密封填料(塑性纳米密封填料)。新密封填料为层状剪切物,其机体具有可塑性。在其内部定向排列的大量纳米纤维使得它的塑性工作面在微观上产生密集的凸凹起伏,形成无数的近似纳米级凹坑以聚集微型水珠。在实际运行中,该填料在压力水的作用下与旋转轴动态配合面形成连续的液膜,这起到了优秀的润滑和密封作用。通过在水泵上的应用和研究,结果证明:新型塑性纳米密封填料的应用是提高密封填料的密封性能、使用寿命和节能高效的一条有效途径。%The traditional packing seal is big loss、short lift、easy leak,Introduced a new seal packing ( plastic nano seal pack-ing) .New seal packing is laminar shear , in which is a plasticity .In its internal alignment of a large number of nano-fiber makes it plastic face to produce dense punch undulation ,the formation of numerous approximation nano scale pits to gather micro-drops of water.In the actual operation ,the filler under the action of water in the pressure with the dynamic mating face of the rotation shaft to form a continuous liquid film ,that plays excellent lubrication and sealing .Through the application and research of pump . the result prove:the application of new plastic nano seal packing is an effective way to improve the seal packing seal performance , service life and energy-efficient.

  1. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  2. PLASTIC ZONES IN AN INFINITELY LONG TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOLID CYLINDER CONTAINING A RINGSHAPED CRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut UYANER

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problem of a ring shaped-crack contained in an infinitely long solid cylinder of elastic perfectly-plastic material is considered. The problem is formulated for a transversely isotropic material by using integral transform technique under uniform load. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Hankel and Fourier integral transform techniques are chosen and the problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. This integral equation is solved numerically by using Gaussian Quadrature Formulae and the values are evaluated for discrete points. The plastic zone lengths are obtained by using the plastic strip model.

  3. Phthalate Esters Used as Plasticizers in Packed Red Blood Cell Storage Bags May Lead to Progressive Toxin Exposure and the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard T. Rael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalate esters (PE's are plasticizers used to soften PVC-based medical devices. PE's are the most abundant man-made pollutants and increase the risk of developing an allergic respiratory disease or a malignancy. The leaching of PE's in donated packed red blood cells (PRBC during storage was assessed. PRBC transfusion bags containing CPD/AS-1 (ADSOL buffer were analyzed. Samples were collected on storage day 1 and day 42. Two PE's, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was measured by standard ELISA techniques. DEHP significantly increased from 34.3 µM (±20.0 SD on day 1 to 433.2 µM (±131.2 SD on day 42, a 12.6-fold increase. Similarly, MEHP significantly increased from 3.7 µM (±2.8 SD on day 1 to 74.0 µM (±19.1 SD on day 42, a 20.2-fold increase. Also, DEHP and MEHP increased the release of IL-8 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The transfusion of older units of PRBC could lead to an accumulation of PE's possibly resulting in inflammation and other effects. This accumulation could be exacerbated due to the decreased metabolism of PE's since trauma patients have a lower esterase activity, the enzymes responsible for metabolizing PE's. The effect of oxidative stress caused by PE's is discussed as a potential mechanism for increases in inflammation caused by older units of PRBC.

  4. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  5. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  6. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...... days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles...

  7. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  8. Analysis of phthalate migration to food simulants in plastic containers during microwave operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany A; André, Leiliane C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2013-12-30

    Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  9. Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriany A. Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  10. Improved tensile strength of glycerol-plasticized gluten bioplastic containing hydrophobic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present work has been to study the influence of hydrophobic liquids on the morphology and the properties of thermo-molded plastics based on glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG). While the total amount of castor oil and glycerol was remained constant at 30 wt%, castor oil with various proportions with respect to glycerol was incorporated with WG by mixing at room temperature and the resultant mixtures were thermo-molded at 120 degrees C to prepare sheet samples. Moisture absorption, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break) of the plastics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the physical properties of WG plastic were closely related to glycerol to castor oil ratio. Increasing in castor oil content reduces the moisture absorption markedly, which is accompanied with a significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus. These observations were further confirmed in 24 wt% glycerol-plasticized WG plastics containing 6 wt% silicone oil or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid rubber.

  11. Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Ayers, Tracy L; Knee, Jacqueline; Oremo, Jared; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Nyagol, Ronald O; Stauber, Christine E; Lantagne, Daniele S; Quick, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Somatostatin and Somatostatin-Containing Neurons in Shaping Neuronal Activity and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery over four decades ago, somatostatin (SOM) receives growing scientific and clinical interest. Being localized in the nervous system in a subset of interneurons somatostatin acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and its role in the fine-tuning of neuronal activity and involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory formation are widely recognized in the recent literature. Combining transgenic animals with electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular methods allowed to characterize several subpopulations of somatostatin-containing interneurons possessing specific anatomical and physiological features engaged in controlling the output of cortical excitatory neurons. Special characteristic and connectivity of somatostatin-containing neurons set them up as significant players in shaping activity and plasticity of the nervous system. However, somatostatin is not just a marker of particular interneuronal subpopulation. Somatostatin itself acts pre- and postsynaptically, modulating excitability and neuronal responses. In the present review, we combine the knowledge regarding somatostatin and somatostatin-containing interneurons, trying to incorporate it into the current view concerning the role of the somatostatinergic system in cortical plasticity.

  13. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  14. Mechanism of Plasticity Development for Ceramic Dough (3). Investigation of Extruding Characteristics and Particle Packing Structure of the Dough; Seramikku rendo no kasosei hatsugen mekanizumu (3). rendo juten kozo to oshidashi tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shuji. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ishida, Hideki. [INAX Corp., Aichi (Japan), Space Design Research Center; Shibasaki, Yasuo.; Oda, Kiichi. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The extruding characteristics and the packing structure of clay dough, and alumina dough mixed with water-soluble and water-insoluble plasticizers were investigated. The extrudability of the doughs, which were evaluated by the extruding pressure as a function of the packing ratio, became higher at higher volume of larger-sized pores reaching micrometed size. In the clay dough and the dough mixed with water-soluble plasticizers such as methylcellulose, the aggregates deformed into the larger-sized pores around each aggregate during extruding. In the dough mixed with water-insoluble plasticizers such as curdlan, the largersized pores based on curdlan gel, its deformation provided the fluidity of the particle. It was understood that the dough could be extruded by deformation of the aggregates or the gel acted as a buffer. (author)

  15. Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers using SORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2010-10-01

    The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with coloured plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for coloured glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is

  16. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm{sup 2} after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  17. Current challenges for pre-earthquake electromagnetic emissions: shedding light from micro-scale plastic flow, granular packings, phase transitions and self-affinity notion of fracture process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eftaxias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there credible electromagnetic (EM potential earthquake (EQ precursors? This a question debated in the scientific community and there may be legitimate reasons for the critical views. The negative view concerning the existence of EM potential precursors is enhanced by features that accompany their observation which are considered as paradox ones, namely, these signals: (i are not observed at the time of EQs occurrence and during the aftershock period, (ii are not accompanied by large precursory strain changes, (iii are not accompanied by simultaneous geodetic or seismological precursors and (iv their traceability is considered problematic. In this work, the detected candidate EM potential precursors are studied through a shift in thinking towards the basic science findings relative to granular packings, micron-scale plastic flow, interface depinning, fracture size effects, concepts drawn from phase transitions, self-affine notion of fracture and faulting process, universal features of fracture surfaces, recent high quality laboratory studies, theoretical models and numerical simulations. We try to contribute to the establishment of strict criteria for the definition of an emerged EM anomaly as a possibly EQ-related one, and to the explanation of potential precursory EM features which have been considered as paradoxes. A three-stage model for EQ generation by means of pre-EQ fracture-induced EM emissions is proposed. The claim that the observed EM potential precursors may permit a real-time and step-by-step monitoring of the EQ generation is tested.

  18. Homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage model for ductile failure of materials containing heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Bai, Jie; Paquet, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops an accurate and computationally efficient homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage (HCPD) model for macroscopic analysis of ductile failure in porous ductile materials containing brittle inclusions. Example of these materials are cast alloys such as aluminum and metal matrix composites. The overall framework of the HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) type elasto-plasticity model for porous ductile materials. The HCPD model is assumed to be orthotropic in an evolving material principal coordinate system throughout the deformation history. The GTN model parameters are calibrated from homogenization of evolving variables in representative volume elements (RVE) of the microstructure containing inclusions and voids. Micromechanical analyses for this purpose are conducted by the locally enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) [Hu, C., Ghosh, S., 2008. Locally enhanced Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) for simulating evolving fracture in ductile microstructures containing inclusions. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 76(12), 1955-1992]. The model also introduces a novel void nucleation criterion from micromechanical damage evolution due to combined inclusion and matrix cracking. The paper discusses methods for estimating RVE length scales in microstructures with non-uniform dispersions, as well as macroscopic characteristic length scales for non-local constitutive models. Comparison of results from the anisotropic HCPD model with homogenized micromechanics shows excellent agreement. The HCPD model has a huge efficiency advantage over micromechanics models. Hence, it is a very effective tool in predicting macroscopic damage in structures with direct reference to microstructural composition.

  19. Fundamental display properties of flexible devices containing polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal between plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kawakita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    We describe several fundamental display properties of a flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal device containing polymer fibers between thin plastic substrates. The composite film of liquid crystal and polymer was created from a solution of liquid crystal and monomer materials between the plastic substrates under ultraviolet light irradiation. The dynamic electrooptic response to analog voltage pulses was examined with an incidence of laser beam light, and its light modulation property exhibited good linearity in continuous gray-scale capability. The excellent spatial uniformity of liquid crystal alignment formed between the flexible substrates resulted in high-contrast light modulation, although slight spontaneous bending of liquid crystal alignment in the device plane was recognized. When the laser light beam was obliquely incident on the flexible display device, the measured transmittance revealed that the device has a wide viewing angle of more than 100 deg without contrast reversal. This is considered to be caused by the molecular switching in the device plane and the thin electrooptic layer in the display device.

  20. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the cu......Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed....... In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...

  1. Analysisi and Discussion on Structure of Plastic Part for Lithium Battery Pack%浅谈直流工具用锂电池包注塑件结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房加强

    2016-01-01

    From the view of the structure of plastic part, this paper analyzes the structural characteristics of the lithium battery pack comprehensively on the market. Based on the application and enclosure type of the built-in lithium battery pack and external lithium battery pack, combined with the problems encountered in the actual production, this paper analyzes the matters what should be pay attention to in the design of the plastic parts of lithium battery pack.%从注塑件结构角度浅述直流工具用锂电池包的结构特点,以内置式锂电池包和外置式锂电池包的分类、应用特点与外壳分型,结合在实际生产中遇到的问题,分析锂电池包各注塑件在设计时应注意的相关事项。

  2. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  3. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  4. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  5. Performance of COD removal from acid scarlet BS-containing solution in a novel packed-bed hollow-tube photocatalytic (PHP) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya; He, Chun; An, Taicheng; Yu, Quan; Zha, Changhong; Zhu, Xihai

    2003-05-01

    A novel packed-bed hollow-tube photocatalytic (PHP) reactor using TiO2-coated Ti particles as fillers was designed and applied to treat a simulated dye wastewater containing Acid Scarlet BS. The experimental results showed that PHP reactor could efficiently remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the dye solution and the COD removal efficiency was considerably dependent on the operating parameters, airflow, initial dye concentration and initial pH value of solution. It was also found that the inserting of the hollow tubes could apparently increase the COD removal efficiency of the packed-bed photo-reactor while the application of external electric field could improve the degradation efficiency of the dye but not obviously promote COD removal.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  7. The effect of biobased plastic resins containing chichen feather fibers on the growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate growth and flowering of Begoniaboliviensis A. DC. 'Bonfire' when grown in medium mixed with pellets made from biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers. We also analyzed macro- and macro-elements in soil and leaf tissues during different develope...

  8. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra...... methods. Two important problem variants are the knapsack packing problem and the strip-packing problem. In the knapsack packing problem, each item is given a profit value, and the problem asks for the subset with maximal profit that can be placed within one container. The strip-packing problem asks...

  9. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  11. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  12. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  13. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  14. Issues Related to Implementation of the EU Requirements on Plastic Crates and Pallets Containing Heavy Metals in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alis Lebedys

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of problems which had to be dealt with by Lithuanian institutions while implementing environmental requirements laid down in Article 11 of European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on Packaging and Packaging Waste as well as in Decision 2009/292/EC of the European Commission establishing the conditions for derogation of plastic crates and plastic pallets related to heavy metal concentration limits set by Directive 94/62/EC. While the Directive puts ban on the usage of packaging with the aggregate concentration of 4 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium exceeding 100 ppm, Decision 2009/292/EC, instead, allows their usage if terms of derogation specified in the Decision are met. The implementation of the Decision means that each crate and/or pallet item circulating in the market with the concentration of the 4 heavy metals above the set level has to be identified, accounted, traced while in service, must at the end of service be delivered into a controlled recycling system and finally recycled in a way specified by the Decision. Therefore, the establishment of such a country-wide system presents a challenging task for the country as EU legislation sets no common requirements for its structure and leaves it to the country’s discretion. This paper systematises and summarises some principles and practices of managing the usage of plastic crates and plastic pallets containing the amount of heavy metals higher than 100 ppm (as set by Directive 94/62/EC in the EU Member States. The paper analyses possibilities and offers several scenarios for implementation of Directive 94/62/EC with respect to plastic crates and pallets with high concentration of heavy metals in Lithuania. Both the Directive and the Decision are based on using the data available from bookkeeping conducted by owners of crates and pallets and the EU environmental accounting/control system used in the country. The offered

  15. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  16. Screening of illegal intracorporeal containers ("body packing"): is abdominal radiography sufficiently accurate? A comparative study with low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Canel, Laurent; Becker, Christoph D; Wolff, Hans; Elger, Bernice; Lock, Eric; Sarasin, François; Bonfanti, Monica S; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal radiography in the detection of illegal intracorporeal containers (hereafter, packets), with low-dose computed tomography (CT) as the reference standard. This study was approved by the institutional ethical review board, with written informed consent. From July 2007 to July 2010, 330 people (296 men, 34 women; mean age, 32 years [range, 18-55 years]) suspected of having ingested drug packets underwent supine abdominal radiography and low-dose CT. The presence or absence of packets at abdominal radiography was reported, with low-dose CT as the reference standard. The density and number of packets (≤ 12 or >12) at low-dose CT were recorded and analyzed to determine whether those variables influence interpretation of results at abdominal radiography. Packets were detected at low-dose CT in 53 (16%) suspects. Sensitivity of abdominal radiography for depiction of packets was 0.77 (41 of 53), and specificity was 0.96 (267 of 277). The packets appeared isoattenuated to the bowel contents at low-dose CT in 16 (30%) of the 53 suspects with positive results. Nineteen (36%) of the 53 suspects with positive low-dose CT results had fewer than 12 packets. Packets that were isoattenuated at low-dose CT and a low number of packets (≤12) were both significantly associated with false-negative results at abdominal radiography (P = .004 and P = .016, respectively). Abdominal radiography is mainly limited by low sensitivity when compared with low-dose CT in the screening of people suspected of carrying drug packets. Low-dose CT is an effective imaging alternative to abdominal radiography. © RSNA, 2012.

  17. 表面改性塑料填料流体力学及传质性能研究%Hydrodynamic and mass transfer performance of modified plastic structured packing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳特; 胡剑光; 戴干策

    2014-01-01

    A new method was used to modify the film forming of plastic structure packing and the comprehensive performance with commercial packing was compared in the same conditions .In order to evaluate the hydrodynamics and mass transfer performance of the commercial and modified structured packing with textured surface , the experiment of oxygen desorption from water was carried out in a packed column of φ190 mm under the condition of liquid spray density 10-36 m3/(m2· h) and F factor 0.2-3(m/s)· (kg/m3)0.5.The result shows that with liquid spray density of 10, 24, 36 m3/(m2 · h), the height of liquid transfer unit HoL of surface modified structured packing is decreased by 29.50%,23.00% and 23.95% respectively in comparison with those of a commercial packing, while the pressure drop is lower by 85.37%, 89.71% and 88.35% than commercial packing respectively , which demonstrates a significant improvement in mass transfer performance for the surface modified packing.In addition, the correlations of HoL and pressure drop were obtained , flooding phenomenon was discussed by narrow channel theory and the foundation of industrial design was built .%采用新的塑料波纹填料改性方法,有效改善填料成膜性,与同等条件下商业填料进行对比。采用氧解析实验,在直径190 mm的有机玻璃塔内,液相喷淋密度10—36 m3/(m2· h),F因子0.2—3(m/s)·(kg/m3)0.5的实验条件下测定了改性填料及商用填料的流体力学及传质性能。实验结果表明:当液体喷淋密度为10,24,36 m3/( m2· h)时,在相同的F因子下,改性填料的液相传质单元高度HoL较商用填料分别降低了29.50%,23.00%以及23.95%,同时改性后压降也相应为商用填料的85.37%,89.71%和88.35%。表明该改性方法在低喷淋密度下对塑料填料性能提升显著。此外,对实验填料的HoL、压降进行了关联,采用狭通道液膜波动理论

  18. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic with balsa wood cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with balsa cores. Containers of this type are commonly used on tank trailers for the transport of hazardous chemicals. 1.2 This practice is limited to cylindrical shape containers, 0.5 m [20 in.] to 3 m [120 in.] in diameter, of sandwich construction with balsa wood core and over 30 % glass (by weight) FRP skins. Reinforcing material may be mat, roving, cloth, unidirectional layers, or a combination thereof. There is no restriction with regard to fabrication technique or method of design. 1.3 This practice is limited to containers that are designed for less than 0.520 MPa [75.4 psi] (gage) above static pressure head due to contents. 1.4 This practice does not specify a time interval between examinations for re-qualification of a pressure container. 1.5 This practice is used to determine if a container is suitable for service or if follow-up NDT is needed before that...

  19. Plasticity of pressure-sensitive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Classical plasticity theory of metals is independent of the hydrostatic pressure. However, if the metal contains voids or pores or if the structure is composed of cells, this classical assumption is no more valid and the influence of the hydrostatic pressure must be incorporated in the constitutive description. Looking at the microlevel, metal plasticity is connected with the uniform planes of atoms organized with long-range order. Planes may slip past each other along their close-packed directions. The result is a permanent change of shape within the crystal and plastic deformation. The presence of dislocations increases the likelihood of planes slipping. Nowadays, the theory of pressure sensitive plasticity is successfully applied to many other important classes of materials (polymers, concrete, bones etc.) even if the phenomena on the micro-level are different to classical plasticity of metals. The theoretical background of this phenomenological approach based on observations on the macro-level is describe...

  20. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  1. Application and Management Methods of Paper and Plastic Pouch-packed Items after Sterilization%灭菌后纸塑小包装物品的应用和管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭静波; 凌红芬

    2011-01-01

    随着科学的发展,灭菌物品外包装也随之改进,由原来的只用棉布类包装逐步改为一次性无纺布发展到纸塑包装.供应室是提供无菌物品的科室,以往采用双层棉布包装小件器械,用储槽散装纱布、棉球,使用有效期为7-14天,现根据医院感染管理规范规定,无菌储槽中的无菌物品一经打开,有效期不得超过24小时,提倡小包装、单包装.本文就针对灭菌后纸塑小包装物品的应用和管理方法进行了探讨.%With the development of science, the outer packing of sterilization items will be improved from the original packaging such as cotton cloth, one-lime non-woven fabric to paper-plastic packaging. Supply room is to provide the sterile items. In the past, double cotton is used to peck ditty equipment and gauze and tampon are stored in tank. Valid period is for 7 to 14 days. According to hospital infection control regulations, sterile items in sterile accumulator are once opened, the validity shall not be more than 24 hours; advocate small package, single packaging. The article is trying to study application and managenKtnt methods of paper and plastic pouch-packed items after sterilization.

  2. Tracer aroma compound transfer from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix packed in treated papers or plastic packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury-Brun, Cécile; Lequin, Sonia; Chalier, Pascale; Desobry, Stéphane; Voilley, Andrée

    2007-02-21

    The objective of this work was to study the transfer of four aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexenol, and benzaldehyde) from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix (sponge cake) toward and through packaging films placed in indirect contact during storage in accelerated aging conditions (38 degrees C and 86% relative humidity gradient). The efficiency of treated papers relative to that of standard paper and plastic as barrier was tested. Before storage, aroma compound volatility in the sponge cake was measured, and similar values were found between aroma compounds, due to the fat content of the sponge cake. Whatever the aroma compound, permeability values during storage were similar for the same packaging film. The plastic film was the highest barrier, whereas calendering and coating treatments applied to treated papers decreased effectively their permeability. An opposite trend was observed for aroma compound sorption into packaging films during storage.

  3. Packing Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about packing a lunch that's not boring and is full of the power and energy kids need to make it through the day.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  4. Power Packing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-16

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about how to pack a lunch safely, to help keep you from getting sick.  Created: 8/16/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2011.

  5. Physical and chemical properties of biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to (a) characterize bioplastic pellets containing feather fibers (pellets) by low temperature-scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction analysis, (b) evaluate growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis A. DC. ‘Bonfire’ when grown in medium amended with pellets, and...

  6. Reduced migration from flexible poly(vinyl chloride) of a plasticizer containing beta-cyclodextrin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ong Yong; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2008-10-01

    The migration of endocrine-disrupting di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. In this study, we successfully prepared a plasticizerwith reduced DEHP migration by directly incorporating 2,3,6-per-O-benzoyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Bz-beta-CD) into DEHP. Bz-beta-CD was prepared by esterification between the hydroxyl groups of beta-CD and benzoyl chloride. The presence of this cyclodextrin is expected to facilitate formation of stable complexes through pi-pi association with DEHP molecules. The flexible PVC was prepared with a gelation-fusion process that uses the prepared migration-resistant plasticizer, and its properties (flexibility, thermal stability, and clarity) were evaluated by carrying out DSC and tensile testing, TGA, and haze testing, respectively. No significant changes in the physical properties of the flexible PVC were observed when Bz-beta-CD was added. DEHP migration tests were carried out for the flexible PVC according to the ISO 3826:1993(E) test method, and the quantity of migrated DEHP was then determined with UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of Bz-beta-CD decreases the levels of DEHP migration from the flexible PVC samples by almost 40%. We investigated the molecular interaction between Bz-beta-CD and DEHP using molecular mechanics simulations, and we conclude that this reduction in DEHP migration is due to the formation of stabilized pi-pi attractive association and inclusion complexes of Bz-beta-CD and DEHP in flexible PVC.

  7. Reúso de água em indústria de reciclagem de plástico tipo PEAD Water reuse on HDPE plastics recycling pack industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Orsi Bordonalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A discussão acerca da viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do reúso da água em processos industriais tem sido uma preocupação constante. Neste trabalho propõe-se uma alternativa simplificada para o tratamento de efluentes com vistas ao seu reúso em uma indústria de reciclagem de plásticos. A água, no presente caso, é componente fundamental para o processo, já que participa como elemento de remoção de detritos e impurezas que contaminam a matriz da matéria-prima utilizada, proveniente, principalmente, de aterros sanitários e lixões. As embalagens plásticas recicladas pela indústria em questão são, em sua grande maioria, de uso doméstico e, em menor escala, frascos contaminados com óleos lubrificantes. Os resultados demonstraram a viabilidade do tratamento através de processo físico-químico por coagulação, floculação, decantação e filtração em manta geotêxtil, com o uso do hidroxicloreto de alumínio (PAC como coagulante, soda cáustica (50% como alcalinizante e polieletrólito como auxiliar de floculação e desidratação do lodo, bem como a exequibilidade do reúso dos efluentes em circuito fechado.The discussion about technical, economical and environmental feasibility of water reuse in industrial process has been a constant concern. This paper purposes a simplified choice for waste water treatment seeking reuse in a plastic recycle industry. The water, in this case, is a prime component because it is the main element for the debris and impurities removal that contaminates the matrix of plastic raw material, which comes, mostly, from landfill and waste disposals. The recycled plastic packages, from the company that had been used for this research, come mostly from domestic use and, in a minor scale, the plastic package contaminated by lubricant oil. The final results show feasible for the treatment through physical-chemical process by coagulation, flocculation, decantation and filtration on geotextile

  8. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid and natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tanrattanakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid. Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the derived TPE. Four plasticizers were selected: tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC, tributyl citrate (TBC, glycerol triacetate (GTA, and triethyl-2-acetyl citrate (TEAC. The investigated properties were the tensile properties, tear strength, thermal ageing and ozone resistance, hardness, resilience, tension set and compression set. All plasticizers increased the strain at break. TBAC and TBC increased the stress at break. All plasticizers decreased the tear strength, hardness and resilience, and slightly changed the tension and compression set. TBAC seemed to be the best plasticizer for the TPE. The presence of 4 pph (parts per hundred resin of plasticizer provided the highest strength and tensile toughness and the strain at break increased with the increasing plasticizer content. The plasticizers decreased the Tg and Tcc of the PLA and did not affect the degree of crystallinity of PLA in the TPE.

  9. Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, M I; Olea-Serrano, M F; Rivas-Velasco, A M; Medina-Rivero, E; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G; De León-Rodríguez, A

    2011-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, phthalic-acid, dibutyl-phthalate, diethyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate was determined in vegetable cans, baby bottles and microwaveable containers from the Mexican market. Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry was used for the identification and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography with UV/Visible light and fluorescence detectors was used for the quantification. Endocrine disruptors were found in all samples. PA and DOP were the substances most commonly found, and maximum concentrations were 9.549 and 0.664 μg/kg, respectively from a jalapeno peppers can. Bisphenol A, phthalic-acid, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, dioctyl-phtalate and dibutyl-phthalate were found in baby bottles and microwaveable containers.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2840 - Export packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export packing requirements. 51.2840 Section 51.2840...) Export Packing Requirements § 51.2840 Export packing requirements. Onions specified as meeting Export Packing Requirements shall be packed in containers having a net capacity of 25 kilograms (approximately...

  11. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  12. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... for a three-dimensional knapsack packing problem involving furniture is presented in the fourth paper. The heuristic is based on a variety of techniques including tree-search, wall-building, and sequential placement. The solution process includes considerations regarding stability and load bearing strength...... paper. Ensuring that a loaded consignment of items are balanced throughout a container can reduce fuel consumption and prolong the life-span of vehicles. The heuristic can be used as a post-processing tool to reorganize an existing solution to a packing problem. A method for optimizing the placement...

  13. Study of 3-D stress development in parent and twin pairs of a hexagonal close-packed polycrystal: Part II - Crystal plasticity finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette

    2015-01-01

    -of-mass positions and volumes as measured by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy. The constructed microstructure is meshed with different element densities and for different numbers of grains. Then a selected group of twin and parent pairs are studied. It is shown that the measured average stress...... each grain, stresses in the parent and twin are quite different if they are plotted in the global coordinate system. However, if the stress tensor is rotated into the local coordinate system of the twin habit plane, all the stress components averaged over the presented population are close, except......Stress heterogeneity within each individual grain of polycrystalline Zircaloy-2 is studied using a crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model. For this purpose, the weighted Voronoi tessellation method is used to construct 3D geometries of more than 2600 grains based on their center...

  14. Chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) films containing ZnO nanoparticles and plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Denice S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Smania, Arthur [Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro C.M., E-mail: mauro@qmc.ufsc.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Chemistry Department, QUITECH, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2010-05-10

    In this study ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the Pechini method from a polyester by reacting citric acid with ethylene glycol in which the metal ions are dissolved, and incorporated into blend films of chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, Tween 80 (T80). These films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, degradation of films in Hank's solution and the mechanical properties. Besides these characterizations, the antibacterial activity of the films was tested, and the films containing ZnO nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus. The observed antibacterial activity in the composite films prepared in this work suggests that they may be used as hydrophilic wound and burn dressings.

  15. Silver speciation and characterization of nanoparticles released from plastic food containers by single particle ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, K; Gómez-Gómez, M M; Cámara, C; Ramos, L

    2016-05-01

    Silver migration from a commercial baby feeding bottle and a food box containing AgNPs, as confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis, was evaluated using food simulant solutions [i.e., water, 3% (v/v) acetic acid, and 10% and 90% (v/v) ethanol]. Silver release was investigated at temperatures in the 20-70°C range using contact times of up to 10 days. Migration of silver from the food box was in all cases 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for the baby bottle, although the total silver content in the original box material was half of that found in the baby bottle. As expected, for both food containers, silver migration depended on both the nature of the tested solution and the applied conditions. The highest release was observed for 3% acetic acid at 70°C for 2h, corresponding to 62ngdm(2) and 1887ngdm(-2) of silver for the baby bottle and the food box, respectively. Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS) was used to characterise and quantify AgNPs in the food simulants extracts. Sample preparation was optimized to preserve AgNPs integrity. The experimental parameters affecting AgNPs detection, sizing and quantification by SP-ICPMS were also optimised. Analyses of water and acidic extracts revealed the presence of both dissolved silver and AgNPs. Small AgNPs (in the 18-30nm range) and particle number concentrations within the 4-1510 10(6)L(-1) range were detected, corresponding to only 0.1-8.6% of the total silver released from these materials. The only exception was AgNPs migrated into water at 40°C and 70°C from the food box, which accounted for as much as 34% and 69% of the total silver content, respectively.

  16. Valve Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    "S Glass" yarn was originally developed by NASA for high temperature space and aeronautical applications. When John Crane, Inc. required material that would withstand temperatures higher than 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, they contacted Owens-Corning, which had developed a number of applications for the material. John Crane combines the yarn with other components to make Style 287-I packing. The product can be used in chemical processing operations, nuclear power stations, petroleum products, etc. Advantages include increased service life and reduced maintenance costs.

  17. Utilização de diferentes embalagens plásticas para a conservação de produto minimamente processado de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' Different plastic packing for product conservation of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2009-09-01

    contaminação microbiana, o melhor aspecto visual e a preferência dos julgadores na análise sensorial foram atribuídos aos frutos acondicionados nas embalagens PET.The aim of this work was to evaluate the conservation potential of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes minimally processed by using different types of plastic cover to establish a passive modified atmosphere (MA. The fruits, collected in mature-green stage, showed purple-green colour (1:1, SS content of 8.9±0.3 °Brix, titratable acidity (TA of 1.25±0.5g of citric acid.100g flesh-1 and fresh mass of 565±25g. The fruits, after sterilized in an acid solution (pH=3.0 of chlorine (NaOCl, 100mg.L-1, during 10 minutes, were chopped into parts of 0.02±0.01m of width and 0.05±0.015m of length, one more time sterilized in an acid solution (pH=3.0 of chlorine (NaOCl, 10mg.L-1, during 3 minutes. The parts, in a cube format of 0.02±0.01m width and 0.05±0.015m length, were placed in rigid poliestiren trays (0.19x0.12m, with capacity for 250g and covered with the following materials: T1 (control: low density perfured polyetilen film (LDPPF of 0.006mm (35 perforations in the surface of the packing to simulate the conventional atmosphere; T2: LDPE film of 0.020mm; T3: LDPE film of 0.060mm; T4: LDPE film of 0.080mm; T5: polypropylene film (PP of 0.052mm and T6: hermetic rigid polietilen tereftalate (PET, with capacity for 500mL and dimensions of 0.22x0.12x0.11m, with lid cover of the same material, without perforations and without the plastic cover. The treatments were placed in a cold chamber at -10±0.5°C and 90±3.0% of R.U. for 10 days. It was not observed significative difference among treatments for SS and TA analysis. The higher microbilogical activity was observed in fruits covered with LDPPF films of 0.006 and LDPE of 0.20mm. The lower loss of fresh matter, the best maintenance of ascorbic acid, the absence of microbiological contamination, the best visual aspect and the panelists' preference in the sensorial analysis

  18. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  19. Effect of Hydroxyl Number of Hydroxyl-Containing Plasticizers on Their Plasticization for Starch Sizing Agents%羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 祝志峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of number of hydroxyls in molecules of hydroxyl-containing plasticizers on the plasticization for starch sizing agents, plasticization of the plasticizers was investigated through contrast test. The plasticization was evaluated in terms of extension and tensile strength of starch film. And end - use ability of the plasticizers was accessed through film performances, adhesion-to-fibers, and paste behaviors (viscosity and its stability). The plasticizers evaluated included n-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1, 2-propylene glycol, glycol, glycerol, 1, 1, 1-trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, xylitol, and sorbic alcohol. Experimental results demonstrated that all the plasticizers exhibited plasticization for starch sizing agents, and could reduce the shortcomings such as film rigidity and brittleness of starch. The plasticizers enhanced the plasticization of starch with increasing the number of hydroxyls up to 3, reaching maximal effect, and beyond this number it reduced again. Glycerol and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane showed the most marked plasticization for plasticizing starch sizing agents among the plasticizers considered. For this reason, these two plasticizers were recommended in uses for reducing shedding of size and lint in sizing and weaving operations so as to improve weaving efficiency.%以淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长为评价标准,通过对比试验评价羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料的增塑作用,从分子结构上认识羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响,并通过浆液特性及黏附性能评估羟基增塑剂正戊醇、正丁醇、1,2-丙二醇、乙二醇、甘油、1,1,1-三羟甲基丙烷、季戊四醇、木糖醇及山梨醇的使用效果.研究结果表明:羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料都具有增塑作用,能够改善淀粉浆膜脆而硬的缺陷.随着增塑剂羟基数目的增加,淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长率逐渐增大;在羟基数目为3时,增塑作用达到最大;但

  20. Preparation and properties of thermoplastic poly(caprolactone) composites containing high amount of esterified starch without plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Hu, Qiongen; Qian, Jiangtao; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Shi, Dongjian; Dong, Weifu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-03-30

    Based on stearyl chloride and native starch, esterified starch were prepared and the chemical structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR. It was found that stearyl chloride was an efficient agent to fabricate esterified starch with high degree of substitution (DS). During the melt blending of esterified starch (80 wt%) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 20 wt%), it was shown the torque of PCL/esterified starch was much lower than that of PCL/native starch without any plasticizer, and further decreased with increasing DS. Compared with PCL/native starch, the tensile properties of PCL/esterified starch composites were significantly enhanced. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased from 2.7 MPa to 56% for PCL/native starch composites to 9.1 MPa and 626% for PCL/esterified starch ones with DS of 1.50, respectively. SEM observation revealed the esterified starch particles in matrix became smaller and more uniform. In addition, the water resistance and hydrophobic character of PCL/esterified starch composites were improved. PCL composites containing 80 wt% esterified starch with favorable mechanical properties would have great potential applications in broad areas.

  1. Plastic shaping of aqueous alumina suspensions with saccharides and dicarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, H.; Schilling, C.H.; Biner, S.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Traditional methods for the shape-forming of engineering ceramics entail plastic deformation of powder slurries containing hazardous organic liquids as suspending media. Replacing these organics with aqueous media requires the development of environmentally-benign, water-soluble additives which serve as plasticizers and binders. Fundamental studies were performed with aqueous suspensions of colloidal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to evaluate the role of sucrose, maltodextrin, and oxalic acid on viscosity, sedimentation and filtration characteristics, plastic flow behavior of filter cakes, and sinterability. Maltodextrin and oxalic acid systems exhibited superior results, including filtration to high packing-densities and clay-like plasticity with minimal cracking.

  2. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  3. Current challenges for preseismic electromagnetic emissions: shedding light from micro-scale plastic flow, granular packings, phase transitions and self-affinity notion of fracture process

    CERN Document Server

    Eftaxias, K

    2013-01-01

    Fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) in a wide frequency range are sensitive to the micro-structural chances. Thus, their study constitutes a nondestructive monitoring method of the evolution of damage process at the laboratory scale. A field experimental network has been installed using the same instrumentation as in laboratory experiments for the recording of the fracture-induced EME during the earthquake (EQ) preparation process. The expectation was that experiments by means of EME at the large, geophysical, scale would probably reveal features of the last stages of failure process not clearly observable at the small, laboratory, scale, allowing thus the monitoring in real-time and step-by-step of the EQ generation. The obtained results indicate that the recorded EM precursors at the geophysical scale contain richer information for the last stages of an ensuing fracture / seismic event in comparison to the laboratory ones. A shift in thinking towards the basic science findings relative to plast...

  4. Improved Online Square-into-Square Packing

    OpenAIRE

    Brubach, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show an improved bound and new algorithm for the online square-into-square packing problem. This two-dimensional packing problem involves packing an online sequence of squares into a unit square container without any two squares overlapping. The goal is to find the largest area $\\alpha$ such that any set of squares with total area $\\alpha$ can be packed. We show an algorithm that can pack any set of squares with total area $\\alpha \\leq 3/8$ into a unit square in an online se...

  5. The HPLC Detection Method of DNOP and DBP in the Beverage of Plastic Bottle Packing%瓶装饮料中DNOP、DBP类增塑剂的液相色谱检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 王伟; 张玉; 葛杭丽; 黎天天

    2012-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯类是一类重要的增塑剂,也是环境类激\\素,会影响动物内分泌系统;对人不仅有慢性毒性,致突变、致癌作用,还有生殖、发育毒性.本文研究高效液相色谱检测瓶装饮料中两种邻苯二甲酸酯(DNOP、DBP)的方法.样品经过滤、浓缩后过柱净化、富集,用50℃氮吹仪吹干,甲醇定容后过膜(0.22 μm),在UV 225nm处检测.以ProELUT PLS GLASS 200 mg/6mL小柱作为样品前处理净化柱,结果对DBP的加标回收率在83.4%~93.4%之间,对DBP的加标回收率在80.4%~86.0%之间.本实验条件下DBP和DNOP的仪器检出限均为0.01 μg/mL,说明用液相色谱法检测瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质含量是可行的.且快速、有效.%Phthalate esters (PAEs) were a class of important plasticizers, and it also were the environmental estrogens, it affects the animal endocrine system. PAEs were not only with chronic toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic effects to people, but also with reproductive and upgrowth toxicity. This study focused on the method of detection of DNOP and DBP in plastic packing beverage by HPLC. The sample were filtrated and enrichment by clean up column, and nitrogen drying at 50℃, and pass through 0.22 u,m film after fixed volume with methanol, and detected at 225 nm by HPLC. ProELUT PLS G1ASS 200 mg/6 mL as the clean up column, the recovery rate of DBP was 83.4%-93.4%, DNOP was 80.4%~86.0%. The detection limit of instrument was 0.01μg/mL. The results showed that the HPLC method was effective and convenient for the detection of DNOP and DBP in beverage.

  6. Conservação do jiló em função da temperatura de armazenamento e do filme de polietileno de baixa densidade Jilo conservation as a function of storage temperatures and plastic packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Rodrigo Lacerda Neres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da embalagem plástica na conservação de jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, cv. 'Tinguá'. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e cinco frutos por parcela. Os frutos foram armazenados em três temperaturas, 25 °C ± 2 °C (ambiente; 13 °C e 5 °C, embalados e não embalados em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD com 80 µm de espessura. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa fresca, a injúria por frio, a coloração da casca, os teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e a acidez total titulável (ATT. A perda de massa foi de 2,37%, 0,91% e 0,84% por dia, nos frutos armazenados sem a proteção do PEBD, a 25 °C ± 2 °C, 13 °C e 5 °C respectivamente; nos frutos embalados, as perdas foram de 0,079%, 0,037% e 0,029% respectivamente. Frutos armazenados a 25 °C ± 2 °C, sem PEBD, apresentaram teores menores de SST, enquanto os armazenados a 5 °C, com PEBD, os teores foram maiores. Nos frutos com PEBD, houve aumento linear nos teores de ATT a 5 °C e 13 °C e quadrático a 25 °C ± 2 °C. Frutos armazenados sem PEBD a 25 °C ± 2 °C, a partir do nono dia, apresentaram teores menores de ATT. Nessas mesmas condições, houve rápida mudança na coloração, a partir do terceiro dia. Na temperatura de 5 ºC, sem e com PEBD, os frutos apresentaram sintomas da injúria por frio após seis dias de armazenamento.The research work was aimed at evaluating the effect of storage temperatures and plastic packing on jilo (Solanum gilo Raddi cv. 'Tinguá' conservation. The experiment was set up in a complete randomized design with three replications and five fruit/replications. The fruits were stored at 25 °C (openenvironment; 13 °C and 5 °C, wrapped or not wrapped in bags of low density polyethylene (LDPE with 80 µm thickness. Loss of fresh mass, chilling injury, peel color, total soluble solids content (TSS and tritable total

  7. Treatment of azo dye-containing wastewater by a Fenton-like process in a continuous packed-bed reactor filled with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Matos, Luis C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Duarte, Filipa [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Maldonado-Hodar, F.J. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Mendes, Adelio [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Madeira, Luis M., E-mail: mmadeira@fe.up.pt [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation with the Fenton's reagent was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The packed-bed was filled with iron-impregnated activated carbon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increment of temperature increases the Chicago Sky Blue removal and mineralization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of iron leaching were below 0.4 ppm in the outlet effluent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was possible to reach a dye conversion of 88% in steady-state. - Abstract: In this work, oxidation with a Fenton-like process of a dye solution was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. Activated carbon Norit RX 3 Extra was impregnated with ferrous sulfate and used as catalyst (7 wt.% of iron). The effect of the main operating conditions in the Chicago Sky Blue (CSB) degradation was analyzed. It was found that the increase in temperature leads to a higher removal of the dye and an increased mineralization. However, it also increases the iron leaching, but the values observed were below 0.4 ppm (thus, far below European Union limits). It was possible to reach, at steady-state, a dye conversion of 88%, with a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of ca. 47%, being the reactor operated at 50 Degree-Sign C, pH 3, W{sub cat}/Q = 4.1 g min mL{sup -1} (W{sub cat} is the mass of catalyst and Q the total feed flow rate) and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} feed concentration of 2.25 mM (for a CSB feed concentration of 0.012 mM). The same performance was reached in three consecutive cycles.

  8. Software For Nearly Optimal Packing Of Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Daughtrey, Rodney S.; Schwaab, Doug G.

    1994-01-01

    PACKMAN computer program used to find nearly optimal arrangements of cargo items in storage containers, subject to such multiple packing objectives as utilization of volumes of containers, utilization of containers up to limits on weights, and other considerations. Automatic packing algorithm employed attempts to find best positioning of cargo items in container, such that volume and weight capacity of container both utilized to maximum extent possible. Written in Common LISP.

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra......) and may be defined in any number of dimensions. Solution methods are based on theory from both computational geometry and operations research. The scientific contributions of this thesis are presented in the form of six papers and a section which introduces the many problem types and recent solution...

  11. Capability of 19-L polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): Field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 L) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in resource-poor environments. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 L) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs)...

  12. Capability of 19-litre polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Michael B; Castro-Alférez, M; Polo-López, M I; Calderero, I Fernández; Al-Eryani, Y A; Joseph-Titus, C; Sawant, B; R Dhodapkar; Mathur, C; McGuigan, Kevin G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 litres) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in the developing world. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 litres) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs) as S...

  13. Elasto-Plastic 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Department of Defence, Australia, January 1988. 5. D Duprat, D Campassens...Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon Witold Waldman AUSTRALIA DEFENCE ORGANISATION No. of Copies Task Sponsor OIC-ASI-DGTA...UNCLASSIFIED DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GROUP DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA 1. DLM/CAVEAT (OF DOCUMENT) 2. TITLE Elasto–Plastic 3D Finite Element

  14. SPECTRUM OF DIRECTED KIRKMAN PACKING DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYan; DuBeiliang

    2003-01-01

    The problem studied in this article is the directed Kirkman packing, the resolvable directed packing which requires all blocks to be of size three except that ,each resolution class should contain either one block of size two(when v=2(mod 3)) or one block of size four (when v=l (mod 3)). A directed Kirkman packing design DKPD(v) is a resolvable directed packing of a v-set by the maximum possible number of resolution classes of this type. This article investigates the spectrum of DKPD(v) and it is found that it contains all positive integers v≥3 and v≠5,6.

  15. Screening study on hemolysis suppression effect of an alternative plasticizer for the development of a novel blood container made of polyvinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Chie; Tanoue, Akito; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Isama, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Atsuko; Niimi, Shingo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify a plasticizer that is effective in the suppression of the autohemolysis of the stored blood and can be used to replace di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in blood containers. The results of hemolysis test using mannitol-adenine-phosphate/red cell concentrates (MAP/RCC) spiked with plasticizers included phthalate, phthalate-like, trimeliate, citrate, and adipate derivatives revealed that di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (Hexamoll(®) DINCH), di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-phthalate (DOTP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) exhibited a hemolysis suppression effect almost equal to that of DEHP, but not other plasticizers. This finding suggested that the presence of 2 carboxy-ester groups at the ortho position on a 6-membered ring of carbon atoms may be required to exhibit such an effect. The hemolytic ratios of MAP/RCC-soaked polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets containing DEHP or different amounts of DINCH or DOTP were reduced to 10.9%, 9.2-12.4%, and 5.2-7.8%, respectively (MAP/RCC alone, 28.2%) after 10 weeks of incubation. The amount of plasticizer eluted from the PVC sheet was 53.1, 26.1-36.5, and 78.4-150 µg/mL for DEHP, DINCH, and DOTP, respectively. PVC sheets spiked with DIDP did not suppress the hemolysis induced by MAP/RCC because of low leachability (4.8-6.0 µg/mL). These results suggested that a specific structure of the plasticizer and the concentrations of least more than ∼10 µg/mL were required to suppress hemolysis due to MAP/RCC.

  16. Packing ellipsoids with overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Uhler, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The problem of packing ellipsoids of different sizes and shapes into an ellipsoidal container so as to minimize a measure of overlap between ellipsoids is considered. A bilevel optimization formulation is given, together with an algorithm for the general case and a simpler algorithm for the special case in which all ellipsoids are in fact spheres. Convergence results are proved and computational experience is described and illustrated. The motivating application - chromosome organization in the human cell nucleus - is discussed briefly, and some illustrative results are presented.

  17. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    A selection of frequently consumed meat products were packed in two commercial types of plasticized PVC film with declared plasticizer compositions of 11 and 21% di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), respectively. The meat products were analysed for DEHA after packaging and storage until their "use by......" date. Pretreatment of the meat, including cutting, chopping, cooking and packaging, was performed according to normal practice in a Danish supermarket. All samples contained DEHA, in general the investigation showed that a high fat content in or at the surface of the meat and/or a high storage...

  18. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

    1998-09-01

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Thermal behavior of vehicle plastic blends contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in pyrolysis using TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guicai; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-03-01

    As important plastic blends in End-of-Life vehicles (ELV), pyrolysis profiles of ABS/PVC, ABS/PA6 and ABS/PC were investigated using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). Also, CaCO3 was added as plastic filler to discuss its effects on the pyrolysis of these plastics. The results showed that the interaction between ABS and PVC made PVC pyrolysis earlier and HCl emission slightly accelerated. The mixing of ABS and PA6 made their decomposition temperature closer, and ketones in PA6 pyrolysis products were reduced. The presence of ABS made PC pyrolysis earlier, and phenyl compounds in PC pyrolysis products could be transferred into alcohol or H2O. The interaction between ABS and other polymers in pyrolysis could be attributed to the intermolecular radical transfer, and free radicals from the polymer firstly decomposed led to a fast initiation the decomposition of the other polymer. As plastic filler, CaCO3 promoted the thermal decomposition of PA6 and PC, and had no obvious effects on ABS and PVC pyrolysis process. Also, CaCO3 made the pyrolysis products from PA6 and PC further decomposed into small-molecule compounds like CO2. The kinetics analysis showed that isoconversional method like Starink method was more suitable for these polymer blends. Starink method showed the average activation energy of ABS50/PVC50, ABS50/PA50 and ABS50/PC50 was 186.63kJ/mol, 239.61kJ/mol and 248.95kJ/mol, respectively, and the interaction among them could be reflected by the activation energy variation.

  20. Uncertainties Scientific AND Probability Theory IN Judicial Decision: The Case OF Bisphenol A - BPA IN Containers Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Graziela de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at observing the theory of probability as decisional support to cases involving scientific uncertainties, from the pragmatic-systemic matrix. The toxicity of chemicals in packaging plastic in contact with food is an object of study in various area of knowledge, and the chemical compound Bisphenol A (BPA) appointed as harmful to human health. The packages have an important socio-economic function, but failure to comply with minimum limits on production and consumer information ...

  1. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. Pack 'em, rack 'em and stack 'em”: The appropriateness of the use and reuse of shipping containers for prison accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maree Grant

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping containers are gaining increasing recognition for their apparent durability, adaptability, light weight, ‘low cost' and ease of stacking, spurring a  trend that has resulted in shipping container sculpture, homes, housing, hotels, and museums. The use of prefabricated, pre-manufactured and prototype building methods for prison construction has grown considerably as some jurisdictions attempt to deal with the construction of prisons with speed and economy. In the last three years, shipping containers have been used in the prison sector as a way of managing burgeoning prison populations. Recent prison developments in both Australia and New Zealand where shipping containers have been employed for prisoner housing are of considerable interest. In this article, the financial, functional, structural, technical, environmental and architectonic impacts of this approach are discussed.

  3. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  4. Gamma irradiation of food contact plastics: identification of tin-containing intermediates in the degradation of organotin-stabilised PVC by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Brooks, J.S.; Unwin, J.; McGuiness, J.D.

    1985-08-05

    A brief account is given of the use of radiation as a process for food preservation. In particular, the effect of radiation on food packaging plastic materials is considered. Results are presented for the effect of various doses of gamma radiation on PVC containing organotin stabilisers, showing the presence of varying amounts of intermediates and a steady increase in the amount of tin (IV) chloride. Thermal degradation produced only a trace of tin (IV) chloride, in contrast. The significance of the results is discussed.

  5. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid) and natural rubber

    OpenAIRE

    V. Tanrattanakul; P. Bunkaew

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid) were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid). Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the deri...

  6. 结构设计及气泡型填料对水声吸声材料的影响综述%Review for influence of structure design and packings containing air bubble on underwater acoustic absorption materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫红; 晏欣

    2012-01-01

    The status of structure design of the underwater acoustic absorption materials and the research survey of the materials modified with packings containing air bubble were summarized, the progress in the research of synthetic resin micro-particles which was expected to be an acoustic absorption ma- terials was introduced with 54 references. The trend of novel underwater acoustic absorption materials was pointed out.%综述了水声吸声材料的结构设计现状以及气泡型填科改性水声吸声材料的研究概况,介绍了有望作为水声吸声材料的高分子树脂颗粒吸声材料的研究进展,指出了新型水下吸声材料的发展趋势.

  7. Testing of containers made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic with the aid of acoustic emission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitz, K.; Brockmann, W.; Fischer, T.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic emission analysis as a quasi-nondestructive test method makes it possible to differentiate clearly, in judging the total behavior of fiber-reinforced plastic composites, between critical failure modes (in the case of unidirectional composites fiber fractures) and non-critical failure modes (delamination processes or matrix fractures). A particular advantage is that, for varying pressure demands on the composites, the emitted acoustic pulses can be analyzed with regard to their amplitude distribution. In addition, definite indications as to how the damages occurred can be obtained from the time curves of the emitted acoustic pulses as well as from the particular frequency spectrum. Distinct analogies can be drawn between the various analytical methods with respect to whether the failure modes can be classified as critical or non-critical.

  8. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. ENERGY METABOLISM OF PACKED WHITE CELLS AFTER CRYOPRESERVATION AND REHABILITATION IN A MEDIUM CONTAINING A CORD BLOOD LOW-MOLECULAR FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the bioenergy indicators of leykokontsentrate cells after cryopreservation and the possibility of their recovery after incubation in a medium with a low-molecular fraction from cow cord blood were the aim of research. Leykokontsentrate was obtained from donor blood by sedimentation; cryopreservation was carried in the slow freezing regimen with 5% dimethylacetamide; amount of ATP, ADP and AMP was determined by chemiluminescence; glycogen — by cytochemical method. Evidence of energy disbalance of leukoconcentrate cells after cryopreservation was obtained. It was shown that the cord blood low-molecular fraction (0.15 mg/ml activated glycogenolysis and increased contents of ATP, ADP and AMP in leukoconcentrate cells after cryopreservation. It was also shown that the cord blood low-molecular fraction contained energy substrates and metabolites, hormones and macro- and micronutrients. Use of the low-molecular fraction (below 5 kDa from cord blood as a component of rehabilitating medium for frozen-thawed leukoconcentrate cells contributed to improvement of their energy status, which was manifested as augmentation in the total adenylic pool and glycogenolysis activation.

  11. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  12. Effect of plasticizer and fumed silica on ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing HPF6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitender Paul Sharma; S S Sekhon

    2013-08-01

    The effect of addition of propylene carbonate (PC) and nano-sized fumed silica on the ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing different concentrations of hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6) in polyethylene oxide (PEO) has been studied. The addition of PC results in an increase in ionic conductivity, whereas the addition of nano-sized fumed silica improves mechanical strength of electrolytes along with a small increase in ionic conductivity. It was observed that the simultaneous addition of PC and fumed silica results in electrolytes with optimum value of ionic conductivity and other properties.

  13. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  14. Related Regulations and Laws for Application of Plasticizer Phthalates in Food Packing Materials%有关邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂在食品包装材料中应用的法规

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永梅

    2012-01-01

    With the "Taiwan Clounding Agent Event" as background, the harm of plasticizer phthalates, the migration of phthalates under the packaging process, the regulation and laws about it at home and abroad,and the development of plasticizer in the future and so on were discussed.%以台湾发生的"起云剂事件"为背景,简要讨论了邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的危害、在食品包装过程中的迁移、国内外法规现状及发展前景等问题。

  15. TLC Pack Unpacked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Margret; Colpaert, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    TLC Pack stands for Teaching Languages to Caregivers and is a course designed to support migrants working or hoping to work in the caregiving sector. The TLC Pack resources range from A2 to B2 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and will be made available online in the six project languages: Dutch, English,…

  16. Stability, compatibility and plasticizer extraction of quinine injection added to infusion solutions and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faouzi, M A; Khalfi, F; Dine, T; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C; Gressier, B; Goudaliez, F; Cazin, M; Kablan, J; Belabed, A; Cazin, J C

    1999-12-01

    The stability of quinine was determined in various diluents and in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers. The release of diethyhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from PVC bags into intravenous infusions of quinine was also measured. We used an injection of two doses of quinine; quiniforme at 500 mg and quinimax at 400 mg in either 250- or 500-ml PVC infusion bags containing 5% dextrose, to give initial nominal concentrations of 2 or 1 mg ml(-1) quiniforme and 1.6 or 0.8 mg ml(-1) quinimax, the mean concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Samples were assayed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the clarity was determined visually. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the stability and compatibility of quinine would be compromised, and whether DEHP would be leached from PVC bags and PVC administration sets during storage and simulated infusion. There was no substantial loss of quiniforme and quinimax over 1- or 2-h simulated infusion irrespective of the diluent, and storage during 8 h at 22 degrees C, 48 or 72 h at 4 degrees C and 96 h at 45 degrees C. Leaching of DEHP was also detected during simulated infusion delivery using PVC bags and PVC administration sets. The quantity was less than 2 microg ml(-1). During storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature the leaching of DEHP was low, but when the temperature was 45 degrees C the quantity was high, 21 microg ml(-1). To minimise patient exposure to DEHP, quinine solutions with all drugs should be infused immediately or stored for a maximum of 48 h at 4 degrees C.

  17. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  18. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  19. FROM THE PACKED TOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available About 245 thousand tones of municipal solid w aste are collected daily in Brazil. Nearly 32 thousand tones of the collected amount are treated in sanitary landfill, which generates biogas and leachate as byproduct. The leachate resulting from sanitary landfill contains high concentration of carbonaceous and nitrogenized material. The crucial question is that the biodegradation of the carbonaceous material is difficult as long as the nitrogenized material is presen t in the form of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4 + , which compromises performance of biological tr eatment process. Therefore, a physical and chemical treatment of the leachate should be done before its biological treatment, especially for reduction of ammoniacal nitr ogen concentration and for propitiating the realization of application of biological treatment. The treatment of leachate requires specific consideration, which is not needed fo r other types of waste. In the specific case in this study, where ammoniacal nitrogen concentration was about 2,200 mgN L -1 and the BOD 5 /COD ratio was 0.3, the study of ammonia stripping process was performed. Ammonia stripping process was studied in pack ed towers of 35 L capacity each and the parameters investigated were pH, ratio of contact area/leach volume and the aeration time. One of the parameters that influenced most in efficiency of ammonia stripping process was pH of the leachate since it contributes in conversion of ammoniacal nitrogen from NH 4 + to NH 3 .

  20. PCR detection of psychrophilic Clostridium spp. causing 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, D M; Boerema, J A; Bell, R G

    2003-01-01

    To develop a practical molecular procedure that directly, without isolation, and specifically detects the presence of clostridia which cause 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed meat. Primer sets and PCR amplification procedures were developed that detect the presence of 16S rDNA gene and/or 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer fragments of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in meat. The specificity of the developed procedures was evaluated with DNA obtained from close phylogenetic neighbours of 'blown pack' causing clostridia, food clostridia and common meat spoilage microorganisms. The sensitivity of detection was assessed in non-enriched and low-temperature-enriched beef mince inoculated with serially diluted pure cultures of Clostridium estertheticum DSMZ 8809T and Cl. gasigenes DB1AT. The efficacy of detection procedures was evaluated for naturally contaminated vacuum-packed meat samples. Three primer sets, 16SE, 16SDB and EISR, produced amplicons of the expected size with DNA templates from target clostridia, but failed to yield PCR products with DNAs from any other microorganisms tested. With 16SE and 16SDB primers, minimum levels of detection were 104 CFU g(-1) for non-enriched, and 102 CFU g(-1) for enriched meat samples. Based on the established specificity of these primers, as well as DNA sequencing of amplicons, Cl. gasigenes was confirmed as the causative agent of 'blown pack' spoilage in two packs, and Cl. estertheticum as the causative agent in the third. The developed method can be used for rapid detection of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in commercial blown packs, or following low temperature enrichment, for detection of these microorganisms in meat containing as few as 100 clostridial cells per gram. The paper reports practical procedures that can be used for rapid confirmation of the causative agents of clostridial 'blown pack' spoilage in commercial spoiled packs, or for detection of psychrophilic clostridia in epidemiological trace back of

  1. Comparison of methods for quantitating Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg strain attachment to reusable plastic shipping container coupons and preliminary assessment of sanitizer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaohao; Baker, Christopher A; Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella serovars, one of the leading contributors to foodborne illness and are especially problematic for foods that are not cooked before consumption, such as fresh produce. The shipping containers that are used to transport and store fresh produce may play a role in cross contamination and subsequent illnesses. However, methods for quantitatively attached cells are somewhat variable. The overall goal of this study was to compare conventional plating with molecular methods for quantitating attached representative strains for Salmonella Typhimurium and Heidelberg on reusable plastic containers (RPC) coupons, respectively. We attached Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and serovar Heidelberg SL486 (parent and an antibiotic resistant marker strain) to plastic coupons (2.54 cm(2)) derived from previously used shipping containers by growing for 72 h in tryptic soy broth. The impact of the concentration of sanitizer on log reductions between unsanitized and sanitized coupons was evaluated by exposing attached S. Typhimurium cells to 200 ppm and 200,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Differences in sanitizer effectiveness between serovars were also evaluated with attached S. Typhimurium compared to attached S. Heidelberg populations after being exposed to 200 ppm peracetic acid (PAA). Treatment with NaClO caused an average of 2.73 ± 0.23 log CFU of S. Typhimurium per coupon removed with treatment at 200 ppm while 3.36 ± 0.54 log CFU were removed at 200,000 ppm. Treatment with PAA caused an average of 2.62 ± 0.15 log CFU removed for S. Typhimurium and 1.41 ± 0.17 log CFU for S. Heidelberg (parent) and 1.61 ± 0.08 log CFU (marker). Lastly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize cell attachment and coupon surface topography. SEM images showed that remaining attached cell populations were visible even after sanitizer application. Conventional plating and qPCR yielded similar levels of enumerated bacterial populations

  2. Packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  3. Graphitic packing removal tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  4. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...

  5. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  6. Nasal packing and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue.

  7. Layered circle packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a bounded sequence of integers {d0,d1,d2,…}, 6≤dn≤M, there is an associated abstract triangulation created by building up layers of vertices so that vertices on the nth layer have degree dn. This triangulation can be realized via a circle packing which fills either the Euclidean or the hyperbolic plane. We give necessary and sufficient conditions to determine the type of the packing given the defining sequence {dn}.

  8. Vibrational Collapse of Hexapod Packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Ding, Jingqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Dierichs, Karola; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Columns made of convex noncohesive grains like sand collapse after being released from a confining container. However, structures built from concave grains can be stable without external support. Previous research show that the stability of the columns depends on column diameter and height, by observing column stability after carefully lifting their confinement tubes. Thinner and taller columns collapse with higher probability. While the column stability weakly depends on packing density, it strongly depends on inter-particle friction. Experiments that cause the column to collapse also reveal similar trends, as more effort (such as heavier loading or shearing) is required to destabilize columns that are intrinsically more stable. In the current experiments, we invesitage the effect of vibration on destructing a column. Short columns collapse following the relaxation dynamics of disorder systems, which coincides with similar experiments on staple packings. However, tall columns collapse faster at the beginning, in addition to the relaxation process coming after. Using high-speed imaging, we analyze column collapse data from different column geometries. Ongoing work is focusing on characterizing the stability of hexapod packings to vibration. We thanks NSF-DMR-1206351 and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Fate in humans of the plasticizer, DI (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, arising from transfusion of platelets stored in vinyl plastic bags. [plasticizer migration into human blood from vinyl plastic bags during transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R. J.; Schiffer, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Platelet concentrates were shown to contain 18-38 mg/100 ml of a phthalate plasticizer (DEHP) which arose by migration from the vinyl plastic packs in which the plateletes were prepared and stored. Transfusion of these platelets into 6 adult patients with leukemia resulted in peak blood plasma levels of DEHP ranging from 0.34 - 0.83 mg/100 ml. The blood levels fell mono-exponentially with a mean rate of 2.83 percent per minute and a half-life of 28.0 minutes. Urine was assayed by a method that would measure unchanged DEHP as well as all phthalic acid-containing metabolities. In two patients, at most 60 and 90% of the infused dose, respectively, was excreted in the urine collected for 24 hours post-transfusion. These estimates, however, could be high due to the simultaneous excretion of DEHP remaining from previous transfusions or arising from uncontrolled environmental exposures.

  10. Integral packing of trees and branchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubin, V.A.

    1995-09-01

    This article continues the discussion of the author`s results on strictly polynomial algorithms for network strength problems (it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the previous publications). It considers the problem of optimal integral packing of spanning trees in a graph and proposes a strictly polynomial algorithm for the solution of this problem. The spanning tree packing and network covering algorithms described produce noninteger solutions. However, the Tutte-Nash-Williams theorem provides a good characterization for the solution of the corresponding problems for trees with integral cardinalities. Interger solutions can be obtained by Cunningham`s general algorithm, which produces an integer solution for the problem of packing of bases of a polymatroid polyhedron. This algorithm, however, is characterized by high time complexity. Moreover, the number of packed bases (in our case, spanning trees) in Seriver`s modification is double the theoretical minimum. In this paper, we apply the results to propose on O(n{sup 2} mp) algorithm for the problem of integral packing of spanning trees, where n and m respectively are the number of vertices and edges in the graph G and p is the time complexity of the maximum flow problem on G. The algorithm constructs a basis solution, so that the optimal solution contains a minimum number of spanning trees of nonzero cardinalities. In other words, the number of nonzero components forming the optimal packing does not exceed n. The proposed algorithm is easily modified for the solution of problems of minimum integral packing and covering described elswhere, and its elaboration for the present case is left to the reader. The spanning tree packing problem is transformed into a similar problem for digraphs, specifically, the problem of packing branchings into a given digraph with a distinguished root. A good characterization of this problem is provided by the Edmonds theorem.

  11. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-17

    Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 气相色谱-质谱法测定塑料食品包装材料中4种有机锡%Determination of the Four Organotin Compounds in Plastic Food Packing Materials by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小良; 吴茵琪; 钟月香; 徐正华; 易碧华; 李达光

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of 4organotin compounds (DMT,TMT,DET,MBT)in plastic food packing materials was developed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The sample of plastic food packaging material was dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and the polymer in the sample was precipita-ted with methanol,and then high speed centrifugation and filtration,the organictin and tetraethyl borate sodium reaction generated organictin ethyl derivative.The ethyl derivatives of organtin compounds were extracted with nhexane and then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Under the optimal condition of determination,the linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.10 ~10mg/L with a correlation coefficient above 0.999.The limits of quantification in the range of 0.2 ~0.3 mg/kg and the average recoveries were in the range of 56.5% ~109.4% for 4 organotins with the relative standard devia-tions below 12.6%.This method is accurate and sensitve,and it is suitable for the analysis of organotins in plastic food packing materials.%建立了气相色谱-质谱法测定塑料食品包装材料中4种有机锡(二甲基锡、三甲基锡、二乙基锡和一丁基锡)的分析方法。塑料食品包装材料样品经四氢呋喃溶解,甲醇沉淀杂质大分子后高速离心过滤,有机锡与四乙基硼酸钠反应生成有机锡的乙基衍生物,经正己烷萃取后,采用气相色谱-质谱法进行定性定量分析。在试验选定的最佳条件下,4种有机锡的线性范围在0.10~10mg/L 之间,相关系数均大于为0.999,方法检出限为0.2~0.3 mg/kg 之间,样品加标回收率为56.5%~109.4%,相对标准偏差小于12.6%。

  13. Serial Symmetrical Relocation Algorithm for the Equal Sphere Packing Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, WenQi

    2012-01-01

    For dealing with the equal sphere packing problem, we propose a serial symmetrical relocation algorithm, which is effective in terms of the quality of the numerical results. We have densely packed up to 200 equal spheres in spherical container and up to 150 equal spheres in cube container. All results are rigorous because of a fake sphere trick. It was conjectured impossible to pack 68 equal spheres of radius 1 into a sphere of radius 5. The serial symmetrical relocation algorithm has proven wrong this conjecture by finding one such packing.

  14. Bottom-Left Placement Theorem for Rectangle Packing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wenqi; Chen, Duanbing

    2011-01-01

    This paper proves a bottom-left placement theorem for the rectangle packing problem, stating that if it is possible to orthogonally place n arbitrarily given rectangles into a rectangular container without overlapping, then we can achieve a feasible packing by successively placing a rectangle onto a bottom-left corner in the container. This theorem shows that even for the real-parameter rectangle packing problem, we can solve it after finite times of bottom-left placement actions. Based on this theorem, we might develop efficient heuristic algorithms for solving the rectangle packing problem.

  15. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  16. Forming technology for fine-ceramics in application of traditional ceramic forming. Mechanism of the plasticity of ceramic doughs; Tojiki no seikeiho wo riyoshita fineceramics no seikei gijutsu. Ceramics rendo no kasosei hatsugen kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, K.; Shibasaki, Y.; Sano, S.; Banno, T.; Hotta, Y. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya,Nagoya (Japan); Kawai, H.; Ichikawa, Y.; ishida, H. [Inax Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-05-30

    The relationships between plasticity and packing structure of doughs such as Hara-Gairome clay, Georgia kaolin, platy- and spherical alumina were investigated. The plasticity and packing structure were evaluated from measurements by the uni-axial testing method and porosimetry, respectively. The doughs showing good plasticity contained a large number of L-pore (large-sized pore) with the diameter of about several {mu}m. On the contrary, the doughs showing poor plasticity contained a large number of S-pore (small-sized pore) with the diameter of about 0.1 {mu}m, which is approximately equal to the distance between primary particles. Forming additives (methylcellulose, curdlan) much improved the plasticity, which is attributed to the increase in the number of L-pore. The results of the injection test supported the relation between the plasticity and the packing structure. The SEM observation revealed that the alumina-methylcellulose doughs consisted of agglomerates with the size of several tens {mu} m in diameter in a similar manner as the clay doughs, in which the size of L-pore roughly corresponds to that of the space among agglomerates. It is considered that the plasticity originates mainly from the deformation of the agglomerates and/or forming additive gels. When the buffer (agglomerates, gels, L-pore) size ranges from about ten to thousand {mu} m in diameter, the buffer works effectively. While, the buffer is not effective when the size is smaller or they are fractured into small pieces, resulting in a poor plasticity. In conclusion, the proposed mechanism of the plasticity is applicable not only to clay but also to fine-ceramic doughs, and useful to design a new-type of plasticizer and to control the plasticity of ceramic doughs in the forming process. (author)

  17. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists and biologists alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, though. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross-section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, hierarchic structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition. Our findings demonstrate the dramatic impact of friction and confinement elasticity on filamentous packing and might drive future research on such systems in physics, biology and even medical technology toward including these mutually interacting effects.

  18. Voronoia: analyzing packing in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Kristian; Hildebrand, Peter Werner; Goede, Andrean; Gruening, Bjoern; Preissner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The packing of protein atoms is an indicator for their stability and functionality, and applied in determining thermostability, in protein design, ligand binding and to identify flexible regions in proteins. Here, we present Voronoia, a database of atomic-scale packing data for protein 3D structures. It is based on an improved Voronoi Cell algorithm using hyperboloid interfaces to construct atomic volumes, and to resolve solvent-accessible and -inaccessible regions of atoms. The database contains atomic volumes, local packing densities and interior cavities calculated for 61 318 biological units from the PDB. A report for each structure summarizes the packing by residue and atom types, and lists the environment of interior cavities. The packing data are compared to a nonredundant set of structures from SCOP superfamilies. Both packing densities and cavities can be visualized in the 3D structures by the Jmol plugin. Additionally, PDB files can be submitted to the Voronoia server for calculation. This service performs calculations for most full-atomic protein structures within a few minutes. For batch jobs, a standalone version of the program with an optional PyMOL plugin is available for download. The database can be freely accessed at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/voronoia.

  19. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  20. Superconducting switch pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Wollan, J.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a superconducting switch pack at least one switch element. The switch element including a length of superconductive wire having a switching portion and two lead portions, the switching portion being between the lead portions; means for supporting the switching portion in a plane in a common mold; hardened resin means encapsulating the switching portion in the plane in a solid body; wherein the solid body has an exterior surface which is planar and substantially parallel with and spaced apart from the plane in which the switching portion is positioned. The exterior surface being exposed to the exterior of the switch pack and the resin means filling the space between the exterior surface and the plane of the switching portion so as to provide uninterrupted thermal communication between the plane of the switching portion and the exterior of the switch pack; and a heater element in thermal contact with the switching portion.

  1. Multi-scale modeling and experimental study of twin inception and propagation in hexagonal close-packed materials using a crystal plasticity finite element approach; part II: Local behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Daymond, Mark R.

    2013-03-01

    In-situ tensile tests are performed on Zircaloy-2 samples with various grain sizes to study twin inception and propagation. Orientation maps of some areas at the surface are measured before and after deformation, using the Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique. Strain fields of the same areas are determined using the digital image correlation technique and are compared with results from Crystal Plasticity Finite Element (CPFE) simulations. Different assumptions are made within the CPFE code to simulate twin propagation. It is observed that the predictions of different models does not really change from one model to another when statistical information on the twins is compared, yet local predictions for each grain, i.e. twin direction, twin variant selection, and twin inception site, do change. Also, it is shown that the twin Schmid factor can vary drastically within grains and that for those grains with a low tendency for twinning this variation may make them susceptible to twinning.

  2. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. 固相萃取-气相色谱法测定食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质%Determination of Phthalate Esters in Plastic Food Packing Materials by Solid Phase Extraction-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小妹; 吴晓燕; 李挥; 张敬轩; 高文惠

    2012-01-01

    建立采用固相萃取-气相色谱法同时分析检测邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二环己酯(DCHP)、邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)和邻苯二甲酸二-2-乙基己酯(DEHP)4种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的方法。研究塑料包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类在水、65%乙醇、4%乙酸、正己烷4种模拟液中的溶出及利用固相萃取技术对浸出液进行富集的情况,考察气相色谱操作条件对4种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质分离的影响。结果表明,该方法具有良好的线性相关性,线性相关系数在0.9986~0.9994之间;回收率在80.63%~95.50%之间;DBP、BBP、DCHP和DEHP的检测限分别是0.050、0.010、0.055μg/mL和0.012μg/mL。该方法样品预处理简便,测定方法灵敏、可靠,可用于食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类的监测。%A method was developed by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food packing materials. The dissolution of phthalate esters from plastic packing materials into water, 65% alcohol, 4% acetic acid and n-hexane was studied. The enrichment of phthalate esters in extraction solution was conducted by solid phase extraction. The effect of gas chromatographic conditions on the separation of four phthalate esters was investigated. The results showed that the method had an excellent linear relationship with the correlation coefficient of 0.9986--0.9994. The recovery rates and detection limits of this method for DBP, BBP, DCHP and DEHP were 80.63% - 95.50%, and 0.050, 0.010, 0.055 and 0.012 μg/mL, respectively. This developed method is easy, sensitive and reliable, which can be used to analyze phthalate esters in plastic food packing materials.

  4. Perfect arborescence packing in preflow mincut graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabow, H.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In a digraph with distinguished vertex a, for any vertex v {ne} a let {lambda}(v) equal the value of a maximum flow from a to v. A perfect packing of a-arborescences contains each vertex in {lambda}(v) arborescences and contains some fixed vertex in every arborescence. Determining if an arbitrary graph has a perfect packing is NP-complete. We present the most general known condition that guarantees the existence of a perfect packing: each vertex v {ne} a is separated from a by a set that has in-degree {lambda}(v) and out-degree no greater. This result is based on other useful properties of such graphs, e.g., they always have a pair of edges that can be {open_quotes}split off{close_quotes} preserving, values. We show a perfect packing can be found in O(nm{sup 2}) time, where n (m) is the number of vertices (edges). If the graph has a capacity function the time is the same as computing O(n{sup 2}) maximum network flows. We also show a preflow mincut graph has a fractional perfect packing using only m + n - 2 distinct arborescences.

  5. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  6. α2 Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptor Subtypes Are Upregulated and Contribute to Alcohol-Induced Functional Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemeyer, A Kerstin; Shen, Yi; Yazdani, Ferin; Shao, Xuesi M; Spigelman, Igor; Davies, Daryl L; Olsen, Richard W; Liang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol (EtOH) intoxication causes changes in the rodent brain γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) subunit composition and function, playing a crucial role in EtOH withdrawal symptoms and dependence. Building evidence indicates that withdrawal from acute EtOH and chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) results in decreased EtOH-enhanced GABAAR δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic and EtOH-insensitive α1βγ2 subtype synaptic GABAARs but increased synaptic α4βγ2 subtype, and increased EtOH sensitivity of GABAAR miniature postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) correlated with EtOH dependence. Here we demonstrate that after acute EtOH intoxication and CIE, upregulation of hippocampal α4βγ2 subtypes, as well as increased cell-surface levels of GABAAR α2 and γ1 subunits, along with increased α2β1γ1 GABAAR pentamers in hippocampal slices using cell-surface cross-linking, followed by Western blot and coimmunoprecipitation. One-dose and two-dose acute EtOH treatments produced temporal plastic changes in EtOH-induced anxiolysis or withdrawal anxiety, and the presence or absence of EtOH-sensitive synaptic currents correlated with cell surface peptide levels of both α4 and γ1(new α2) subunits. CIE increased the abundance of novel mIPSC patterns differing in activation/deactivation kinetics, charge transfer, and sensitivity to EtOH. The different mIPSC patterns in CIE could be correlated with upregulated highly EtOH-sensitive α2βγ subtypes and EtOH-sensitive α4βγ2 subtypes. Naïve α4 subunit knockout mice express EtOH-sensitive mIPSCs in hippocampal slices, correlating with upregulated GABAAR α2 (and not α4) subunits. Consistent with α2, β1, and γ1 subunits genetically linked to alcoholism in humans, our findings indicate that these new α2-containing synaptic GABAARs could mediate the maintained anxiolytic response to EtOH in dependent individuals, rat or human, contributing to elevated EtOH consumption. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology

  7. DIY Fraction Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  8. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri; Doughty, D. H.; Roth, E. P.

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall.

  9. Comfort care packs: a little bit of hospice in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mark A; Hillock, Sharon; Moore, Carol; Goble, Hannah; Asbury, Nicky

    2010-10-01

    The Comfort Care Pack initiative is an innovation designed to enhance the inpatient experience of end-of-life patients and their carers. The carer is given a pleasantly decorated box containing a variety of items for use by the patient or the carer themselves: snacks, toiletries and items to promote comfort. This project set out to evaluate the impact of these packs by reviewing the returns of the feedback questionnaires included with the packs. From the first 220 packs, 58 questionnaires were returned, giving quantitative and qualitative data. The response to the packs was overwhelmingly positive and they were much valued by the carers. This was the case despite the fact that relatively few of the items were actually used by the recipients. It is suggested that the value of the packs to recipients lies in the gesture of being thought about during what is a difficult time for them. The implications of this are discussed.

  10. Plastic, Fantastic? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information about plastics, focusing on the uses of plastic bags in particular. Topic areas considered include: (1) making plastic bags; (2) transparency of plastic bags; (3) plastic bags and food odors; (4) food containers (before and since plastics); and (5) disposing of plastic bags and other plastic products. The text is…

  11. The Six Pack Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Ritter, Thomas

    Ever seen a growth strategies fail because it was not connect ed to the firm’s customer base? Or a customer relationship strategy falters just because it was the wrong thing to do with that given customer? This article presents the six pack model, a tool that makes growth profitable and predictable....... Not all customers can and should grow – thus a firm needs to classify its customers in order to implement the right customer strategy....

  12. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  13. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  14. Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2003-04-01

    Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging.

  15. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    OpenAIRE

    Seiden, S.; Stee, van, Rob

    2001-01-01

    New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results, stated for d=2, are as follows: A new upper bound of 2.66013 for online box packing, a new $14/9 + varepsilon$ polynomial time offline approximation algorithm for square packing, a new upper bound ...

  16. 9 CFR 381.126 - Date of packing and date of processing; contents of cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of packing and date of processing... Containers § 381.126 Date of packing and date of processing; contents of cans. (a) Either the immediate... code or otherwise with the date of packing. If calendar dating is used, it must be accompanied by...

  17. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

  18. Packing anchored rectangles

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Let $S$ be a set of $n$ points in the unit square $[0,1]^2$, one of which is the origin. We construct $n$ pairwise interior-disjoint axis-aligned empty rectangles such that the lower left corner of each rectangle is a point in $S$, and the rectangles jointly cover at least a positive constant area (about 0.09). This is a first step towards the solution of a longstanding conjecture that the rectangles in such a packing can jointly cover an area of at least 1/2.

  19. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractNew upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The

  20. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiden, S.; Stee, R. van

    2001-01-01

    New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results,

  1. INFLUENCE RESEARCH OF COLD PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON DIFFUSION SATURATION PROCESS BY CARBON AND BORON OF THE LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Filonenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of influence of cold prestrain with degree of deformation within the range 0…40 % on diffusion saturation with boron and carbon for low-carbon and boron steels. It is determined that the plastic prestrain with degree of deformation 20 % at temperature 750 °С for the low-carbon steel promote increasing of boron-cementation layer thickness by 25 % and microhardness of perlite layer by 20 %.

  2. Investigation and Analysis of Production in a Given Area of PVC Material in Plastic Food Containers by PAEs Plasticizer Pollution%某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs增塑剂污染情况的调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 杜锡勇; 孙卫良; 詹剑良

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步调查浙江省某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs类增塑剂污染情况。方法:通过深入研究相关文献、国家标准和欧盟法规后,结合研究中PAEs类增塑剂含量及其特定食品模拟物迁移量检出情况,对其污染范围、程度及其安全性进行探索性调查。结果:在20批次的抽检容器中, PAEs类增塑剂DEHP、DBP和DIBP检出率分别为100.0%、35.0%和40.0%,检出量在0.10~57.70 mg/kg;在橄榄油模拟迁移试验中,5个样品中有DEHP检出,其迁移率最高可达15.4%。结论:PAEs类增塑剂在该地区食品用塑料容器的分布较广;通过特定食品模拟物迁移试验发现,在盛装高温油性食品时,PAEs类增塑剂会加速向食品中迁移,迁移量会超过相关标准限量,存在质量风险。%Objective: By sampling and texting, PAEs plasticizer contamination in a region of Zhejiang plastic Non-PVC food containers produced was studied. Methods: Through in-depth study of the relevant literature, standards and EU regulations, and binding of the data of plastic food packaging containers PAEs plasticizer content and specific detection of food simulant migration situation, this paper surveyed the scope of its pollution and the the secrity level exploratory. Results: In 20 batches of plastic food packaging containers, DEHP, DBP and DIBP detection rates were 100.0%、35.0%和40.0%, and PAEs detectable amount of 0.10 ~ 57.70 mg/kg; In the olive oil migration simulation tests, DEHP were detected in each sample, the maximum migration rate could reach to 15.4%. Conclusion: PAEs plasticizer in plastic food container in the region is widespread; Found by specific migration in food simulants: Especially at high temperature containing oily food, PAEs plasticizer will accelerate the migration from contain to food, migration may exceed the standard limit, and there is a quality risk.

  3. Heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation for selective surface hydrophilization of plastics containing brominated and chlorinated flame retardants (B/CFRs): separation from automobile shredder residue by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2016-12-09

    One method of weakening the inherently hydrophobic surface of plastics relevant to flotation separation is heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation. Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-catalyzed ozonation for 15 min efficiently decreases the surface hydrophobicity of brominated and chlorinated flame retardant (B/CFR)-containing plastics (such as acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) in automobile shredder residue (ASR) to such an extent that their flotation ability is entirely depressed. Such a hydrophilization treatment also stimulates the ABS, HIPS, and PVC surface roughness, wetting of the surface, and the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at the surface and ultimately changes surface polarity. SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS analyses of the PVC and ABS surfaces demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl/Br] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as C-O, C=O, and (C=O)-O. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5 % of ABS and 99.5 % of HIPS in ASR samples settled out, resulting in a purity of 98 and 98.5 % for ABS and HIPS in ASR samples, respectively. Furthermore, at 150 rpm, we also obtained 100 % PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98 % purity in ASR. Total recovery of non-B/CFR-containing plastics reached nearly 100 % in the floating fraction. The amount of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO reagent employed during ozonation is very small, and additional removal of surface contaminants from the recycled ASR plastic surfaces by ozonation makes the developed process simpler, greener, and more effective.

  4. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  5. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walter, Jr., John William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  6. Plastics. A Handbook for Workplace Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donna; Smith, Mikki

    This handbook was designed to help adult literacy education teachers to understand the plastics industry, develop a curriculum, and teach basic skills classes in a plastics company. The book contains four main sections. The first section, on the basics of plastics, contains a brief history of the industry, an elementary description of the…

  7. Haphazard Packing of Unequal Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶大年; 张金民

    1991-01-01

    Haphazard packing of equal and unequal spheres can be performed for the spheres of molecular sieve material with a density of 1.80.The packing of such spheres in air is equivalent to that of nat-ural grains in water.Packing concentrations of equal spheres have been obtained for different pac-king intensities.Unequal spheres can be regarded as equal ones in a wide range of diameter ratios,so far as the packing concentration is concerned.A threshold of diameter ratio exists at 0.70,be-low which the packing concentration is expected to increase.The variation curves of concentration vs.diameter ratio were established in the experiment.The result will help us to understand the process of sedimentation and the concentration of voids in sedimentary rocks.

  8. Method for dense packing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Elser, Veit; Gravel, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit-cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to previously reported improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest-known lattice sphere packings and the best-known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions, respectively, providing numerical evidence for their optimality. For nonspherical particles, we report a dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density ϕ=128/219≈0.5845 and with a similar structure to the densest-known tetrahedron packing.

  9. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Associated Polysialic Acid Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning by Restraining the Signaling through GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Senkov, Oleg; Grebenyuk, Sergei; Robinson, Catrina; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Stummeyer, Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Engel, Andreas K.; Feig, Larry; Semyanov, Alexey; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Schachner, Melitta; Dityatev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of α2,8 polysialic acid (PSA) in the mammalian brain. Abnormalities in PSA and NCAM expression are associated with schizophrenia in humans and cause deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning in mice. Here, we show that PSA inhibits opening of recombinant NMDA receptors composed of GluN1/2B (NR1/NR2B) or GluN1/2A/2B (NR1/NR2A/NR2B) but not of GluN1/2A (NR1/NR2A) subunits. Deficits in NCAM/PSA increase GluN2B-mediated transmission and Ca2+ transients in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In line with elevation of GluN2B-mediated transmission, defects in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region and contextual fear memory in NCAM/PSA-deficient mice are abrogated by application of a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Furthermore, treatment with the glutamate scavenger glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, ablation of Ras-GRF1 (a mediator of GluN2B signaling to p38 MAPK), or direct inhibition of hyperactive p38 MAPK can restore impaired synaptic plasticity in brain slices lacking PSA/NCAM. Thus, PSA carried by NCAM regulates plasticity and learning by inhibition of the GluN2B-Ras-GRF1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings implicate carbohydrates carried by adhesion molecules in modulating NMDA receptor signaling in the brain and demonstrate reversibility of cognitive deficits associated with ablation of a schizophrenia-related adhesion molecule. PMID:20237287

  10. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  11. Fire behaviour of cooling tower packing; Brandverhalten von Kuehlturmeinbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattausch, Tim [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Brandschutz

    2013-10-01

    The rapid burning down of the cooling tower of the shutdown power plant in Schwandorf revealed the potential of a total loss of a cooling tower in case of fire. VGB ordered a research project in order to obtain more knowledge about the fire risk of cooling tower packing currently applied. Depending on kind and age of the plastics used, the results of these tests manifest a big variation of the fire behaviour. For the applications of plastics, it is essential to determine and to adhere to organisational fire protection measures. (orig.)

  12. Polarizable protein packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Albert H; Snow, Christopher D

    2011-05-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol(-1)] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  15. Wheat Gluten-Laminated Paperboard with Improved Moisture Barrier Properties: A New Concept Using a Plasticizer (Glycerol Containing a Hydrophobic Component (Oleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to reduce the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR and water absorbance of wheat gluten/paperboard laminates by introducing a hydrophobic component (oleic acid (OA into the hydrophilic plasticizer (glycerol. Whereas the paperboard showed immeasurably high WVTR, the laminate with gluten/glycerol yielded finite values. More importantly, by incorporating 75 wt.% OA into the plasticizer, the WVTR and water absorbance were reduced by, respectively, a factor of three and 1.5–2. Of particular interest was that the mechanical properties were not changing dramatically between 0 and 50 wt.% OA. The results showed clear benefits of combining a gluten film with paperboard. Whereas the paperboard provided toughness, the WG layer contributed with improved moisture barrier properties. In addition, WVTR indicated that the paperboard reduced the swelling of the outer gluten/glycerol layer in moist conditions; a free standing gluten/glycerol film would yield infinite, rather than finite, WVTR values.

  16. Hydrogen gettering packing material and process for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMay, James D.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Smith, Henry Michael; Schicker, James R.

    1999-09-09

    A hydrogen gettering system for a sealed container is disclosed comprising packing material for use within the sealed container, and a coating film containing hydrogen gettering material on at least a portion of the surface of such packing material. The coating film containing the hydrogen gettering material comprises a mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and one or more catalysts capable of catalyzing the reaction of hydrogen with such one or more organic materials. The mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and the one or more catalysts is dispersed in a suitable carrier which preferably is a curable film-forming material. In a preferred embodiment, the packing material comprises a foam material which is compatible with the coating film containing hydrogen gettering material thereon.

  17. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing......The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...

  18. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...... parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing...

  19. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  20. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  1. The valorization of packings in France; La valorisation des emballages en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    With the reinforcement of environmental policies, programs for the prevention and the valorization of packing wastes were developed in France and Europe. The 94/62/CE European directive relative to packings and packing wastes was established in order to incite the member states to valorize their packing wastes and to harmonize the initiatives within the European Communities. This documents presents the French solution retained to optimize the management of packing wastes according to the existing facilities and know-how. The French regulation makes a distinction between the domestic and industrial wastes: the producer, importer or distributor of domestic packings must contribute to their elimination, while the industrialists are responsible for the valorization of their packing wastes. After a presentation of the 1997 key results of the production, recycling and valorization of domestic and industrial packing wastes in France, the different processing files are analyzed: accounting of wastes according to the materials, particular case of composite packings, calculation of recycling and valorization ratios, the case of metal, paper-cardboard, plastic, glass, and wood packings. A list of the main information sources used in this inquiry is given. (J.S.)

  2. 含氧塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用%APPLICATION OF FLUORINE CONTAINING PLASTIC FILM IN CLEAN ENERGY BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑会林

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride plastic film in clean energy battery applications was briefly reviewed. The application and production method of PVDF membrane used in lithium battery, perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion-exchange membrane used in fuel cells and wind power storage vanadium batteries were introduced respectively. The status of author's latest research results in related fields was also introduced.%简述了含氟塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用.分别论述了用于锂电池的PVDF隔离膜,以及用于燃料电池、风力发电蓄能电池钒电池的全氟磺酸离子膜的应用与制作方法.介绍了笔者在相关领域的最新研究成果.

  3. Determination of Sensitivity of Plastic Explosive Containing Insensitve Explosives%含钝感炸药的塑性炸药配方感度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Orzechowski; Andrzej Maranda; Dorota Powala; Jacek Borkowski

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain low sensitive high explosive formulation. Plastic explosive based on hexogen and octogen were investigated. 3-nitro-1 ,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was used as an additive. The experimental results show this additive decrease the impact and friction sensitivity without worsening another parameters.%采用低感、钝感炸药NTO、NGU作为添加剂,获得了以RDX、HMX为基的低感高能炸药配方,研究了NTO、NUG对其撞击和摩擦感度的影响.实验表明NTO可降低撞击和摩擦感度,并对其他性能产生不大影响.这说明低感或钝感炸药的加入是降低塑性炸药感度的有效方法.

  4. The diffraction of X-rays by close-packed polytypic crystals containing single stacking faults. Pt. 3. Measurements of diffraction effects caused by stacking faults in plate or film form samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, E. [Military Acad. of Technol., Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Tech. Phys.; Piecek, W. [Military Acad. of Technol., Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Tech. Phys.; Demianiuk, M. [Military Acad. of Technol., Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Tech. Phys.

    1995-07-01

    A theory that describes the diffraction effects from stacking faults in close-packed polytypic crystal structures was developed in two previous papers of this series. In this paper, attention is paid to the measurement of these diffraction effects for the cases where needle-shaped or rod-like specimens cannot be made from the given sample (e.g. thin films) or when single-crystal samples should not be destroyed for preparing such specimens. For this purpose, methods of measurement based on standard X-ray diffraction equipment such as oscillation or Weissenberg cameras and a powder diffraction diffractometer have been developed A complete description of the limitation of the area of the reciprocal lattice that can intersect the Ewald sphere has been provided. Examples of the results obtained by these methods are given. The diffractometer two-dimensional scanning method, which allows an undistorted reciprocal lattice to be recorded and higher precision and results more convenient for mathematical treatment than in photographic methods to be obtained, seems to be especially interesting. (orig.).

  5. WITHDRAWN: Commercial hospital discharge packs for breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, A; Snowden, H M; Renfrew, M J; Woolridge, M W

    2007-07-18

    Exclusive breastfeeding until around six months of age, followed by the introduction of solids with continued breastfeeding, is considered to be the optimal nutritional start for newborn infants. To determine whether the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding is affected by giving mothers commercial discharge packs in hospital which contain artificial formula or promotional material for artificial formula. These packs are those which are commonly given to mothers on leaving hospital after giving birth (thus discharge packs). Comprehensive electronic search of the register of clinical trials maintained and updated by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group and CINAHL and MEDLINE. All randomised controlled trials with or without blinding to examine the effects of commercial discharge packs on breastfeeding. Consenting postpartum women who initiate breastfeeding while in hospital or immediately upon discharge. Commercial discharge packs which contain free samples of infant formula or promotional material versus non commercial discharge packs (specifically those from which free samples of infant formula have been removed or have been replaced with e.g. breast pads) or no pack. The proportion of women breastfeeding at six weeks and 3 months (13 weeks) postpartum.Other outcomes: Rates of breastfeeding at other fixed time points between 0 and 6 months postpartum. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Nine randomised controlled trials involving a total of 3730 women were analysed. The studies only included women from North America. The meta-analysis showed that when comparing commercial discharge packs with any of the controls (no intervention, non-commercial pack and combinations of these), exclusive breastfeeding was reduced at all time points in the presence of commercial hospital discharge packs. There was no evidence to support the conjecture that use of hospital discharge packs causes the early termination of non

  6. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  7. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-12-31

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele`s pivot. The Schiele`s pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele`s pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele`s pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  8. Compactness Theorems for Geometric Packings

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Moser asked whether the collection of rectangles of dimensions 1 x 1/2, 1/2 x 1/3, 1/3 x 1/4, ..., whose total area equals 1, can be packed into the unit square without overlap, and whether the collection of squares of side lengths 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, ... can be packed without overlap into a rectangle of area pi^2/6-1. Computational investigations have been made into packing these collections into squares of side length 1+epsilon and rectangles of area pi^2/6-1+epsilon, respectively, and one can c...

  9. Aspiration of Nasopore nasal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan; Reddy, Ekambar

    2017-10-04

    We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  11. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  12. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  13. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J H; Jensen, L K

    2010-11-01

    The migration of phthalates into foodstuffs from food-contact materials (FCM) is a well-known source of food contamination. In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority finalized its risk assessment for several of the classical phthalate plasticizers. In their risk management procedure the European Commission transformed the tolerable daily intakes established by the Authority into legislative limits for phthalates in both plastic and food simulants, while taking exposure from other sources into consideration. These limits have been into force since 1 July 2008. A detailed interpretation of the regulation of these substances was agreed upon in the European network of FCM reference laboratories. This paper reports results from a Danish control campaign of samples collected by official food inspectors and analysed by a newly validated analytical method run under accreditation. Samples were from FCM producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four of five) and gloves (five of 14). More than 20% of the samples analysed contained dibutylphthalate (DBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) above the compositional limits of 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. Analysis of residual phthalates in metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method. All findings of phthalates were associated with the use of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  14. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas, which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6% were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  15. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Barker, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas), which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6%) were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line) could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  16. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles......, and edges correspond to two circles (having centers corresponding to the endpoints of the edge) being tangent to each other. This circle packing creates a rigid structure having an underlying geometric triangulation, where the centers of circles again correspond to vertices in the triangulation......, and the edges are geodesic segments (Euclidean, hyperbolic, or spherical) connecting centers of circles that are tangent to each other. Three circles that are mutually tangent form a face of the triangulation. Since circle packing is closely related to triangulation, circle packing methods can be applied...

  17. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...

  18. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  19. The zebrafish tailbud contains two independent populations of midline progenitor cells that maintain long-term germ layer plasticity and differentiate in response to local signaling cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Tsotras, Steve R; Goto, Hana; Martin, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    Vertebrate body axis formation depends on a population of bipotential neuromesodermal cells along the posterior wall of the tailbud that make a germ layer decision after gastrulation to form spinal cord and mesoderm. Despite exhibiting germ layer plasticity, these cells never give rise to midline tissues of the notochord, floor plate and dorsal endoderm, raising the question of whether midline tissues also arise from basal posterior progenitors after gastrulation. We show in zebrafish that local posterior signals specify germ layer fate in two basal tailbud midline progenitor populations. Wnt signaling induces notochord within a population of notochord/floor plate bipotential cells through negative transcriptional regulation of sox2. Notch signaling, required for hypochord induction during gastrulation, continues to act in the tailbud to specify hypochord from a notochord/hypochord bipotential cell population. Our results lend strong support to a continuous allocation model of midline tissue formation in zebrafish, and provide an embryological basis for zebrafish and mouse bifurcated notochord phenotypes as well as the rare human congenital split notochord syndrome. We demonstrate developmental equivalency between the tailbud progenitor cell populations. Midline progenitors can be transfated from notochord to somite fate after gastrulation by ectopic expression of msgn1, a master regulator of paraxial mesoderm fate, or if transplanted into the bipotential progenitors that normally give rise to somites. Our results indicate that the entire non-epidermal posterior body is derived from discrete, basal tailbud cell populations. These cells remain receptive to extracellular cues after gastrulation and continue to make basic germ layer decisions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. A Controlled New Process of Pack Aluminization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-rong; MA Liu-bao; LI Pei-ning; XU Hong

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum diffusion coatings are often prepared by a pack aluminization technique, which is a specific variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coating process takes place in a bed containing a mixed powder that serves as a source of the coatings forming element. The phase composition of the diffusion layer obtained depends on the activity of the Al during the pack aluminization processing. In this work, the proportion of Al to special additive powder in the pack and the treatment temperature are adjusted to achieve the desired surface composition of aluminized layer. The aluminized 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD)and microsclerometer. The results showed that the desired FeAl, Fe3Al and NiAl were respectively formed on the 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel, and the aluminides FeAl3, Fe2Al5 or Ni2Al3, NiAl3 could be inhibited.

  1. A Controlled New Process of Pack Aluminization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGZhi-rong; MALiu-bao; LIPei-ning; XUHong

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum diffusion coatings are often prepared by a pack aluminization technique, which is a specific variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coating process takes place in a bed containing a mixed powder that serves as a source of the coatings forming element. The phase composition of the diffusion layer obtained depends on the activity of the Al during the pack aluminization processing. In this work, the proportion of Al to special additive powder in the pack and the treatment temperature are adjusted to achieve the desired surface composition of aluminized layer. The aluminized 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microsclerometer. The results showed that the desired FeAl, Fe3Al and NiAl were respectively formed on the 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel, and the aluminides FeAl3, Fe2Al5 or Ni2Al3, NiAl3 could be inhibited.

  2. Pattern formations and optimal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityushev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Patterns of different symmetries may arise after solution to reaction-diffusion equations. Hexagonal arrays, layers and their perturbations are observed in different models after numerical solution to the corresponding initial-boundary value problems. We demonstrate an intimate connection between pattern formations and optimal random packing on the plane. The main study is based on the following two points. First, the diffusive flux in reaction-diffusion systems is approximated by piecewise linear functions in the framework of structural approximations. This leads to a discrete network approximation of the considered continuous problem. Second, the discrete energy minimization yields optimal random packing of the domains (disks) in the representative cell. Therefore, the general problem of pattern formations based on the reaction-diffusion equations is reduced to the geometric problem of random packing. It is demonstrated that all random packings can be divided onto classes associated with classes of isomorphic graphs obtained from the Delaunay triangulation. The unique optimal solution is constructed in each class of the random packings. If the number of disks per representative cell is finite, the number of classes of isomorphic graphs, hence, the number of optimal packings is also finite.

  3. Analysis and suggestions on the management of throwaway plastic food containers in Shanghai%上海市一次性塑料饭盒的管理现状分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 傅丽萍; 毛倩倩

    2011-01-01

    梳理了上海市在一次性塑料饭盒管理工作中回收处置系统难以正常运转的主要问题,提出了建立全国一盘棋的格局,将其他塑料废弃物纳入回收处置的管理范畴,并建立对废塑料回收处置的奖励或补贴政策,从而继续控制视觉污染,促进生活垃圾减量化和资源化。%This paper discussed about the main problems throwaway plastic food containers in Shanghai, and proposed country which put other plastic wastes into recycling and disposa policy be implemented on the recycling and disposal system reduction and recycling. in the recycling and disposal system operation of the taking a comprehensive administration for the whole system, It was also suggested the reward and subsidy so as to control visual pollution and promote waste reduction and recycling.

  4. SPECTRUM OF DIRECTED KIRKMAN PACKING DESIGNS%有向Kirkman填充设计的谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 杜北梁

    2003-01-01

    The problem studied in this article is the directed Kirkman packing,the resolvable directed packing which requires all blocks to be of size three except that,each resolution class should contain either one block of size two(when v≡2(mod 3)) or one block of size four (when v≡1 (mod 3)). A directed Kirkman packing design DKPD(v) is a resolvable directed packing of a v-set by the maximum possible number of resolution classes of this type. This article investigates the spectrum of DKPD(v) and it is found that it contains all positive integers v≥3 and v≠ 5,6.

  5. Random close packing revisited: ways to pack frictionless disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S

    2005-06-01

    We create collectively jammed (CJ) packings of 50-50 bidisperse mixtures of smooth disks in two dimensions (2D) using an algorithm in which we successively compress or expand soft particles and minimize the total energy at each step until the particles are just at contact. We focus on small systems in 2D and thus are able to find nearly all of the collectively jammed states at each system size. We decompose the probability P(phi) for obtaining a collectively jammed state at a particular packing fraction phi into two composite functions: (1) the density of CJ packing fractions rho(phi), which only depends on geometry, and (2) the frequency distribution beta(phi), which depends on the particular algorithm used to create them. We find that the function rho(phi) is sharply peaked and that beta(phi) depends exponentially on phi. We predict that in the infinite-system-size limit the behavior of P(phi) in these systems is controlled by the density of CJ packing fractions--not the frequency distribution. These results suggest that the location of the peak in P(phi) when N --> infinity can be used as a protocol-independent definition of random close packing.

  6. Numerical Control Technology in Plastic Packaging Container Mould Processing Applications%数控技术在塑料包装容器模具加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立

    2012-01-01

    本文简述了在塑料包装容器生产中所用模具的常见加工方法,介绍了高速加工、多轴加工等数控技术特点,阐述了充分利用数控加工技术的优越性,进而提高模具的加工效率和质量,缩短制造周期.%This paper briefly in plastic packaging containers used in the production of the common mould processing method,this paper presents a high speed processing,the multiaxial processing characteristics of numerical control technology,this paper expounds the full use of the advantages of nc machining technology,and improve the mould processing efficiency and quality,shorten the manufacturing cycle.

  7. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  8. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  9. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  10. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  11. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  12. Jammed lattice sphere packings

    OpenAIRE

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a...

  13. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing requirements. 51.310 Section 51.310... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements... the contents. (e) Tolerances: In order to allow for variations incident to proper packing, not...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 51.1270 Section 51.1270 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing. (a) Each package shall be packed...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 51.1311 Section 51.1311 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing. (a) Each package shall be packed so that...

  16. A model for evaluating the ballistic resistance of stratified packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvu, C.; Georgescu, C.; Badea, S.; Deleanu, L.

    2016-08-01

    Models for evaluating the ballistic performance of stratified packs are useful in reducing the time for laboratory tests, understanding the failure process and identifying key factors to improve the architecture of the packs. The authors present the results of simulating the bullet impact on a packs made of 24 layers, taking into consideration the friction between layers (μ = 0.4) and the friction between bullet and layers (μ = 0.3). The aim of this study is to obtain a number of layers that allows for the bullet arrest in the packs and to have several layers undamaged in order to offer a high level of safety for this kind of packs that could be included in individual armors. The model takes into account the yield and fracture limits of the two materials the bullet is made of and those for one layer, here considered as an orthotropic material, having maximum equivalent plastic strain of 0.06. All materials are considered to have bilinear isotropic hardening behavior. After documentation, the model was designed as isothermal because thermal influence of the impact is considered low for these impact velocities. The model was developed with the help of Ansys 14.5. Each layer has 200 mm × 200 × 0.35 mm. The bullet velocity just before impact was 400 m/s, a velocity characterizing the average values obtained in close range with a ballistic barrel and the bullet model is following the shape and dimensions of the 9 mm FMJ (full metal jacket). The model and the results concerning the number of broken layers were validated by experiments, as the number of broken layers for the actual pack (made of 24 layers of LFT SB1) were also seven...eight. The models for ballistic impact are useful when they are particularly formulated for resembling to the actual system projectile - target.

  17. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  19. Nature of packs used in propellant modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F; Stafford, S; Jackson, T L; Buckmaster, J

    2008-04-01

    In recent years we have constructed closely packed spheres using the Lubachevsky-Stillinger algorithm to generate morphological models of heterogeneous solid propellants. Improvements to the algorithm now allow us to create large polydisperse packs on a laptop computer, and to create monodisperse packs with packing fractions greater than 70% which display significant crystal order. The use of these models in the physical context motivates efforts to examine in some detail the nature of the packs, including certain statistical properties. We compare packing fractions for binary packs with long-known experimental data. Also, we discuss the near-neighbor number and the radial distribution function (RDF) for monodisperse packs and make comparisons with experimental data. We also briefly discuss the RDF for bidisperse packs. We also consider bounded monodisperse packs, and pay particular attention to the near-wall structure where we identify significant order.

  20. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ......, we show how to preprocess S in O(n) (deterministic) time and space O(n) such that given a packed pattern string of length m we can support queries in (deterministic) time O (m/α + log m + log log σ), where α = w/log σ is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = θ(log n). Our query time...

  1. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-03-07

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  2. Jammed lattice sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.

  3. Jammed lattice sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Yoav; Marcotte, Étienne; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate and study an ensemble of isostatic jammed hard-sphere lattices. These lattices are obtained by compression of a periodic system with an adaptive unit cell containing a single sphere until the point of mechanical stability. We present detailed numerical data about the densities, pair correlations, force distributions, and structure factors of such lattices. We show that this model retains many of the crucial structural features of the classical hard-sphere model and propose it as a model for the jamming and glass transitions that enables exploration of much higher dimensions than are usually accessible.

  4. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  5. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  6. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  7. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 Thomas Hales dramatically announced the solution of a problem that has long teased eminent mathematicians: what is the densest possible arrangement of identical spheres? The Pursuit of Perfect Packing recounts the story of this problem and many others that have to do with packing things together. The examples are taken from mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering, including the arrangement of soap bubbles in foam, atoms in a crystal, the architecture of the bee''s honeycomb, and the structure of the Giant''s Causeway. Using an informal style and with key references, the book also includes brief accounts of the lives of many of the scientists who devoted themselves to problems of packing over many centuries, together with wry comments on their efforts. It is an entertaining introduction to the field for both specialists and the more general public.

  8. Dealing with Nonregular Shapes Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfim Amaro Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the irregular strip packing problem, a particular two-dimensional cutting and packing problem in which convex/nonconvex shapes (polygons have to be packed onto a single rectangular object. We propose an approach that prescribes the integration of a metaheuristic engine (i.e., genetic algorithm and a placement rule (i.e., greedy bottom-left. Moreover, a shrinking algorithm is encapsulated into the metaheuristic engine to improve good quality solutions. To accomplish this task, we propose a no-fit polygon based heuristic that shifts polygons closer to each other. Computational experiments performed on standard benchmark problems, as well as practical case studies developed in the ambit of a large textile industry, are also reported and discussed here in order to testify the potentialities of proposed approach.

  9. Planet Packing in Circumbinary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kratter, Kaitlin M

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of planets orbiting main sequence binaries will provide crucial constraints for theories of binary and planet formation. The formation pathway for these planets is complicated by uncertainties in the formation mechanism of the host stars. In this paper, we compare the dynamical states of single and binary star planetary systems. Specifically, we pose two questions: (1) What does it mean for a circumbinary system to be dynamically packed? (2) How many systems are required to differentiate between a population of packed or sparse planets? We determine when circumbinary systems become dynamically unstable as a function of the separation between the host-stars and the inner planet, and the first and second planets. We show that these represent unique stability constraints compared to single-star systems. We find that although the existing Kepler data is insufficient to distinguish between a population of packed or sparse circumbinary systems, a more thorough study of circumbinary TTVs combine...

  10. New series of paper pack vending machines; Paper pack jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umino, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper presents series of paper pack vending machines. These machines may be broadly classified into those of cold drinks and of hot and cold drinks depending on the storage temperature of products. The former is the machine for cooling dairy products at 10{degree}C with a combined stacking by direct-stacked racks and chain-multiracks. The latter is provided with divided storing chambers with each chamber selectively cooled or heated. Products in the hot chamber are canned coffee and the like set at 55{degree}C. The temperature control is performed by a microcomputer. The chain-multiracks are provided with advantages such as capability of handling various kinds of container shapes, storing drinks and foods vertically, replacing products by the change of a shelf attachment with one operation, and storing one liter packs by setting pair columns. The direct-stacked racks are provided with advantages such as versatility of handling various kinds of containers and miniaturization of the mechanism other than the storage part. The installation space was reduced by devising the opening and closing of the door. The control part is capable of setting temperatures differently for cans and paper packs. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  12. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  13. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  14. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  15. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic...

  16. Fermentative hydrogen production in packed-bed and packing-free upflow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, T; Fang, H H P

    2006-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from a synthetic wastewater containing 10 g/L of sucrose was studied in two upflow reactors at 26 degrees C for 400 days. One reactor was filled with packing rings (RP) and the other was packing free (RF). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 2 h to 24 h was investigated. Results showed that, under steady state, the hydrogen production rate significantly increased from 0.63 L/L/d to 5.35 L/L/d in the RF when HRT decreased from 24 h to 2 h; the corresponding rates were 0.56 L/L/d to 6.17 L/L/d for the RP. In the RF, the hydrogen yield increased from 0.96 mol/mol-sucrose at 24 h of HRT to the maximum of 1.10 mol/mol-sucrose at 8 h of HRT, and then decreased to 0.68 mol/mol-sucrose at 2 h. In the RP, the yield increased from 0.86 mol/mol-sucrose at 24 h of HRT to the maximum of 1.22 mol/mol-sucrose at 14 h of HRT, and then decreased to 0.78 mol/mol-sucrose at 2 h. Overall, the reactor with packing was more effective than the one free of packing. In both reactors, sludge agglutinated into granules. The microbial community of granular sludge in RP was investigated using 16S rDNA based techniques. The distribution of bacterial cells and extracellular polysaccharides in hydrogen-producing granules was investigated by fluorescence-based techniques. Results indicated that most of the N-acetyl-galactosamine/galactose-containing extracellular polysaccharides were distributed on the outer layer of the granules with a filamentous structure.

  17. 塑料表面载银微凝胶层层组装膜的制备及抗菌活性%Layer-by-layer Assembled Microgel Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Coatings on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王旭; 叶开其; 裘令瑛; 沈家骢

    2011-01-01

    以载银聚烯丙基胺盐酸盐-葡聚糖微凝胶与聚苯乙烯磺酸钠为构筑基元,利用层层组装技术制备了一种可直接沉积在疏水的塑料基底表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜.研究结果表明,该载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有很好的抗菌能力,并且其抗菌活性可以通过控制载银微凝胶膜的组装层数进行调控.这种沉积在塑料表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有良好的稳定性和基底黏附力,能够保障其长效抗菌性.%Antimicrobial coatings on hydrophobic plastic surfaces were directly fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of cross-linked poly( allylamine hydrochloride) and dextran microgels containing silver nanoparticles ( Ag@ PAH-D) with poly ( sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The as-prepared Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are effective in prohibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of the coatings can be easily controlled by tailoring the number of coating deposition cycles. The antimicrobial coatings of Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are stable and have satisfactory adhesion to the underlying plastic substrates,which guarantee the long-term application of the coatings.

  18. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  19. The influence of the stereochemistry of alanine residue on the solid state conformation and crystal packing of opioid peptides containing D-Ala or L-Ala in message domain--XRD and NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak-Karlikowska, Katarzyna; Bujacz, Anna; Ciesielski, Włodzimierz; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2011-08-18

    In this work, an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid state NMR study of two tetrapeptides with different stereochemistry of alanine residue is presented using Tyr-(D-Ala)-Phe-Gly (1), an N-terminal sequence of opioid peptide dermorphin, and its biologically inactive analog Tyr-(L-Ala)-Phe-Gly (2). Single-crystal XRD proved that 1 crystallized under different conditions from exclusively one structure: a monoclinic crystal with P2(1) space group. In contrast, 2 very easily formed at least three crystallographic modifications, 2a (monoclinic P2(1)), 2b (orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2) and 2c (tetragonal P4(1)2(1)2). Solid-state NMR spectroscopy was employed to investigate the structure and molecular dynamics of 1, 2a, and 2b. By employing different NMR experiments (dipolar dephasing and PILGRIM) and an analysis of the (13)C principal elements of the chemical shift tensor (CST), it was proven that the main skeleton of tetrapeptides is rigid, whereas significant differences in the molecular motion of the aromatic residues were observed. Comparing current data with those of previous studies (J. Phys. Chem. B2004, 108, 4535-4545 and Cryst. Growth Des. 2009, 9, 4050-4059), it can be assumed that an important preorganization mechanism anticipating the formation of peptide crystals containing D-Ala in sequence is the intramolecular CH-π interaction, which occurs for the amino acid with D stereochemistry. This effect may be responsible for the formation of only one crystallographic form of D-Ala peptides.

  20. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  1. Structured reactor packing and method of manufacturing same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bleek, C.M.; Calis, H.P.A.; Gerritsen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of manufacturing a catalyst element consisting of parallel rods of catalyst-containing material, which material has been provided around a rod-shaped support through pressing in a die. The invention further relates to structured catalyst packings consisting of elemen

  2. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  3. Coking technology using packed coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznichenko, V.M.; Shteinberg, Eh.A.; Tolstoi, A.P. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheskii Institut, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR))

    1991-08-01

    Discusses coking of packed coal charges in the FRG, USSR, France, India, Poland and Czechoslovakia. The following aspects are evaluated: types of weakly caking coals that are used as components of packed mixtures, energy consumption of packing, effects of coal mixture packing on coke oven design, number of coke ovens in a battery, heating temperature, coking time, coke properties, investment and operating cost. Statistical data that characterize the Saarberg packing process used in the FRG are analyzed. Packing coal mixtures for coking improves coke quality and reduces environmental pollution. 4 refs.

  4. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  5. Structural signature and contact force distributions in the simulated three-dimensional sphere packs subjected to uniaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Packing of spherical particles in a three-dimensional cylindrical container is simulated by using Discrete Element Method.The packed bed of spheres is also subjected to vertical compression which results in a dense compact.Microstructures of the packing during compaction are examined in detail in terms of the contact number,deviator fabric,and radial distribution function.Furthermore,contact force distributions are measured at different locations in the pack,i.e.the centre,the side wall,and the base(or bottom wall) of the container.The simulations show that random close packing(RCP) tends to exist in the centre of the pack,while ordered packing structures exist near the container’s walls.The uniaxial compression doesn’t seem to alter the packing structure in the pack centre remarkably,but to reduce the structural anisotropy of the packing close to the container’s base.The simulated results have also helped to establish the correlations between packing structures and contact force distributions.Further,it is shown that small contact force distributions are sensitive to local packing structures.The simulated results are shown to be consistent with the recent experimental and simulation findings.

  6. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed...

  7. Using a Flipped Spoon to Decrease Packing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Frese, Jana; Barnett, Lara

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of redistribution and swallow facilitation with a flipped spoon on packing in 2 children with a feeding disorder. For both participants, packing decreased when we implemented the flipped spoon treatment package. Mechanisms responsible for behavior change and areas of future research are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  8. A comparison of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts in the packed lunches of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Alisha R; Misyak, Sarah; Duffey, Kiyah J; Mann, Georgianna R; Davis, George C; Hosig, Kathy; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; McFerren, Mary M; Serrano, Elena L

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 40% of children bring a packed lunch to school. These lunches are not required to meet nutrition standards. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the nutritional quality of elementary packed lunches by the presence or absence of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), desserts, and fruits and vegetables (FVs). Observational data for prekindergarten and kindergarten packed lunches were collected from three schools in rural Virginia for 5 consecutive school days and analyzed for macro- and micronutrients and by the presence or absence of food and beverage items. Of the 561 packed lunch observations collected, 41.7% contained no FV, 41.2% contained an SSB, and 61.1% contained a dessert. The nutrient profile of packed lunches with at least one fruit or vegetable had significantly higher levels of carbohydrate, fiber, sugar, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Packed lunches containing an SSB had significantly higher levels of sugar and vitamin C and significantly lower levels of protein, fiber, vitamin A, calcium, and iron. Packed lunches containing a dessert had significantly higher levels of energy, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, vitamin C, and iron and significantly lower levels of vitamin A. Additional research is needed to fully understand parent and child motivations for packing lunches and the decision processes that influence the inclusion of food items. The development of packed lunch interventions, encouragement of National School Lunch Program participation, or enactment of school policies to increase the nutritional value of packed lunches is warranted.

  9. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics.

  10. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  11. Bin Completion Algorithms for Multicontainer Packing, Knapsack, and Covering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Fukunaga, A S; 10.1613/jair.2106

    2011-01-01

    Many combinatorial optimization problems such as the bin packing and multiple knapsack problems involve assigning a set of discrete objects to multiple containers. These problems can be used to model task and resource allocation problems in multi-agent systems and distributed systms, and can also be found as subproblems of scheduling problems. We propose bin completion, a branch-and-bound strategy for one-dimensional, multicontainer packing problems. Bin completion combines a bin-oriented search space with a powerful dominance criterion that enables us to prune much of the space. The performance of the basic bin completion framework can be enhanced by using a number of extensions, including nogood-based pruning techniques that allow further exploitation of the dominance criterion. Bin completion is applied to four problems: multiple knapsack, bin covering, min-cost covering, and bin packing. We show that our bin completion algorithms yield new, state-of-the-art results for the multiple knapsack, bin covering,...

  12. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  13. The progress in the study of Arctic pack ice ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑锋; 王桂忠; 蔡明红; 李少菁

    2004-01-01

    The sea ice community plays an important role in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Because of the predicted environmental changes in the Arctic environment and specifically related to sea ice, the Arctic pack ice biota has received more attention in recent years using modern ice-breaking research vessels. Studies show that the Arctic pack ice contains a diverse biota and besides ice algae, the bacterial and protozoan biomasses can be high. Surprisingly high primary production values were observed in the pack ice of the central Arctic Ocean. Occasionally biomass maximum were discovered in the interior of the ice floes, a habitat that had been ignored in most Arctic studies. Many scientific questions, which deserve special attention, remained unsolved due to logistic limitations and the sea ice characteristics. Little is know about the pack ice community in the central Arctic Ocean. Almost no data exists from the pack ice zone for the winter season. Concerning the abundance of bacteria and protozoa, more studies are needed to understand the microbial network within the ice and its role in material and energy flows. The response of the sea ice biota to global change will impact the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and a long-term monitoring program is needed. The techniques, that are applied to study the sea ice biota and the sea ice ecology, should be improved.

  14. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  15. Packing Superballs from Codes and Algebraic Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LIU; Chao Ping XING

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we make use of codes with good parameters and algebraic curves over finite fields with many rational points to construct dense packings of superballs. It turns out that our packing density is quite reasonable. In particular, we improve some values for the best-known lower bounds on packing density.

  16. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  17. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... package. The number of plums or prunes in California peach boxes or lug boxes shall not vary more than 4... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Standard Pack § 51.1527 Standard pack. (a) Packing. (1) All... plums or prunes in the top layer of any package shall be reasonably representative in quality and...

  18. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials sh

  19. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructur...... because building material is available at step sites. The strands on TiO2(110) represent point defects that are densely packed into ordered adstructures....

  20. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, it is assumed that each machine word can accommodate up to α characters, thus an n-character string occupies n/α memory words.(a) We extend the Crochemore–Perrin constant-space O(n)-time string-matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/α) time and even in real......-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...

  1. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c).

  2. Thermal Viscoelastic Analysis of Plastic Components Considering Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chel Woo; Jeoung, Kab Sik; Moon, Hyung-Il; Kim, Heon Young

    Plastics is commonly used in consumer electronics because of it is high strength per unit mass and good productivity, but plastic components may often become distorted after injection molding due to residual stress after the filling, packing, and cooling processes. In addition, plastic deteriorates depending on various temperature conditions and the operating time, which can be characterized by stress relaxation and creep. The viscoelastic behavior of plastic materials in the time domain can be expressed by the Prony series using the ABAQUS commercial software package. This paper suggests a process for predicting post-production deformation under cyclic thermal loading. The process was applied to real plastic panels, and the deformation predicted by the analysis was compared to that measured in actual testing, showing the possibility of using this process for predicting the post-production deformation of plastic products under thermal loading.

  3. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. Determination of dibutyl phthalate in plastic bucket containing bulk liquor%盛装散装白酒的塑料桶中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 李明元

    2012-01-01

    According to the survey that rural market to hold bulk liquor extensively use of plastic bucket. Hexane was used to extraction solvent,extract dibutyl phthalate(DBP) from the plastic buckets containing bulk liquor by ultrasound-assisted extraction as well as dibutyl phthalate quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Extraction time,material/liquid ratio and extraction temperature were investigated with single-factor test. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken experimental desigen was used for process optimization. The optimal extraction conditions determined were extraction time of 52min, material/liquid ratio of 1:40,extraction temperature of 49℃. Under these conditions,the extraction volume of DBP was up to 32.21mg/kg,which was consistent with the prediction value. In the scope of 0.5~50.0mg/L, dibutyl phthalate had good linear relationship(R2=0.9998),lowest detectable limit was 0.017mg/L. The relative standard deviation of standard experimental precision was 0.40%,the recovery of dibutyl phthalate was 99.68% and the relative standard deviation was 0.85% ,the result showed that this extract method was accurate and reliable. This provided the basic data for food safety and the risk assessment of plasticizer.%摘要:据调查,农村市场广泛使用塑料桶盛装散装白酒。以正己烷作为提取溶剂.采用超声波辅助提取盛装散装白酒的塑料桶中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP),高效液相(HPLC)测定其含量。以提取时间、料液比、提取温度进行单因素实验,采用响应曲面Box—Behnken设计分析方法对其最佳提取条件进行优化。结果表明.邻苯二甲酸二丁酯最佳的提取条件为:提取时间为52min、料液比为1:40、提取温度为49℃,在此条件下,DBP提取量为32.21mg/kg.与理论预测值基本吻合。在0.5~50.0mg/L范围内邻苯二甲酸二丁酯具有良好的线性关系(R2=0.9998

  6. Preparation and Application of a P-containing Polyglycerol Ester Fire-retardant Plasticizer%含磷型聚合甘油脂肪酸酯阻燃增塑剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国东; 胡云; 周永红; 刘朋; 马艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the flame retardancy of oil plasticizer and develop high value-added products using crude glycerin from by-product of diesel oil as starting materials, a novel P-containing soybean-oil-based fire-retardant plasticizer ( DOPO-EAPFAE) was synthesized using crude glycerin,oleic acid and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide ( DOPO) as raw material through polymerization,esterification,epoxidation and ring opening reaction. The structure was verified by Fourier transform infrared ( FT-IR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric behavior and flame retardant properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis,oxygen index test and vertical burning test. When the amount 60% of phthalic acid dioctyl ester ( DOP) was replaced by DOPO-EAPFAE in PVC blends,PVC blends still has good mechanical properties. The limiting oxygen index ( LOI) of the blends increased from 21. 3 to 28. 7,and flame retardant level reached V0 grade. This indicated that the product can effectively improve the flame retardancy of PVC blends. The plasticity and flammability of DOPO-EAPFAE was better than tris(chlorisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP). Comparing to small molecular flame retardant tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate( TCPP) ,flame retardant of DOPO-EAPFAE was not only superior to TCPP,but also exhibited better thermal stability.%为了提高油脂增塑剂的阻燃性,开发以生物柴油副产粗甘油为直接原料的高附加值产品,以粗甘油、油酸和9,10-二氢-9-氧杂-10-磷杂菲-10-氧化物(DOPO)为主原料,经聚合、酯化、环氧化和开环反应,合成含磷型大分子阻燃增塑剂DOPO-环氧乙酰化聚合甘油脂肪酸酯( DOPO-EAPFAE),并通过红外谱图( FT-IR)和核磁共振(1H NMR)确认了其结构。研究了DOPO-EAPFAE用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系力学性能的影响;通过对PVC样条的热重分析( TG)、极限氧指数( LOI)测定和垂直燃烧测试等,分析了PVC制品的

  7. Adhesive loose packings of small dry particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Baule, Adrian; Makse, Hernán A.

    We explore adhesive loose packings of dry small spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics. A dimensionless adhesion parameter ($Ad$) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for $Ad>1$. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes correlations between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) An equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appears as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram; (ii) The existence of a maximal loose packing point at the coordination number $Z=2$ and packing fraction $\\phi=1/2^{3}$. Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing, which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP.

  8. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  9. Optimizing packing fraction in granular media composed of overlapping spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Leah K; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2016-01-28

    What particle shape will generate the highest packing fraction when randomly poured into a container? In order to explore and navigate the enormous search space efficiently, we pair molecular dynamics simulations with artificial evolution. Arbitrary particle shape is represented by a set of overlapping spheres of varying diameter, enabling us to approximate smooth surfaces with a resolution proportional to the number of spheres included. We discover a family of planar triangular particles, whose packing fraction of ϕ ∼ 0.73 is among the highest experimental results for disordered packings of frictionless particles. We investigate how ϕ depends on the arrangement of spheres comprising an individual particle and on the smoothness of the surface. We validate the simulations with experiments using 3D-printed copies of the simplest member of the family, a planar particle consisting of three overlapping spheres with identical radius. Direct experimental comparison with 3D-printed aspherical ellipsoids demonstrates that the triangular particles pack exceedingly well not only in the limit of large system size but also when confined to small containers.

  10. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  11. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  12. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  13. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors contribute to the beneficial effects of hydrogen sulfide on cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Jian; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bin; Xu, Guo-Gang; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jin-Qiong; Tang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Ting; Wei, Bo

    2016-10-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of clinical dementia. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is implicated with the pathology of AD, and exogenous H2S attenuates spatial memory impairments in AD animal models. However, the molecular mechanism by which H2S improves cognition in AD has not been fully explored. Here, we report that chronic administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) elevated hippocampal H2S levels and enhanced hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and novel object recognition in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice. In parallel with these behavioral results, treating transgenic mice with NaHS reversed impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), which is deemed as the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. At the molecular level, we found that treatment with NaHS did not affect the expression of the GluN1 and GluN2A subunits of NMDA receptor (NMDAR), but did prevent the downregulation of GluN2B subunit and restored its synaptic abundance, response and downstream signaling in the hippocampus in transgenic mice. Moreover, applying Ro 25-6981, a specific GluN2B antagonist, abolished the beneficial effects of NaHS on cognitive performance and hippocampal LTP in transgenic mice. Collectively, our results indicate that H2S can reverse cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in AD model mice by restoring surface GluN2B expression and the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs.

  14. Characterization of maximally random jammed sphere packings: Voronoi correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Michael A; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    We characterize the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings by computing the Minkowski functionals (volume, surface area, and integrated mean curvature) of their associated Voronoi cells. The probability distribution functions of these functionals of Voronoi cells in MRJ sphere packings are qualitatively similar to those of an equilibrium hard-sphere liquid and partly even to the uncorrelated Poisson point process, implying that such local statistics are relatively structurally insensitive. This is not surprising because the Minkowski functionals of a single Voronoi cell incorporate only local information and are insensitive to global structural information. To improve upon this, we introduce descriptors that incorporate nonlocal information via the correlation functions of the Minkowski functionals of two cells at a given distance as well as certain cell-cell probability density functions. We evaluate these higher-order functions for our MRJ packings as well as equilibrium hard spheres and the Poisson point process. It is shown that these Minkowski correlation and density functions contain visibly more information than the corresponding standard pair-correlation functions. We find strong anticorrelations in the Voronoi volumes for the hyperuniform MRJ packings, consistent with previous findings for other pair correlations [A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090604 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.090604], indicating that large-scale volume fluctuations are suppressed by accompanying large Voronoi cells with small cells, and vice versa. In contrast to the aforementioned local Voronoi statistics, the correlation functions of the Voronoi cells qualitatively distinguish the structure of MRJ sphere packings (prototypical glasses) from that of not only the Poisson point process but also the correlated equilibrium hard-sphere liquids. Moreover, while we did not find any perfect icosahedra (the locally densest possible structure in which a

  15. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  16. The “Theoreticals” Pack

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Particle Zoo is a colourful set of hand-made soft toys representing the particles in the Standard Model and beyond. It includes a “theoreticals” pack where you can find yet undiscovered particles: the best-selling Higgs boson, the graviton, the tachyon, and dark matter. Supersymmetric particle soft toys are also available on demand. But what would happen to the zoo if Nature had prepared some unexpected surprises? Julie Peasley, the zookeeper, is ready to sew new smiling faces…   The "Theoreticals" pack in the Particle Zoo. There is only one place in the world where you can buy a smiling Higgs boson and it’s not at CERN, although this is where scientists hope to observe it. The blue star-shaped particle is the best seller of Julie Peasley’s Particle Zoo – a collection of tens of soft toys representing all sorts of particles, including composite and decaying particles.  Over the years Julie’s zoo ...

  17. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  18. Catherine Malabou’s Hegel: One or several plasticities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moder Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an original and extraordinarily fruitful reading of the Hegelian conception of negativity, Catherine Malabou developed the concept of plasticity which she keeps working on as one of her cardinal concepts even to this day. Engaging in the problematic of unity in Hegel, the paper takes on the task of trying to answer the question whether plasticity is one or are there several plasticities. The author argues that one must be careful not to reduce the inherent multiple of plasticity to a single plasticity which becomes plasticity par excellence: the plasticity of plastic explosion, of an abrupt and absolute break, to be distinguished from a creative or productive plasticity of habit. Malabou claimed that Hegel was - contrary to what Deleuz read in him - a philosopher of conceptual multitude as a multitude which cannot be reduced to only one image, the image of unity. If this is true, then the concept of plasticity itself with which she grasped the essence of Hegel’s dialectics, should be understood at least as a “unity in conflict”, if not as an inorganic, inhomogeneous, composed unity - and perhaps even as a unity of the pack.

  19. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....

  20. Protein packing quality using Delaunay complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Winter, Pawel; Karplus, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A new method for estimating the packing quality of protein structures is presented. Atoms in high quality protein crystal structures are very uniformly distributed which is difficult to reproduce using structure prediction methods. Packing quality measures can therefore be used to assess structures...... of low quality and even to refine them. Previous methods mainly use the Voronoi cells of atoms to assess packing quality. The presented method uses only the lengths of edges in the Delaunay complex which is faster to compute since volumes of Voronoi cells are not evaluated explicitly. This is a novel...... application of the Delaunay complex that can improve the speed of packing quality computations. Doing so is an important step for, e.g., integrating packing measures into structure refinement methods. High- and low-resolution X-ray crystal structures were chosen to represent well- and poorly-packed structures...

  1. Effect Of Consumption Of Commercially Packed Cow′s Milk On Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudhuri R N

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether consumption of commercially packed cow’s milk containing thiocyanate as a preservative, has any effect on thyroid function? Objective: To assess the effect of ingestion of thiocyanate through commercially packed cow’s milk on thyroid hormone homeostasis. Study Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Urban slum community of Calcutta. Participants: Randomly selected 30 teenage girls consuming commercially packed cow’s milk since childhood and ideally matched 30 control subjects consuming non-pack cow’s milk since childhood from an urban slum community of Calcutta. Results: Consumption of commercially packed cow’s milk was found to inhibit thyroxin synthesis.

  2. L1-norm packings from function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study some packings in a cube, namely, how to pack n points in a cube so as to maximize the minimal distance. The distance is induced by the L1-norm which is analogous to the Hamming distance in coding theory. Two constructions with reasonable parameters are obtained, by using some results from a function field including divisor class group, narrow ray class group, and so on. We also present some asymptotic results of the two packings.

  3. Circle Packing for Origami Design Is Hard

    CERN Document Server

    Demaine, Erik D; Lang, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    We show that deciding whether a given set of circles can be packed into a rectangle, an equilateral triangle, or a unit square are NP-hard problems, settling the complexity of these natural packing problems. On the positive side, we show that any set of circles of total area 1 can be packed into a square of size 8/pi=2.546... These results are motivated by problems arising in the context of origami design.

  4. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While it is not possible to generalize consumer behaviour across cultures, external cues taken from pack size may affect us all. We thus examined whether pack sizes influence portion size estimates across cultures, leading to a general 'pack size effect'. We compared portion size estimates based on digital presentations of different product pack sizes of solid and liquid products. The study with 13,177 participants across six European countries consisted of three parts. Parts 1 and 2 asked participants to indicate the number of portions present in a combined photographic and text-based description of different pack sizes. The estimated portion size was calculated as the quotient of the content weight or volume of the food presented and the number of stated portions. In Part 3, participants stated the number of food items that make up a portion when presented with packs of food containing either a small or a large number of items. The estimated portion size was calculated as the item weight times the item number. For all three parts and across all countries, we found that participants' portion estimates were based on larger portions for larger packs compared to smaller packs (Part 1 and 2) as well as more items to make up a portion (Part 3); hence, portions were stated to be larger in all cases. Considering that the larger estimated portions are likely to be consumed, there are implications for energy intake and weight status.

  5. Random close packing of polydisperse jammed emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujic, Jasna

    2010-03-01

    Packing problems are everywhere, ranging from oil extraction through porous rocks to grain storage in silos and the compaction of pharmaceutical powders into tablets. At a given density, particulate systems pack into a mechanically stable and amorphous jammed state. Theoretical frameworks have proposed a connection between this jammed state and the glass transition, a thermodynamics of jamming, as well as geometric modeling of random packings. Nevertheless, a simple underlying mechanism for the random assembly of athermal particles, analogous to crystalline ordering, remains unknown. Here we use 3D measurements of polydisperse packings of emulsion droplets to build a simple statistical model in which the complexity of the global packing is distilled into a local stochastic process. From the perspective of a single particle the packing problem is reduced to the random formation of nearest neighbors, followed by a choice of contacts among them. The two key parameters in the model, the available space around a particle and the ratio of contacts to neighbors, are directly obtained from experiments. Remarkably, we demonstrate that this ``granocentric'' view captures the properties of the polydisperse emulsion packing, ranging from the microscopic distributions of nearest neighbors and contacts to local density fluctuations and all the way to the global packing density. Further applications to monodisperse and bidisperse systems quantitatively agree with previously measured trends in global density. This model therefore reveals a general principle of organization for random packing and lays the foundations for a theory of jammed matter.

  6. Random packing of spheres in Menger sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Barbasz, Jakub

    2013-06-07

    Random packing of spheres inside fractal collectors of dimension 2 algorithm. The paper focuses mainly on the measurement of random packing saturation limit. Additionally, scaling properties of density autocorrelations in the obtained packing are analyzed. The RSA kinetics coefficients are also measured. Obtained results allow to test phenomenological relation between random packing saturation density and collector dimension. Additionally, performed simulations together with previously obtained results confirm that, in general, the known dimensional relations are obeyed by systems having non-integer dimension, at least for d < 3.

  7. Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.

  8. Minimally packed phases in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2015-01-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of $D=4$ Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to $d=3$ CFTs held at constant chemical potential and magnetic field that spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  9. AFPTAS results for common variants of bin packing: A new method to handle the small items

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Leah

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known natural variants of bin packing, and show that these packing problems admit asymptotic fully polynomial time approximation schemes (AFPTAS). In bin packing problems, a set of one-dimensional items of size at most 1 is to be assigned (packed) to subsets of sum at most 1 (bins). It has been known for a while that the most basic problem admits an AFPTAS. In this paper, we develop methods that allow to extend this result to other variants of bin packing. Specifically, the problems which we study in this paper, for which we design asymptotic fully polynomial time approximation schemes, are the following. The first problem is "Bin packing with cardinality constraints", where a parameter k is given, such that a bin may contain up to k items. The goal is to minimize the number of bins used. The second problem is "Bin packing with rejection", where every item has a rejection penalty associated with it. An item needs to be either packed to a bin or rejected, and the goal is to minimize the nu...

  10. The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2013-09-01

    To use tobacco industry documents on cigarette pack shape, size and openings to identify industry findings on associations with brand imagery, product attributes, consumer perceptions and behaviour. Internal tobacco industry research and marketing documents obtained through court disclosure contained in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library were searched using keywords related to pack shapes, sizes and opening methods. The search identified 66 documents related to consumer research and marketing plans on pack shape, size and openings, drawn from 1973 to 2002. Industry research consistently found that packs that deviated from the traditional flip-top box projected impressions of 'modern', 'elegant' and 'unique' brand imagery. Alternative pack shape and openings were identified as an effective means to communicate product attributes, particularly with regard to premium quality and smooth taste. Consumer studies consistently found that pack shape, size and opening style influenced perceptions of reduced product harm, and were often used to communicate a 'lighter' product. Slim, rounded, oval and booklet packs were found to be particularly appealing among young adults, and several studies demonstrated increased purchase interest for tobacco products presented in novel packaging shape or opening. Evidence from consumer tracking reports and company presentations indicate that pack innovations in shape or opening method increased market share of brands. Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and increase cigarette sales. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web.

  12. Confined disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Torquato, S.

    2015-12-01

    Disordered jammed packings under confinement have received considerably less attention than their bulk counterparts and yet arise in a variety of practical situations. In this work, we study binary sphere packings that are confined between two parallel hard planes and generalize the Torquato-Jiao (TJ) sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302] to obtain putative maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings that are exactly isostatic with high fidelity over a large range of plane separation distances H , small to large sphere radius ratio α , and small sphere relative concentration x . We find that packing characteristics can be substantially different from their bulk analogs, which is due to what we term "confinement frustration." Rattlers in confined packings are generally more prevalent than those in their bulk counterparts. We observe that packing fraction, rattler fraction, and degree of disorder of MRJ packings generally increase with H , though exceptions exist. Discontinuities in the packing characteristics as H varies in the vicinity of certain values of H are due to associated discontinuous transitions between different jammed states. When the plane separation distance is on the order of two large-sphere diameters or less, the packings exhibit salient two-dimensional features; when the plane separation distance exceeds about 30 large-sphere diameters, the packings approach three-dimensional bulk packings. As the size contrast increases (as α decreases), the rattler fraction dramatically increases due to what we call "size-disparity" frustration. We find that at intermediate α and when x is about 0.5 (50-50 mixture), the disorder of packings is maximized, as measured by an order metric ψ that is based on the number density fluctuations in the direction perpendicular to the hard walls. We also apply the local volume-fraction variance στ2(R ) to characterize confined packings and find that these

  13. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  14. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  15. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate. PMID:23967057

  16. Particle-size distribution and packing fraction of geometric random packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric random packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles. It is demonstrated that the bimodal packing can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the power law type. It follows that a maximum packing fraction of particles is obtained when t

  17. HEMA/MMA/EDMA packing material evaluation for size exclusion chromatography (SEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Duarte Vianna-Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available HEMA/MMA/EDMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol methacrylate copolymer beads have been synthesized for use in aqueous SEC. This porous chromatographic support consisted of a large average particle size (250 µm and contained macropores with a median pore size of approximately 880 Å. The material was packed in glass and stainless columns to assess their chromatographic performance. The packed columns were calibrated using narrow molecular weight (MW distribution standards (dextran and exhibited a range of molecular weight separation between 40,000 and 2,000,000 daltons. The packing material showed the ability to separate large molecules through the size exclusion mechanism.

  18. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  19. HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED C-60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan; van Smaalen, Sander; Petricek, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal P.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Meijer, G.

    1994-01-01

    C60 crystals were grown from purified powder material with a multiple sublimation technique. In addition to crystals wit a cubic close-packed (ccp) arrangement, crystals were found with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. Detailed crystallographic evidence is given, including complete refineme

  20. On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Recht

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.

  1. BIPP (BISMUTH IODINE PARAFFINE PASTE PACK REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article takes a new look at the use of BIPP pack following nasal and ear surgeries. It lists the advantages and pitfalls of using this packing material. Pubmed search revealed very little material on this topic hence I compiled existing data to bring out an article.

  2. Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    to structurally stable vector fields, there is an underlying dynamically defined triangulation of the plane. Circle packings are a means to realize such a given combinatorial structure. About 20 years ago, W. Thurston suggested applying circle packings to obtain approximations to Riemann mappings. This gave rise...

  3. Improved lower bound for online strip packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In the two-dimensional strip packing problem a number of rectangles have to be packed without rotation or overlap into a strip such that the height of the strip used is minimal. The width of the rectangles is bounded by 1 and the strip has width 1 and infinite height. We study the online version of

  4. 7 CFR 29.1048 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.1048 Section 29.1048 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1048 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6031 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.6031 Section 29.6031 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6031 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3538 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.3538 Section 29.3538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3538 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as...

  7. Difference packing arrays and systematic authentication codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a type of combinatorial design (called difference packing array)is proposed and used to give a construction of systematic authentication codes. Taking advantage of this construction, some new series of systematic authentication codes are obtainable in terms of existing difference packing arrays.

  8. 7 CFR 29.2541 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.2541 Section 29.2541 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2541 Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3048 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.3048 Section 29.3048 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as one definite unit for...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2289 - Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing. 29.2289 Section 29.2289 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Packing. A lot of tobacco consisting of a number of packages submitted as one definite unit for...

  11. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  12. Pack formation in cycling and orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, G J; Butler, D

    2001-09-13

    In cycling and orienteering competitions, competitors can become bunched into packs, which may mask an individual's true ability. Here we model this process with a view to determining when competitors' times are determined more by others than by their own ability. Our results may prove useful in helping to stage events so that pack formation can be avoided.

  13. Monitoring three-dimensional packings in microgravity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Peidong; Frank-Richter, Stefan; Börngen, Alexander; Sperl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We present results from experiments with granular packings in three dimensions in microgravity as realized on parabolic flights. Two different techniques are employed to monitor the inside of the packings during compaction: (1) X-ray radiography is used to measure in transmission the integrated fluc

  14. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  15. Cluster and constraint analysis in tetrahedron packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiwei; Lu, Peng; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2015-04-01

    The disordered packings of tetrahedra often show no obvious macroscopic orientational or positional order for a wide range of packing densities, and it has been found that the local order in particle clusters is the main order form of tetrahedron packings. Therefore, a cluster analysis is carried out to investigate the local structures and properties of tetrahedron packings in this work. We obtain a cluster distribution of differently sized clusters, and peaks are observed at two special clusters, i.e., dimer and wagon wheel. We then calculate the amounts of dimers and wagon wheels, which are observed to have linear or approximate linear correlations with packing density. Following our previous work, the amount of particles participating in dimers is used as an order metric to evaluate the order degree of the hierarchical packing structure of tetrahedra, and an order map is consequently depicted. Furthermore, a constraint analysis is performed to determine the isostatic or hyperstatic region in the order map. We employ a Monte Carlo algorithm to test jamming and then suggest a new maximally random jammed packing of hard tetrahedra from the order map with a packing density of 0.6337.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be ring faced and tightly packed with sufficient bulge to prevent any appreciable movement of the... the box. (d) Peaches packed in other type boxes such as wire-bound boxes and fiber-board boxes may be... than 10 percent of the packages in any lot may not meet these requirements. (i) “Well filled”...

  17. Development of a Specialized Pack for Shipping Water Specimens in Glass Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    AD-R120 514 DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPPING WATER ji’j SPECIMENS IN GLASS BOTTLES (U) AIR FORCE PACKAGING EVALUATION AGENCY WRIGHT...787-4519 immi Commercial (513) 257-4234 DIVIUCINT (W A SPICIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPING MATh SPECIMUS IN GLASS BOTTLS • S I) Air Force Packaging...breakage, during shipment, of glass bottles filled with water specimens. A prototype of the specialized container, employing the proposed Poly-Foam

  18. Pack of Applied Programs for Complex Analysis of Thermo-Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zditovetskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a pack of applied programs intended for conjugate calculation of cycle parameters with heat exchangers of thermo-compressor loop and a calculation of irreversible losses in the loop binding including non-stationary operational  mode is added to the pack.The paper contains investigations of thermo-compressor operation in the system of forced and exhaust ventilation for reduction of heat consumption by a heater in the cold season of the year

  19. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  20. He II heat transfer through random packed spheres: Pressure drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, M. H.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2014-09-01

    Heat flow induced pressure drop through superfluid helium (He II) contained in porous media is examined. In this experiment, heat was applied to one side of a He II column containing a random pack of uniform size polyethylene spheres. Measured results include steady state pressure drops across the random packs of spheres (nominally 35 μm, 49 μm, and 98 μm diameter) for different heat inputs. Laminar, turbulent, and transition fluid flow regimes are examined. The laminar permeability and equivalent channel shape factor are compared to our past studies of the temperature drop through He II in the same porous media of packed spheres. Results from the pressure drop experiments are more accurate than temperature drop experiments due to reduced measurement errors achieved with the pressure transducer. Turbulent results are fitted to models with empirically derived friction factors. A turbulent model considering only dynamic pressure losses in the normal fluid yields the most consistent friction factors. The addition of the laminar and turbulent heat flow equations into a unifying prediction fits all regimes to within 10%.

  1. Integrating packing and distribution problems and optimization through mathematical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the integration of two combinatorial problems that frequently arise in production and distribution systems. One is the Bin Packing Problem (BPP problem, which involves finding an ordering of some objects of different volumes to be packed into the minimal number of containers of the same or different size. An optimal solution to this NP-Hard problem can be approximated by means of meta-heuristic methods. On the other hand, we consider the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW, which is a variant of the Travelling Salesman Problem (again a NP-Hard problem with extra constraints. Here we model those two problems in a single framework and use an evolutionary meta-heuristics to solve them jointly. Furthermore, we use data from a real world company as a test-bed for the method introduced here.

  2. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  3. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  4. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  5. A method for dense packing discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kallus, Yoav; Gravel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting de novo (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the divide and concur framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and ...

  6. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  7. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  8. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  9. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  10. Crack nucleation using combined crystal plasticity modelling, high-resolution digital image correlation and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a superalloy containing non-metallic inclusions under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Jiang, Jun; Britton, Ben; Shollock, Barbara; Dunne, Fionn

    2016-05-01

    A crystal plasticity finite-element model, which explicitly and directly represents the complex microstructures of a non-metallic agglomerate inclusion within polycrystal nickel alloy, has been developed to study the mechanistic basis of fatigue crack nucleation. The methodology is to use the crystal plasticity model in conjunction with direct measurement at the microscale using high (angular) resolution-electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) and high (spatial) resolution-digital image correlation (HR-DIC) strain measurement techniques. Experimentally, this sample has been subjected to heat treatment leading to the establishment of residual (elastic) strains local to the agglomerate and subsequently loaded under conditions of low cyclic fatigue. The full thermal and mechanical loading history was reproduced within the model. HR-EBSD and HR-DIC elastic and total strain measurements demonstrate qualitative and quantitative agreement with crystal plasticity results. Crack nucleation by interfacial decohesion at the nickel matrix/agglomerate inclusion boundaries is observed experimentally, and systematic modelling studies enable the mechanistic basis of the nucleation to be established. A number of fatigue crack nucleation indicators are also assessed against the experimental results. Decohesion was found to be driven by interface tensile normal stress alone, and the interfacial strength was determined to be in the range of 1270-1480 MPa.

  11. The theory of granular packings for fine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqui, Calixtro

    2017-06-01

    Fine soils are substances made of tiny particles, for which, besides their geometrical assemblage, the electrochemical forces are important. But the broad experience in Soil Mechanics has shown that, excluding the time, they behave like granular materials. By using the scanning electron microscopy, it has been shown by several authors that clay assemblages are structures of the second order, made of solid particles grouped in clusters. Applying the theory of packings of spheres in contact to the intra-cluster structure as well as to the entire mass of soil, a fundamental equation is obtained. The plastic limit is found to be a constant for a geological formation, because it is obtained by eliminating the capillary water and transforming the clay mass into a first order structure. The liquid limit is a inherently property of the second order, due to the development of clusters. Consequently, there is a linear relationship between the plasticity index and the liquid limit, with a slope of unity, as can be deduced from the abundant data reported by several authors around the world.

  12. The theory of granular packings for fine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqui Calixtro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine soils are substances made of tiny particles, for which, besides their geometrical assemblage, the electrochemical forces are important. But the broad experience in Soil Mechanics has shown that, excluding the time, they behave like granular materials. By using the scanning electron microscopy, it has been shown by several authors that clay assemblages are structures of the second order, made of solid particles grouped in clusters. Applying the theory of packings of spheres in contact to the intra-cluster structure as well as to the entire mass of soil, a fundamental equation is obtained. The plastic limit is found to be a constant for a geological formation, because it is obtained by eliminating the capillary water and transforming the clay mass into a first order structure. The liquid limit is a inherently property of the second order, due to the development of clusters. Consequently, there is a linear relationship between the plasticity index and the liquid limit, with a slope of unity, as can be deduced from the abundant data reported by several authors around the world.

  13. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  14. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Granby, Kit; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic......,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile...... flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling....

  15. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  16. Crystal packing effects on protein loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Chaya S; Pollack, Rena M

    2005-07-01

    The effects of crystal packing on protein loop structures are examined by (1) a comparison of loops in proteins that have been crystallized in alternate packing arrangements, and (2) theoretical prediction of loops both with and without the inclusion of the crystal environment. Results show that in a minority of cases, loop geometries are dependent on crystal packing effects. Explicit representation of the crystal environment in a loop prediction algorithm can be used to model these effects and to reconstruct the structures, and relative energies, of a loop in alternative packing environments. By comparing prediction results with and without the inclusion of the crystal environment, the loop prediction algorithm can further be used to identify cases in which a crystal structure does not represent the most stable state of a loop in solution. We anticipate that this capability has implications for structural biology.

  17. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    DPPE monolayer and does not distort the hexagonal in-plane unit cell or out-of-plane two-dimensional (2-D) packing compared with a pure DPPE monolayer. The oligosaccharide headgroups were found to extend normally from the monolayer surface, and the incorporation of these glycolipids into DPPE...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...... polymer groups. Indeed, the lack of packing disruptions by the oligosaccharide groups indicates that protein-GM, interactions, including binding, insertion, chain fluidization, and domain formation (lipid rafts), can be studied in 2-D monolayers using scattering techniques....

  18. Geometrical families of mechanically stable granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo-Jie; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2009-12-01

    We enumerate and classify nearly all of the possible mechanically stable (MS) packings of bidipserse mixtures of frictionless disks in small sheared systems. We find that MS packings form continuous geometrical families, where each family is defined by its particular network of particle contacts. We also monitor the dynamics of MS packings along geometrical families by applying quasistatic simple shear strain at zero pressure. For small numbers of particles (N16 , we observe an increase in the period and random splittings of the trajectories caused by bifurcations in configuration space. We argue that the ratio of the splitting and contraction rates in large systems will determine the distribution of MS-packing geometrical families visited in steady state. This work is part of our long-term research program to develop a master-equation formalism to describe macroscopic slowly driven granular systems in terms of collections of small subsystems.

  19. Electroosmotic Driving Liquid Using Nanosilica Packed Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xin CHEN; Guo An LUO; Tao WEN

    2005-01-01

    The electroosmotic pump (EOP) using nanosilica particles packed-bed column was experimentally studied. The relationship between flowrate, pressure and applied voltage of the pump, and pressure-flowrate (P-Q) characteristic were investigated.

  20. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  1. Liner surface improvements for low friction piston ring packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderberg, C.; Dimkovski, Z.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engine components in the automotive industry is governed by several constraints such as environmental legislation and customer expectations. About a half of the frictional losses in an internal combustion engine come from the interactions between the piston assembly and cylinder liner surface. The tribological considerations in the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes have been, and are being, developed with the aim to reduce friction losses and oil consumption, but the effects of the surface finish on piston ring pack performance is not well understood. One way of reducing friction in the cylinder system is to reduce the tangential load from the piston ring pack, focusing on the oil control ring. However, the side-effect of this is a disappointingly increased oil consumption. In this study a number of different cylinder liner surface specifications were developed and implemented in test engines with the aim of maintaining the level for oil consumption when decreasing the tangential load for the piston ring pack. To improve our understanding of the result, the same surfaces were evaluated in elastic and elasto-plastic rough contact and hydrodynamic flow simulation models. It is shown that oil consumption is strongly related to surface texture on the cylinder liners and at lower speeds (900-1200 rpm), a ‘rougher surface’ with a high core (e.g. Sk) and valley roughness (e.g. Svk) results in higher oil consumption. At the medium speed range (1200-3600 rpm), oil consumption continues to dominate for the ‘rough’ surfaces but with a visible influence of a lower oil consumption for a decreased roughness within the ‘rough’ surface group. ‘Smooth’ surfaces with a ‘smooth’ core (Sk), irrespective of the valley component (Svk), show similar oil consumption. For engine speeds above 3600 rpms, an increase in plateau

  2. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  3. Phyllotaxis, disk packing, and Fibonacci numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, A.; Weaire, D.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the evolution of the packing of disks (representing the position of buds) that are introduced at the top of a surface which has the form of a growing stem. They migrate downwards, while conforming to three principles, applied locally: dense packing, homogeneity, and continuity. We show that spiral structures characterized by the widely observed Fibonacci sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...), as well as related structures, occur naturally under such rules. Typical results are presented in an animation.

  4. Hexagonal packing of Drosophila wing epithelial cells by the planar cell polarity pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Anne-Kathrin; Anderson, Kurt I; Marois, Eric; Eaton, Suzanne

    2005-12-01

    The mechanisms that order cellular packing geometry are critical for the functioning of many tissues, but they are poorly understood. Here, we investigate this problem in the developing wing of Drosophila. The surface of the wing is decorated by hexagonally packed hairs that are uniformly oriented by the planar cell polarity pathway. They are constructed by a hexagonal array of wing epithelial cells. Wing epithelial cells are irregularly arranged throughout most of development, but they become hexagonally packed shortly before hair formation. During the process, individual cell boundaries grow and shrink, resulting in local neighbor exchanges, and Cadherin is actively endocytosed and recycled through Rab11 endosomes. Hexagonal packing depends on the activity of the planar cell polarity proteins. We propose that these proteins polarize trafficking of Cadherin-containing exocyst vesicles during junction remodeling. This may be a common mechanism for the action of planar cell polarity proteins in diverse systems.

  5. Packing fraction of particles with a Weibull size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the void fraction of polydisperse particles with a Weibull (or Rosin-Rammler) size distribution. It is demonstrated that the governing parameters of this distribution can be uniquely related to those of the lognormal distribution. Hence, an existing closed-form expression that predicts the void fraction of particles with a lognormal size distribution can be transformed into an expression for Weibull distributions. Both expressions contain the contraction coefficient β. Likewise the monosized void fraction φ1, it is a physical parameter which depends on the particles' shape and their state of compaction only. Based on a consideration of the scaled binary void contraction, a linear relation for (1 - φ1)β as function of φ1 is proposed, with proportionality constant B, depending on the state of compaction only. This is validated using computational and experimental packing data concerning random close and random loose packing arrangements. Finally, using this β, the closed-form analytical expression governing the void fraction of Weibull distributions is thoroughly compared with empirical data reported in the literature, and good agreement is found. Furthermore, the present analysis yields an algebraic equation relating the void fraction of monosized particles at different compaction states. This expression appears to be in good agreement with a broad collection of random close and random loose packing data.

  6. Formation and liquid permeability of dense colloidal cube packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonja I. R.; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M. E.; Philipse, Albert P.

    2015-02-01

    The liquid permeability of dense random packings of cubic colloids with rounded corners is studied for solid hematite cubes and hollow microporous silica cubes. The permeabilities of these two types of packings are similar, confirming that the micropores in the silica shell of the hollow cubes do not contribute to the permeability. From the Brinkman screening length √{k } of ˜16 nm, we infer that the relevant pores are indeed intercube pores. Furthermore, we relate the permeability to the volume fraction and specific solid volume of the cubes using the Kozeny-Carman relation. The Kozeny-Carman relation contains a constant that accounts for the topology and size distribution of the pores in the medium. The constant obtained from our study with aspherical particles is of the same order of magnitude as those from studies with spherical and ellipsoidal particles, which supports the notion that the Kozeny-Carman relation is applicable for any dense particle packing with (statistically) isotropic microstructures, irrespective of the particle shape.

  7. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  8. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  9. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  10. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Razavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty.   Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours.   Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control. Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly.   Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure.

  11. Patchy particle packing under electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengcheng; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Yu; Hollingsworth, Andrew D; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J; Ward, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal particles equipped with two, three, or four negatively charged patches, which endow the particles with 2-fold, 3-fold, or tetrahedral symmetries, form 1D chains, 2D layers, and 3D packings when polarized by an AC electric field. Two-patch particles, with two patches on opposite sides of the particle (2-fold symmetry) pack into the cmm plane group and 3D packings with I4mm space group symmetry, in contrast to uncharged spherical or ellipsoidal colloids that typically crystallize into a face-centered ABC layer packing. Three-patch particles (3-fold symmetry) form chains having a 21 screw axis symmetry, but these chains pair in a manner such that each individual chain has one-fold symmetry but the pair has 21 screw axis symmetry, in an arrangement that aligns the patches that would favor Coulombic interactions along the chain. Surprisingly, some chain pairs form unanticipated double-helix regions that result from mutual twisting of the chains about each other, illustrating a kind of polymorphism that may be associated with nucleation from short chain pairs. Larger 2D domains of the three-patch particles crystallize in the p6m plane group with alignment (with respect to the field) and packing densities that suggest random disorder in the domains, whereas four-patch particles form 2D domains in which close-packed rows are aligned with the field.

  12. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  13. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  14. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10 to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangled on the trees and shrubs create nuisance. During rainy season, the blockage of drains and overflowing of water was observed in some areas of the city. During study period, out of 711 rumenotomies done, in 111 (15.61% and 600 (84.39% animals, emergency rumenotomy and elective rumenotomy was performed, respectively. The quantity of the foreign bodies (FB’s collected from the rumen was ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 kg in 28 animals (3.94%; 2.0 to 5.0 kg in 116 animals (16.32%; 5.0 to 9.0 kg in 217 animals (30.52% and above 9.0 kg in 350 animals (49.23%. Due to absence of plastic recycling unit in the Gondar city or in nearby areas, there is no practice of collecting and selling these products to junk dealers. Use of reusable bags made of cloths, jute and other natural fibers must be encouraged. In order to save the life of animals, residents should not pack and throw the food items in plastic bags. The cattle owners may be advised not to allow their cattle to freely wander in streets especially in the cities. They should see that the grazing lands are not polluted with the polythene and other wastes. Awareness may be created on careless disposal of plastic bags and as well as the periodical cleaning of these wastes in the grazing area.

  15. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  16. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  17. 48 CFR 1846.672-6 - Packing list instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Packing list instructions... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.672-6 Packing list instructions. Copies of the MIRR may be used as a packing list. The packing list copies shall...

  18. 46 CFR 160.043-6 - Marking and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and packing. 160.043-6 Section 160.043-6... Marking and packing. (a) General. Jackknives specified by this subpart shall be stamped or otherwise... opener. (c) Packing. Each jackknife, complete with lanyard attached, shall be packed in a heat-sealed...

  19. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...... to the polymer part was mainly influenced by packing pressure level and distance from the gate....

  20. Quasistatic packings of droplets in flat microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-02-01

    As observed in recent experiments, monodisperse droplets self-assemble spontaneously in different ordered packings. In this work, we present a numerical study of the droplet packings in the flat rectangular microfluidic channels. Employing the boundary element method, we numerically solve the Stokes equation in two-dimension and investigate the appearance of droplet packing and transition between one and two-row packings of monodisperse emulsion droplets. By calculating packing force applied on the droplet interface, we investigate the effect of flow rate, droplet size, and surface tension on the packing configurations of droplets and transition between different topological packings.

  1. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  2. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  3. Close packing density of polydisperse hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Robert S; Groot, Robert D

    2009-12-28

    The most efficient way to pack equally sized spheres isotropically in three dimensions is known as the random close packed state, which provides a starting point for many approximations in physics and engineering. However, the particle size distribution of a real granular material is never monodisperse. Here we present a simple but accurate approximation for the random close packing density of hard spheres of any size distribution based upon a mapping onto a one-dimensional problem. To test this theory we performed extensive simulations for mixtures of elastic spheres with hydrodynamic friction. The simulations show a general (but weak) dependence of the final (essentially hard sphere) packing density on fluid viscosity and on particle size but this can be eliminated by choosing a specific relation between mass and particle size, making the random close packed volume fraction well defined. Our theory agrees well with the simulations for bidisperse, tridisperse, and log-normal distributions and correctly reproduces the exact limits for large size ratios.

  4. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefor...

  5. Deterioration of organic packing materials commonly used in air biofiltration: effect of VOC-packing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The abiotic deterioration of three conventional organic packing materials used in biofiltration (compost, wood bark and Macadamia nutshells) caused by their interaction with toluene (used as a model volatile organic compound) was here studied. The deterioration of the materials was evaluated in terms of structural damage, release of co-substrates and increase of the packing biodegradability. After 21 days of exposure to toluene, all packing materials released co-substrates able to support microbial growth, which were not released by the control materials not exposed to toluene. Likewise, the exposure to toluene increased the packing material biodegradability by 26% in wood bark, 20% in compost and 17% in Macadamia nutshells. Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the deterioration in the structure of the packing materials evaluated due to the exposure to toluene, Macadamia nutshells being the material with the highest resistance to volatile organic compound attack.

  6. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  7. Pack Aluminide Coatings Formed at 650 ℃ for Enhancing Oxidation Resistance of Low Alloy Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. D. Xiang; S. R. Rose; P. K. Datta

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility of forming iron aluminide coatings on a commercial 9Cr-lMo (wt.%)alloy steel by pack cementation at 650 ℃ in an attempt to improve its high temperature oxidation resistance. Pack powders containing Al, Al2O3 and a series of halide salts were used to carry out the coating deposition experiments, which enabled identification of the most suitable activator for the pack aluminising process at the intended temperature. The effect of pack aluminium content on the growth kinetics and microstructure of the coatings was then studied by keeping deposition conditions and pack activator content constant while increasing the pack aluminium content from 1.4 wt.% to 6 wt.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to analyse the phases and microstructures of the coatings formed and to determine depth profiles of coating elements in the coating layer. Oxidation resistance of the coating was studied at 650 ℃ in air by intermittent weight measurement at room temperature. It was observed that the coating could substantially enhance the oxidation resistance of the steel under these testing conditions, which was attributed to the capability of the iron aluminide phases to form alumina scale on the coating surface through preferential Al oxidation.

  8. Pack Aluminide Coatings Formed at 650℃ for Enhancing Oxidation Resistance of Low Alloy Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.D.Xiang; S.R.Rose; P.K.Datta

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility of forming iron aluminide coatings on a commercial 9Cr-1Mo (wt.%) alloy steel by pack cementation at 650℃ in an attempt to improve its high temperature oxidation resistance. Pack powders containing Al, Al2O3 and a series of halide salts were used to carry out the coating deposition experiments, which enabled identification of the most suitable activator for the pack aluminising process at the intended temperature. The effect of pack aluminium content on the growth kinetics and microstructure of the coatings was then studied by keeping deposition conditions and pack activator content constant while increasing the pack aluminium content from 1.4 wt.% to 6 wt.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to analyse the phases and microstructures of the coatings formed and to determine depth profiles of coating elements in the coating layer. Oxidation resistance of the coating was studied at 650 ~C in air by intermittent weight measurement at room temperature. It was observed that the coating could substantially enhance the oxidation resistance of the steel under these testing conditions, which was attributed to the capability of the iron aluminide phases to form alumina scale on the coating surface through preferential A1 oxidation.

  9. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osiecki

    Full Text Available Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2 with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  10. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    . The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum......, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...... faeces (EPG) was estimated every fourth day until day 28 post set up (p.s.) by a concentration McMaster-method. Larval cultures were prepared on day 0, 12 and 28 p.s. and the larval yield determined. For C. oncophora, the EPG was significantly higher in vacuum packed samples after 28 days as compared...

  11. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  12. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  13. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  14. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  15. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  16. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-09-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  17. Generalized network improvement and packing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Holzhauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.

  18. Wolf Pack Algorithm for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf pack unites and cooperates closely to hunt for the prey in the Tibetan Plateau, which shows wonderful skills and amazing strategies. Inspired by their prey hunting behaviors and distribution mode, we abstracted three intelligent behaviors, scouting, calling, and besieging, and two intelligent rules, winner-take-all generation rule of lead wolf and stronger-survive renewing rule of wolf pack. Then we proposed a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, named wolf pack algorithm (WPA. Experiments are conducted on a suit of benchmark functions with different characteristics, unimodal/multimodal, separable/nonseparable, and the impact of several distance measurements and parameters on WPA is discussed. What is more, the compared simulation experiments with other five typical intelligent algorithms, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, artificial fish swarm algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm, and firefly algorithm, show that WPA has better convergence and robustness, especially for high-dimensional functions.

  19. Light scattering by a spherical particle with multiple densely packed inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xian-Ming; Wang Hai-Hua; Liu Wan-Qiang; Shen Ji

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates light scattering by a spherical water particle containing densely packed inclusions at a visible wavelength 0.55 μm by a combination of ray-tracing and Monte Carlo techniques. While the individual reflection and refraction events at the outer boundary of a sphere particle are considered by a ray-tracing program, the Monte Carlo routine simulates internal scattering processes. The main advantage of this method is that the shape of the particle can be arbitrary, and multiple scattering can be considered in the internal scattering processes. A dense-medium light-scattering theory based on the introduction of the static structure factor is used to calculate the phase function and asymmetry parameters for densely packed inclusions. Numerical results of the single scattering characteristics for a sphere containing multiple densely packed inclusions are given.

  20. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek S. Damal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bitumen roads. In large cities now a day‟s concrete roads are used because concrete roads are more durable, strengthen and having more life span than bitumen roads. Waste plastics and E-waste (electronic waste both by domestic and industrial sectors can be used in the production of asphalt mix. Waste plastic, mainly used for packing are made up of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. Electronic waste, abbreviated as e-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators; radios, etc are basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end of life. An experimental study is made on the utilization of E-waste particles as fine aggregates in concrete with a percentage replacement ranging from 0 % to 21.5% i.e. (7.5%, 15% and 21.5% on the strength criteria of M30 Concrete. Compressive strength Concrete with and without E- waste plastic as aggregates was observed which exhibits a good strength. The feasibility of utilizing E-waste plastic particles as partial replacement of fine aggregate has been presented. In the present study, compressive strength was investigated for Optimum Cement Content and 7.5% E-plastic content in mix yielded stability and very good in compressive strength of 43 grade cement.

  1. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing 6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum 6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing 6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of 6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts.

  2. DYNA3D analysis of the DT-20 shipping container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.W.; Lovejoy, S.C.

    1991-08-22

    A DYNA3D model of the DT-20 shipping container was constructed. Impact onto a rigid steel surface at a velocity of 44 ft/sec (30 foot gravity drop) was studied. The orientation of most interest was a side-drop, but end and corner drops were also studied briefly. The assembly for the baseline side impact contained a 150 lb. payload. During this drop, the outer drum sustains plastic strains of up to 0.15, with most the deformation near the rim. The plywood/Celotex packing is crushed about 3 inches. The inner sealed can sees significant stresses, but barely reaches the onset of yielding in some local areas. Based on hand calculations, the bolts joining the can halves could see stresses near 50 ksi. It is felt that overall, the container should survive this drop. However, detailed modeling of the rim closure and the center bolted joint was not possible due to time constraints. Furthermore, better material models and properties are needed for the Celotex, plywood, and honeycomb in particular. 39 figs., 1 tab.

  3. SPATIAL STATISTICS FOR SIMULATED PACKINGS OF SPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bezrukov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on spatial-statistical analyses for simulated random packings of spheres with random diameters. The simulation methods are the force-biased algorithm and the Jodrey-Tory sedimentation algorithm. The sphere diameters are taken as constant or following a bimodal or lognormal distribution. Standard characteristics of spatial statistics are used to describe these packings statistically, namely volume fraction, pair correlation function of the system of sphere centres and spherical contact distribution function of the set-theoretic union of all spheres. Furthermore, the coordination numbers are analysed.

  4. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  5. Packing Transitions in Nanosized Li Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, M W; Weare, J H; Sung, Ming Wen; Kawai, Ryoichi; Weare, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Packing transitions in the lowest energy structures of Li clusters as a function of size have been identified via simulated annealing. For N>21, the large $p$ character of Li leads to unexpected ionic structures. At N~25, a packing pattern based on interpenetrating 13-atom icosahedra and similar to that of Na and K appears. This pattern persists until at N=55, where another transition to a structure based on a Mackay icosahedron occurs. For clusters of size 55 and 147, the optimized FCC structure representative of the bulk is still slightly higher in energy than the optimal MIC. (RK-94-03)

  6. Lattice approaches to packed column simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a review of the findings into the ability of a digitally based particle packing algorithm, called DigiPac, to predict bed structure in a variety of packed columns, for a range of generic pellet shapes frequently used in the chemical and process engineering industries.Resulting macroscopic properties are compared with experimental data derived from both invasive and non-destructive measurement techniques.Additionally, fluid velocity distributions, through samples of the resulting bed structures, are analysed using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) simulations and are compared against experimental data from the literature.

  7. Non-Crystallographic Symmetry in Packing Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery G. Rau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following, isomorphism of an arbitrary finite group of symmetry, non-crystallographic symmetry (quaternion groups, Pauli matrices groups, and other abstract subgroups, in addition to the permutation group, are considered. Application of finite groups of permutations to the packing space determines space tilings by policubes (polyominoes and forms a structure. Such an approach establishes the computer design of abstract groups of symmetry. Every finite discrete model of the real structure is an element of symmetry groups, including non-crystallographic ones. The set packing spaces of the same order N characterizes discrete deformation transformations of the structure.

  8. The molecular interfacial structure and plasticizer migration behavior of "green" plasticized poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2015-02-14

    Tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC), a widely-used "green" plasticizer, has been extensively applied in products for daily use. In this paper, a variety of analytical tools including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), contact angle goniometry (CA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied together to investigate the molecular structures of TBAC plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and the migration behavior of TBAC from PVC-TBAC mixtures into water. We comprehensively examine the effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatments on the surface structures of PVC-TBAC thin films containing various bulk percentages of plasticizers and the leaching behavior of TBAC into water. It was found that TBAC is a relatively stable PVC plasticizer compared to traditional non-covalent plasticizers but is also surface active. Oxygen plasma treatment increased the hydrophilicity of TBAC-PVC surfaces, but did not enhance TBAC leaching. However, argon plasma treatment greatly enhanced the leaching of TBAC molecules from PVC plastics to water. Based on our observations, we believe that oxygen plasma treatment could be applied to TBAC plasticized PVC products to enhance surface hydrophilicity for improving the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of PVC products. The structural information obtained in this study will ultimately facilitate a molecular level understanding of plasticized polymers, aiding in the design of PVC materials with improved properties.

  9. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  10. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  11. Sex differences in NMDA GluN1 plasticity in rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons containing corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor following slow-pressor angiotensin II hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kempen, T A; Dodos, M; Woods, C; Marques-Lopes, J; Justice, N J; Iadecola, C; Pickel, V M; Glass, M J; Milner, T A

    2015-10-29

    There are profound, yet incompletely understood, sex differences in the neurogenic regulation of blood pressure. Both corticotropin signaling and glutamate receptor plasticity, which differ between males and females, are known to play important roles in the neural regulation of blood pressure. However, the relationship between hypertension and glutamate plasticity in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-receptive neurons in brain cardiovascular regulatory areas, including the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), is not understood. In the present study, we used dual-label immuno-electron microscopy to analyze sex differences in slow-pressor angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension with respect to the subcellular distribution of the obligatory NMDA glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the RVLM and PVN. Studies were conducted in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) under the control of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRF1) promoter (i.e., CRF1-EGFP reporter mice). By light microscopy, GluN1-immunoreactivity (ir) was found in CRF1-EGFP neurons of the RVLM and PVN. Moreover, in both regions tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was found in CRF1-EGFP neurons. In response to AngII, male mice showed an elevation in blood pressure that was associated with an increase in the proportion of GluN1 on presumably functional areas of the plasma membrane (PM) in CRF1-EGFP dendritic profiles in the RVLM. In female mice, AngII was neither associated with an increase in blood pressure nor an increase in PM GluN1 in the RVLM. Unlike the RVLM, AngII-mediated hypertension had no effect on GluN1 localization in CRF1-EGFP dendrites in the PVN of either male or female mice. These studies provide an anatomical mechanism for sex-differences in the convergent modulation of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons by CRF and glutamate. Moreover, these results suggest that sexual dimorphism in

  12. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  13. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  14. Computational Modelling of Particle Packing in Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.

    2010-01-01

    Physical particle packing is becoming a hot topic in concrete technology as more and more types of granular materials are used in concrete either for ecological or for engineering purposes. Although various analytical methods have been developed for optimum mixture design, comprehensive information

  15. Improved Lower Bound for Online Strip Packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    We study the online strip packing problem and derive an improved lower bound of Ͽ ≥ 2.589... for the competitive ratio of this problem. The construction is based on modified “Brown-Baker-Katseff sequences‿ (Brown et al. in Acta Inform. 18:207–225, 1982) using only two types of rectangles. In

  16. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  17. An approximation algorithm for square packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Stee (Rob)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of packing squares into bins which are unit squares, where the goal is to minimize the number of bins used. We present an algorithm for this problem with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided P != NP.

  18. Optimal online bounded space multidimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Epstein (Lea); R. van Stee (Rob)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe solve an open problem in the literature by providing an online algorithm for multidimensional bin packing that uses only bounded space. We show that it is optimal among bounded space algorithms for any dimension $d>1$. Its asymptotic performance ratio is $(Pi_{infty})^d$, where

  19. Computational Modelling of Particle Packing in Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.

    2010-01-01

    Physical particle packing is becoming a hot topic in concrete technology as more and more types of granular materials are used in concrete either for ecological or for engineering purposes. Although various analytical methods have been developed for optimum mixture design, comprehensive information

  20. Bacteriological Survey of AFD (Meat Packing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Rawal

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the manufacturing process of freeze dried mutton from slaughtering to packing and makes an assessment of microbial build-up on equipment, hands of workers and environment in which the mutton comes in contact during processing.

  1. Bin Packing via Discrepancy of Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Rothvoß, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A well studied special case of bin packing is the 3-partition problem, where n items of size >1/4 have to be packed in a minimum number of bins of capacity one. The famous Karmarkar-Karp algorithm transforms a fractional solution of a suitable LP relaxation for this problem into an integral solution that requires at most O(log n) additional bins. The three-permutations-conjecture of Beck is the following. Given any 3 permutations on n symbols, one can color the symbols red and blue, such that in any interval of any of those permutations, the number of red and blue symbols differs only by a constant. Beck's conjecture is well known in the field of discrepancy theory. We establish a surprising connection between bin packing and Beck's conjecture: If the latter holds true, then the additive integrality gap of the 3-partition linear programming relaxation is bounded by a constant. This result indicates that improving approximability results for bin packing requires a better understanding of discrepancy theory.

  2. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  3. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 920.13 Section 920.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    [SODA 2016] have recently proposed a (1.4 + ϵ)-approximation algorithm for this variant, thus showing that strip packing with polynomially bounded data can be approximated better than when exponentially large values are allowed in the input. Their result has subsequently been improved to a (4/3 + ϵ...

  5. Elastic weakening of a dense granular pack by acoustic fluidization: slipping, compaction, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Brunet, Th; Laurent, J

    2011-08-01

    Sound velocity measurements in dense glass bead packs reveal significant softening effect at large amplitudes, due to the frictional nonlinearity at the grain contacts. Beyond a certain amplitude, the sound-matter interaction becomes irreversible, leaving the medium in a weakened and slightly compacted state. A slow recovery of the initial elastic modulus is observed after acoustic perturbation, revealing the plastic creep growth of microcontacts. The cross-correlation function of configuration-specific acoustic speckles highlights the relationship between the macroscopic elastic weakening and the local change of the contact networks, induced by strong sound vibration, in the absence of appreciable grain motion.

  6. Barrier properties of k-mer packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovka, N.; Khrapatiy, S.; Vygornitskyi; Pivovarova, N.

    2014-08-01

    This work discusses numerical studies of the barrier properties of k-mer packings by the Monte Carlo method. The studied variants of regular and non-regular arrangements on a square lattice included models of random sequential adsorption (RSA) and random deposition (RD). The discrete problem of diffusion through the bonds of a square lattice was considered. The k-mers were perfectly oriented perpendicular to the diffusion direction and blocked certain fraction of bonds fb against diffusion. The barrier efficiency was estimated by calculation of the ratio D/Do where D is diffusion coefficient in direction perpendicular to the orientation of k-mers and Do is the same value for diffusion on the square lattice without blocked bonds, i.e., at fb=0. The value of k varied from 1 to 512 and different lattice sizes up to L=8192 lattice units were used. For dense packings (p=1), the obtained D/Do versus fb dependences deviated from the theoretical prediction of effective medium (EM) theory and deviation was the most obvious for the regular non-staggered arrangement. For loose RSA and RD packings, the percolation like-behavior of D/Do with threshold at fb=p∞ was observed and the data evidenced that their barrier properties at large values of k may be more effective than those of some dense packings. Such anomalous behavior can reflect the details of k-mer spatial organization (aggregation) and structure of pores in RD and RSA packings. The contradictions between simulation data and predictions of EM theory were also discussed.

  7. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefore the plastic use is much higher for different purposes. It leads to more waste of plastic. In Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation, the population and industrial units are less. Therefore plastic waste is less generated. Theaters are generating less plastic waste in metropolitan region. The Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC and municipal corporations in Thane district will continuously generate more plastic waste in future. The Tobit regression model shows that plastic waste is positively co-related and statistically significant with pollution and industry in region. Therefore the comprehensive policies are required to reduce plastic waste. This is because plastic waste is affecting on the health of human being. It also affects negatively on soil, air and water. The entire food supply chain gets affected due to plastic waste. The water logging is common due to plastic waste in region. It chock ups the drainage system and it becomes the ground for mosquitoes. It further leads to dengue, malaria and other diseases in region. Municipal corporations must collect plastic in separate bins and process it. The plastic and e-waste can be utilized for road construction in region. All the policies will certainly help to reduce the plastic waste and maintain the clean environment in region.

  8. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  9. A lifelong learning hyper-heuristic method for bin packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kevin; Hart, Emma; Paechter, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel hyper-heuristic system that continuously learns over time to solve a combinatorial optimisation problem. The system continuously generates new heuristics and samples problems from its environment; and representative problems and heuristics are incorporated into a self-sustaining network of interacting entities inspired by methods in artificial immune systems. The network is plastic in both its structure and content, leading to the following properties: it exploits existing knowledge captured in the network to rapidly produce solutions; it can adapt to new problems with widely differing characteristics; and it is capable of generalising over the problem space. The system is tested on a large corpus of 3,968 new instances of 1D bin-packing problems as well as on 1,370 existing problems from the literature; it shows excellent performance in terms of the quality of solutions obtained across the datasets and in adapting to dynamically changing sets of problem instances compared to previous approaches. As the network self-adapts to sustain a minimal repertoire of both problems and heuristics that form a representative map of the problem space, the system is further shown to be computationally efficient and therefore scalable.

  10. Plastic materials currently used in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruvjir Shagdarsuren; Nachin Baasanjav; Sosor Baatarjav

    2007-01-01

    The first skin-flap procedures were performed in Mongolia by a team of Chinese doctors ( Chenod, Chen)who treated children with burn injuries in the 1950s. The field of plastic surgery was further developed through assistance from the former Soviet Union and is now widely practiced by a number of surgeons around the country.In recent years, the fast evolving field of plastic surgery in Mongolia has created a need for clear and consistent system for the classification of various plastic materials. A team of Mongolian surgeons at the National Hospital for Traumatology, Orthopedics, Rehabilitation and Teaching Research have completed a research programme aimed at adopting a leading classification system that can facilitate effective communication between plastic surgeons. This requires the chosen system to be in line with modern trends in plastic surgery and the established international norms.As a result of extensive research and analysis, they have developed a customized version of Vasiliev's classification that focuses on formulating general principles of the description of plastic materials based on their functional characteristics. The main reason for this selection is its similarity with existing Mongolian standards as well as its principles that contain important implications for surgery.

  11. A Monte Carlo simulation of the packing and segregation of spheres in cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. A. ABREU

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Monte Carlo method (MC was extended to simulate the packing and segregation of particles subjected to a gravitational field and confined inside rigid walls. The method was used in systems containing spheres inside cylinders. The calculation of void fraction profiles in both the axial and radial directions was formulated, and some results are presented. In agreement with experimental data, the simulations show that the packed beds present structural ordering near the cylindrical walls up to a distance of about 4 particle diameters. The simulations also indicate that the presence of the cylindrical wall does not seem to have a strong effect on the gravitational segregation phenomenon.

  12. Plastic design of continuous composite slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Most current regulations for continuous composite slabs contain rules that limit the application of plastic analysis in the design process. In this paper, results of numerical studies for positive and negative bending and experimental results for negative bending are presented. From these

  13. Mass transfer characteristics in a rotating packed bed with split packing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youzhi Liu; Deyin Gu; Chengcheng Xu; Guisheng Qi; Weizhou Jiao

    2015-01-01

    The rotating packed bed (RPB) with split packing is a novel gas–liquid contactor, which intensifies the mass transfer processes controlled by gas-side resistance. To assess its efficacy, the mass transfer characteristics with adjacent rings in counter-rotation and co-rotation modes in a split packing RPB were studied experimentally. The physical absorption system NH3–H2O was used for characterizing the gas volumetric mass transfer coeffi-cient (kyae) and the effective interfacial area (ae) was determined by chemical absorption in the CO2–NaOH sys-tem. The variation in kyae and ae with the operating conditions is also investigated. The experimental results indicated that kyae and ae for counter-rotation of the adjacent packing rings in the split packing RPB were higher than those for co-rotation, and both counter-rotation and co-rotation of the split packing RPB were superior over conventional RPBs under the similar operating conditions.

  14. Evaluation of chemical elements migration from food packaging plastics into food; Avaliacao da migracao de elementos quimicos das embalagens plasticas para alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Adriana M.; Fulfaro, Roberto; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn obtained in the analysis of plastics from food packing materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radiometric method was also applied to evaluate the migration of Co and Sb from the plastic into the food simulant. The possible sources of the toxic elements in plastic materials and the advantages of radiometric method in the migration evaluation are discussed. (author)

  15. Operating room waste reduction in plastic and hand surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark G; Rothkopf, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Operating rooms (ORs), combined with labour and delivery suites, account for approximately 70% of hospital waste. Previous studies have reported that recycling can have a considerable financial impact on a hospital-wide basis; however, its importance in the OR has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To propose a method of decreasing cost through judicious selection of instruments and supplies, and initiation of recycling in plastic and hand surgery. METHODS: The authors identified disposable supplies and instruments that are routinely opened and wasted in common plastic and hand surgery procedures, and calculated the savings that can result from eliminating extraneous items. A cost analysis was performed, which compared the expense of OR waste versus single-stream recycling and the benefit of recycling HIPAA documents and blue wrap. RESULTS: Fifteen total items were removed from disposable plastic packs and seven total items from hand packs. A total of US$17,381.05 could be saved per year from these changes alone. Since initiating single-stream recycling, the authors’ institution has saved, on average, US$3,487 per month at the three campuses. After extrapolating at the current savings rate, one would expect to save a minimum of US$41,844 per year. DISCUSSION: OR waste reduction is an effective method of decreasing cost in the surgical setting. By revising the contents of current disposable packs and instrument sets designated for plastic and hand surgery, hospitals can reduce the amount of opened and unused material. CONCLUSIONS: Significant financial savings and environmental benefit can result from this judicious supply and instrument selection, as well as implementation of recycling. PMID:26665137

  16. Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    2010-01-01

    producers, FCM importers and importers of packed foodstuffs from third-party countries. Products containing phthalates above the current limits were found in several categories of FCM: conveyor belts (six of six), lids from packed foodstuffs in glasses (eight of 28), tubes for liquid foodstuffs (four...

  17. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

  18. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  19. Influence of structured packing on gas holdup in a three-phase bubble column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Böhm, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the influence of structured packing on gas holdup in gas-liquid-solid dispersions has been studied. The experiments were carried out in an empty column and in column containing structured packing operating under identical conditions. Glass beads and silicon carbide particles were used....... The influence of structured packing on the total gas holdup for different superficial gas velocities was found to be similar with and without suspended solids. Therefore, the results obtained in this work were analysed on the basis of correlations derived earlier for gas-liquid dispersions. Excepting...... as the solid material and the volumetric fraction of solids was varied from 0% to around 10%. The liquid viscosity was strongly modified using water, CMC solution and glycerol. The experimental results obtained with both columns were compared with previous results obtained in two-phase bubble columns...

  20. Analysis of Cohesive Microsized Particle Packing Structure Using History-Dependent Contact Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tayeb, Raihan; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Granular packing structures of cohesive micro-sized particles with different sizes and size distributions, including mono-sized, uniform and Gaussian distribution, are investigated by using two different history dependent contact models with Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation is carried out in the framework of LIGGGHTS which is a DEM simulation package extended based on branch of granular package of widely used open-source code LAMMPS. Contact force caused by translation and rotation, frictional and damping forces due to collision with other particles or container boundaries, cohesive force, van der Waals force, and gravity are considered. The radial distribution functions (RDFs), force distributions, porosities, and coordination numbers under cohesive and non-cohesive conditions are reported. The results indicate that particle size and size distributions have great influences on the packing density for particle packing under cohesive effect: particles with Gaussian distribution have the lowest pac...

  1. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPacking.â 784.135 Section 784.135 Labor Regulations... First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.135 “Packing.” The packing of the various named marine products at sea as an incident to, or in conjunction with, the...

  2. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  3. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  4. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  5. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  6. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  7. On Approximating Four Covering and Packing Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Mary; Berman, Piotr; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Kao, Ming-Yang; 10.1016/j.jcss.2009.01.002

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider approximability issues of the following four problems: triangle packing, full sibling reconstruction, maximum profit coverage and 2-coverage. All of them are generalized or specialized versions of set-cover and have applications in biology ranging from full-sibling reconstructions in wild populations to biomolecular clusterings; however, as this paper shows, their approximability properties differ considerably. Our inapproximability constant for the triangle packing problem improves upon the previous results; this is done by directly transforming the inapproximability gap of Haastad for the problem of maximizing the number of satisfied equations for a set of equations over GF(2) and is interesting in its own right. Our approximability results on the full siblings reconstruction problems answers questions originally posed by Berger-Wolf et al. and our results on the maximum profit coverage problem provides almost matching upper and lower bounds on the approximation ratio, answering a...

  8. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Meier, T.; Geffen, E.; Mech, L.D.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Wayne, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves often is short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measure relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and their offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  9. Pattern Generation by Bubble Packing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel V.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new computational method forornamental Pattern design. The work is a concerted effort ofevaluation of various methods and the comparatively betterprocess is used for designing keeping in mind the accuracyrequirement for such Indian traditional ethnic designs. The firststep in the process to apply the CAD tools to design the patterns.Small semantics (profile are made using the mathematicalmodelling to make different pattern. Geometric constraints suchas scaling, rotation, transformation etc. are applied to make andmodify the profiles. To create patterns, obtains node locationsthrough a physically based particle simulation, which we call'bubble packing. Bubbles are closely packed on the corners,edges and on the surface domain, and nodes are placed at thecenters of the bubbles. Experimental results show that ourmethod can create high quality ornamental patterns. Thefabrication of the ornaments is on rapid prototype machine.

  10. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins.

  11. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  12. Incorporating rosemary diterpenes in lamb diet to improve microbial quality of meat packed in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Bañón, Sancho

    2017-01-31

    The dietary use of phytochemicals may contribute to improving lamb meat preservation under different packing atmospheres. The objective was to test the preservative potential of a dietary rosemary extract (RE) containing carnosic acid and carnosol (at 1:1 w:w) in chilled lamb patties packed in air, vacuum and 70/30 O2 /CO2 modified atmosphere. Three experimental diets, (C) control, (RE) C plus 600 mg RE/kg feed and (E) C plus 600 mg vitamin E/kg, were given to fattening lambs. Unlike the C- and E-diets, the RE-diet had a double antimicrobial and antioxidant effect on the lamb patties packed in all the environments studied. The RE-diet inhibited total viable and lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, but not Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp. and also improved oxidative stability (measured as CIE Lab color and thiobarbituric reagent substances), appearance and odor. The E-diet had a better antioxidant effect than the RE-diet but had no antimicrobial effects. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. The dietary use of RE was most suitable for preserving vacuum-packed meat, which is more exposed to spoilage by anaerobic bacteria, while the use of dietary vitamin E allowed better control of oxidation in the meat packed in a bacteriostatic and oxidizing environment.

  13. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography using stainless steel particles and water as a stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2015-09-15

    Stainless steel (SS) particles were demonstrated as a novel useful support for a water stationary phase in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography using a CO2 mobile phase. Separations employed flame ionization detection, and the system was operated over a range of temperatures and pressures. Retention times reproduced well with RSD values of 2.6% or less. Compared to analogous separations employing a water stationary phase coated onto a SS capillary column, the packed column method provided separations that were about 10× faster, with nearly 8-fold larger analyte retention factors, while maintaining good peak shape and comparable column efficiency. Under normal operating conditions, the packed column contains about 131 ± 4 μL/m of water phase (around a 5% m/m coating), which is over 25× greater than the capillary column and also affords it a 20-fold larger sample capacity. Several applications of the packed column system are examined, and the results indicate that it is a useful alternative to the capillary column mode, particularly where analyte loads or sample matrix interference is a concern. Given its high sample capacity, this packed column method may also be useful to explore on a more preparative scale in the future.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Sulfur Dioxide Absorption in Water Using Structured Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa-Hilda Chavez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of hydrodynamic and mass transfer processes was carried out in an absorption column of 0.252 m diameter and 3.5 m of packed bed height developed by Mexican National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ by its acronym in Spanish of stainless steel gauze corrugated sheet packing by means of SO2-air-water systems. The experiments results include pressure drop, flows capacity, liquid hold-up, SO2 composition, and global mass transfer coefficient and mass transfer unit height by mass transfer generalized performance model in order to know the relationship between two-phase countercurrent flow and the geometry of packed bed. Experimental results at loading regimen are reported as well as model predictions. The average deviation between the measured values and the predicted values is ±5% of 48-data-point absorption test. The development of structured packing has allowed greater efficiency of absorption and lower pressure drop to reduce energy consumption. In practice, the designs of equipment containing structured packings are based on approximations of manufacturer recommendations.

  15. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  17. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export packing. 552.211-87... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-87 Export packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(7), insert the following clause: Export Packing (JAN 2010) (a...

  18. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Packing. 552.211-75 Section 552.211-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  19. 7 CFR 319.37-9 - Approved packing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved packing material. 319.37-9 Section 319.37-9..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-9 Approved packing material. Any restricted article at the time of importation or offer for importation into the United States shall not be packed in a...

  20. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

  1. 75 FR 31283 - Clarification of Parachute Packing Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 65 RIN 2120-AJ08 Clarification of Parachute Packing...) was expressly limited to packing a main parachute of a dual-parachute system for personal use...'' situations, parachute packing must be accomplished by or overseen by an appropriate current...

  2. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing for Overseas Shipment. 452.247-73 Section 452.247-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing...

  3. 48 CFR 452.247-72 - Packing for Domestic Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing for Domestic Shipment. 452.247-72 Section 452.247-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Packing for Domestic Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(b), insert the following clause: Packing...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2927 - Marking and packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and packing requirements. 51.2927 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Marking and Packing Requirements § 51.2927 Marking and packing requirements. The minimum size or numerical count of the apricots in any package shall...

  5. 48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... packing. 852.214-73 Section 852.214-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(3), insert the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The bidder's offer must clearly indicate the...

  6. 48 CFR 552.211-77 - Packing List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing List. 552.211-77... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-77 Packing List. As prescribed in 511.204(c), insert the following clause: Packing List (FEB 1996) (a) A...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  8. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent....

  9. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  10. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    CoolPack is a collection of programs used for energy analysis and optimisation of refrigeration systems. CoolPack is developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The Danish Energy Agency finances the project. CoolPack is freeware and can be downloaded...

  11. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  12. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  13. Endoglucanase production with the newly isolated Myceliophtora sp. i-1d3b in a packed bed solid state fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zanelato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to produce endoglucanase through solid state fermentation in a packed bed bioreactor with the use of the fungus Myceliophtora sp. I-1D3busing a mixture of wheat bran (WB and sugar cane bagasse (SCB as culture medium. Preliminary tests were performed in polypropylene plastic bags, controlling the variables temperature (40, 45, and 50ºC, initial moisture content (75, 80, and 85%, w.b., and weight proportion SCB/WB (1:1, 7:3, and 9:1. The highest enzyme activities in plastic bags were obtained using the substrate proportion of 7:3, 50ºC temperature, and 80% initial moisture content (878 U/grams of dry solid. High activities of filter-paper cellulase and xylanase were also obtained in plastic bags and some results are reported. For the packed bed experiments, the temperature (45 and 50ºC and the air flow rate (80, 100 and 120L/h were the controlled variables. Activity of endoglucanase was similar to plastic bag tests. A longitudinal gradient of moisture content, was observed increasing from the bottom to the top of the reactor, even though the longitudinal enzyme activity profile was flat for almost the whole bed. Air flow rate did not affect enzyme activity, while experiments carried out at 50ºC showed higher enzyme activities. The maximum temperature peak observed was at about 6ºC above the process temperature.

  14. Partitioning And Packing Equations For Parallel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, Dale J.; Milner, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithm developed to identify parallelism in set of coupled ordinary differential equations that describe physical system and to divide set into parallel computational paths, along with parts of solution proceeds independently of others during at least part of time. Path-identifying algorithm creates number of paths consisting of equations that must be computed serially and table that gives dependent and independent arguments and "can start," "can end," and "must end" times of each equation. "Must end" time used subsequently by packing algorithm.

  15. Flaming Pear Creative Pack1.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kane

    2003-01-01

    Flaming Pear是个一直给我留下深刻印象的软件开发公司。我以前评论过很多这个公司的插件,每一次都是不错的经历。同样的优良传统同样体现在Flaming Pear的新品Creative Pack1.0

  16. Sensory Analysis of Stored Tray Pack Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Milk chocolate brown. ODOR: Sweet, typical of heat processed milk cocoa . FLAVOR: Sweet, full milk cocoa flavor. TEXTURE: Smooth, medium thick...7B DEGREES 100 DEGREES 6. DESSERTS Chocolate Pudding There was no significant finding with this Tray Pack item. Marble Cake At 70°F, the effect...and 6 months. The main effect of temperature on acceptability of this item was not significant. Chocolate Cake At 70°F, there was a significant

  17. Effects of Nasopore Packing on Dacryocystorhinostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Kyou Ho; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of placement of the absorbable packing material Nasopore at the anastomosis site of newly formed mucosal flaps on postoperative re-bleeding, discomfort, and on the success rate of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Methods A review of the medical records of patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction that underwent external or endonasal DCR by a single surgeon was performed. The degree of re-bleeding, discomfort, and postoperative results, includi...

  18. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  19. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypropylene. An injection press available at NYANGONO PLASTIC factory (Yaounde-Cameroon was used to manufacture our wood- plastic composites.The following combinations were used: 1/3 Padou flour and 2/3 plastic; 1/4 Padou flour and 3/4 plastic; 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic. We found that the composite made of 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic reaches firstthe hygroscopic saturation point, flowed by the one containing 1/4 of wood and 3/4 of plastic and finally that containing 1/3 of wood and 2/3 of plastic. The moisture content of all the wood-plastic composite made was very low even in a soaked environment enabling us to conclude that these composites will be probably not attacked by fungus and insects.

  20. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  1. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  2. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In

  3. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In th

  4. Resistance of the packing to attack of insects pest in irradiated ration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.H.C., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of the research was use the gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding of animals of small size. In the experiment packing measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), (3) and (4) of free samples were used. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the ration samples. After the irradiation all the packing and the control were conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae were liberated, in a total of 400 for each box. The boxes were maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. The results showed that only the package of the ration type number 4, was susceptive to the attack of the species of insects. (author)

  5. Packing products for customers: an ergonomics evaluation of three supermarket checkouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, C; Coleman, N; Healey, S; Lusted, M

    1995-04-01

    The introduction of laser scanners at supermarket checkout areas has resulted in previous ergonomics studies focusing specifically on the scanning process and associated cumulative trauma disorders in the hands and arms. Few studies have evaluated the increased musculoskeletal load and exertion of checkout staff when they are also expected to pack the products into bags for the customers. This paper describes an ergonomics evaluation of three different designs of checkout workstation, which require the operator to stand when they scan the products, pack them into plastic bags and transfer the packed bags to the customer. Musculoskeletal load and exertion associated with the different checkouts were measured using OWAS, heart rate recordings and ratings of perceived exertion. In addition, subjective rankings of the workstations were obtained and the productivity associated with each design examined as part of the evaluation. Some of the variables measured showed significant differences in postural load between the workstations. The results of the evaluation formed the basis of recommendations for an improved workstation design. Some of the suggestions made to reduce postural load and increase productivity include positioning the weigh scale to the side and the bag frame beneath the scanner.

  6. Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles via sequential column packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, James W; Wyndham, Kevin D; Jorgenson, James W

    2015-11-27

    Highly efficient capillary columns packed with superficially porous particles were created for use in ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography. Superficially porous particles around 1.5μm in diameter were packed into fused silica capillary columns with 30, 50, and 75μm internal diameters. To create the columns, several capillary columns were serially packed from the same slurry, with packing progress plots being generated to follow the packing of each column. Characterization of these columns using hydroquinone yielded calculated minimum reduced plate heights as low as 1.24 for the most efficient 30μm internal diameter column, corresponding to over 500,000plates/m. At least one highly efficient column (minimum reduced plate height less than 2) was created for all three of the investigated column inner diameters, with the smallest diameter columns having the highest efficiency. This study proves that highly efficient capillary columns can be created using superficially porous particles and shows the efficiency potential of these particles.

  7. A HARMONIC ALGORITHM FOR THE 3D STRIP PACKING PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Nikhil; Han, X.; Iwama, K.; Sviridenko, M.; Zhang, Guochuan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed with their edges parallel to the edges of $B$ and cannot be rotated. Building upon Caprara's work for the two-dimensional (2D) bin packing problem, we obtain an algorithm that, given any $\\epsilon>0...

  8. He II heat transfer through random packed spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Mark

    Superfluid helium (He II) contained in porous media is examined. In particular, heat transfer experiments were performed on He II contained in random packs of uniform size polyethylene spheres. Measured results include the steady state temperature and pressure drops across packs of spheres (35 micron, 49 micron, and 98 micron diameter) and the associated steady, step, and pulse heat inputs. Bath temperatures range from 1.6 K to 2.1 K to help grasp the superfluid effects. Laminar, turbulent, and transitional fluid flow regimes are examined. Turbulent results are fitted to an empirically derived turbulent He II heat flow in a channel equation with an added tortuosity (extra length traveled) term that accounts for the porous media. An average tortuosity of 1.33 +/- 0.07 was obtained, which is in good agreement with the values of 1.36 - 1.41 concluded from published work on classical fluid pressure drop across random packed spheres. Laminar permeability and shape factor results are compared to past studies of He II in porous media and in channel flows. The average critical heat flux, which describes the onset of turbulence, is predicted to be 0.19 W cm-2. The onset of turbulence is determined through a critical heat flux from which a critical Reynolds number is formulated, but does not describe He II turbulence in the normal fluid component. Other proposed He II "Reynolds numbers" are examined. The addition of the laminar and turbulent heat flow equations into a unifying prediction fits the transition regime data within 25 %. Transient temperatures compare favorably to a one-dimensional numerical solution that considers a variable Gorter-Mellink exponent and a piece-wise determination of the heat flux. Turbulent pressure drop results are fitted with empirically derived friction factors. The laminar permeability and equivalent channel shape factor derived from the pressure drop are compared the permeability and shape factor obtained from the temperature drop. Results

  9. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada.

  10. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Random Close Packing with Tetrahedra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shui-Xiang; ZHAO Jian; ZHOU Xuan

    2008-01-01

    The densest packing of tetrahedra is still an unsolved problem.Numerical simulations of random close packing of tetrahedra are carried out with a sphere assembly model and improved relaxation algorithm. The packing density and average contact number obtained for random close packing of regular tetrahedra is 0.6817 and 7.21respectively,while the values of spheres are 0.6435 and 5.95.The simulation demonstrates that tetrahedra can be randomly packed denser than spheres.Random close packings of tetrahedra with a range of height are simulated as well.We find that the regular tetrahedron might be the optimal shape which gives the highest packing density of tetrahedra.

  12. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liset Rietman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we combined previously obtained data from recombinant inbred BXD strains on ocular dominance (OD plasticity and gene expression levels in the neocortex. We validated our approach using a list of genes which alter OD plasticity when inactivated. The expression levels of one fifth of these genes correlated with the amount of OD plasticity. Moreover, the two genes with the highest relative inter-strain differences were among the correlated genes. This suggests that correlation between gene expression levels and OD plasticity is indeed likely to point to genes with a causal role in modulating or generating plasticity in the visual cortex. After this validation on known plasticity genes, we identified new candidate genes by a multi-step approach. First, a list was compiled of all genes of which the expression level in BXD strains correlate with the amount of OD plasticity. To narrow this list to the more promising candidates, we took its cross-section with a list of genes co-regulated with the sensitive period for OD plasticity and a list of genes associated with pathways implicated in OD plasticity. This analysis resulted in a list of 32 candidate genes. The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A receptor, acetylcholine esterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This was indicative of the viability of our approach, but more interesting were the novel candidate genes: Akap7, Akt1, Camk2d, Cckbr, Cd44, Crim1, Ctdsp2, Dnajc5, Gnai1, Itpka, Mapk8, Nbea, Nfatc3, Nlk, Npy5r, Phf21a, Phip, Ppm1l, Ppp1r1b, Rbbp4, Slc1a3, Slit2, Socs2, Spock3, St8sia1, Zfp207. The possible role of some of these candidates is discussed in the article.

  13. APPLICATION OF PACKING THEORY ON GRADING DESIGN FOR POROUS ASPHALT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman Hardiman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The design life of porous asphalt is shorter than dense mix as a consequence of permeability loss due to clogging and poor resistance to disintegration. To mitigate problems associated with clogging, double layer porous asphalt has been constructed in the Netherlands. This paper investigated a development of a new grading design for porous asphalt by varying percentage of aggregate with maximum sizes of 20, 14 and 10mm; a theory of packing was used. The most common method used for grading design is based on empirical, which does not relate the packing behaviour of the aggregate mass. The packing theory used in this study was facilitated by a vibratory compactor. It was found that mixtures containing aggregate sizes 14 and 10mm have a good permeability and stability, when vibrated for 65 second with a frequency of 40Hz, while for aggregates containing 20mm, to achieve the requirement for Marshall stability, the gradation needs to be modified. Properties of porous asphalt based on packing theory are better from the empirical grading from Spain (P-12.

  14. HAPE3D-a new constructive algorithm for the 3D irregular packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao LIU; Jia-min LIU; An-xi CAO; Zhuang-le YAO

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new constructive algorithm, called HAPE3D, which is a heuristic algorithm based on the principle of minimum total potential energy for the 3D irregular packing problem, involving packing a set of irregularly shaped polyhedrons into a box-shaped container with fixed width and length but unconstrained height. The objective is to allocate all the polyhedrons in the container, and thus minimize the waste or maximize profit. HAPE3D can deal with arbitrarily shaped polyhedrons, which can be rotated around each coordinate axis at different angles. The most outstanding merit is that HAPE3D does not need to calculate no-fit polyhedron (NFP), which is a huge obstacle for the 3D packing problem. HAPE3D can also be hybridized with a meta-heuristic algorithm such as simulated annealing. Two groups of computational experiments demonstrate the good perfor-mance of HAPE3D and prove that it can be hybridized quite well with a meta-heuristic algorithm to further improve the packing quality.

  15. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  16. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Rahul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. Results In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Conclusions Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry.

  17. Mapping the distribution of packing topologies within protein interiors shows predominant preference for specific packing motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Banerjee, Rahul

    2011-05-24

    Mapping protein primary sequences to their three dimensional folds referred to as the 'second genetic code' remains an unsolved scientific problem. A crucial part of the problem concerns the geometrical specificity in side chain association leading to densely packed protein cores, a hallmark of correctly folded native structures. Thus, any model of packing within proteins should constitute an indispensable component of protein folding and design. In this study an attempt has been made to find, characterize and classify recurring patterns in the packing of side chain atoms within a protein which sustains its native fold. The interaction of side chain atoms within the protein core has been represented as a contact network based on the surface complementarity and overlap between associating side chain surfaces. Some network topologies definitely appear to be preferred and they have been termed 'packing motifs', analogous to super secondary structures in proteins. Study of the distribution of these motifs reveals the ubiquitous presence of typical smaller graphs, which appear to get linked or coalesce to give larger graphs, reminiscent of the nucleation-condensation model in protein folding. One such frequently occurring motif, also envisaged as the unit of clustering, the three residue clique was invariably found in regions of dense packing. Finally, topological measures based on surface contact networks appeared to be effective in discriminating sequences native to a specific fold amongst a set of decoys. Out of innumerable topological possibilities, only a finite number of specific packing motifs are actually realized in proteins. This small number of motifs could serve as a basis set in the construction of larger networks. Of these, the triplet clique exhibits distinct preference both in terms of composition and geometry.

  18. Production of primary materials for duro-plastic glue, ethanol, and enzymes, from lignocellulose-containing by-products and organic waste in the Fritz-Werner pilot plant (steam pressure extraction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, M.; Langer, J.

    1983-01-01

    By the steam pressure extraction process ligno-cellulose-containing annual plants and deciduous wood can be pulped without the need for chemicals. The pre-ground material is treated continuously with saturated steam at elevated pressures in a boiler for approx. 10-20 min. and is shredded upon discharge from the boiler by reduction of pressure to atmospheric conditions. This decomposition process leads to a softening of the cell wall bonds thereby exposing the bio-structure. Extraction of the fibrous material with water or strongly diluted aqueous alkali gives rise to the hemicellular form of the starting material, in particular to soluble xylane degradation products. The extracted fibrous material consists chiefly of cellulose and lignin. These fibres are so loosely inter-connected that they are readily accessible for chemical and in particular biochemical reaction. The fibres can be converted to glucose by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis, they can be used as a substrate for microorganisms, or as energy source and raw fodder for ruminants, or they can be compressed to form fibre-board without the need for binding agents.

  19. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-08-30

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    -order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair.......The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst...