WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic molded parts

  1. Fabrication of Functional Plastic Parts Using Nanostructured Steel Mold Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Blondiaux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts were textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication of structures with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers and aspect ratios of up to 1:2. Nanostructured plastic parts were produced by means of hot embossing and injection molding. Surface nanostructuring was used to control wettability and increase the sensitivity of an immunoassay.

  2. Characterization of fiberglass-filled diallyl phthalate plastic molding resins and molded parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, R.B.; Glaub, J.E.; Bonekowski, N.R.; Gillham, P.D.

    1980-12-01

    Characterization of diallyl phthalate (DAP) molding resins was undertaken by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC)/low angle laser light scattering (LALLS) in order to better predict moldability and storage life limits. Completeness of cure of molded parts, before and after any post-curing, was also determined by thermal analysis. Molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of the DAP molding resins by SEC/LALLS indicated that the better molding resins have lower M/sub w//M/sub n/ ratios. Association effects were observed, which could not be overcome by solvent modification alone. Determination of DAP molding resin heats of reaction by DSC indicated a linear relation between ..delta..H/sub R/ and weight percent filler for the good molding resins. DSC analyses of molded DAP parts showed that 95% cure was achieved in some as-molded parts, with a post-cure temperature of 165/sup 0/C being required to complete the cure to 100%. Thickness of the parts was a factor, with the thicker parts being 100% cured as molded. The glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) of the molded parts increased as cure was completed, to approx. 160 to 165/sup 0/C maximum. These results are consistent with a model of thermoset resin curing behavior which states that 100% cure can be achieved only if a post-curing operation is conducted above the T/sub g infinity/ (T/sub g/ at complete cure) of the polymer.

  3. Effects of glass fibers on the properties of micro molded plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    of polymeric thin ribs. It investigates the effect of feature size and gate location on distribution of glass fibers inside the molded parts. The results from this work indicate that glass filled plastic materials have poor replication quality and nonhomogeneous mechanical properties due to the nonuniform...

  4. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...... the molding process. The main advantage with this method is that surface treatments and chemical additives are avoided, which minimizes health risks and simplifies recycling. Another advantage is that the unique technology enables nanostructuring of free form molded parts. The functional surfaces can have...

  5. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  6. Experimental Investigation into Suitable Process Conditions for Plastic Injection Molding of Thin-Sheet Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study performs an experimental investigation into the effects of the process parameters on the surface quality of injection molded thin-sheet thermoplastic components. The investigations focus specifically on the shape, number and position of the mold gates, the injection pressure and the injection rate. It can be seen that the gravity force entering point improved filling of the cavity for the same forming time and injection pressure. Moreover, it shows the same injection pressure and packing time, the taper-shape gate yields a better surface appearance than the sheet-shape gate. The experimental results provide a useful source of reference in suitable the process conditions for the injection molding of thin-sheet plastic components.

  7. Solving depressions formed during production of plastic molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with improvement of design properties of molded plastic parts. It can be achieved by modifying construction of metal injection mold and optimization of parameters in injection process. The subject of our examination was depressions formed on molded plastic parts which are inacceptable in the process of approval. The problem which has arisen was solved in two phases. The first phase consisted in alteration of injection mold design – enlargement of injection molding gate. In the second phase, we have changed the location of injection molding gate. After performing constructional modifications, new molded plastic parts were manufactured and assessed.

  8. Dynamic of taking out molding parts at injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic parts used in automobile production are manufactured by injection molding. Their quality depends also on taking out molding and on the manipulators for it. Task of this contribution is to theoretically describe a transport of molding at taking out after injection molding in relation on its regulation. The following quantities are derived at it: the transition characteristic of the taking out system, the blocking diagram of taking out molding regulation, the amplitude and phase characteristic and the transition characteristic of action quantity at taking out molding regulation.

  9. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  10. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  11. Single gate optimization for plastic injection mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-quan; LI De-qun; GUO Zhi-ying; LV Hai-yuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a methodology for single gate location optimization for plastic injection mold. The objective of the gate optimization is to minimize the warpage of injection molded parts, because warpage is a crucial quality issue for most injection molded parts while it is influenced greatly by the gate location. Feature warpage is defined as the ratio of maximum displacement on the feature surface to the projected length of the feature surface to describe part warpage. The optimization is combined with the numerical simulation technology to find the optimal gate location, in which the simulated annealing algorithm is used to search for the optimum. Finally, an example is discussed in the paper and it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective.

  12. Risk reduction in dimension inspection of the plastic injection-molded parts from mechatronic devices by using optical 3D measuring techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Ion Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As of the definition presented by Harashima, Tomizuka, and Fukada in 1996, the mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes. The most of the mechatronic devices need the precise dimensions of the plastic parts, as long as the combination of those parts leads to a final haptic characteristic defined within specific limits or when the certain travel way is linked with an electrical contact. The increasing of the risks to produce bad mechatronic devices are directly related to the combination of the plastic injectionmolded parts out of different cavities. The paper’s aim is to present reducing of the risks to have bad final parts assembled with the components out of plastic injection-molded parts by using optical 3D measuring techniques at first validation of the parts out of the tool and setting parameters in the injection machines. The shrinkage and the warpage are more easily detected in that way and this will support first article inspection, but also during the entire production process. A case study presents the analysis of the data coming from the measurements of the plastic parts from each cavity and the combination of those parts, by using the ATOS inspection software. The CAD data are compared with the measured ones and the differences will be visible in the colored plotted areas, also the differences of the parts out of distinct cavities will be also displayed by overlaying of the measurements.

  13. Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smistrup, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a route for making smart functionalized plastic parts by injection molding with sub-micrometer surface structures. The method is based on combining planar processes well known and established within silicon micro and sub-micro fabrication with proven high resolution...... the pattern. With this approach, we demonstrate the transfer of down to 140 nm wide holes on large areas with good structure fidelity on an injection molding steel insert. The durability of the sub-micrometer structures on the inserts have been investigated by running two production series of 102,000 and 73......,000 injection molded parts, respectively, on two different inserts and inspecting the inserts before and after the production series and the molded parts during the production series....

  14. Smart plastic functionalization by nanoimprint and injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smistrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a route for making smart functionalized plastic parts by injection molding with sub-micrometer surface structures. The method is based on combining planar processes well known and established within silicon micro and sub-micro fabrication with proven high resolution...... the pattern. With this approach, we demonstrate the transfer of down to 140 nm wide holes on large areas with good structure fidelity on an injection molding steel insert. The durability of the sub-micrometer structures on the inserts have been investigated by running two production series of 102,000 and 73...

  15. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  16. Injection Mold Design with Thread Rotating Demoulding Mechanism of Plastic Part with Internal Thread%螺纹旋转脱模内螺纹塑件注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成

    2013-01-01

    The injection mold with thread rotating demoulding mechanism was designed by taking acrylonitrile-butadiene -styrene plastic bottle cap as example. Without external unscrewing power plant attached to the mold, the plastic part can be automatically rotating demoulded by using opening force of the injection molding machine, so the problems of time-consuming being long and plastic part thread being scuffed when thread was demoulded were solved and the quality of the plastic part was ensured. The gating system, small rod limitting structure and thread rotating demoulding mechanism were designed and analyzed, the overall structure, working process of the mold and demoulding step exploded view were introduced also. The mold has the advantages of simple, compact structure and small size, is suitable for large-scale production.%以ABS塑料瓶盖为例,设计了螺纹旋转脱模内螺纹塑件注塑模.该模具无需外接脱螺纹动力装置,利用注塑机的开模力实现塑件自动旋转脱模顶出,保证了内螺纹塑件的质量,解决了现有技术中螺纹脱模耗时、易拉伤塑件螺纹的问题.对浇注系统、小拉杆限位结构、螺纹旋转脱模结构等进行了设计分析,介绍了模具的整体结构和开、合模工作过程及脱模步骤分解图.该模具结构简单、紧凑、体积小,适用于大批量生产.

  17. Moldability Evaluation for Molded Parts Based on Fuzzy Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Moldability evaluation for molded parts, which is the basis of concurrent design, is a key design stage in injection molding design. By moldability evaluation the design problems can be found timely and an optimum plastic part design achieved. In this paper, a systematic methodology for moldability evaluation based on fuzzy logic is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy set modeling for six key design attributes of molded parts is carried out respectively. Secondly, on the basis of this, the relationship between fuzzy sets for design attributes and fuzzy sets for moldability is established by fuzzy rules that are based on domain experts' experience and knowledge. At last the integral moldability for molded parts is obtained through fuzzy reasoning. The neural network based fuzzy reasoning approach presented in this paper can improve fuzzy reasoning efficiency greatly, especially for system having a large number of rules and complicated membership functions. An example for moldability evaluation is given to show the feasibility of this proposed methodology.

  18. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  19. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-02-01

    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  20. [Biological monitoring in the molding of plastics and rubbers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Cirla, A M; Cirla, P E; Cutugno, V; Lionetti, C; Martinotti, I; Mossini, E; Foà, V

    2007-01-01

    This survey was carried out in the molding of plastics and rubbers, in the "Professional Cancer Prevention Project" sponsored by the Lombardy region with the objective of developing and implementing protocols for evaluating exposure to carcinogens through the biological monitoring. The realities of molding the thermoplastic polymer ABS, rubber, and thermosetting plastics containing formaldehyde were examined. The carcinogenic substances identified in these processes were: 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene in molding ABS, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in molding rubber, and formaldehyde in molding the thermosetting plastics. Only for some of these substances biological indicators are available. The limited exposure to airborne chemicals in molding ABS and the intrinsic characteristics of biological indicators available for 1-3 butadiene have determined the non applicability of biological monitoring to this situation. The absence of a biological indicator of exposure to formaldehyde has made this situation not investigable. Exposure in the rubber molding was studied in 19 subjects applying the determination not metabolized PAH in urine. The levels of these indicators were similar to those measured in other groups of subjects without occupational exposure to PAH, confirming a low airborne contamination in this workplace.

  1. INJECTION MOLDING AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN METAL TO PLASTIC CONVERSION OF BOLTED FLANGE JOINT BY CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Blaško

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many metal parts in various applications are being replaced by plastic parts. There are several reasons for that depending on actual application - minimize part cost, enhance corrosion resistance, integrating more components into one part etc. Most important steps of metal to plastic conversion are material selection and design of plastic part. Plastic part has to withstand the same load as metal part. To fulfill this requirement fiber reinforced engineering plastics are often used. Also it is convenient to substitute heavy wall sections with ribbed structure to increase load-carrying ability of part and decrease cycle time, eliminate voids, sink marks etc. Mechanical properties of such part could be highly affected by fiber orientation. Results of fiber orientation from injection molding filling analysis can be used in stress analysis for better prediction of part response to mechanical load. Such coupled analysis is performed here in this case study on bolted flange joint.

  2. The Simulation and Optimization of Aspheric Plastic Lens Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jialing; WEN Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the volumetric shrinkage and volumetric shrinkage variation, the process in injection molding of aspheric plastic lens was simulated, and several process parameters which include holding pressure, melt temperature, mold temperature, fill time, holding pressure time and cooling time were optimized by using an orthogonal experimental design method. Finally, the optimum process parameters and the influence degree of process parameters on the average volumetric shrinkage and the volumetric shrinkage variation are obtained.

  3. The effect of mold surface topography on plastic parat in-process shrinkage in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mold surface roughness on in-process in-flow linear part shrinkage in injection molding has been carried out. The investigation is based on an experimental two-cavity tool, where the cavities have different surface topographies, but are otherwise identical....... The study has been carried out for typical commercial polystyrene and polypropylene grades. The relationship between mold surface topography and linear shrinkage has been investigated with an experimental two-cavity mold producing simple rectangular parts with the nominal dimensions 1 x 25 x 50 mm (see...

  4. Injection Mold Design of Automotive Jointing Plastic Parts%汽车接头塑料件注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慧祎

    2015-01-01

    The lateral concave structure is often used in the plastic mould design,and it is often used in connection with another parts and installing sealing rings and so on. Such plastic parts using slide block core-pulling mechanism was detailed by way of example. This design can solve demoulding problems of lateral parts through the working principle of telescopic core and designing method. The mechanism in the actual production runs smoothly,and it hasn't catching phenomenon, which indicated that the design principles are reliability and agency is validity.%侧凹结构在塑料模具产品设计中经常被用到,它常用于与另一零件的连接、安装密封圈等情况.通过实例详细论述了利用滑块抽芯机构成型该类塑料件,通过"伸缩型芯"的工作原理及设计方法,解决了在模具设计中侧凹零件的脱模问题,并且该机构在实际生产中运行平稳,无卡滞现象,说明了该机构的可靠性及设计原理的正确性.

  5. The application of fuzzy theory for the control of weld line positions in injection-molded part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Tzeng, Huan-Wen; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Shia-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This research proposes the fuzzy theory for the control of weld lines in plastic injection molding. The weld line occurs as a result of geometrical changes in molded parts in the injection molding process. The weld line is one of the defects present in plastic injection-molded parts; the line affects the quality of parts as well as the strength of the products. In the present study, fuzzy theory was applied in the design of injection molding. First, expert experiences were transformed into IF approximately THEN approximately rules to establish the knowledge base for developing fuzzy inference rules. The rules were then used to adjust the molding parameters, which in turn were applied to control the weld line position in the injection molding process. The results indicate that fuzzy theory exhibited favorable applicability in the control of the weld line as well as decreased the simulation time, thereby accelerating the design process of injection molding.

  6. RECENT METHODS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS –A RETROSPECTIVE AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Bharti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Injection molding has been a challenging process for many manufacturers and researchers to produce products meeting requirements at the lowest cost. Faced with global competition in injection molding industry, using the trialand- error approach to determine the process parameters for injection molding is no longer good enough. Factors that affect the quality of a molded part can be classified into four categories: part design, mold design, machineperformance and processing conditions. The part and mold design are assumed as established and fixed. During production, quality characteristics may deviate due to drifting or shifting of processing conditions caused by machine wear, environmental change or operator fatigue. Determining optimal process parameter settings critically influences productivity, quality, and cost of production in the plastic injection molding (PIM industry. Previously, production engineers used either trial-and-error method or Taguchi’s parameter design method to determine optimal process parameter settings for PIM. However, these methods are unsuitable in present PIM because of the increasing complexity of product design and the requirement of multi-response quality characteristics. This article aims to review the recent research in designing and determining process parameters of injection molding. A number of research works based on various approaches have been performed in the domain of the parameter setting for injection molding. These approaches, including mathematical models, Taguchi method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN,Fuzzy logic, Case Based Reasoning (CBR, Genetic Algorithms (GA, Finite Element Method(FEM,Non Linear Modeling, Response Surface Methodology, Linear Regression Analysis ,Grey Rational Analysis and Principle Component Analysis (PCA are described in this article. The strength and theweakness of individual approaches are discussed. It is then followed by conclusions and discussions of the potential

  7. An in-mold packaging process for plastic fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y E; Lee, K H; Je, T J; Choi, D S; Kim, S K

    2011-01-01

    Micro or nanofluidic devices have many channel shapes to deliver chemical solutions, body fluids or any fluids. The channels in these devices should be covered to prevent the fluids from overflowing or leaking. A typical method to fabricate an enclosed channel is to bond or weld a cover plate to a channel plate. This solid-to-solid bonding process, however, takes a considerable amount of time for mass production. In this study, a new process for molding a cover layer that can enclose open micro or nanochannels without solid-to-solid bonding is proposed and its feasibility is estimated. First, based on the design of a model microchannel, a brass microchannel master core was machined and a plastic microchannel platform was injection-molded. Using this molded platform, a series of experiments was performed for four process or mold design parameters. Some feasible conditions were successfully found to enclosed channels without filling the microchannels for the injection molding of a cover layer over the plastic microchannel platform. In addition, the bond strength and seal performance were estimated in a comparison with those done by conventional bonding or welding processes.

  8. Hot Runner Mold Design of Fan Diverter Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, D. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we discuss the case of plastic parts for the production of fan steering gear shaft parts injection molding, and use POM plastic steel to produce plastic parts from traditional cold runners. Because of the parts have a hole, which need side slide. The runner produce more waste after plastic parts injection make the runner waste account for the cost is relatively high, the cost of stock preparation is relatively increased when the product quantity demanded is great. After the crushing treatment of the waste, the backfill will affect the quality, and in the crushing process, the volume generated will make the operator to withstand up to 130 dB of noise. The actual test results show that the production cycle reduce 6.25%, while the production yield increase by about 5% and material costs reduced by 2% . It can be recovered within a year, not to mention the increase of the quality and reduction the noise on the staff of the benefit is impossible to estimate.

  9. Research of High-gloss Injection Molding Technology in Thin Shell Plastic Parts with Holes%薄壳多孔塑料件高光注射成型工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苗; 黄翔; 辛勇

    2012-01-01

    对手机壳体塑料件进行了常规注射成型CAE研究,分析存在较为严重的表现质量问题.通过采用高光成型技术,以沉降指数、体积收缩率和翘曲变形为质量指标,利用正交试验和多目标综合平衡法分析研究得出该产品的最佳成型工艺参数组合.分析结果表明,高光注射成型技术在改善薄壳多孔塑料件缺陷方面比常规注射成型有着更大的优越性.%CAE research of conventional injection moulding on a mobile phone shell was carried out and the serious apparent quality problems were analyzed.Then through high-gloss injection molding technology, selecting sink index, volumetric shrinkage and warpage as the main quality indexes, the optimum injection molding parameters combination was obtained by using orthogonal experiment and multi-objective integral balance method.The analysis results showed that high-gloss injection molding had more advantages in improving defects of thin shell injection molding parts with holes compared with conventional injection molding.High-gloss injection molding ; thin shell injection molding parts with holes ; orthogonal experiment design;

  10. The use of IR thermography to show the mold and part temperature evolution in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, Karol; Różański, Leszek; Marciniak-Podsadna, Lidia; Wróbel, Dawid

    2016-12-01

    This study concerns the application of infrared camera for injection molding analysis by measuring temperatures of both injection molded parts and injection mold cavities in a function of injection cycles. The mold with two cavities, differing in thickness (1 and 3 mm), and a cold direct runner was used. Isotactic polypropylene homopolymer was utilized to produce parts. Mold temperature was set at 22°C and controlled by a water chiller. Five measuring points were determined: SP1, SP2 (placed in the 3 mm cavity), SP3, SP4 (located in the 1 mm cavity) and SP5 around an injection molding gate. Our investigations showed that the highest temperature is localized around SP2 point and the lowest at SP4. Also, it was proved that even after 62 injection molding cycles, temperatures of cavities were not stable, revealing their further increase with each cycle.

  11. The use of IR thermography to show the mold and part temperature evolution in injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bula Karol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the application of infrared camera for injection molding analysis by measuring temperatures of both injection molded parts and injection mold cavities in a function of injection cycles. The mold with two cavities, differing in thickness (1 and 3 mm, and a cold direct runner was used. Isotactic polypropylene homopolymer was utilized to produce parts. Mold temperature was set at 22°C and controlled by a water chiller. Five measuring points were determined: SP1, SP2 (placed in the 3 mm cavity, SP3, SP4 (located in the 1 mm cavity and SP5 around an injection molding gate. Our investigations showed that the highest temperature is localized around SP2 point and the lowest at SP4. Also, it was proved that even after 62 injection molding cycles, temperatures of cavities were not stable, revealing their further increase with each cycle.

  12. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...

  13. Methods of Automatic Parting Mold and Manual Parting Mold for Injection Mold Design Based on UG%基于UG注射模设计的自动分模和手动分模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海涛

    2012-01-01

    UG software is widely applied in plastic injection mold design,the basic principle of parting mold is introduced in this paper,and the UG application in plastic injection mold design is studied with a concrete case.The process of automatic parting mold and manual parting mold in UG are expatiated,the flexible application of two methods will significantly reduce mold design time and greatly improve the efficiency of injection mold design.%UG软件广泛地应用在注射模设计中,本文介绍了分模原理,并结合实例研究UG软件在注射模设计中的应用。介绍了自动分模和手动分模方法,两种方法的灵活应用可以缩短模具设计周期,提高注射模设计的效率。

  14. Research cooperation project on the development of easy injection molding control technology for engineering plastics; Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to enhance the industries which supply assembly parts to Japan`s assembly industries in Thailand, research cooperation project on the plastic parts production technology has started. For the research cooperation, the mold design is effectively conducted using simulation technique of CAE (computer aided engineering), and an international easy injection molding control system is made using the molding support software for injection molding machines. In FY 1996, actual situations of plastic parts and assembly industries in Thailand have been investigated through the cooperation with the counterpart of Thailand. Demand and supply of engineering plastics, receive and inspection of parts, and current circumstances of molding processing makers in Thailand have been grasped. Based on the results of this investigation, proposal of basic plan, time schedule, and delivery plan of molding machines and testing equipment have been discussed, to make the basic plan. 18 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  16. A Modified Cost Estimation Formulae for Calculating Manufacturing Cost of Injection Part/Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In modern society, a plastic part has its own important position. To the managers and decision-makers in the field of plastic component, how to decide the manufacturing cost of the injection part or injection mold as quickly as possible is most valuable. Cost estimation formulae (CEF) are the most common method to evaluate the cost of injection part/mold, which is similar to our ordinary thinking. In this paper, a CEF method used by Dr. Weiyi Hu in Massachusetts University is first discussed. To the problems existed in the formulae, we propose an improved algorithm. This algorithm can be used to estimate the manufacturing cost of injection part/mold accurately in the early design stage.

  17. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sang [Alliance Molding Engineering TeamLG Electronics Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Mold Deformation Including Plastic Melt Flow During Injection Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon Tae; Lee, Bong-Kee [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, a numerical analysis of an injection molding process was conducted for predicting the mold deformation considering non-Newtonian flow, heat transfer, and structural behavior. The accurate prediction of mold deformation during the filling stage is important to successfully design and manufacture a precision injection mold. While the local mold deformation can be caused by various factors, a pressure induced by the polymer melt is considered to be one of the most significant ones. In this regard, the numerical simulation considering both the melt filling and the mold deformation was carried out. A mold core for a 2D axisymmetric center-gated disk was used for the demonstration of the present study. The flow behavior inside the mold cavity and temperature distribution were analyzed along with the core displacement. Also, a Taguchi method was employed to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters including flow velocity, mold core temperature, and melt temperature.

  19. Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

  20. Establishing sustainable design and development for plastic mold under product service system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Kuo, Kuo-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Face the energy recovery and environmental concerns and policy, the plastic molds design and develop have to focus on the issues of the lead-free, non-toxic, recyclable, re-manufactured, and integrate...

  1. Mold Simulator Study of the Initial Solidification of Molten Steel in Continuous Casting Mold: Part II. Effects of Mold Oscillation and Mold Level Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin

    2016-04-01

    The surface quality of the continuous casting strands is closely related to the initial solidification of liquid steel in the vicinity of the mold meniscus, and thus the clear understanding of the behavior of molten steel initial solidification would be of great importance for the control of the quality of final slab. With the development of the mold simulator techniques, the complex interrelationship between the solidified shell surface profile, heat flux, shell thickness, mold level fluctuation, and the infiltrated slag film was well illustrated in our previous study. As the second part, this article investigated the effect of the mold oscillation frequency, stroke, and mold level fluctuation on the initial solidification of the molten steel through the conduction of five different experiments. Results suggested that in the case of the stable mold level, the oscillation marks (OMs) exhibit equally spaced horizon depressions on the shell surface, where the heat flux at the meniscus area raises rapidly during negative strip time (NST) period and the presence of each OMs on the shell surface is corresponding to a peak value of the heat flux variation rate. Otherwise, the shell surface is poorly defined by the existence of wave-type defects, such as ripples or deep depressions, and the heat flux variation is irregular during NST period. The rising of the mold level leads to the longer-pitch and deeper OMs formation; conversely, the falling of mold level introduces shorter-pitch and shallower OMs. With the increase of the mold oscillation frequency, the average value of the low-frequency heat flux at the meniscus increases; however, it decreases when the mold oscillation stroke increases. Additionally, the variation amplitude of the high-frequency temperature and the high-frequency heat flux decreases with the increase of the oscillation frequency and the reduction of the oscillation stroke.

  2. Residual stresses in injection molded shape memory polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katmer, Sukran; Esen, Huseyin; Karatas, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are materials which have shape memory effect (SME). SME is a property which has the ability to change shape when induced by a stimulator such as temperature, moisture, pH, electric current, magnetic field, light, etc. A process, known as programming, is applied to SMP parts in order to alter them from their permanent shape to their temporary shape. In this study we investigated effects of injection molding and programming processes on residual stresses in molded thermoplastic polyurethane shape memory polymer, experimentally. The residual stresses were measured by layer removal method. The study shows that injection molding and programming process conditions have significantly influence on residual stresses in molded shape memory polyurethane parts.

  3. Dimensional accuracy optimization of the micro-plastic injection molding process using the Taguchi design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chil-Chyuan KUO KUO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic injection molding is an important field in manufacturing industry because there are many plastic products that produced by injection molding. However, the time and cost required for producing a precision mold are the most troublesome problems that limit the application at the development stage of a new product in precision machinery industry. This study presents an approach of manufacturing a hard mold with microfeatures for micro-plastic injection molding. This study also focuses on Taguchi design method for investigating the effect of injection parameters on the dimensional accuracy of Fresnel lens during plastic injection molding. It was found that the dominant factor affecting the microgroove depth of Fresnel lens is packing pressure. The optimum processing parameters are packing pressure of 80 MPa, melt temperature of 240 °C, mold temperature of 90 °C and injection speed of 50 m/s. The dimensional accuracy of Fresnel lens can be controlled within ±3 µm using the optimum level of process parameters through the confirmation test. The research results of this study have industrial application values because electro-optical industries are able to significantly reduce a new optical element development cycle time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5864

  4. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  5. Influence of mold surface temperature on polymer part warpage in rapid heat cycle molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G. R.; Pacher, G. A.; Pichler, A.; Friesenbichler, W.; Gruber, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic mold surface temperature control was examined for its influence on the warpage. A test mold, featuring two different rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) technologies was used to manufacture complex plate-shaped parts having different ribs, varying thin-wall regions, and both, circular and rectangular cut-outs. The mold's nozzle side is equipped with the areal heating and cooling technology BFMOLD®, where the heating/cooling channels are replaced by a ball-filled slot near the cavity surface flooded through with hot and cold water sequentially. Two local electrical ceramic heating elements are installed into the mold's ejection side. Based on a 23 full-factorial design of experiments (DoE) plan, varying nozzle temperature (Tnozzle), rapid heat cycle molding temperature (TRHCM) and holding pressure (pn), specimens of POM were manufactured systematically. Five specimens were examined per DoE run. The resulting warpage was measured at 6 surface line scans per part using the non-contact confocal topography system FRT MicroProf®. Two warpage parameters were calculated, the curvature of a 2nd order approximation a, and the vertical deflection at the profile center d. Both, the influence strength and the acting direction of the process parameters and their interactions on a and d were calculated by statistical analysis. Linear mathematical process models were determined for a and d to predict the warpage as a function of the process parameter settings. Finally, an optimum process setting was predicted, based on the process models and Microsoft Excel GRG solver. Clear and significant influences of TRHCM, pn, Tnozzle, and the interaction of TRHCM and pn were determined. While TRHCM was dominant close to the gate, pn became more effective as the flow length increased.

  6. Scratch Performance Investigation on Injection Molding Visible Plastic Parts of Passenger Vehicle%乘用车注塑外观塑料零件刮擦性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀玲

    2012-01-01

    Using Cross Hatch test method to evaluate the anti -scratch whitening performance, mainly test the talc filled PP which are molded into part or plaque and analyze effects caused by appearance definition, coloring approach, sample preparation, etc. in order to find the right solution and direction so that we can find solution for scratch performance improvement%主要针对采用十字划格的测试方法,对添加滑石粉改性PP类材料配色注塑而成的零件或样板进行抗刮擦发白性能的评估,从外观定义、配色过程、样品准备等方面分析其对刮擦测试结果产生的影响,以期找到耐刮性能影响因素和改进方向.

  7. Potential for Reuse of E-Plastics through Processing by Compression Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mills

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of e-waste, consisting of metal (e-metals and plastic (e-plastics streams from electronic goods, are increasing in the United States and elsewhere. The e-metals waste streams are being recycled to a reasonable degree due to the value of precious metals. E-plastic waste streams currently are not recycled or reused to a significant extent. As a result, most e-plastics are disposed of by landfilling or thermal treatment, or sent overseas for alleged recycling or reuse, any of which could result in unsafe worker exposure and release into the environment. Two of the major barriers to e-plastics’ reuse or recycling are the mixed plastic content and the presence in the e-plastics of flame retardants (FR, of which two classes in particular, the brominated flame retardants (BFR and organo-phosphorus flame retardants (OPFR, have associated health concerns. The major goal of this project is to investigate the possibility of direct reuse of e-plastics in compression molding. Preliminary data generated have identified a molding procedure that yields remanufactured e-plastics having a tensile strength of 29.3 MPa. This moderate strength level is suspected to be due to inclusions of plastic bits that did not melt and internal voids from out-gassing. Handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF was utilized to characterize elemental components in the e-plastics tested for compression molding. Several high “hits” for Br were found that could not be predicted visually. The preliminary XRF data for BFR and OPFR in this work are helpful for environmental and occupational hazard assessments of compression molding activities. Additionally, methods are suggested to characterize the metals, BFR, and OPFR content of the e-plastics using several different additional laboratory analytical techniques to determine the suitability for cost-effective and easy-to-use technologies.

  8. 塑料中央面板热流道注射模设计%Design of Hot Runner Injection Mold for Plastics Central Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    2012-01-01

    针对中央面板塑料件,利用Pro/Plastic Advisor进行充型模拟,确定最佳浇口数量与位置.基于UG/Moldwizerd和UG/Solid Modeling,应用手动与自动分模相结合的方法,进行整套模具结构的全三维设计.企业生产实践证明,用该模具生产的塑料件尺寸、形位公差符合要求.%Aiming at the plastics central panel, the whole filling process of plastics part was simulated by utilizing Pro/Plastic Advisor. Application of manual and automatic mold design method, the all three-dimensional design of injection mold structure was proceeded by UG / Moldwizerd and UG/Solid Modeling. The size and shape of plastic part conformed the request by production practice of proven.

  9. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-04

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decr...

  11. Mathematical modeling of the in-mold coating process for injection-molded thermoplastic parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu

    In-Mold Coating (IMC) has been successfully used for many years for exterior body panels made from compression molded Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The coating material is a single component reactive fluid, designed to improve the surface quality of SMC moldings in terms of functional and cosmetic properties. When injected onto a cured SMC part, IMC cures and bonds to provide a pain-like surface. Because of its distinct advantages, IMC is being considered for application to injection molded thermoplastic parts. For a successful in mold coating operation, there are two key issues related to the flow of the coating. First, the injection nozzle should be located such that the thermoplastic substrate is totally covered and the potential for air trapping is minimized. The selected location should be cosmetically acceptable since it most likely will leave a mark on the coated surface. The nozzle location also needs to be accessible for easy of maintenance. Secondly, the hydraulic force generated by the coating injection pressure should not exceed the available clamping tonnage. If the clamping force is exceeded, coating leakage will occur. In this study, mathematical models for IMC flow on the compressible thermoplastic substrate have been developed. Finite Difference Method (FDM) is first used to solve the 1 dimensional (1D) IMC flow problem. In order to investigate the application of Control Volume based Finite Element Method (CV/FEM) to more complicated two dimensional IMC flow, that method is first evaluated by solving the 1D IMC flow problem. An analytical solution, which can be obtained when a linear relationship between the coating thickness and coating injection pressure is assumed, is used to verify the numerical results. The mathematical models for the 2 dimensional (2D) IMC flow are based on the generalized Hele-Shaw approximation. It has been found experimentally that the power law viscosity model adequately predicts the rheological behavior of the coating

  12. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture load information at very high speed from the impact tests.

  13. Testing of molded high temperature plastic actuator road seals for use in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, A. W.; Huxford, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Molded high temperature plastic first and second stage rod seal elements were evaluated in seal assemblies to determine performance characteristics. These characteristics were compared with the performance of machined seal elements. The 6.35 cm second stage Chevron seal assembly was tested using molded Chevrons fabricated from five molding materials. Impulse screening tests conducted over a range of 311 K to 478 K revealed thermal setting deficiencies in the aromatic polyimide molding materials. Seal elements fabricated from aromatic copolyester materials structurally failed during impulse cycle calibration. Endurance testing of 3.85 million cycles at 450 K using MIL-H-83283 fluid showed poorer seal performance with the unfilled aromatic polyimide material than had been attained with seals machined from Vespel SP-21 material. The 6.35 cm first stage step-cut compression loaded seal ring fabricated from copolyester injection molding material failed structurally during impulse cycle calibration. Molding of complex shape rod seals was shown to be a potentially controllable technique, but additional molding material property testing is recommended.

  14. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  15. Design of the Injection Mold for Plastic Pipe Bracket%塑管支架注射模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕东; 张兰英

    2012-01-01

    通过对塑料支架塑件结构的分析,介绍了该塑件注射模的成型工艺过程,提出了模具采用塑件侧面作为分型面的方案,使模具在采用斜导柱侧向抽芯机构脱模时,其结构简单实用,易于加工调试,解决了注射成型后塑件的脱模的问题。经大批量的生产检验,该模具结构合理,生产效率高,塑件质量好。%Based on the analysis of structure of product of plastic bracket, introduced the injection mold of the molding process, put forward by product as mold side parting surface scheme, the die in the inclined guide pillar side pulling-core mechanism of stripping, the structure is simple and practical, easy processing and debugging, solved after injection molding product release problemo The products in large quantities of production test, the die structure is reasonable, high production efficiency, good product quality.

  16. Analysis of Injection Molding Process Based on MoldFlow/MPI for Large Plastic Pallet%基于MoldFlow/MPI的大型塑料托盘注射成型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段贤勇

    2012-01-01

    运用MoldFlow/MPI模块对大型塑料托盘注射成型过程进行模流分析,预测了可能出现的注射短射等缺陷,根据分析结果,提出了工艺优化方案,从而缩短模具设计制造周期。%Used MoldFlow/MPI to analyze the mold flow for the large plastic pallet molding process, and predict the possible injection molding defects such as injection molding short shot. According to the analysis, it gives process optimization to reduce the mold design and manufacture cycle.

  17. Automatic polishing process of plastic injection molds on a 5-axis milling center

    CERN Document Server

    Pessoles, Xavier; 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.08.034

    2010-01-01

    The plastic injection mold manufacturing process includes polishing operations when surface roughness is critical or mirror effect is required to produce transparent parts. This polishing operation is mainly carried out manually by skilled workers of subcontractor companies. In this paper, we propose an automatic polishing technique on a 5-axis milling center in order to use the same means of production from machining to polishing and reduce the costs. We develop special algorithms to compute 5-axis cutter locations on free-form cavities in order to imitate the skills of the workers. These are based on both filling curves and trochoidal curves. The polishing force is ensured by the compliance of the passive tool itself and set-up by calibration between displacement and force based on a force sensor. The compliance of the tool helps to avoid kinematical error effects on the part during 5-axis tool movements. The effectiveness of the method in terms of the surface roughness quality and the simplicity of impleme...

  18. Engineering Design Handbook Rotational Molding of Plastic Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    surface finish requirements, shape, and plating bath composition and temperature. Materials include plastics, glass, wax , latex, rubber, wood, plaster...are slightly longer when using PTFE end caps, inasmuch as PTFE is a thermal insulator. Rotolining is a technique for lining hollow metal objects...aluminum, and 1 in. thick PTFE have been employed successfully. To permit resin to flow onto flange faces, end caps must have a raised or machined-out

  19. THERMOSETTING PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING(1)BASIC THERMOSETTING PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING%热固性塑料注射成型(一)基本热固性塑料注射成型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海青

    2001-01-01

    论述了热固性塑料注射成型的方法、工艺、设备和模具设计方面的问题。%Molding process,equipment and die of thermosetting plastics for injection molding discussed in the paper.

  20. Development of a plastic injection molding training system using Petri nets and virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, Virtual Reality (VR)-based plastic injection molding training system (VPIMTS), which can be modeled as an integrated system with a task planning module, an intelligent instruction module, a simulation module, and virtual environment (VE) module, was developed. Presented in this paper are an architecture of VPIMTS, a practical knowledge modelling approach for modelling the training scenarios of the system by using Petri nets formalism and key techniques (FEM, injection molding procedure modelling) which have been developed independently. The utilization of the Petri net model realized the environment where the trainee can behave freely, and also made it possible to equip the system with the function of showing the next action of the trainee whenever he wants. The overall system is a powerful approach for highly improving the trainee's comprehension and injection molding study-efficiency by building digital, intelligent, knowledgeable, and visual aids.

  1. Computer aided design of free-machinability prehardened mold steel for plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yan-lin; LI Lin; GAO Wen; WANG Qing-liang; WU Xiao-chun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the machinability but not to impair other properties of the prehardened mold steel for plastic, the composition was designed by application of Thermo-Calc software package to regulate the type of nonmetallic inclusion formed in the steel. The regulated non-metallic inclusion type was also observed by SEM and EDX. Then the maehinability assessment of the steel with designed composition under different conditions was studied by the measurement of tool wear amount and cutting force. The results show that the composition of free cutting elements adding to mold steel for plastic can be optimized to obtain proper type of non-metallic inclusion in the aid of Thermo-Calc, compared with the large volume fraction of soft inclusion which is needed for promoting ductile fracture at low cutting speeds, the proper type of inclusion at high cutting speeds is glassy oxide inclusion. All those can be obtained in the present work.

  2. Production of soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotong, N; Suwanarit, P

    1983-11-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 10 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50 degrees C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decreased from 35.22 to 6.32% with no significant effect on spore viability. The dry spores could be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature for at least 3 months.

  3. Mold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-02

    This podcast answers a listener's question about the risks associated with mold after a natural disaster or severe weather.  Created: 5/2/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  4. Research on Injection Molding Process and Mold Design of Table Frame Plastic Parts Based on Concurrent Engineering%基于并行工程的台面框塑件注射成型工艺及模具设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于智宏; 李承斌

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,based on the concurrent engineering technology integrated of the CAE and CAD,which was applied in injection molding,the design of injection mold structure and the scheme of injection molding process will be confirmed more reasonably before actual production of molds and products,so as to realize more rapid efficient and accurate production to help improving competitive advantage of enterprises.%通过将基于CAE与CAD集成的并行工程技术应用于注射成型中,实现在模具、产品实际投产前确定更合理的注射模具结构设计和注射成型工艺方案,而更快速实现高效、精确的生产,以帮助企业提高竞争优势.

  5. Effects of Process Parameters on Replication Accuracy of Microinjection Molded Cyclic Olefins Copolymers Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Chen, Chun-Sheng; Lee, Ruey-Tsung; Chen, Shia-Chung; Chien, Rean-Der; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Hwang, Jiun-Ren

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of various processing parameters of microinjection molding on the replication accuracy of the micro featured fluidic platform used for DNA/RNA tests are investigated. LIGA-like processes were utilized to prepare a silicon-based SU-8 photoresist, followed by electroforming to make a Ni-Co-based stamp. A cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) was used as the injection molding material. The molding parameters associated with the replication accuracy of micro channel parts were investigated. It was found that for microinjection molded devices, the replication accuracies of the imprint width and depth increase with increasing of mold temperature, melt temperature, injection velocity, and packing pressure.

  6. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  7. Vacuum Infusion Molding Process (Part 2 VIMP Based on Grooves)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-dan; DENG Jing-lan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua

    2003-01-01

    The optimal parameters for flow grooves and supply grooves were determined by a series of experiments , and the influences of various molding conditions on the mold filling process were analyzed. Furthermore ,the whole VIMP procedure based on grooves was introduced in detail taking the manufacture of a sandwich panel as an example.

  8. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    different simulation models are established: a version including the part without the surrounding mold block, an advanced version including the mold block and conventional cooling channels, and a third version alike the second with additional conformal cooling for efficient thermal management...... of the implementation of the actual mold block, conventional cooling, and conformal cooling. In the comparison, characteristic quality criteria for injection molding are studied, such as the filling behavior of the cavity, the injection pressure, the temperature distribution, and the resulting part warpage....... Additionally, the analysis of the cooling channels exploiting computational fluid dynamics is introduced as helpful tool for the mold design process. It is observed that the comprehensive implementation of the actual injection molding system and conditions is highly relevant at sub-mm/micro dimensional scales...

  9. Occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in a plastic injection molding factory in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Wided; Thannimalay, Letchumi; Soon, Chen Sau; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2017-07-14

    The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia. Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and urine samples was quantified by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry - selected ion monitoring (GCMS-SIM) analysis. Bisphenol A was detected in the median range of 8-28.3 ng/m³ and 2.4-3.59 ng/m³ for the 5 sampling points in the plastic molding factory and in the ambient air respectively. The median urinary BPA concentration was significantly higher in the workers (3.81 ng/ml) than in control subjects (0.73 ng/ml). The urinary BPA concentration was significantly associated with airborne BPA levels (ρ = 0.55, p factory in Malaysia are occupationally exposed to BPA. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):743-750.

  10. Analysis of Cavity Pressure and Warpage of Polyoxymethylene Thin Walled Injection Molded Parts: Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    , melt and mold temperatures, material rheological and pvT characterization. Factors investigated for comparisons were: injection pressure profile, short shots length, flow pattern, and warpage. A reliable molding experimental database was obtained, accurate simulations were conducted and a number......Process analysis and simulations on molding experiments of 3D thin shell parts have been conducted. Moldings were carried out with polyoxymethylene (POM). The moldings were performed with cavity pressure sensors in order to compare experimental process results with simulations. The warpage...... was characterized by measuring distances using a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions. Various aspects have been considered in the simulation: machine barrel geometry, injection speed profiles, cavity injection pressure...

  11. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Tru Design, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the cooperative research project under consignment from NEDO on technology for simply setting-up of the molding conditions of engineering plastics; 1997 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku (Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A cooperative research project was carried out between Japan and Thailand with the aim of developing a system which can simply set up molding conditions using as elements the technology on mold design and injection molding in plastic parts production and the experiment/evaluation technology for making sure of the quality of molded products. In fiscal 1997, based on the basic plan worked out in the previous fiscal year, molding equipment, auxiliary equipment, mold, experimental equipment, injection molding CEA system, etc. were installed at Thailand`s BSID (Bureau of Supporting Industries Development). Supported by equipment manufacturers, the technical guidance was given for operation/maintenance/control of all equipment. At the same time, researchers were sent from Japan, and the joint research was started. Japan received three researchers from BSID for training of molding technology, injection molding CEA program use technology, and experimental evaluation technology. The engineering plastics used for study are polyacetal, polyamide and polycarbonate. 17 refs., 68 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. DESIGN TECHNOLOGY FOR INJECTION MOLD PARTING SURFACE BASED ON CASES AND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tongmin; Li Guanhua; Li Youmin; Lan Jian

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the comprehensive analysis about the automatic generation of the injection mold parting surface, the parting surface design method which introduces knowledge and casebased reasoning (CBR) into the computer-aided design is described by combining with the actual characteristic in injection mold design, and the design process of case-based reasoning method is also given. A case library including the information of parting surface is built with the index of main shape features. The automatic design of the mold parting surface is realized combined with the forward-reasoning method and the similarity solution procedure. The rule knowledge library is also founded including the knowledge, principles and experiences for parting surface design. An example is used to show the validity of the method, and the quality and the efficiency of the mold design are improved.

  14. Research in manufacturing of micro-structured injection molded polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Thomas; Struklec, Tobias; Burgsteiner, Martin; Graninger, Georg; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    An overview of current research results is given for the topic of injection molding of micro-structured polymer parts regarding filling behavior and demolding process of micro-structures as well as the production of micro-structures on curved surfaces. In order to better understand how micro-structures are formed during the filling stage of injection molding, a study was performed on a test part with micro-channels placed parallely and perpendicularly to flow direction. Short shots with a highly fluent Polypropylene grade were injection molded with the melt front stopping in the structure fields. The melt and mold temperature, the injection rate as well as the use of a variotherm heating system were varied in a systematic Design of Experiments. The shape of the flow front was investigated with the optical measurement system Alicona InfiniteFocus. The data gained was analyzed with Matlab scripts and provided the needed distance to completely fill the structures as a reference value. The next topic covers the demolding step, which is a crucial process step in injection molding of micro-structured parts as the successfully replicated structures often get destroyed in the following demolding step. In order to evaluate the influence of the four aspects polymer, mold surface (coatings), structure (geometry and placement) and process settings on the demolding behavior, an injection mold with integrated measurement system was built, which makes it possible to measure the demolding force respectively a demolding energy under process conditions. These values can be used to quantitatively compare the impact of the above mentioned influencing factors on demolding. Finally, a concept to produce micro-structures on curved surfaces with injection molding is shown: A flat metal premaster structure is used to produce an elastomeric polymer (dimethylsiloxane) master in a casting process. This master is fixed in a conventional injection mold and a thermoplastic polymer is replicated

  15. Discussion on the Process of Design and Manufactur-ing of Plastic Mold%浅谈塑料模具设计与制造的工艺流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海涛

    2015-01-01

    Design and manufacture of plastic mold is a complex process . There are great differences between theory and production practices . As an example of the plastic parts in an enterprise , mold design and manufacturing of the actual process of the small and medi-um mold enterprises are introduced . It also discussed how the specific process steps of mold design and mold manufacturing as mold design and mold manufacturing are conducted simultaneously. The production process has been widely adopted by the small and medium mold enter-prises because it can improve production efficiency . According to the production process , a qualified plastic parts are created . The production process can provide a reference to actual production .%塑料模具设计与制造是一个复杂的过程,而且理论与生产实践有很大的差异.以企业某塑件实例,按照带侧抽芯模具结构,详细介绍了中小模具企业模具设计与制造的实际工艺流程;论述了模具设计与模具制造同时进行时,模具设计与模具制造的具体工艺步骤,这种工艺流程提高了生产效率,在中小模具企业广泛采用;按照生产流程制造出合格塑件,为实际生产提供参考.

  16. Analysis of cavity pressure and warpage of polyoxymethylene thin walled injection molded parts: Experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, P.; Tosello, G.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    Process analysis and simulations on molding experiments of 3D thin shell parts have been conducted. Moldings were carried out with polyoxymethylene (POM). The moldings were performed with cavity pressure sensors in order to compare experimental process results with simulations. The warpage was characterized by measuring distances using a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions. Various aspects have been considered in the simulation: machine barrel geometry, injection speed profiles, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, material rheological and pvT characterization. Factors investigated for comparisons were: injection pressure profile, short shots length, flow pattern, and warpage. A reliable molding experimental database was obtained, accurate simulations were conducted and a number of conclusions concerning improvements to simulation accuracy are presented regarding: pvT data, mesh, short shots, cavity pressure for process control validation as well as molding machine geometry modelling. Eventually, a methodology for improved molding simulations of cavity injection pressure, filling pattern and warpage was established.

  17. STRESS ANALYSIS OF INJECTION MOLDED PARTS IN POST-FILLING STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The linear isothermo-viscoelastic constitutive equation is established according to the principle of viscoelastic mechanics. Given the boundary conditions of the temperature field, the linear themo-viscoelastic constitutive equation is established acording to the analysis of the thermorheologically simple. The stress analysis model is constructed on the base of some reasonable hypotheses which consider the restraint conditions of mold and the characteristics of injection molding in the post-filling stage. The mathematical model is calculated by the finite difference method. The results can help to predict the warpage of plastic products.

  18. Effect of fast mold surface temperature evolution on iPP part morphology gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liparoti, Sara [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Sorrentino, Andrea [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB), National Research Council (CNR), P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Guzman, Gustavo; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Titomanlio, Giuseppe, E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it [Department of Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States)

    2016-03-09

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that affects the sample surface morphology as well as the structural gradients (orientation crystal size, and type) as well as cooling stresses. The frozen layer thickness formed during the filling stage also has a very significant effect on the flow resistance and thus on the resulting pressure drop and flow length in thin wall parts. The possibility to have a hot mold during filling and a quick cooling soon afterward is a significant process enhancement particularly for specialized applications such as micro injection molding and for the reproduction of micro structured surfaces. Up to now, several methods (electromagnetic, infrared, hot vapor fleshing etc,) were tried to achieve fast temperature evolution of the mold. Unfortunately, all these methods require a complex balance between thermal and mechanical problems, equipment cost, energy consumption, safety, molding cycle time and part quality achievable. In this work, a thin electrical resistance was designed and used to generate a fast and confined temperature variation on mold surface (by joule effect). Since the whole temperature evolution can take place in a few seconds, one can couple the advantages of a high surface temperature during filling with the advantages of a low mold temperature, fast cooling and low heating dissipation. Some experiments were performed with a commercial iPP resin. The effects of the surface temperature and of the heating time (under constant electric power) on surface finishing and on the final morphology (thickness and structure of the different layers) are explored and discussed.

  19. 基于Siemens NX软件对塑件产品的分模设计%Based on Siemens NX Software Parting Design of Plastic Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹娅

    2016-01-01

    本文通过实例分析塑料模具的分型面设计,分析塑料模具分型面的设计方法、分类,总结手工分模和自动分模时对于复杂分型面的应对方法。%In this paper, through an example analysis of plastic mold parting surface design, analysis of plastic mold parting surface design method, classiifcation, summary manual parting and automatic parting of the complex parting surface of the response method.

  20. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    OpenAIRE

    Chamnarn Thongmark; Jariyaporn Onwong

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated i...

  1. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    OpenAIRE

    Chamnarn Thongmark; Jariyaporn Onwong

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated i...

  2. A study of the optimum configuration of injection molded plastic gear by modification of gear tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Suep; Kwon, Young-Doo; Doc, Jin-Uk; Leed, Jun-Hyuk

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the gear system is optimized by modifying the tooth configuration of the plastic gears. Plastic gear is widely used as a machine element in industries of electric and electronic parts, automotive parts etc. Unlike the steel gear, the plastic gear has low load- transmission, durability and reliability. On the other hand, it is light-weight, low-noise, operable without a lubricant, shock absorptive, and anti-corrosive. The gear characteristics are calculated and analyzed by Hexagon and FEM (Finite Element Method) tools, and the characteristics of the standard gear and the addendum modified gear of the steel gear and the plastic gear are compared. When torque is applied to these gear systems, the system using the addendum modified gear can realize soft contact between gears. So, the noise of the addendum modified gear system was less than that of the common normal gear system. However, this is not applicable to any material, such as steel which is governed by DIN (Deuteshe Industrie Norm) recommendation. This study adopted the narrow tip tooth plastic gear, and proposed the optimum addendum modified gear with respect to stress, noise and contact ratio. To calculate and analyze the simulation of gear matching, we used commercial tools like CATIA, Auto-CAD, MARC for simulation and Hexagon for calculation.

  3. 3D scanning based mold correction for planar and cylindrical parts in aluminum die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Seno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum die casting is an important manufacturing process for mechanical components. Die casting is known to be more accurate than other types of casting; however, post-machining is usually necessary to achieve the required accuracy. The goal of this investigation is to develop machining- free aluminum die casting. Improvement of the accuracy of planar and cylindrical parts is expected by correcting metal molds. In the proposed method, the shape of cast aluminum made with the initial metal molds is measured by 3D scanning. The 3D scan data includes information about deformations that occur during casting. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the deformation and correction amounts by comparing 3D scan data with product computer-aided design (CAD data. We corrected planar and cylindrical parts of the CAD data for the mold. In addition, we corrected the planar part of the metal mold using the corrected mold data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by evaluating the accuracy improvement of the cast aluminum made with the corrected mold.

  4. The Facility and Process Technics of Polyethylene Rotational Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction Rotational molding is the process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It mainly processes the product which Injection molding and Blow molding can not process medium-sized, large-sized and super large-sized plastic parts. The technics may turn out a tub, dustbin, stock tank, sailboat. The research institute of Lanzhou introduces a suit of RS-16 Rotational Molding Machine from Germany Reinhadt Co. on 1990. It mainly put up experiment and smallscale production. RS-16 rotational molding machine is a single arm and di-axial equipment. It is consisting of a gas heated sintering oven, cooling chamber, mouldcarrying carriage and a controlling unit.

  5. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamnarn Thongmark

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated in order to validate the developed system. Based on standardized procedures, the system provides counseling that is able to resolve relevant issues at the early stage of the mold design. The system can be used for both designing and training in rubber mold fabrication.

  6. Two-part silicone mold. A new tool for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marroig

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Flexible ureteroscopy is a common procedure nowadays. Most of the training programs use virtual reality simulators. The aim of this study was to standardize the building of a three-dimensional silicone mold (cavity of the collecting system, on the basis of polyester resin endocasts, which can be used in surgical training programs. Materials and Methods: A yellow polyester resin was injected into the ureter to fill the collecting system of 24 cadaveric fresh human kidneys. After setting off the resin, the kidneys were immersed in hydrochloric acid until total corrosion of the organic matter was achieved and the collecting system endocasts obtained. The endocasts were used to prepare white color two-part silicone molds, which after endocasts withdrawn, enabled a ureteroscope insertion into the collecting system molds (cavities. Also, the minor calices were painted with different colors in order to map the access to the different caliceal groups. The cost of the materials used in the molds is $30.00 and two days are needed to build them. Results: Flexible ureteroscope could be inserted into all molds and the entire collecting system could be examined. Since some anatomical features, as infundular length, acute angle, and perpendicular minor calices may difficult the access to some minor calices, especially in the lower caliceal group, surgical training in models leads to better surgical results. Conclusions: The two-part silicone mold is feasible, cheap and allows its use for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training.

  7. In-line polariscopic checking of plastic molded-injected lenses: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasa, J.; Mayershofer, D.; Romero, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plastic injection molded lenses have improved its performance and, nowadays, are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, the manufacturing process induces the surface generation and the material transformation in the same stage. Moreover, the process also includes an annealing stage to remove the internal stress with temperature cycles but only works up to a certain level and not beyond, leaving relevant traces for high values. During the manufacturing process of a plastic lens, a liquid-solid phase transformation occurs, and in this transition not all the volume of the lens achieves the same density. This change of density is translated into a local change of refractive index that can be expressed as a retardation phase plane using the Jones Matrix notation. The detection and measurement of the value of the retardation of the phase plane is thus the clue to manufacture good and controlled quality plastic lenses. We have tested an in-line polariscopic arrangement to obtain a 2D map of the tension distribution in the bulk of the lens. This test is performed in the first 30 seconds after the injection molding process for two main reasons: first the stress values are still high because the lenses do not have enough time to relax the internal tensions and obtain the final shape, and second, we can remove the wrong lenses in the first moments and introduce only the good lenses in the annealing stage. The proposed instrument is based in a transmission polariscopic arrangement. A collimated light beam is used to illuminate the sample, once the light crosses the sample, it is collected with an afocal system and the image is recorded in a CMOS sensor. Selecting an afocal system to capture the image is a useful decision because the lateral magnification can be maintained when small changes in the sample position are introduced. However the produced lenses can vary their focal lengths from on series to another. To avoid problems with the change of the

  8. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...

  9. Design of Plastic Injection Mold for the New Switch Cover%新型开关盖注射模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪晓燕

    2012-01-01

    This paper described design steps of injection mold of a new switch cover, including plastic process analysis, determine of molding project, choice of injection machine, the overall structure design of the mold, molding size calculations and so on.%阐述了新型开关盖注射模的设计步骤,主要包括塑件工艺性分析、成型方案的确定、注塑机的选择与校核、模具的总体结构设计、成型尺寸的计算等方面。

  10. Profile extrusion of wood plastic cellular composites and formulation evaluation using compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rubyet

    Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) have experienced a healthy growth during the last decade. However, improvement in properties is necessary to increase their utility for structural applications. The toughness of WPCs can be improved by creating a fine cellular structure while reducing the density. Extrusion processing is one of the most economical methods for profile formation. For our study, rectangular profiles were extruded using a twin-screw extrusion system with different grades of HDPE and with varying wood fibre and lubricant contents together with maleated polyethylene (MAPE) coupling agent to investigate their effects on WPC processing and mechanical properties. Work has been done to redesign the extrusion system setup to achieve smoother and stronger profiles. A guiding shaper, submerged in the water, has been designed to guide the material directly through water immediately after exiting the die; instead of passing it through a water cooled vacuum calibrator and then through water. In this way a skin was formed quickly that facilitated the production of smoother profiles. Later on chemical blowing agent (CBA) was used to generate cellular structure in the profile by the same extrusion system. CBA contents die temperatures, drawdown ratios (DDR) and wood fibre contents (WF) were varied for optimization of mechanical properties and morphology. Cell morphology and fibre alignment was characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A new compression molding system was developed to help in quick evaluation of different material formulations. This system forces the materials to flow in one direction to achieve higher net alignment of fibres during sample preparation, which is the case during profile extrusion. Operation parameters were optimized and improvements in WPC properties were observed compared to samples prepared by conventional hot press and profile extrusion.

  11. Tool application CAD / CAM for design and construction of a prototype of plastic injection mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Miyer Suárez Castrillón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study, development and production of injection molds comes with the implementation of CAD and CAM tools available on the market; using these tools, a prototype injection mold for thermoplastic materials was designed and built, based on a mold is injection in the laboratory of the University of Pamplona, in which a couple of modifications were made in order to experiment with its design. The prototype was manufactured through a 3D scan of the original mold to provide the CAD / CAM files with the simulated 3D printing technique for performing an experimental study with the prototype for adjusting temperature and pressure sensors and for coatings metallic materials for use in the injection molding process.

  12. IMPROVE THE KINETIC PERFORMANCE OF THE PUMP CONTROLLED CLAMPING UNIT IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the clamping unit of plastic injection molding machine that is controlled by close loop with newly developed double speed variable pump unit are investigated.Considering the wide variation of the cylinder equivalent mass caused by the transmission ratio of clamping unit and the severe instantaneous impact force acted on the cylinder during the mold closing and opening process, an adaptive control principle of parameter and structure is proposed to improve its kinetic performance. The adaptive correlation between the acceleration feedback gain and the variable mass is derived. The pressure differential feedback is introduced to improve the dynamic performance in the case of small inertia and heavy impact load. The adaptation of sum pressure to load is used to reduce the energy loss of the system. The research results are verified by the simulation and experiment. The investigation method and the conclusions are also suitable for the differential cylinder system controlled by the traditional servo pump unit.

  13. Dimensional accuracy optimization of the micro-plastic injection molding process using the Taguchi design method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chil-Chyuan KUO KUO; Hsin-You LIAO

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the time and cost required for producing a precision mold are the most troublesome problems that limit the application at the development stage of a new product in precision machinery industry...

  14. Innovative use of wood-plastic-composites (WPC) as a core material in the sandwich injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Martin, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The demand for materials based on renewable raw materials has risen steadily in recent years. With society's increasing interest for climate protection and sustainability, natural-based materials such as wood-plastic-composites (WPC) have gained market share thanks to their positive reputation. Due to advantages over unreinforced plastics such as cost reduction and weight savings it is possible to use WPC in a wide area of application. Additionally, an increase in mechanical properties such as rigidity and strength is achieved by the fibers compared to unreinforced polymers. The combination of plastic and wood combines the positive properties of both components in an innovative material. Despite the many positive properties of wood-plastic-composite, there are also negative characteristics that prevent the use of WPC in many product areas, such as automotive interiors. In particular, increased water intake, which may result in swelling of near-surface particles, increased odor emissions, poor surface textures and distortion of the components are unacceptable for many applications. The sandwich injection molding process can improve this situation by eliminating the negative properties of WPC by enclosing it with a pure polymer. In this case, a layered structure of skin and core material is produced, wherein the core component is completely enclosed by the skin component. The suitability of WPC as the core component in the sandwich injection molding has not yet been investigated. In this study the possibilities and limitations of the use of WPC are presented. The consideration of different fiber types, fiber contents, skin materials and its effect on the filling behavior are the focus of the presented analysis.

  15. Foaming morphology control of microcellular injection molded parts with gas counter pressure and dynamic mold temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chao-Tsai; Chang, Rong-Yu; Hwang, Shyh-Shin

    2014-05-01

    Microcellular injection molding process is a promising solution for products with special requirements such as weight reduction, extra thin wall, high dimensional stability, clamping force reduction, etc. Despite microcellular foaming application used in reciprocating screw injection molding machine was built more than a decade, some limitations, such as poor surface quality or poor foaming control, confine the usage of this technology. Earlier CAE simulation tool for microcellular injection molding was not successful due to insufficient physical and computational considerations, limited by complicated bubble growth mechanism; so that, an economic and efficient tool for examining foaming quality of injection foaming product was lack. In this study, a recent developed three-dimensional simulation tool is used to predict injection foaming process. Predictions are carried out with commodity polypropylene and polystyrene with nitrogen and carbon dioxide supercritical fluids (SCFs). Comparisons of simulations between microcellular injection molding with and without counter pressure are discussed to provide insights into the correlation of surface quality and cell size distribution near the surface of product. Furthermore, comparisons between simulation predictions and experimental results of molding process, which is featured with dynamic mold temperature and gas counter pressure, are given for understanding quality improvement by controlling foaming morphology, and benefit of industrial application.

  16. Compaction Behavior and Part Thickness Variation in Vacuum Infusion Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinshui; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Jiang, Dazhi; Peng, Chaoyi

    2012-06-01

    In vacuum infusion molding process (VIMP), it is difficult to manufacture a composite part with small dimensional tolerance, since the upper mold for the process is flexible. In this study, the static and cyclic compaction responses of five kinds of fabrics were experimentally studied under real VIMP conditions, with the effects of compaction pressure, compaction time, compaction cycle and number of the fabric layers. The static and cyclic compaction responses of the all fabrics follow different power law models and the resulting fiber volume fraction and relaxation factor increase with the number of layers. Although the resulting fiber volume fraction increases with the layer numbers, change of the fiber volume fraction of the composite parts with 10 layers to 100 layers of the all fabrics is less than 2.5%. The thickness of the composite part was monitored and measured using micrometer gauges, and the effects of processing parameters on the final thickness of part was investigated. The part thickness varies as a function of spatial coordinates and time during pre-filling, filling and post-filling stages in VIMP. The variation and the final value of the part thickness would be significantly affected by the processing parameters. Statistical results show that the final part thickness is equivalent to the thickness of the dry preform under the 0.08 MPa vacuum compaction pressure in VIMP. The difference between the fiber volume fraction of the final part and that of the dry preform is 2% ~ 5.7%.

  17. Prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded parts using three-dimensional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Cook, Peter; Bakharev, Alex; Costa, Franco; Astbury, David

    2016-03-01

    The Folgar-Tucker (F-T) model is widely used in most commercial software packages and research programs to predict the fiber orientation distribution in injection-molded fiber-reinforced composites. However, experimental measurements reveal that the F-T model normally results in much higher fiber alignment than observed because it tends to over-predict the orientation kinetics. The Reduced Strain Closure (RSC) model was developed, based on the F-T model, to capture the slow orientation kinetics in an objective fashion. Previous studies demonstrate that t he RSC model yields good agreement of fiber orientation with experimental measurements in shell element simulations using the Hele-Shaw flow approximation. This paper focuses on the RSC model in three-dimensional finite element simulations. The fiber orientation predictions were compared to the orientation measurements in a number of injection-molded parts of various shapes and dimensions and molded with various injection speeds. The RSC model is able to capture the orientation distribution through the part thickness and the average orientation trends along the flow length without the need to tailor the inlet orientation condition to pre-existing data.

  18. Gate design in injection molding of microfluidic components using process simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, D. M.; Tosello, G.; Islam, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Just as in conventional injection molding of plastics, process simulations are an effective tool in the area of micro injection molding. They are applied in order to optimize and aid the design of the micro plastic part, the mold and the actual process. Available simulation software is actually...... made for macroscopic injection molding, but by means of the correct implementation and modelling strategy it can also be applied to micro plastic parts, as it is shown in the presented work. Process simulations are applied to two microfluidic devices (a micro distributor and a micro mixer) which shall...

  19. Evaluation of a local exhaust system used in the manufacture of small parts made of reinforced plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazure, L P

    2000-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced plastics are used to manufacture a large variety of products, particularly for the transportation sector. Hand lay-up molding and projection molding are the main methods of manufacture. The users of these processes are exposed to appreciable emissions of styrene; in Quebec, more than 3000 workers work in this industry. A statistical analysis of styrene concentrations measured over a five-year period by the Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST, Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute) reveals that for all of the main manufacturing sectors involved, between 40 percent and 78 percent of the results exceed the exposure standard of 50 ppm. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a ventilated table in controlling worker exposure to styrene and acetone in a shop that manufactures fiber-reinforced plastics parts. The evaluated local extraction system consists of a ventilated table with a surface area of 1.2 m x 1.2 m. During molding, the styrene emissions are exhausted through the ventilated table as well as through the slots in a lateral hood. Replacement air, introduced vertically through a supply air shower located above the worker, limits the diffusion of contaminants toward the worker's breathing zone. The reduction in worker exposure to styrene and acetone during hand lay-up molding was measured in the breathing zone for two sizes of molds. The results show that exhaust ventilation reduced the styrene concentrations by 91 percent and that the introduction of replacement air increased the efficiency of the ventilated table to 96 percent. The evaluation performed indicates that the ventilated table adequately controls worker exposure to styrene and acetone during the molding of small components.

  20. Plastic injection molding points in teaching complement understanding%注塑塑料成型在教学中的补充理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许傲

    2013-01-01

      Plastic mold design and larger proportion in the mold industry in China, plastic products have become must-have aviation industry, automobile industry, life,how to design a good mold products, is the essential factor of mold designers need to consider. There are many factors that influence the product design, the mold temperature control system error, set mold products have great influence on.%  塑料模具设计在我国模具工业中比重较大,塑料制件已成为航空工业、汽车行业、生活中必须品,如何设计出较好的模具产品,是模具设计人员需要考虑的必要因素。影响产品设计的因素有很多,其中模具误差、温控系统设置都对模具产品存在较大影响。

  1. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of the Viscoelastic Heating Mechanism in Ultrasonic Plasticizing of Amorphous Polymers for Micro Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyan Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic plasticizing of polymers for micro-injection molding has been proposed and studied for its unique potential in materials and energy-saving. In our previous work, we have demonstrated the characteristics of the interfacial friction heating mechanism in ultrasonic plasticizing of polymer granulates. In this paper, the other important heating mechanism in ultrasonic plasticizing, i.e., viscoelastic heating for amorphous polymer, was studied by both theoretical modeling and experimentation. The influence mechanism of several parameters, such as the initial temperature of the polymer, the ultrasonic frequency, and the ultrasonic amplitude, was investigated. The results from both numerical simulation and experimentation indicate that the heat generation rate of viscoelastic heating can be significantly influenced by the initial temperature of polymer. The glass transition temperature was found to be a significant shifting point in viscoelastic heating. The heat generation rate is relatively low at the beginning and can have a steep increase after reaching glass transition temperature. In comparison with the ultrasonic frequency, the ultrasonic amplitude has much greater influence on the heat generation rate. In light of the quantitative difference in the viscoelastic heating rate, the limitation of the numerical simulation was discussed in the aspect of the assumptions and the applied mathematical models.

  2. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.

  3. Organizational Heritage and Entrepreneurship: Steven Klepper’s Theories Reflected in the Emergence and Growth of the Plastic Molds Industry in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the emergence of the molds and plastics industries in Portugal, finding that this history fits nicely with the accounts—originally proposed in Steven Klepper’s various works—of new industries emerging from older, related industries, and regional clusters emerging fr

  4. Organizational Heritage and Entrepreneurship: Steven Klepper’s Theories Reflected in the Emergence and Growth of the Plastic Molds Industry in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the emergence of the molds and plastics industries in Portugal, finding that this history fits nicely with the accounts—originally proposed in Steven Klepper’s various works—of new industries emerging from older, related industries, and regional clusters emerging fr

  5. 密胺模塑料的制备与性能研究%Study on Preparation and Properties of Melamine-Formaldehyde Molding Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥坤; 卓坚锐; 包建军

    2011-01-01

    The melamine-formaldehyde molding plastics were prepared by copolydensation to improve its mechanical properties. The results show that the mechanical properties of the melamine-formaldehyde molding plastics are the best when cellulose content is 55 phr; with the increase of formaldehyde/melamine (F/M) ratio, the mechanical properties of melamine-formaldehyde molding plastics improve, the volatile material content increases; with the increase of hardener content, the mechanical properties of melamine-formaldehyde molding plastics increase at first and then decrease, the optimum hardener content is 1.0 phr.%用树腊共缩聚的改性方法制备了密胺模塑料,以改善其力学性能.密胺模塑科中纤雏素用量为55 phr时,其力学性能最佳;密胺树脂的甲醛/三聚氰胺(F/M)越大,密胺模塑料的力学性能越好,挥发分越高;随着固化剂用量的增加,密胺模塑料的力学性能先提高后降低,当其用量为1.0 phr时,密胺模塑料的综合性能最好.

  6. Modification of polyester resins during molding of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushin, V.; Jansons, J.; Bulmanis, V.; Cabulis, U.; Bulmanis, A.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of addition of two new urethane prepolymers on the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resins and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics based on them is investigated. The effect of concentration of these additives on the elastic modulus, elongation at break, and flexural strength of hardened orthophthalic resins is evaluated. A significant increase in the strength of the binders and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) based on them is observed upon adding urethane prepolymers to the resins. The properties of laminated and randomly reinforced glass-fiber plastics with the modified orthophthalic resins are compared with those of similar GFRPs based on popular brands of industrial resins.

  7. Modular injection mold manufacturing in a selective laser sintering machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Ilkka T.; Biles, William E.

    1997-12-01

    Reduced time to market places exacting requirements for the speed and quality of the design, manufacture and testing of new plastic parts. Traditionally, the greatest time for getting a new plastic product prototyped and tested is that for the mold fabrication phase. New metal materials for selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping technology allow direct mold fabrication for prototype plastic parts. Typically these molds are also useable for small scale production runs up to 50,000 parts. Using this technology prototype parts can be manufactured using the same materials and processes as used for the final product allowing testing of the whole manufacturing process for the prototype. This gives a company new opportunities to get a new or modified product to market faster and cheaper than by using traditional mold making processes. In this paper we describe this new technology and discuss how small and mid-size manufacturing companies can benefit from it.

  8. Fibre Reinforced Plastic Concepts for Structural Chassis Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Deißer, Oliver; Friedrich, Horst E.; Kopp, Gundolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) have a high potential for reducing masses of automotive parts, but are seldom used for structural parts in the chassis. If the whole chassis concept is adapted to the new material, then a high weight saving potential can be gained and new body concepts can result. DLR Institute of Vehicle Concepts designed and dimensioned a highly stressed structural part in FRP. A topology optimisation of a defined working space with the estimated loads was perform...

  9. Influence of Rubber Concentration on Angular deformation in Injection Molded Parts of Talc and Rubber Filled Polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Tadayoshi; Koyama, Kiyohito

    The most popular resin material for automotive plastic parts is polypropylene, which includes talc for stiffness and heat-resistance and rubber for impact-resistance. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient is well documented for talc reinforced polypropylene, but there are very few technical papers for warpage. Therefore, using this kind of material and molding with an L-shaped cross section, the influence of rubber concentration on corner deformation was discussed in this study. The results of this study are as follows 1) L-shaped cross section specimens show that the corner deformation increases linearly in proportion to the increase of rubber concentration. 2) Plane shape specimens show that the shrinkage rates in the planar direction decrease linearly and the shrinkage rates in the thickness direction increase linearly. 3) The strains in each rubber concentration are calculated using Hooke's Law. This force that induces corner deformation is assumed as the shrinkage difference between the planar and thickness directions. The tendencies of calculated strains are qualitatively consistent with measured corner deformations. 4) The reason why corner deformation decreases linearly to rubber concentration is due to the fact that the shrinkage difference between the planar and thickness directions increases and the fact that the flexural modulus decreases linearly.

  10. Study of transient flow and particle transport in continuous steel caster molds: Part I. Fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Thomas, Brian G.; Vanka, S. P.

    2004-08-01

    Unsteady three-dimensional flow in the mold region of the liquid pool during continuous casting of steel slabs has been computed using realistic geometries starting from the submerged inlet nozzle. Three large-eddy simulations (LES) have been validated with measurements and used to compare results between full-pool and symmetric half-pool domains and between a full-scale water model and actual behavior in a thin-slab steel caster. First, time-dependent turbulent flow in the submerged nozzle is computed. The time-dependent velocities exiting the nozzle ports are then used as inlet conditions for the flow in the liquid pool. Complex time-varying flow structures are observed in the simulation results, in spite of the nominally steady casting conditions. Flow in the mold region is seen to switch between a “double-roll” recirculation zone and a complex flow pattern with multiple vortices. The computed time-averaged flow pattern agrees well with measurements obtained by hot-wire anemometry and dye injection in full-scale water models. Full-pool simulations show asymmetries between the left and right sides of the flow, especially in the lower recirculation zone. These asymmetries, caused by interactions between two halves of the liquid pool, are not present in the half-pool simulation. This work also quantifies differences between flow in the water model and the corresponding steel caster. The top-surface liquid profile and fluctuations are predicted in both systems and agree favorably with measurements. The flow field in the water model is predicted to differ from that in the steel caster in having higher upward velocities in the lower-mold region and a more uniform top-surface liquid profile. A spectral analysis of the computed velocities shows characteristics similar to previous measurements. The flow results presented here are later used (in Part II of this article) to investigate the transport of inclusion particles.

  11. The Neuroscience of Storing and Molding Tool Action Concepts: how plastic is grounded cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Mizelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Choosing how to use tools to accomplish a task is a natural and seemingly trivial aspect of our lives, yet engages complex neural mechanisms. Recently, work in healthy populations has led to the idea that tool knowledge is grounded to allow for appropriate recall based on some level of personal history. This grounding has presumed neural loci for tool use, centered on parieto-temporo-frontal areas to fuse perception and action representations into one dynamic system. A challenge for this idea is related to one of its great benefits. For such a system to exist, it must be very plastic, to allow for the introduction of novel tools or concepts of tool use and modification of existing ones. Thus, learning new tool usage (familiar tools in new situations and new tools in familiar situations must involve mapping into this grounded network while marinating existing rules for tool usage. This plasticity may present a challenging breadth of encoding that needs to be optimally stored and accessed. The aim of this work is to explore the challenges of plasticity related to changing or incorporating representations of tool action within the theory of grounded cognition and propose a modular model of tool-object goal related accomplishment. While considering the neuroscience evidence for this approach, we will focus on the requisite plasticity for this system. Further, we will highlight challenges for flexibility and organization of already grounded tool actions and provide thoughts on future research to better evaluate mechanisms of encoding in the theory of grounded cognition.

  12. Evolution of microstructure and dimension of as-molded parts during thermal removal process of wax-based MIM binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and the dimension of as-molded parts were studied on the basis of the thermogravimetric analysis of wax-based MIM binder. The results show that the binder removal speeds are different in different temperature ranges during binder removal process. The evolution of the microstructure of as-molded parts during binder removal process clearly showed the initiation and formation of connected pore structure, which is the removal channel of the binder. The as-molded parts almost continuously shrank through binder removal process, except an expansion stage during 320~440  ℃, which is the dissolution expansion effect due to the dissolution of VPW in the polymer melt.

  13. 机电一体化在塑料模注射生产中的应用%Mechanical and Electrical Integration Application in the Plastic Injection Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑玉红; 王明荣

    2011-01-01

    以带金属嵌件塑件注射模为例,设计进程中通过磁力作用解决了金属嵌件的定位问题,可以使用卧式注塑机注射成型,并利用气动元件完成两个模腔交替成型,实现注射过程的自动化,缩短塑件的注射成型周期,从而有效地节约了生产成本,提了高生产效率。%With a metal insert injection mold as an example, the design process through the action of magnetic force to solve the metal insert positioning, can use the horizontal injection molding machines injection molding, and the use of pneumatic components to complete a two mold cavity alternating molding, injection molding process automation, shorten the parts of the molding cycle, thereby effectively saving the cost of production put a high production efficiency.

  14. The Facility and Process Technics of Polyethylene Rotational Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; BaiShun

    2001-01-01

    1. Introduction Rotational molding is the process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It mainly processes the product which Injection molding and Blow molding can not process medium-sized, large-sized and super large-sized plastic parts. The technics may turn out a tub, dustbin, stock tank, sailboat.  The research institute of Lanzhou introduces a suit of RS-16 Rotational Molding Machine from Germany Reinhadt Co. on 1990. It mainly put up experiment and smallscale production. RS-16 rotational molding machine is a single arm and di-axial equipment. It is consisting of a gas heated sintering oven, cooling chamber, mouldcarrying carriage and a controlling unit.  ……

  15. Design of Precision Plastic Injection Mold for Mobile Phone Cover%手机面盖精密注塑模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维合

    2012-01-01

    The design key points and instructions of a plastic injection mold for mobile phone cover with thin wall were introduced. Fixed mold slant lifting was adopted for inside molding, while "slant leader pin + slider" was adopted for outside core pulling and the secondary ejection was adopted. The classic exhaust air system and guide position system were designed. The structure of the mold was tight and the rigidity was excellent, it was a precision mold with long lifetime.%介绍了一款薄壁手机面盖注塑模具的设计要点和注意事项,模具采用定模斜顶进行内侧成型,动模则采用“斜导柱+滑块”进行外侧抽芯,采用二次脱模结构,设计了先进的模具排气系统和导向定位系统,该模具结构紧凑,刚性极佳,是一副长寿命的精密注塑模具.

  16. 聚酚醚模塑料的研制%Development and Preparation of Poly Phenol Ether Molding Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 李谦; 张志平; 胡卫东

    2012-01-01

    With poly phenol ether resin as matrix resin, hexamethylenetetramine as cross-linking agent, by adding high temperature binder, quartz powder, glass fiber as filler, blending under certain conditions, poly phenol ether plastics were prepared. The effects of different content of cross-linking agents, high temperature binder on the mechanical properties and high temperature resistance of poly phenol ether molding plastic were studied. Results showed that the properties of the prepared poly phenol ether resin were the best when the amount of hexamethylenetetramine was 4% ~ 12% as that of poly phenol ether, the mass fraction of the filler was 60%~75% , and the mass fraction of high temperature binder was 15%~20%.%以聚酚醚树脂为基体树脂、六次甲基四胺为交联剂,再添加高温黏结剂、石英粉、玻纤等填料,在一定的工艺条件下共混,制得聚酚醚模塑料.研究了不同含量的交联剂、高温黏结剂等成分对聚酚醚模塑料力学性能和耐高温性能的影响.结果表明,六次甲基四胺的用量控制在聚酚醚树脂质量的4%~12%之间,填料的质量分数为60%~75%,其中高温黏结剂的质量分数为15%~20%,所制备的聚酚醚模塑料的各项性能较佳.

  17. 基于工作过程的《塑料模具设计与制作》教材开发建设%Developing and Constructing the Textbook of "Plastic Mold Design and Production" Based on the Working Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海东; 郭新玲

    2012-01-01

    It is of great necessity to develop the new teaching materials. Taking the typical plastic mold as carrier, the new teaching material constructs the learning environment according to the types of plastic parts and mold, designs the examples and activity-oriented materials, devises the appraising methods which emphasize ability and process. The teaching materials of "Plastic Mold Design and Production" de- veloped based on working process can help students better understand and learn the methods of plastic mold's design and production, combining the theory with practice to improve the students' ability to solve problems.%以典型塑料件为载体,按照塑料件与模具类型构建了该课程的学习情境,设计了实例引导,行动导向的教学模式,制定了强化能力、过程考核的考核办法,开发建设基于工作过程的《塑料模具设计与制作》教材,使学生能更好地了解和学习塑料模设计与制作的方法,将理论与实践相结合,提高了学生解决问题的能力。

  18. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok [Samsung Electronics Co., LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations.

  19. Vacuum Infusion Molding Process Part 1:VIMP Based on a High-Permeable Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; YANG Zui; TAN Hua

    2003-01-01

    The visualization experiments were carried out to investigate the permeability of the high-permeable medium (HPM) and the roles of the peel ply and the HPM in the mold filling.The influence of process parameters on mold filling is discussed.Furthermore,the whole vacuum infusion molding process (VIMP) procedure is introduced in detail taking the manufacture of a model boat for example.

  20. Design consideration for design a flat and ring plastics part using Solidworks software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Faizal, K. M.; Salleh, M. S.; Sulaiman, M. A.; Mohamad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Various considerations on design of plastic injection moulded parts were applied in initial stage to prevent any defects of end products. Therefore, the objective of this project is to design the plastic injection moulded part by taking consideration on several factors such as draft angle, corner radius and location of gate. In this project, flat plastic part, ring plastic part, core inserts for flat and ring plastic part were designed using SolidWorks software. The plastic part was drawn in sketching mode then the 3D modeling of solid part was generated using various commands. Considerations of plastic part such as draft angle and corner radius with location of gate was considered in the design stage. Finally, it was successfully designed the two plastic parts with their respectively insert by using SolidWorks software. The flat plastic part and ring plastic part were designed for the purpose for future researches for study the weld lines, meld lines, air trapped and geometrical size of the product. Thus, by designing the flat plastic part and ring plastic part having core insert on each part, the completed mould design of two plate mould can be considered. This is because, plastic injection parts are needed to be designed properly in order to neglect any defect when the mould was made.

  1. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  2. 基于Solidworks的塑料盖壳模具结构设计%Design of the Structure of Plastic Shell Mold Based on Solidworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成

    2014-01-01

    本文引用盖壳的塑料模具结构,运用Solidworks软件进行三维实体造型,重点介绍了三维软件Solidworks的功能及用它来建构塑料模具结构的设计建模方法和装配的制作。并且特意制作了该模具的动画仿真来展示例图产品的特性和结构,使读者更加直观的了解本产品的模具结构。%With reference to the plastic mold structure of the cover shell, by using SOLIDWOEKS software to make the three dimensional model, this paper mainly introduces the function of three-dimensional software Solid-works, the design modeling method which can be used to build the plastic mold structure and assembly production. The author specially produced the animated simulation of the model to demonstrate the characters and the structure of products in illustration, so as to make readers more intuitively understand the mold structure of the product.

  3. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 2—Microscopic Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Experimental uniaxial compression loading tests were conducted on molded gypsum and Carrara marble prismatic specimens to study the cracking and coalescence processes between pre-existing artificial flaws. The study showed that material had an influence on the cracking and coalescence processes (see the companion paper in this issue). As reported in the companion paper, one of the pronounced features as observed in the high-speed video recordings was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the development of observable cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. This paper (part 2) deals with the microscopic aspects of the study. Specifically, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) imaging techniques were used to study the microscopic development of white patches and their evolution into macroscopic tensile cracks and shear cracks in marble, and the microscopic initiation of hair-line tensile cracks and their evolution into macroscopic tensile cracks in gypsum. The microscopic imaging study in marble showed that the white patches were associated with extensive microcracking zones (process zones), while the extent of process zone development in gypsum was limited. The comparison of the macroscopic and microscopic results indicates that the different extent of microcracking zone development, related to the material textural properties, is a key factor leading to different macroscopic cracking behavior in gypsum and marble.

  4. Part weight verification between simulation and experiment of plastic part in injection moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Idayu, N.; Faizal, K. M.; Sanusi, M.; Izamshah, R.; Shahir, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the main objective is to determine the percentage difference of part weight between experimental and simulation work. The effect of process parameters on weight of plastic part is also investigated. The process parameters involved were mould temperature, melt temperature, injection time and cooling time. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow software was used to run the simulation of the plastic part. Taguchi method was selected as Design of Experiment to conduct the experiment. Then, the simulation result was validated with the experimental result. It was found that the minimum and maximum percentage of differential of part weight between simulation and experimental work are 0.35 % and 1.43 % respectively. In addition, the most significant parameter that affected part weight is the mould temperature, followed by melt temperature, injection time and cooling time.

  5. Molded optics design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Schaub, Michael

    2007-01-01

    While several available texts discuss molded plastic optics, none provide information on all classes of molded optics. Filling this gap, Molded Optics: Design and Manufacture presents detailed descriptions of molded plastic, glass, and infrared optics. Since an understanding of the manufacturing process is necessary to develop cost-effective, producible designs, the book extensively covers various manufacturing methods, design guidelines, trade-offs, best practices, and testing of critical parameters. It also discusses topics that often arise when designing systems with molded optics, such as

  6. The Body of Knowledge & Content Framework. Identifying the Important Knowledge Required for Productive Performance of a Plastics Machine Operator. Blow Molding, Extrusion, Injection Molding, Thermoforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to guide training and curriculum development to prepare machine operators for the national certification exam, this publication identifies the important knowledge required for productive performance by a plastics machine operator. Introductory material discusses the rationale for a national standard, uses of the Body of Knowledge,…

  7. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. I parte. El molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed.

    El molde de colada continua cumple la importante función de recibir el acero líquido y permitir que se desarrolle una capa solidificada uniforme y libre de defectos. En este trabajo se revisan los distintos mecanismos implicados en el proceso de transferencia de calor, desde el acero líquido hasta el agua de refrigeración del molde. Se analiza también el efecto de las distintas variables de funcionamiento en la extracción calórica producida y la relación entre el flujo global de calor y su distribución a lo largo del molde.

  8. 塑料水杯盖注塑模具设计%Development of Injection Mold for Plastic Cup Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润娟; 张艳霞

    2014-01-01

    The 3D shape of the plastic cup cover is generated by the software UG.Based on the analysis of the structure process of the plastic parts, The gate location and the mould joint are selected,the core and cavity of the mould structure are designed.A large number of computer aided design is used in the course of design, which shorts the development cycle and reduces production cost.%利用UG软件对塑料水杯盖进行了产品的三维造型,在对塑件结构工艺性分析的基础上,进行了浇口位置和分型面的选择,型芯、型腔、模具等结构的设计,设计过程中采用了大量计算机辅助模具设计,缩短了开发周期,降低了生产成本。

  9. 3D Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Analysis for Skew Rolling Process of the Stepped Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang FANG; Pan ZENG

    2003-01-01

    Based on rigid-plastic finite element method, a skew rolling process of stepped part is simulated. Considering nodesaving and effective remeshing, the tetrahedron solid elements are used to discrete workpiece. The workpiece material adopts rigid-plastic m

  10. Gate Design in Injection Molding of Microfluidic Components Using Process Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2016-01-01

    Just as in conventional injection molding of plastics, process simulationsare an effective and interesting tool in the area of microinjection molding. They can be applied in order to optimize and assist the design of the microplastic part, the mold, and the actual process. Available simulation...... software is however actually made for macroscopic injection molding. By means of the correct implementation and careful modeling strategy though, it can also be applied to microplastic parts, as it is shown in the present work. Process simulations were applied to two microfluidic devices (amicrofluidic...

  11. Plastic Molding Process and Mold Design Course Teaching Reform Practice%塑料成型工艺与模具设计课程教学改革实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴育钊

    2014-01-01

    Project teaching is the training model for community to develop practical talents for the direct purpose, in line with higher vocational education and training skilled personnel fundamental requirement. In plastic molding process and mold design course project pedagogy, can enhance students' interest in learning, improve teaching quality, professional com-petence for students, training professionals qualified personnel is important.%项目教学是一种为社会培养实用型人才为直接目的的人才培养模式,符合高等职业教育培养技能型人才的根本要求。在塑料成型工艺与模具设计课程教学中应用项目教学法,可以提高学生的学习兴趣,提高课程教学质量,对于培养学生职业能力,培养专业合格人才具有重要意义。

  12. 基于FluidSIM-Hydraulic的注塑机液压回路控制分析%Control Analysis for Hydraulic Loop of Plastic Injection Molding Machine Based on FluidSIM-Hydraulic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶金玲; 周钦河; 黄诚

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic control system of plastic injection molding machine was designed using FluidSIM⁃Hydraulic software. The structure and working principle of the plastic injection molding machine were introduced, its hydraulic loop and electric loop were de⁃signed and optimized. The plastic injection molding machine has gained good affection in actual production.%基于FluidSIM⁃Hydraulic软件对注塑机液压回路控制系统进行分析。介绍了注塑机的结构原理,并优化设计了液压回路及电气控制系统,通过二者有效的结合成功地将模拟仿真后的模型应用到了实际生产中,取得了良好的效果。

  13. Content Error Analysis of "Plastic Molding Process and Mold Design" Teaching Material and Improvement Measures%《塑料成型工艺与模具设计》教材内容错失分析及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任长春; 单以才

    2012-01-01

    Based on the existing of the plastic forming technology aria me oes,g,, Lc~ material to carry on the analysis, from the plastic parts and plastic raw materials, injection molding process and equipment and injection mould structure design three aspects, that is, the specific points out some of the teaching material and the actual design production technology does not conform or short teaching material contents, and put forward in order to improve the quality of the textbook improvement measures.%通过对现有的《塑料成型工艺与模具设计》教材进行分析,从塑件与塑料原料、注射成型工艺与设备及注射模具结构设计三个方面,具体指出了教材中一些与实际设计生产技术不相符合的或者欠缺的教材内容,并提出了提高教材编写质量的改进措施。

  14. Planning an Injection Mold Design Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Edward P.

    With the increased use of plastics worldwide the shortage of trained personnel in moldmaking and design for plastic injection molds is becoming critical. Local schools and community colleges should provide courses in mold design and mold making, since most workers presently learn while working under experienced designers on the job. Following this…

  15. Transferability of glass lens molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Masahide

    2006-02-01

    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  16. Recent Developments and Trends in Powder Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hermina Wang

    2000-01-01

    Injection molding is a productive and widely used technology for shaping plastics. The use of this shaping technique to metal and ceramics powders is termed powder injection molding (PIM). This process combines a certain quantity of a polymer with a metallic or ceramic powder to form a feedstock that can be molded. After shaping, the polymeric binder is extracted and the powder is sintered. When proper powder size or/and its distribution are used, sintered densities of 95% or more, often to near-theoretical densities, are reached and the mechanical properties are, therefore, generally superior to those of traditional PM parts.

  17. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  18. Injection Molding of Plastic Microfluidic Chip%塑料微流控芯片的注塑成型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋满仓; 刘莹; 祝铁丽; 杜立群; 王敏杰; 刘冲

    2011-01-01

    有别于传统的微流控芯片压塑成型方法,本文提出注塑成型加工塑料微流控芯片的新工艺.采用UV-LIGA技术制作成型微通道的型芯,设计制造了微流控芯片注塑模具.充模试验表明,如何使微通道复制完全是微流控芯片注塑成型的主要技术难点.模拟与理论分析表明,熔体在微通道处出现滞流现象是复制不完全的主要原因;搭建了可视化装置对此加以试验验证.利用正交试验方法进行充模试验,研究各工艺参数对微通道复制度的影响.试验表明模具温度对提高微通道复制度起决定性作用;注射速度和熔体温度是次要因素,而注射压力相对其他因素影响力较差,但必须保持在一个较高的水平.依此形成塑料微流控芯片的注塑成型工艺,对于宽80μm、深50 μm截面的微通道而言,可使微通道复制度由70%提高到90%,满足使用要求.%Unlike conventional hot embossing, a new process of injection molding for microfluidic chip was proposed in this paper. The core for molding microchannels was made by using UV-LJGA, and one mold for molding microfluidic chip was designed and manufactured. Experiments indicate that the incomplete replication of microchannels for microfluidic chips is the major defect to the molding. Computer simulation and theoretical analysis show that the stagnant flow of the melt in microchannel is the main reason for molding defects, and a set of visual mold was fabricated to verify this phenomenon. Using the orthogonal experiment method, the influence of different process parameters on the molding process for the incomplete replication was discussed. The results show that mold temperature is the decisive parameter to the replication fidelity of the microchannels; injection rate and melt temperature are the secondary factors; injection pressure is less important than the others, but higher injection pressure is necessary. At last, the injection molding process of

  19. Shrinkage Behavior of Polystyrene-based Foam Molded Parts Depending on Volatile Matter Content and Other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafafian, Carineh

    Polymer foam materials play a large role in the modern world. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) bead foam is a lightweight, low density, and good thermal and acoustic insulating material whose properties make it attractive for a number of applications, especially as building insulation. However, EPS also experiences post-molding shrinkage; it shrinks dimensionally from its molded size after processing. This means parts must be stored in warehouses until they are considered stable by the industry standard, DIN EN 1603. This often takes 11--18 weeks and is thus very timely and expensive. This study aims to decrease the post-molding shrinkage time of EPS foam by understanding the mechanisms of shrinkage behavior. Samples were split into two groups based on their amount of initial volatile matter content and storage conditions, then compared to a control group. Based on thermogravimetric analysis and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, the volatile matter content and composition was found to not be the sole contributor to EPS foam dimensional stability. Residual stress testing was done with the hole drilling method and Raman spectroscopy. As this type of testing has not been done with polymer foams before, the aim was to see if either method could reliably produce residual stress values. Both methods measured residual stress values with unknown accuracy. All samples stored at a higher temperature (60°C) reached dimensional stability by the end of this study. Thus, air diffusion into EPS foam, encouraged by the high temperature storage, was found to play a significant role in post-molding shrinkage.

  20. Standard Molded Composite Rocket Pyrogen Igniter - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    The pyrogen igniter has the function to furnish a controlled, high temperature, high pressure gas to ignite solid propellant surfaces in a rocket motor. Present pyrogens consist of numerous inert components. The Standard Molded Pyrogen Igniter (SMPI) consists of three basic parts, a cap with several integrally molded features, an ignition pellet retainer plate, and a tube with additional integrally molded features. A description is presented of an investigation which indicates that the SMPI concept is a viable approach to the design and manufacture of pyrogen igniters for solid propellant rocket motors. For some applications, combining the structural and thermal properties of molded composites can result in the manufacture of lighter assemblies at considerable cost reduction. It is demonstrated that high strength, thin walled tubes with high length to diameter ratios can be fabricated from reinforced plastic molding compound using the displacement compression process.

  1. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  2. Effects of oxidants on physiological function of a slime mold. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, F.

    1973-10-01

    By using the double chamber method, the pressure required to arrest the protoplasmic streaming of slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, was measured to determine the motive force influenced by the exposure of the slime mold to ozone at 0.3-0.5 ppm. The change of respiration of the slime homogenate by the exposure of the slime mold to ozone was measured by the oxygen electrode method. The motive force of the slime decreased by exposure to ozone and increased at the cessation of ozone exposure. The internal respiration of the homogenate of the slime and the consumption of oxygen after the addition of the substrate, succinic acid, increased with exposure to ozone. The coefficient of metabolism of internal respiration was 9.5 and 13.6 microlitre/mg/hr, respectively, for the control and ozone-exposed slime homogenate. After addition of the substrate, the addition of ADP made the respiration a little higher; however, the curve showing the relative concentration versus time was not seen, suggesting the absence of control ability of respiration. The reversible decrease of motive force of protoplasmic streaming by ozone exposure would be due to the disturbance of the glyolytic system.

  3. Caracterización del aluminio para la fabricación de insertos de moldes de inyección de plásticos. // Aluminium alloys behaviour used in the manufacturing of cavities in molds for plastic injection process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. González Zulueta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una investigación experimental realizada para estudiar el comportamiento en condiciones reales de insertospara cavidades fabricados con dos aleaciones de aluminio diferentes. Se fabricaron 1000 piezas (probetas para ensayo deplásticos de polipropileno, empleando un molde de diseño normalizado con insertos para la cavidad correspondiente,fabricados con cada una de las aleaciones a ensayar. Cada 250 piezas producidas, tanto las cavidades como la piezaelaborada fueron medidas en zonas previamente seleccionadas y estos resultados se emplearon para caracterizar elcomportamiento de las aleaciones ensayadas. Las condiciones de presión y temperatura del proceso de inyección seseleccionaron atendiendo a los requerimientos industriales que corresponden al plástico utilizado.Palabras claves: Moldes, cavidades, aluminio, experimento, inyección de plástico.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The behaviour of cavities in molds for plastic injection, manufactured with two different aluminium alloys under realconditions is described by experimental investigation. 1000 pieces (probes for testing mechanical properties of plastics wereproduced from polypropylene, using a normalized designed mold with specially manufactured cavities and the two testedalloys. For the produced pieces, the dimension (width of the cavities and the elaborated pieces were measured in previouslyselected areas, these results were used to characterize the behaviour of the tested alloys. The conditions of pressure andtemperature for the injection process were selected according to the industrial requirements for the plastic used in theinvestigation.Key words: Mold, cavity, aluminium, experiment.

  4. Multiobjective Design of Turbo Injection Mode for Axial Flux Motor in Plastic Injection Molding Machine by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Long Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a turbo injection mode (TIM for an axial flux motor to apply onto injection molding machine. Since the injection molding machine requires different speed and force parameters setting when finishing a complete injection process. The interleaved winding structure in the motor provides two different injection levels to provide enough injection forces. Two wye-wye windings are designed to switch two control modes conveniently. Wye-wye configuration is used to switch two force levels for the motor. When only one set of wye-winding is energized, field weakening function is achieved. Both of the torque and speed increase under field weakening operation. To achieve two control objectives for torque and speed of the motor, fuzzy based multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI with particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to find out the multiobjective optimal design solution. Both of the torque and speed are expected to be maximal at the same time. Three control factors are selected as studied factors: winding diameter, winding type, and air-gap. Experimental results show that both of the torque and speed increase under the optimal condition. This will provide enough large torque and speed to perform the turbo injection mode in injection process for the injection molding machine.

  5. 薄壁塑料件注塑模具设计%PLASTIC MOULD DESIGN OF THIN-WALL PLASTIC PARTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏瞧忠

    2011-01-01

    The design process of thin-wall plastic was analyzed, gate style and position was choosen according to the mould structure, plastic injection molding process, plastic surface quality etc. Producing reliable and dimensinally stable product was realized by optimizing plastic wall thickness and the mould structure, and the product could meet the quality requirement. These plastic mould design essentials were summarized.%分析薄壁塑料件的设计过程,重点阐述根据模具结构、塑料件成型工艺、塑料件表面质量等来选择进胶方式和位置.通过优化塑料件壁厚和模具结构,实现生产可靠、尺寸稳定,质量满足要求,并总结此类塑料件的模具设计要点.

  6. Tactile and visual perception of injection moulded plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Tobias; Akbas, Erkan; Madsen, Mads

    switches the technology is almost the same for all manufactures and therefore the visual appeal is very important as a competition factor. Traditional light switches have the button made from plastic material. It is this button that is imagined to be examined to find a plastic surface with a good visual...... appeal (aesthetics) and tactile perception (ergonomics). From this the following thesis has been created: What plastic material and surface texture gives the best combination of aesthetics and ergonomics in the use for buttons on light switches? Throughout the report this thesis will be examined...

  7. 塑料注塑成型技术新进展%New Development of the Technology of Injection Molding of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃文

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the principle, application, characteristics and new development of gas-assisted injection molding technology, water-assisted injection molding technology, precision injection molding technology, micro-injection molding technology, microcellular injection molding technology, libration injection molding technology, in-mold decoration injection molding technology, co-injection molding technology and injection molding CAE technology were introduced.%介绍了气辅注塑、水辅注塑、精密注塑、微注塑、微孔注塑、振动注塑、模内装饰注塑、共注塑和注塑CAE等技术的原理、特点、应用和新进展.

  8. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  9. Influence of melt mixer on injection molding of thermoset elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Arif; Zahra, Keith

    2016-10-01

    One of the drawbacks in injection molding is that the plasticizing screw is short such that polymers having high concentrations of additives, such as thermoset elastomers, might not mix homogeneously within the short period of time during the plasticizing stage. In this study, various melt mixers inside the nozzle chamber, together forming a mixing nozzle, were developed. Three different materials were investigated, namely nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), ethylene propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM). The use of these melt mixers resulted in better homogeneity and properties of the molded parts despite a curing time reduction of 10 s. This was due to the increase in mixing and shearing introduced a higher rate of crosslinking formation in the molded parts.

  10. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  11. A mathematical basis for strain-gradient plasticity theory. Part II: Tensorial plastic multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, N. A.; Willis, J. R.

    2009-07-01

    A phenomenological, flow theory version of gradient plasticity for isotropic and anisotropic solids is constructed along the lines of Gudmundson [Gudmundson, P., 2004. A unified treatment of strain-gradient plasticity. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 52, 1379-1406]. Both energetic and dissipative stresses are considered in order to develop a kinematic hardening theory, which in the absence of gradient terms reduces to conventional J 2 flow theory with kinematic hardening. The dissipative stress measures, work-conjugate to plastic strain and its gradient, satisfy a yield condition with associated plastic flow. The theory includes interfacial terms: elastic energy is stored and plastic work is dissipated at internal interfaces, and a yield surface is postulated for the work-conjugate stress quantities at the interface. Uniqueness and extremum principles are constructed for the solution of boundary value problems, for both the rate-dependent and the rate-independent cases. In the absence of strain gradient and interface effects, the minimum principles reduce to the classical extremum principles for a kinematically hardening elasto-plastic solid. A rigid-hardening version of the theory is also stated and the resulting theory gives rise to an extension to the classical limit load theorems. This has particular appeal as previous trial fields for limit load analysis can be used to generate immediately size-dependent bounds on limit loads.

  12. A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11) with a ......The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11...

  13. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 1. Macroscopic Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.

  14. 高速注塑机注射部件设计及应用%Design and Application of Injection Part of High Speed Injection Molding Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王权

    2011-01-01

    The general design principle of injection part of high speed injection molding machine was presented based on the characteristics of high speed injection molding machine. The related parameters of hydraulic accumulator of injection part were calculated and its hydraulic system principle was analyzed. The development and application of high speed injection molding machine were introduced.%针对高速注塑成型机特点,提出其注射部件的一般设计原则,并对注射部件动力源--蓄能器有关参数进行计算,分析注射部件液压系统原理,同时介绍高速注塑成型机的发展及应用.

  15. On the preparation of the plastic molding material%浅谈塑料成型物料的配制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲善蓉

    2012-01-01

      从配方设计前的准备、配方设计的程序、配方设计要求等方面论述了塑料制品的配制过程。对聚氯乙烯塑料制品进行分类,对硬质制品和软质制品2类进行了阐述。根据塑料制品的性能及用途进行合理配方设计,以使塑料制品表现出良好的使用性。%  from the preparation, formulation design program formulation design, formulation design requirements discussed the preparation process of the plastic products. PVC products are classified, described hard products and soft products. Plastic products according to the properties and us-es a reasonable formula designed to make plastic products exhibit good usability.

  16. Creative Design of Hot Runner Inverse-Installing Injection Mold for Plastic Cover%塑料面板的热流道倒装注塑模的创新设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 刘仕昌; 徐秋红

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the structure and the process characters of plastic cover,the mold structural design,working principle and design points,as well as the application of hot runner in this mold were introduced respectively. Proved by enterprise production practice,the mold structure design is reasonable,and can meet the requirements of the product structure and manufacturability.%通过对塑料面板的结构和工艺性分析,介绍了其注塑模的结构设计、工作原理、设计要点及热流道系统在该注塑模中的应用。经企业生产验证,注塑模结构设计合理,满足塑料面板的结构和工艺性要求。

  17. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  18. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); England, Roger [Cummins, Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  19. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  20. UG Mold Wizard in injection mold design application%UG MoldWizard在注射模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙福; 黄常翼

    2013-01-01

    Currently plastics increasingly broad application areas, plastic products has become the automotive, aerospace, electrical and electronics, packaging, building materials, agriculture and other fields indispensable parts and plastic parts are produced almost all through the plastic mold molding to obtain The. As technology advances and high-tech product development and continuous innovation, the technical plastics increasingly high demand, relying on manual mold design and manufacturing engineers is difficult to meet the needs of the development of production. UG mold soft-ware emergence and development, has become a contemporary mold design and manufacture of an important and indis-pensable auxiliary tools.%目前塑料制品的应用领域日益广阔,塑料产品已成为汽车、航空航天、电子电气、包装、建材、农业等领域中不可缺少的部分,而塑料制件的生产几乎都是通过塑料模具的成型来获得的。随着技术进步以及高科技产品的不断开发与创新,对塑料制品的各项技术要求越来越高,仅靠模具工程师手工设计与制造很难满足生产发展的需要。 UG模具软件的出现与发展,已成为当代模具设计与制造中不可缺少的重要辅助工具之一。

  1. 塑料刀叉气辅成型模具浇注系统设计%Runner System Design of the Gas-Assisted Injection Mold for Plastic Knife and Fork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟一楠; 何建军

    2012-01-01

    Gas-assisted injection molding(GAIM) is a special injection molding process with less perfect design system on products and mold. Taking a plastic knife and fork as a example, this paper introduced the running gate system design in GAIM mold based on the simulation on filling flow of plastic melt and preservation of gas, the design is evaluated the design by the fill regions of melt and gas cores. Feasible process parameters were also recommended based on the simulation-design.%气体辅助注射成型是一种特殊注塑成型工艺,其模具设计尚未形成完善的体系.文章以塑料刀叉为例,基于塑料熔体的充填流动和气体保压模拟,通过熔体充填区域和气体充填区域来评价设计优劣,进行气辅成型模具浇注系统的设计,并推荐可行的工艺参数.

  2. Design of Revolute Joints for In-Mold Assembly Using Insert Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arvind; Ehrlich, Leicester; Desai, Jaydev P; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2011-12-01

    Creating highly articulated miniature structures requires assembling a large number of small parts. This is a very challenging task and increases cost of mechanical assemblies. Insert molding presents the possibility of creating a highly articulated structure in a single molding step. This can be accomplished by placing multiple metallic bearings in the mold and injecting plastic on top of them. In theory, this idea can generate a multi degree of freedom structures in just one processing step without requiring any post molding assembly operations. However, the polymer material has a tendency to shrink on top of the metal bearings and hence jam the joints. Hence, until now insert molding has not been used to create articulated structures. This paper presents a theoretical model for estimating the extent of joint jamming that occurs due to the shrinkage of the polymer on top of the metal bearings. The level of joint jamming is seen as the effective torque needed to overcome the friction in the revolute joints formed by insert molding. We then use this model to select the optimum design parameters which can be used to fabricate functional, highly articulating assemblies while meeting manufacturing constraints. Our analysis shows that the strength of weld-lines formed during the in-mold assembly process play a significant role in determining the minimum joint dimensions necessary for fabricating functional revolute joints. We have used the models and methods described in this paper to successfully fabricate the structure for a minimally invasive medical robot prototype with potential applications in neurosurgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of building an articulated structure with multiple degrees of freedom using insert molding.

  3. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  4. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    surface finish and high speed production. The activities and expertise in powder metallurgy as well as in process numerical modeling related to... traitement de finition immediate), The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...many different axes in the part design. In addition, external and internal threads, surface features (knurled surface , letters and logos) can be

  5. Mechanical and degradation properties of biodegradable Mg strengthened poly-lactic acid composite through plastic injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bai, Jing; Wan, Xiaofeng; Chu, Chenglin; Xue, Feng; Ding, Hongyan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods.With prolonging immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution until 8weeks, the MgO porous coating were corroded gradually, along with the disappearance of original pores and the formation of a relatively smooth surface. This resulted in a rapidly reduction in mechanical properties for corresponding composite rods owing to the weakening of interfacial binding capacity. The present results indicated that this new PLA-clad Mg composite rods show good potential biomedical applications for implants and instruments of orthopedic inner fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CAE for Injection Molding — Past, Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo K.

    2004-06-01

    It is well known that injection molding is the most effective process for mass-producing discrete plastic parts of complex shape to the highest precision at the lowest cost. However, due to the complex property of polymeric materials undergoing a transient non-isothermal process, it is equally well recognized that the quality of final products is often difficult to be assured. This is particularly true when a new mold or material is encountered. As a result, injection molding has often been viewed as an art than a science. During the past few decades, numerical simulation of injection molding process based on analytic models has become feasible for practical use as computers became faster and cheaper continually. A research effort was initiated at the Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) in 1974 under a grant from the National Science Foundation. Over a quarter of the century, CIMP has established some scientific bases ranging from materials characterization, flow analysis, to prediction of part quality. Use of such CAE tools has become common place today in industry. Present effort has been primarily aimed at refinements of many aspects of the process. Computational efficiency and user-interface have been main thrusts by commercial software developers. Extension to 3-dimensional flow analysis for certain parts has drawn some attention. Research activities are continuing on molding of fiber-filled materials and reactive polymers. Expanded molding processes such as gas-assisted, co-injection, micro-molding and many others are continually being investigated. In the future, improvements in simulation accuracy and efficiency will continue. This will include in-depth studies on materials characterization. Intelligent on-line process control may draw more attention in order to achieve higher degree of automation. As Internet technology continues to evolve, Web-based CAE tools for design, production, remote process monitoring and control can come to path. The CAE

  7. Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plastic or rubber and have removable cartridges that trap most of the mold spores from entering. In ... thank Paul Ellringer, PE, CIH, for providing the photo of Mold growing on the back side of ...

  8. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 2: Experimental Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the (1 + L2) term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform density,...

  9. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 1: Motivation and Development of New Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the $(1 + L^2)$ term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform densi...

  10. 多状态可换零件在注塑模设计中的应用%APPLICATION STUDY OF MULTI-MODE REPLACEABLE PARTS IN INJECTION MOLD DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾强

    2011-01-01

    在模具上通过巧妙的结构设计,最大化的利用模具性能,实现一个模具可生产多种塑胶产品的目标提出了一种新的模具设计理念和设计方案,实现用一个模具换状态生产多类型产品,实现一模多用,大大提高了模具使用效率,利用这一方案可节省大量的模具制造设计费用,为企业降低模具制造成本提供了一个新途径.%By designing clever structure,making full use of the performance of the mold, it was realized that different kinds of plastic products was produced with one mold. A new kind of mold design idea and scheme was put forward. By using this structure scherne,it could be realized producing multi-type products with one mold by changing state. The efficiency of the mold was improved greatly, the mold designing and manufacturing cost could be saved with large amount. A new path to reduce mold manufacturing costs was provided for enterprises.

  11. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-03-01

    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  13. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  14. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato [Research Center, Toyobo Co., LTD, 2-1-1 Katata, Otsu, Shiga 520-0292 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  15. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  16. Transcription of Small Surface Structures in Injection Molding - an Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2001-01-01

    The ability to replicate the surface roughness from mold wall to the plastic part in injection moldning has many functional and cosmetic important implications from medical use to designer products. Generally the understanding of surface transcription i.e the the replication of the surface...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE LASER SCANNER FOR GEOMETRICAL VERIFICATION OF METALLIC AND PLASTIC PARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Fisker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    and plastic parts. A first prototype of the novel measuring system has been developed, using laser triangulation. The system, besides ensuring the automatic reconstruction of complete surface models, has been designed to guarantee user-friendliness, versatility, reliability and speed. The paper focuses mainly...... dimensional measurements with adequate accuracy for most industrial requirements....

  18. Joining technology for parts for plastic and thin sheet metal parts; Fuegetechniken fuer Bauteile aus Kunststoff und duennwandigem Metall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers-Hestermann, G. [BOELLHOFF, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    With the ongoing application of new materials (Al, Mg, Plastic) as an alternative to steel in light-weight body in white construction it is necessary to develop and use other joining and fixing technologies than spot welding, bolt-and nut-welding. These new technologies for example are mechanical joining technology as clinching and self-pierce-riveting, blind-riveting and special elements to fix other parts as blind-rivets and self-piercing nuts and bolts. These products are mainly used for metal materials and mixed structures. To fix other parts to plastic-parts direct-screwing or the after-moulding-technology with metal or plastic inserts is used. (orig.) [German] Mit der verstaerkten Anwendung von weiteren Werkstoffen (Al, Mg, Kunststoffe) als Stahl im Automobilbau ist die Notwendigkeit erwachsen, alternative Fuege- und Befestigungstechniken zum Punktschweissen, Bolzen- und Mutternschweissen zu entwickeln. Hierzu gehoeren die mechanischen Fuegetechniken wie Stanznieten, Clinchen, Blindnieten sowie die sogenannten Funktionselemente zum Befestigen von Anbauteilen, wie Blind- und Stanznietmuttern und -bolzen. Diese Verfahren werden ueberwiegend fuer metallische Werkstoffe oder bei Mischbauweise angewandt. Fuer die Befestigung an Kunststoffbauteilen wird die Direktverschraubung oder die after-moulding-technik (AMTEC {sup registered}) verwendet. (orig.)

  19. 汽车手制动檐口注塑模设计%Design of Injection Mold of Hand Brake Cornice for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻春英; 赵龙志; 赵明娟; 宋金良; 张尚兵

    2012-01-01

    The structure and technological characteristics of the plastic part of hand brake cornice used in the automobile was analyzed, and the corresponding injection mold was designed by using Pro/E software. The mold adopts two cavities, balance layout, single parting surface. The buckles of the plastic part are molded by angle ejecting mechanism. The mold structure is simple and reasonable, and its manufacturing cost is low.%分析了汽车手制动檐口塑件的结构和工艺特点,利用Pro/E软件设计了汽车手制动檐口注塑模具.该模具采用一模两腔平衡式布局的单分型面结构,塑件卡扣的成型由斜顶机构完成.模具结构简单合理,加工成本较低.

  20. Influence of Talc Concentration on Angular Deformation in Injection Molded Parts of Talc and Rubber Filled Polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Tadayoshi; Koyama, Kiyohito

    Polypropylene (PP), filled with talc and rubber, is one of the most popular resins used for automotive plastic parts. The influence of talc concentration in PP compounds on the angular deformation of L-shaped specimens is discussed. The experimental and analytical results are as follows 1) Angular deformation increases sharply with increasing talc concentration until approximately 10 wt% of talc. The angle reaches a maximum at 10 wt% of talc, and then decreases above the critical concentration. 2) The shrinkage in the in-plane direction of the plate specimens shows a decrease until the talc concentration reaches approximately 10 wt%, and then becomes constant above the critical concentration. On the other hand, the shrinkage in the thickness direction increases sharply until talc concentration approaches 5 %, and then decreases gradually above that concentration. 3) The strains for each sample are calculated using Hooke's Law. In this case, the force that induces angular deformation is assumed to be the difference of shrinkage between the thickness and in-plane directions. The tendencies of calculated strains are quite qualitatively consistent with measured angular deformations. 4) A deformation angle peak can be explained by the difference of shrinkage in the thickness and in-plane directions, which increase sharply until 5 wt% talc concentration. Above this concentration, shrinkage will remain constant despite an increasing flexural modulus.

  1. Structure Improvement and Mold Design of Automobile Gear Handball Based on CAE Technology%基于CAE的汽车档位手球结构优化及模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏瞧忠; 李志峰; 杨斌

    2012-01-01

    The structure of automobile gear handball plastic part was analyzed based on Moldflow technology, as references, the structure of the plastic part was improved to some extent and then the mold was designed according to the improved plastic part. The structure analysis and related design key points of mold were introduced and qualified plastic part was gained by practical trialed-mold.%利用Moldflow对某汽车档位手球塑料件结构进行分析,以此为参考,对塑料件结构作一定的改进,并对改进后的塑料件进行模具设计,介绍了模具结构分析及相关设计要点,并通过实际试模得到了合格塑料件.

  2. 高分子材料微型制品微分注射成型方法及设备%Differential Injection Molding Method and Equipment for Micro-Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 杨卫民

    2012-01-01

    为了保证微量聚合物熔体的计量和均匀性,结合常规注射成型技术和微注射成型技术的优势,论文提出了一种新的批量成型加工高分子材料微型制品的方法——微分注射成型。在常规注射成型设备中加入微分系统,通过行星齿轮泵作为微分泵实现熔体的分流、输送、增压和计量,在保证成型制品精度的同时,具有塑化效果好、生产效率高的优点。论文介绍了微分注射成型方法的原理和设备构成,并利用CAD/CAE/CAM(计算机辅助设计/工程/制造)技术进行了研究,最终利用加工完成的设备初步实验验证了新方法及设备的可行性。%In order to control metering accuracy and homogeneity of the very small quantities of polymer melt in micro-injection molding (IM) process, and combine the advantages of micro-IM with conventional injection molding, differential injection molding (DIM) method that combines conventional injection molding systems with a separate differential unit has been developed. A planetary gear pump was employed as the differential unit that has functions of melt diffluence, transmission, pressurization and metering in multi-micro molding, then high metering accuracy could be achieved. By using conventional injection molding with reciprocating screw injection systems, better plastication effect and mixing performance can be achieved. The principle and equipment structure have been introduced, computer-aided-design/eomputer-aided-engineering/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAE/CAM) technique has been used, and previous experiment proves the feasibility of this method and equipment.

  3. 油杯体注射模设计%Design of Injection Mold for tile Oil Cup Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永亮

    2012-01-01

    油杯体用PP料注射成型。塑件两端有外螺纹,为了解决两处外螺纹脱模,利用模具分型上的可行性,整个塑件放在定模上,并有一个螺纹滑块抽芯,在动模上解决一个螺纹滑块抽芯,使模具设计切合生产实际。模具设计冷却水路以解决成型中模具冷却的问题。模具经过生产验证,模具结构合理,油杯体能达到图纸尺寸,适应批量生产。%Oil cup body with PP material to be made. Plastic parts the ends for outer thread, In order to solve the two place demoulding, Use the feasible type mold points, The plastic parts on set modules forming, And there is a thread the slider core-pulling, In the dynamic model to solve a thread the slider core-pulling, Make mold design tailored to actual production. Mold design cooling water in order to solve the problem of cooling the molding mold. Mold after production validation: mold structure is reasonable, oil cup fitness to drawing size, adapt to mass production.

  4. Injection Mold Parts Analysis Based on Moldflow%基于Moldflow软件的注塑模件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This article using Moldflow software powerful simulation analysis capabilities, visualization capabilities and project management capabilities, to develop and utilize water-saving drip irrigation dripper mold. Moldflow software is used to analyze the dripper gate position,the clamping force,the molding process parameters to achieve the purpose of the rapid development of inserts drippers mold. Using the software can save a lot of manpower and resources,reduce waste of resources,reduce product costs,shorten product development cycles, respond quickly to market demand, and improve the innovative capability and competitiveness of the enterprises.%  利用Moldflow软件具有的强大模拟分析功能、可视化功能和项目管理功能,对节水滴灌用內镶式滴头模具的开发利用。通过Moldflow软件分析滴头浇口位置、锁模力、成型工艺等相关参数,达到快速开发內镶式滴头模具的目的。利用该软件可以节约大量的人力物力,减少资源的浪费,降低产品成本,缩短产品的开发周期,快速响应市场需求,提高企业的创新能力和竞争力。

  5. A Study on the Void Formation in Residual Wall Thickness of Fluid-Assisted Injection Molding Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Pil Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fluid-assisted injection molding, the distribution of the residual wall thickness on the inside and outside of the curved area is different, and void is formed due to the effect of the shrinkage on the outside where the residual wall thickness is thicker. The shrinkage that takes place in the residual wall is affected by the rheological changes in the polymer caused by temperature change and also by the thermal properties of the penetration fluid. In this study, the different effects on void formation in residual wall during fluid-assisted injection molding were analyzed, and water and silicone oil that had different thermal properties were used for the fluids. For this, heat transfer analysis and injection molding analysis were conducted. The void formation occurred due to the different temperature distribution and volumetric shrinkage in the direction of the residual wall in the curved area with a hollow section. It was also found that the void formation in the curved area decreased in the case of silicone oil compared to the case of water from simulation and experiments.

  6. 发动机进气歧管注塑模具浇口数量与位置优化%Optimization of Gate Number and Location of the Injection Mold for Engine Plastic Intake Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士强

    2012-01-01

    The injection molding gate had important influence on the molding quality of plastic intake manifold. To shorten the development cycle, reduce the cost and improve the product quality, the location and number of different gates for intake manifold injection molding were simulated and analyzed with the Moldflow software. The locations of potential bubble and welding mark were forecast, and finally the location and number of injection molding gates were determined, which avoided the complex process of the mould testing and repairing. The analysis results show that four point gates of regular geometric distribution is the best choice. The experiments prove that the quality of trial product sample is better with the improved mould.%为了研究注塑模具浇口对发动机塑料进气歧管成型质量的影响,缩短进气歧管开发周期,降低成本,提高产品质量,利用Moldflow软件对塑料进气歧管注塑成型中浇口位置及数量进行流动模拟分析,预测可能存在的气泡位置和熔接痕位置,通过比较分析来确定制品注塑成型中的浇口位置和数量.分析结果表明,采用呈规则几何形状分布的4个点浇口为最佳选择.试验证明:按照模拟结果制造模具,试制的产品样件质量较好.

  7. A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alvarado-Iniesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volumeof plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during aregular production run, which directly impacts the quality of final products. A common quality trouble in finishedproducts is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networksto predict warpage defects in products manufactured through injection molding. Five process parameters areemployed for being considered to be critical and have a great impact on the warpage of plastic components. Thisstudy used the finite element analysis software Moldflow to simulate the injection molding process to collect data inorder to train and test the recurrent neural network. Recurrent neural networks were used to understand the dynamicsof the process and due to their memorization ability, warpage values might be predicted accurately. Results show thedesigned network works well in prediction tasks, overcoming those predictions generated by feedforward neuralnetworks.

  8. Investigation of injection molding of orthogonal fluidic connector for microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal fluidic connections are essential for developing multilayered microfluidic devices. At present, most orthogonal connectors are realized by a horizontal channel and a vertical channel in different plates. Therefore, some extra alignment and adhesion processes for precise plate assembly are required. In this paper, the method of injection molding is proposed to make a one-body-type orthogonal connector in a single plastic plate. The connector was composed of a cantilevered tube and the other in the substrate. An injection mold was developed in which a side core-pulling mechanism and an ejection mechanism of push-pipes were combined to form the mold for an orthogonal connector. Both the type and the location of gate were optimized for the mold. The results showed that the fan gate in the middle position of the plate was the most suitable in term of both defect control and practicability. The effect of melt temperature was numerically investigated and then verified experimentally. With the optimized parameters, the relative length and the relative wall thickness of a cantilevered tube in the plastic part can reach 98.89% and 99.80%, respectively. Furthermore, using the plastic part as a cover plate, a three-layer plastic microfluidic device was conveniently fabricated for electrochemical detection.

  9. Investigation of injection molding of orthogonal fluidic connector for microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Cao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Song, Man-cang; Liu, Jun-shan

    2017-02-01

    Orthogonal fluidic connections are essential for developing multilayered microfluidic devices. At present, most orthogonal connectors are realized by a horizontal channel and a vertical channel in different plates. Therefore, some extra alignment and adhesion processes for precise plate assembly are required. In this paper, the method of injection molding is proposed to make a one-body-type orthogonal connector in a single plastic plate. The connector was composed of a cantilevered tube and the other in the substrate. An injection mold was developed in which a side core-pulling mechanism and an ejection mechanism of push-pipes were combined to form the mold for an orthogonal connector. Both the type and the location of gate were optimized for the mold. The results showed that the fan gate in the middle position of the plate was the most suitable in term of both defect control and practicability. The effect of melt temperature was numerically investigated and then verified experimentally. With the optimized parameters, the relative length and the relative wall thickness of a cantilevered tube in the plastic part can reach 98.89% and 99.80%, respectively. Furthermore, using the plastic part as a cover plate, a three-layer plastic microfluidic device was conveniently fabricated for electrochemical detection.

  10. Neural Network Approach to Predict Melt Temperature in Injection Molding Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Among the processing conditions of injection molding, temperature of the melt entering the mold plays a significant role in determining the quality of molded parts. In our previous research, a neural network was developed to predict, the melt temperature in the barrel during the plastication phase. In this paper, a neural network is proposed to predict the melt temperature at the nozzle exit during the injection phase. A typical two layer neural network with back propagation learning rules is used to model the relationship between input and output in the injection phase. The preliminary results show that the network works well and may be used for on-line optimization and control of injection molding processes.

  11. Comparison between Palm Oil Derivative and Commercial Thermo-Plastic Binder System on the Properties of the Stainless Steel 316L Sintered Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R.; Azmirruddin, M.; Wei, G. C.; Fong, L. K.; Abdullah, N. I.; Omar, K.; Muhamad, M.; Muhamad, S.

    2010-03-01

    Binder system is one of the most important criteria for the powder injection molding (PIM) process. Failure in the selection of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. The objectives of this studied is to develop a novel binder system based on the local natural resources and environmental friendly binder system from palm oil derivative which is easily available and cheap in our country of Malaysia. The novel binder that has been developed will be replaced the commercial thermo-plastic binder system or as an alternative binder system. The results show that the physical and mechanical properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) standard 35 for PIM parts. The biocompatibility test using cell osteosarcoma (MG63) and vero fibroblastic also shows that the cell was successfully growth on the sintered stainless steel 316L parts indicate that the novel binder was not toxic. Therefore, the novel binder system based on palm oil derivative that has been developed as a binder system fulfills the important criteria for the binder system in PIM process.

  12. Computer Texture Mapping for Laser Texturing of Injection Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser texturing is a relatively new multiprocess technique that has been used for machining 3D curved surfaces; it is more flexible and efficient to create decorative texture on 3D curved surfaces of injection molds so as to improve the surface quality and achieve cosmetic surface of molded plastic parts. In this paper, a novel method of laser texturing 3D curved surface based on 3-axis galvanometer scanning unit has been presented to prevent the texturing of injection mold surface from much distortion which is often caused by traditional texturing processes. The novel method has been based on the computer texture mapping technology which has been developed and presented. The developed texture mapping algorithm includes surface triangulation, notations, distortion measurement, control, and numerical method. An interface of computer texture mapping has been built to implement the algorithm of texture mapping approach to controlled distortion rate of 3D texture math model from 2D original texture applied to curvature surface. Through a case study of laser texturing of a high curvature surface of injection mold of a mice top case, it shows that the novel method of laser texturing meets the quality standard of laser texturing of injection mold.

  13. Migration from food contact plastics. Part I. Establishment and aims of the PIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, P A; McGuinness, J D

    1987-01-01

    In the European Community regulatory approaches adopted by individual Member States to the control of food contact plastics differ markedly and, as a result, the European Commission has identified a need for harmonized legislation in this sector. The Commission requested its Scientific Committee for Food to advise on the toxicity of monomers and other starting substances used in the production of such plastics and the Committee's report has recently been published. It is apparent that, although some monomers have been studied in depth, for many little or no information was available to the Committee on either the levels migrating into food or their likely toxic effects. The Committee has requested that such information be provided within 3 years. Following discussions between the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, PIRA and companies involved in either the manufacture or use of food contact plastics, a Project has been established at PIRA to develop sensitive analytical procedures for the relevant UK-required monomers and to provide the required migration data. As a second part to this project the methodology for determining overall migration is being examined with a view to resolving existing experimental difficulties. The first analytical methods to be developed in the project are those for the determination or terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid. Residual levels of these monomers in plastics and the quantities migrating into food simulants and food have been shown to be very low.

  14. Investigation on the micro injection molding process of an overmolded multi-material micro component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro injection molding (μIM) is one of the few technologies capable of meeting the increasing demand of complex shaped micro plastic parts. This process, combined with the overmolding technique, allows a fast and cost-efficient production of multi-material micro components, saving numerous...... and difficult assembly steps, being the plastic molded directly on a metal substrate. In this scenario, an investigation on the fully automated micro overmolding manufacturing technology of a three-material micro component for acoustic applications has been carried out. Preliminary experiments allowed...... geometrical characteristics of the component. An optical CMM with sub-micrometric resolution has been employed for the measurements. Results show that the process parameters have a significant influence on some component features, while others mainly depend on the insert alignment inside the micro mold cavity....

  15. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  16. Mold Testing or Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  17. Report on the 18th International Trade Fair of Plastics & Rubber (K2010)——New Technologies for Injection Molding%第十八届国际塑料及橡胶展览会特别报道(K2010)——注射成型新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫民; 王小华; 谢鹏程

    2011-01-01

    On the 18th International Trade Fair of Plastics & Rubber (K2010), global injection molding leading enterprises displayed the latest injection molding technologies and machines,including fully electric injection molding machines, electro-hydraulic injection molding machines,large-scale injection molding machines, micro-injection molding machines, control systems with extended function, etc. The injection molding technologies are developed towards energy-saving,high precision, high efficiency and environmentally-friendly. Total solution with highly integrated and automated characteristics becomes the mainstream of plastics injection molding industry.Development of this solution continuously broadens the applications of injection molding process in packaging, medical and automobile fields.%综述了第十八届杜塞尔多夫国际塑料及橡胶展览中全球各大企业展示的最新注射成型技术及设备.注射成型新设备主要包括全电动注射成型设备、电液混合驱动新设备、大型注射成型设备、微型注射成型设备、扩展功能的控制系统等.塑料注射成型技术正向着节能、精密、高效、环保的方向发展,以产品为中心的高度集成化、自动化的总体解决方案成为行业主流,其在包装行业、医疗行业、汽车行业等领域的应用不断拓宽.

  18. Effect of Functional Nano Channel Structures Different Widths on Injection Molding and Compression Molding Replication Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.

    The present study investigates the capabilities of the two employed processes, injection molding (IM) and injection compression molding (ICM) on replicating different channel cross sections. Statistical design of experiment was adopted to optimize replication quality of produced polymer parts wit...

  19. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 2) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through several sprues into model denture plate mold (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, H

    1978-10-01

    Two types of spruing methods were used in the casting of the denture type model pattern (thickness, 0.43 mm). Flow of molten metal in the mold was filmed by the improved system of Part 1. When three sprues were attached to the pattern vertically, molten metal passed through each sprue gate flowed being affected by the direction of gravity and revolution of casting machine, and gathered at the lower part of the mold. Next molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. In this spruing type, molten metal turned its direction of flow several times. At the middle stage of casting, the inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate), v (mm3/10-2)s)was evaluated as v = 12.36 + 5.16A-0.16 A2 (A: total cross-sectional areas of sprues). The inflow rate increased with increase of the area of the sprues, but it saturated. When the main sprue and the subsprues were attached at the posterior border, the molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part quietly. In this spruing type, the casting mold was set facing its sprue gates downwards. The inflow rate at the middle stage of casting was evaluated as v = 21.05 + 1.79 C (C: the cross-sectional area of the main sprue). The inflow rate increased linearly with increase of the area of the main sprue.

  20. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of such fillers often cannot reach a high level (coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. For many years, in-mold coating (IMC) has been commercially applied to Sheet

  1. Design of Injection Mold for Repeater Panel%复读机面盖注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋育华; 胡琪; 付鹏

    2012-01-01

    The structure characteristics of plastic part of repeater panel was analyzed. The design methods for combined molding parts and side core-pulling mechanism of the mold were expounded. The practical production proves that the actions of core-pulling and demoulding are steady and reliable, the pin-point gate can satisfy the appearance requirement of the plastic part, and the quality of the plastic part can meet the technical requirements.%分析了复读机面盖塑件的结构特点,阐述了该模具组合式成型零件及侧抽芯机构的设计方法.经生产实践证明:该模具的抽芯及脱模动作均平稳可靠,点浇口保证了塑件的外观要求,塑件质量可以满足技术要求.

  2. Effects of process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Z. J.; Ma, Z.; Gao, S.

    2016-07-01

    Micro-needle array, which is used in medical applications, is a kind of typical injection molded products with microstructures. Due to its tiny micro-features size and high aspect ratios, it is more likely to produce short shots defects, leading to poor molding quality. The injection molding process of the micro-needle array was studied in this paper to find the effects of the process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array and to provide theoretical guidance for practical production of high-quality products. With the shrinkage ratio and warpage of micro needles as the evaluation indices of the molding quality, the orthogonal experiment was conducted and the analysis of variance was carried out. According to the results, the contribution rates were calculated to determine the influence of various process parameters on molding quality. The single parameter method was used to analyse the main process parameter. It was found that the contribution rate of the holding pressure on shrinkage ratio and warpage reached 83.55% and 94.71% respectively, far higher than that of the other parameters. The study revealed that the holding pressure is the main factor which affects the molding quality of micro-needle array so that it should be focused on in order to obtain plastic parts with high quality in the practical production.

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

  4. Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung Yen; Wang, Pei Jen

    2014-04-10

    Numerical mold-flow simulations and experimental measurements for injection-molded lenses have been investigated in form accuracy on a two-cavity mold with various process conditions. First, form profiles of the molded lenses have been measured together with the corresponding simulated mold-temperature distribution and displacement distribution of the lens in the z direction. A flow-through type layout of cooling channels has been devised for balance of mold-temperature distribution in mold cavities with various parametric distances for assessments in uniformity of temperature distribution. Finally, a compression-molding process is proposed for the post-process of birefringence relaxation as well as adequate form accuracy of lenses. In conclusion, optimization of process parameters to achieve good form accuracy in a multicavity mold with symmetric geometry but nonuniform cooling conditions is difficult. A good design of cooling channels plus optimized process conditions could provide uniform mold-temperature distribution so that molded lenses of good quality would be possible. Then, the profile deviation of lenses could be further compensated by profile geometry corrections. In conclusion, the post-compression-molding process could make birefringence-free plastic lenses with good form accuracy.

  5. Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

  6. Injection Mold Design of Computer Host Shell%电脑主机外壳注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈言锦

    2013-01-01

    The entire design process of computer host shell injection mold and injection molding process of plastic parts were described in detail. Pro/E software was used for three-dimensional modeling of plastic parts and plastic parts genotyping. Plastic advisor software was used for plastic flow analysis during flow channel design process to determine the best location in the mold gate and quantity of the pouring system to solve the layout problem.%介绍了电脑主机外壳注塑模具的整个设计过程及塑料件的注塑工艺。采用Pro/E软件进行塑料件的三维造型和塑料件分型。流道设计过程中使用了Plastic advisor软件进行塑性流动分析,确定该模具的浇口最佳位置和数量,解决了浇注系统的布局问题。

  7. 带金属嵌件的热固性塑料手柄注射模设计%Design of Injection Mold for the Thermosetting Plastic Handle with Metal Insert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯学清

    2012-01-01

    Insert the metal with a thermosetting plastic injection mold for the slider with spring structure of stainless steel metal insert,reliable positioning,effectively ensure the forming process is carried out smoothly. The products in large quantities of production testing,production efficiency is high,products of quality is good.%带金属嵌件的热固性塑料手柄注射模采用滑块加弹簧的结构使不锈钢金属嵌件能够可靠地定位,有效地保证了成型工艺的顺利进行。手柄经大批量的生产检验,生产效率高,质量好。

  8. Development of recycled plastic composites for structural applications from CEA plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Agrim

    Plastic waste from consumer electronic appliances (CEAs) such as computer and printer parts including Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) and PC/ABS were collected using handheld FTIR Spectrophotometer. The blends of these plastics with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) are manufactured under special processing conditions in a single screw compounding injection molding machine. The blends are thermoplastics have high stiffness and strength, which may enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE like tensile modulus, ultimate tensile strength, tensile break and tensile yield. These composites have a potential to be used for the future application of recycled plastic lumber, thus replacing the traditional wood lumber.

  9. Optimization of Plastics Injection Molding Processing Parameters Based on the Minimization of Sink Marks%基于缩痕最小的注塑件成形工艺参数优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小明; 赵龙志; 赵明娟; 陈炳辉; 宋金良

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the sink marks on the injection molded parts of automobile hand brake cornice, the forming processing in mold cavity was analyzed with Moldflow software. Based on the minimization of the product surface sink index, the reasonable gate location , gates numbers and optimization parameters such as mold temperature and melt temperature were gotten. Based on these optimization parameters, the cycle of mould development is shortened, and the quality of products and the competitive ability of company are improved.%针对汽车手制动檐口在注塑过程中出现的缩痕问题,借助Moldflow软件模拟其注射成型过程,得到了基于注塑件表面缩痕最小的最佳浇口位置、数量、模具温度和熔体温度等工艺参数.据此进行模具设计,可缩短模具开发周期,提高产品质量和企业竞争力.

  10. Optimization of Resin Infusion Processing for Composite Pipe Key-Part and K/T Type Joints Using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changchun; Bai, Guanghui; Yue, Guangquan; Wang, Zhuxi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Boming

    2016-10-01

    In present study, the optimization injection processes for manufacturing the composite pipe key-part and K/T type joints in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) were determined by estimating the filling time and flow front shape of four kinds of injection methods. Validity of the determined process was proved with the results of a scaling-down composite pipe key-part containing of the carbon fiber four axial fabrics and a steel core with a complex surface. In addition, an expanded-size composite pipe part was also produced to further estimate the effective of the determined injection process. Moreover, the resin injection method for producing the K/T type joints via VARTM was also optimized with the simulation method, and then manufactured on a special integrated mould by the determined injection process. The flow front pattern and filling time of the experiments show good agreement with that from simulation. Cross-section images of the cured composite pipe and K/T type joints parts prove the validity of the optimized injection process, which verify the efficiency of simulation method in obtaining a suitable injection process of VARTM.

  11. Design of the Mould for Plastic Cap-Shaped Parts%塑料帽模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高银变

    2001-01-01

    The design of the small thin- wall deep- cavity plastic part with a groove outside was introduced. And the structure characteristics of the mould for the part was stated. It is of certain reference value to the design of the moulds for similar plastic parts of telecommunication products.%介绍了薄壁深腔且外表有凹槽的小塑件的设计思路及对应的模具结构特点,对于通讯产品中类似塑件的模具设计有一定参考价值。

  12. Fabrication of Composite Material Using Gettou Fiber by Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuda, Roy; Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    This study investigated the mechanical properties of composite using gettou (shell ginger) fiber as reinforcement fabricated from injection molding. Gettou fiber is a natural fiber made from gettou, a subtropical plant that is largely abundant in Okinawa, Japan. We used the stem part of gettou plant and made the gettou fiber by crushing the stem. The composite using gettou fiber contributed to low shrinkage ratio, high bending strength and high flexural modulus. The mechanical strength of composite using long gettou fiber showed higher value than composite using short gettou fiber. Next, because gettou is particularly known for its anti-mold characteristic, we investigated the characteristic in gettou plastic composite. The composite was tested against two molds: aspergillius niger and penicillium funiculosum. The 60% gettou fiber plastic composite was found to satisfy the JISZ2801 criterion. Finally, in order to predict the flexural modulus of composite using gettou fiber by Halpin-Tsai equation, the tensile elastic modulus of single gettou fiber was measured. The tendency of the experimental results of composite using gettou fiber was in good agreement with Halpin-Tsai equation.

  13. Fabrication of Complex Optical Components From Mold Design to Product

    CERN Document Server

    Riemer, Oltmann; Gläbe, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    High quality optical components for consumer products made of glass and plastic are mostly fabricated by replication. This highly developed production technology requires several consecutive, well-matched processing steps called a "process chain" covering all steps from mold design, advanced machining and coating of molds, up to the actual replication and final precision measurement of the quality of the optical components. Current market demands for leading edge optical applications require high precision and cost effective parts in large volumes. For meeting these demands it is necessary to develop high quality process chains and moreover, to crosslink all demands and interdependencies within these process chains. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Process chains for the replication of complex optical elements" at Bremen, Aachen and Stillwater worked extensively and thoroughly in this field from 2001 to 2012. This volume will present the latest scientific results for the complete process chain...

  14. Plastic compression technology and mold design of HDPE closures for beverage bottles%低磨损HDPE饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达; 梁文杰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具中存在的内衬套与螺纹型芯采用滑动摩擦结构,摩擦表面容易拉毛、卡死,模具容易磨损等问题,将磨损小、运动阻力小的滚动摩擦技术应用到压塑成型模具中,开展了能否在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个滚动部件代替原来滑动摩擦的分析,建立了滑动摩擦、滚动摩擦与磨损速度之间的关系,提出了在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个钢球保持圈,将原来的滑动摩擦改为滚动摩擦的方法,以达到减少磨损、提高模具寿命的目的.在提高模具寿命、瓶盖质量上,对模具的结构、制造技术、经济效益等方面进行了评价.开展了新结构压塑成型模具的设计、制造工作,并在原制盖机上进行了长期试验.研究结果表明,该模具磨损非常小,瓶盖质量比以前更好;且与传统的压塑成型模具相比寿命可提高1倍以上.%Aiming that the sliding friction structure in the inner lining sleeve and the screw thread core of the traditional beverage bottle cap pressing forming mould caused the friction surfaces to nap,blocking,easy wear etc., the rolling friction technology with wear small, small movement resistance was applied to the compression molding mould. Whether a rolling member was inserted between the inner bushing and the screw thread core in place of the original sliding friction was discussed.The relationship between the sliding friction, rolling friction and the wear speed was established, a ball retainer ring was added between the inner bushing and the screw thread core. The original sliding friction was changed into the rolling friction, thereby reducing wear and improving the life of the mould. The mould structure, manufacturing technology, economic benefits etc. were evaluated on the mould life and the cap quality. New structure of compression molding mold was designed and manufactured, and the long term test was developed on the original

  15. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  16. Optimization of Cooling System for Injection Molding Product Based on CAE%基于CAE技术注塑模冷却系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冲

    2014-01-01

    The design proposal for a cooling system is critical for molding quality, molding cycle and production efficiency of products in the course of plastic injection molding. Based on theory of cooling in injection molding, deficiencies of the design of the cooling system are obtained by analyzing numerical simulation of molding injection molded plastic part of automobile wheel hub cap by CAE technology, with temperature distribution of a mould, part temperature at ejection, ejection time and warping deformation of parts during plastic injection molding as indices of cooling performances, while the cooling systems are compared, improved and optimized. Practices prove that the product quality conforms to requirements, and the optimization method for a cooling system is reliable and effective, which has certain referential value for structural design of plastic injection moulds.%在塑料注塑成型过程中,冷却系统的方案设计对产品的成型质量、成型周期以及生产效率起到了关键性作用。基于注塑成型冷却理论,运用CAE技术对汽车轮轴盖注塑件进行数值模拟成型分析,以成型过程中模具温度、塑件顶出温度时间和塑件翘曲变形分布为性能指标,获取冷却系统设计的不足之处,进行方案改进优化。实践证明,冷却系统优化方法可靠有效,产品质量符合要求,对注塑模具结构设计有一定的参考价值。

  17. 洗衣机双缸的热流道注塑模设计%DESIGN OF WASHING MACHINE DUAL-TUB'S HOT RUNNER INJECTION MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖小峰; 宋琪; 薛琼

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the thin-wall large-scale plastic part of dual-tub of washing machine,the whole filling process of plastic injection wsa simulated by utilizing Pro/Plastic Advisor.The quantity and location of gate were identified and runner size was computed according to theoretical model.The three-dimensional(3D)design of hot runner gating system was proceeded by Pro/E software and the splice of mold cavity of movable mold and fixed mold and insert design were proceeded according to the requirements of parting of plastic part and mold process,whold 3D assembly design of plastic injection mold was achieved by utilizing standard parts that EMX provided.The three links development of product design,mold design and mold manufacture were realizde smoothly by parametrical modeling technology of Pro/E.The size and shape of plastic part conformed the request when the mold was put into production.%针对洗衣机双缸薄壁大型塑料件,利用Pro/Plastic Advisor进行充型模拟,确定最佳进胶点数量与位置,按照理论模型进行了流道尺寸计算.基于Pro/E软件,进行三维热流道浇注系统设计,根据塑料件分型与模具加工工艺的要求,进行动、定模模腔的拼接、镶件设计,利用EMX提供的标准件完成模具全三维装配设计.通过Pro/E参数化建模技术,实现产品设计、模具设计和模具制造三个环节的开发.模具投产后,塑料件尺寸、形位符合要求.

  18. Injection molded self-cleaning surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil

    This PhD thesis concerns the development of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by injection molding. Today, injection molding is the prevalent production method for consumer plastic products. However, concerns regarding the environmental impact of a plastic production are increasing, especially...... that are superhydrophobic based on topography rather than chemical compounds. Therefore, a novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent water-repellant properties is developed. The method is based on microstructure fabrication and superposed nanostructures on silicon wafers. The nano......° for structured surfaces with a drop roll-off angle of less than 2°. Thereby, it is shown that an extremely water repellant surface can be injection molded directly with clear perspectives for more environmental and healthier plastic consumer products....

  19. Plastic wrinkling prediction in thin-walled part forming process:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Nan; Yang He; Li Heng; Yan Siliang

    2016-01-01

    The precision forming of thin-walled components has been urgently needed in aviation and aerospace field. However, the wrinkling induced by the compressive instability is one of the major defects in thin-walled part forming. The initiation and growth of the wrinkles are interac-tively affected by many factors such as stress states, mechanical properties of the material, geometry of the workpiece and boundary conditions. Especially when the forming process involves compli-cated boundary conditions such as multi-dies constrains, the perturbation of clearances between workpiece and dies and the contact conditions changing in time and space, etc., the predication of the wrinkling is further complicated. In this paper, the current prediction methods were summa-rized including the static equilibrium method, the energy method, the initial imperfection method, the eigenvalue buckling analysis method, the static-implicit finite element method and the dynamic-explicit finite element method. Then, a systematical comparison and summary of these methods in terms of their advantages and limitations are presented. By using a combination of explicit FE method, initial imperfection and energy conservation, a hybrid method is recommended to predict plastic wrinkling in thin-walled part forming. Finally, considering the urgent requirements of com-plex thin-walled structures’ part in aviation and aerospace field, the trends and challenges in wrin-kling prediction under complicated boundary conditions are presented.

  20. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness, ...

  1. Thermal stability of solid lubricant element MoS{sub 2} in injection molded parts of 17-4 PH stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, K.P.; Binder, C.; Klein, A.N., E-mail: kalinefurlan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ctbinder@emc.ufsc.br, E-mail: klein@emc.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabMat/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica. Laboratorio de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Sintered copper-based parts with self-lubricating properties are, nowadays, extensively employed, e.g. in automotive bushes. However, in such components, the liquid lubricant is added after the sintering stage. Recent developments have attempted to substitute the liquid lubricant for a solid one (which is incorporated during the mixing step), aiming operations under extreme conditions where liquids may be ineffective. For powder injection molding (PIM) market, stainless steels are the widest-ranging application group. In this study composites of 17-4 PH stainless steel with 10% vol. of molybdenum disulfide solid lubricant were prepared by PIM. The sintering of the compacts was carried out at various temperatures ranging from 650 to 1300 deg C. The composite structure was analyzed by SEM/EDS, and the phases formed were identified by XRD. Results indicated decomposition of MoS{sub 2} during the sintering cycle, for temperatures above 650 deg C, with formation of others sulfides and supplementary diffusion of molybdenum into the matrix. (author)

  2. Influence of Injection-Molding Process Parameters on Part Replication of Microstructures with Additively-Manufactured Soft Tooling Inserts WCMNM 2017 No

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Zhang, Yang; Segebrecht Gøtje, Asger

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of injection molding parameters on the dimensional replication of microstructure surfaces in injection molding with additively manufactured soft tooling inserts in a photopolymer material. The replication degree of micropillars...... diameter and decreases the replication degree of the pillar height. A high melt temperature increases the pillar diameter independently from the pillar height. A higher injection speed affects both pillar diameter and height negatively. In addition, the study showed a significant difference...

  3. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 1) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through single aprue into disk type mold (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, H

    1976-01-01

    A pyrex glass plate was fitted at the bottom of casting ring, and disk type wax pattern (thickness. 0.43 mm) was put on the plate. Five types of sprueing were applied. Pure tin was casted using holizontal centrifugal casting machine. Flow of molten metal was filmed by the motor drive camera with the method of stroboscope. The results were summarized as follows. 1) When the sprue was attached at the center of the disk type mold vertically, moten metal flowed like a concentric circle at the early stage of casting. It was affected gradually by the direction of gravity and revolution, and it filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. 2) When the sprue gate was attached to the side edge of the mold, and the sprue gate was placed to the forward and backward direction against the revolution direction, molten metal filled from lower part to the upper part. 3) When the sprue gate was placed against upper edge, molten metal flow was affected by the direction of gravity and revolution. When the sprue gate was placed against lower edge, molten metal filled quietry from the lower part to the upper part. 4) Inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate) was small at the early stage of casting. Inflow rate increased and became constant at the next stage. At the latter stage it became small again. 5) Inflow rate increased with the increase of area of sprue. 6) The time which was necessary to fill the volume of 1 cm (about 80% of the mold volume) became short with the increase of area of sprue. It was also influenced by the type of sprueing.

  4. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  5. Validation of precision powder injection molding process simulations using a spiral test geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, Maximilian; Müller, Tobias; Tosello, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Like in many other areas of engineering, process simulations find application in precision injection molding to assist and optimize the quality and design of precise products and the molding process. Injection molding comprises mainly the manufacturing of plastic components. However, the variant ...

  6. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  7. Floods and Mold Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  8. A new pair of hard-soft plastic combination for precision manufacturing of two component plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    Two component (2k) injection moulding is growing rapidly even in the field of precision micro moulding. Besides combining different material properties in the same product, two component moulding can eliminate many assembly steps in manufacturing process chain. One of the biggest technical...... challenges associated with 2k moulding is the unavailability of suitable two component material combinations which can meet the diverse requirement from product and process point of view. This paper presents a new pair of commercial polymer materials (BASF Ultramid A3EG10 and Kraiburg TPE Thermolast K TC5PCZ......-of-the-art two component micro moulding machine named Formica Plast from Desma Tec. The tests performed on the demonstrator showed potential for the material pair to be used in high precision two component moulding applications. The adhesion between the two materials, replication quality of the 2k part, sealing...

  9. Synthesis of Boron Modified Phenolic Resin and the Mechanic Performance of Its Molding Plastics%硼改性酚醛树脂的合成及其模塑料力学性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易新龙; 冯安妮; 邵文尧; 肖宗源

    2015-01-01

    The effects of boracic acid dosage on the properties of modified phenolic resin were studied.The structure and thermal property of boron modified phenolic resin were characterized with infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA),respectively.It was shown that the residual carbon rate of the boron modified phenolic resin was 10.92% and 67.82%,respectively under the air and nitrogen conditions,when n(phenol)∶n(for-maldehyde)∶n(boron acid)= 1 ∶ 1.4 ∶ 0.4.Also,the mechanic properties,such as tensile,flexural and impact strength of the molding plastics prepared by boron modified phenolic resin were investigated.With the consideration of thermal and mechanic properties,the optimum molar ratio was obtained as n(phenol)∶n(formaldehyde)∶n(boracic acid)=1∶1.4∶0.3.Besides,the effects of filler kind and content for the molding plastics on its mechanic properties were investigated.It was shown that short glass fiber as filler was much better than long glass fiber and wood pow-der,and when wood powder and long glass fiber were used as the mixing filler,the optimum mass ratio of long glass fiber to wood powder was 3∶1.%研究了硼酸加入量对所合成硼改性酚醛树脂性能的影响。通过红外光谱和热重等分析手段对硼改性酚醛树脂的结构和热性能进行表征,分别考察其在氮气和空气氛围下的残炭率,获知当苯酚、甲醛和硼酸之间的物质的量比为1∶1.4∶0.4时,硼改性酚醛树脂的残炭率最高,分别为67.82%和10.92%。此外,以硼改性酚醛树脂为基体树脂制备模塑料并考察其拉伸强度、弯曲强度和抗冲击强度等力学性能。综合考虑以上热性能和力学性能,确定苯酚、甲醛和硼酸之间的最佳物质的量比为1∶1.4∶0.3。最后,研究了添加不同种类和不同含量的填料对酚醛模塑料力学性能的影响。研究结果表明:以短玻璃纤维为填料时,酚醛模塑料的力学性能优于

  10. Analysis and Research of Scientific and Technological Innovation on the Green Technology and Its Application Technology of the Multi-Layer Co-Extrusion Blow Plastic Molding Machine%多层共挤中空塑料成型机绿色技术的科技创新及其应用技术的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友根; 冯刚; 张朝阁; 齐继宝

    2013-01-01

    Put out the science technology system and green design principles of the multi-layer coextruded blow plastic molding machine green technology.Research the scientific and technological innovation and its development main points on the green technology that the mold,plastics extrusion,clamping mechanism,power driven,heat system,blow,control components and systems of the co-extrusion of multilayer co-extruded blow plastic molding machine in to improve energy efficiency,reduce resource consumption,energy saving and processing,cleaner production,energy and material back regeneration applications.Analysis of the points of the research and development of green technology and scientific development of intelligent multi-layer co-extruded blow molding machine.Brief introduction of the green molding technology progress on Achieve extrusion blow molded containers "reality needs" and "potential demand" resourcesaving and improved barrier properties and environmental of the multi-layer co-extruded blow plastic molding machine.Studied the multi-layer co-extrusion plastic blow molding machines of green technology science and technology innovation promote the greening of hollow container processing technology progress.%提出了多层共挤中空塑料成型机绿色技术的科学技术体系和绿色设计原则,研究了多层共挤中空塑料成型机的共挤机头、塑化挤出、合模机构、动力驱动、加热、吹塑、控制等部件及系统在提高能源利用率、减少资源消耗、节能加工、清洁生产、能量和回料再生应用等方面的绿色技术的科技创新及研发要点,论述了智能化实现多层共挤中空成型机的绿色技术科学化发展的研发要点,浅述了多层共挤中空塑料成型机实现挤出中空成型容器“现实需求”和“潜在需求”实现资源节约型、提高阻隔性和环保性等绿色成型加工技术化的进展,研究了多层共挤塑料中空成型机绿色技术的科技创新推

  11. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Shin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  12. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  13. 微孔塑料连续挤出成型快速降压口模的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Microcellular Plastic in Rapid Decompressive Die of Continuous Extrusion Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕; 柳和生; 黄兴元

    2013-01-01

    利用Polyflow有限元软件对聚苯乙烯(PS)/CO2均相体系在连续挤出成型圆形快速降压口模中的流动进行数值模拟,考察快速降压口模入口角、长径比及口模温度对PS微孔塑料熔体沿轴线方向的压力降速率和剪切速率的影响.结果表明,当入口角大于30°时,改变入口角对压力降速率和剪切速率无明显影响,即对微孔塑料的气泡成核影响微小,但当入口角为0°时,与其它各入口角相比,其熔体压力降速率最大,气泡成核时间最早;在毛细管段口模直径不变的情况下,改变其长径比对熔体气泡成核亦无明显影响,但压力降随口模长度缩短而变小;口模温度对剪切速率影响不大,但降低口模温度,压力降速率明显提高,从而有利于微孔塑料的气泡成核.%Numerical simulation of polystyrene (PS)/CO2 homogeneous phase system flowing in circular rapid decompressive die of continuous extrusion molding was done through finite element analysis software Polyflow,moreover,effects of inlet angle and aspect ratio (L/D) of the rapid decompressive die and die temperature on pressure drop rate and shearing rate of the PS microcellular plastic melt along the direction of axis were analyzed.The results show that when the inlet angle is more than 30°,changing inlet angle has no obvious effect on the pressure drop rate and shearing rate,in other words,it has little influence on bubble nucleation of microcellular plastic,but when the inlet angle is 0°,the pressure drop rate is highest and the bubble nucleation time is earliest comparing with other inlet angles.Changing L/D has also no obvious influence on bubble nucleation of microcellular plastic under the conditions of die diameter in capillary section being constant,but pressure drop decreases with the die length shortening.The effect of die temperature on shearing rate is slight,but the die temperature decreases,the pressure drop rate increases obviously,which is

  14. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites: Plasticity and damage mechanisms, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, B. S.; Newaz, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The inelastic deformation mechanisms for the SiC (SCS-6)/Ti-15-3 system were studied at 538 C (1000 F) using a combination of mechanical measurements and detailed microstructural examinations. The objectives were to evaluate the contributions of plasticity and damage to the overall MMC response, and to compare the room temperature and elevated temperature deformation behaviors. Four different laminates were studied: (0)8, (90)8,(+ or -45)2s, and (0/90)2s, with the primary emphasis on the unidirectional (0)8, and (90)8 systems. The elevated temperature responses were similar to those at room temperature, involving a two-stage elastic-plastic type of response for the (0)8 system, and a characteristic three-stage deformation response for the (90)8 and (+ or -45)2s systems. The primary effects of elevated temperatures included: (1) reduction in the 'yield' and failure strengths; (2) plasticity through diffused slip rather than concentrated planar slip (which occurred at room temperature); and (3) time-dependent deformation. The inelastic deformation mechanism for the (0)8 MMC was dominated by plasticity at both temperatures. For the (90)8 and (+ or -45)2s MMCs, a combination of damage and plasticity contributed to the deformation at both temperatures.

  15. Thermoplastic blow molding of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schroers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While plastics have revolutionized industrial design due to their versatile processability, their relatively low strength has hampered their use in structural components. On the other hand, while metals are the basis for strong structural components, the geometries into which they can be processed are rather limited. The “ideal” material would offer a desirable combination of superior structural properties and the ability to be precision (net shaped into complex geometries. Here we show that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, which have superior mechanical properties, can be blow molded like plastics. The key to the enhanced processability of BMG formers is their amenability to thermoplastic forming. This allows complex BMG structures, some of which cannot be produced using any other metal process, to be net shaped precisely.

  16. Estudo de caso de peça moldada pelo processo de injeção-compressão para termoplásticos utilizando análise computacional Study of injection-compression molded part using CAE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago M. Kiam

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O processamento de termoplásticos através do processo de injeção representa o principal método de fabricação de peças plásticas. Limitações do processo de injeção convencional, principalmente quanto à matéria-prima e configuração e funcionamento das máquinas disponíveis, tornam inviável a produção de produtos com grande área projetada e pequena espessura, como janelas automotivas e alguns tipos de lentes. Paralelamente, o processo de injeção evolui continuamente e há uma série de novas tecnologias geradas a partir do processo original, dentre elas o processo de injeção-compressão. No presente trabalho, utilizando análise computacional, estudou-se a produção de lentes de policarbonato através de dois processos distintos: injeção convencional e processo de injeção-compressão. A seqüência de estudos envolveu basicamente os seguintes pontos: estudo do padrão de preenchimento com conseqüente otimização do processo de injeção-compressão quanto à formação de linha de emenda; estudo da janela de processo para ambos os casos e comparação de alguns parâmetros principalmente tensão de cisalhamento e força de fechamento, por se tratarem de fatores limitantes na produção de peças com grande área projetada. Os resultados para o caso estudado comprovam grande vantagem na utilização do processo de injeção-compressão.The injection-molding of thermoplastics is the main process used in the production of plastics parts. There are some limitations in the conventional injection process, specially related to raw materials, machines configuration and operation, which hamper fabrication of thin parts with large areas such as car windows and lenses. On the other hand, the process has been improved continuously with several new technologies, going beyond the conventional injection molding process, including the "injection-compression" process. In this paper, using CAE (computer aided engineering technology

  17. Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 3. Durability of WPCs with bioderived matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, M.; Larsson-Brelid, P.; Segerholm, B.K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay resistance of fully bio-derived wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested in both laboratory and field tests. The laboratory tests were performed according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils) and the field tests according to EN 2

  18. Inelastic Deformation of Metal Matrix Composites. Part 1; Plasticity and Damage Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, B. S.; Newaz, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The deformation mechanisms of a Ti 15-3/SCS6 (SiC fiber) metal matrix composite (MMC) were investigated using a combination of mechanical measurements and microstructural analysis. The objectives were to evaluate the contributions of plasticity and damage to the overall inelastic response, and to confirm the mechanisms by rigorous microstructural evaluations. The results of room temperature experiments performed on 0 degree and 90 degree systems primarily are reported in this report. Results of experiments performed on other laminate systems and at high temperatures will be provided in a forthcoming report. Inelastic deformation of the 0 degree MMC (fibers parallel to load direction) was dominated by the plasticity of the matrix. In contrast, inelastic deformations of the 90 degree composite (fibers perpendicular to loading direction) occurred by both damage and plasticity. The predictions of a continuum elastic plastic model were compared with experimental data. The model was adequate for predicting the 0 degree response; however, it was inadequate for predicting the 90 degree response largely because it neglected damage. The importance of validating constitutive models using a combination of mechanical measurements and microstructural analysis is pointed out. The deformation mechanisms, and the likely sequence of events associated with the inelastic deformation of MMCs, are indicated in this paper.

  19. Study of Warpage in Injection MoldingUsing Rubber and Talc-filled Polypropylene— Influence of Molding Conditions on Corner Deformation —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Tadayoshi; Furuhashi, Hiroshi; Maeda, Hidenori; Inoyama, Tatsuya; Koyama, Kiyohito

    The most popular resin material for automotive plastic parts is polypropylene, which includes talc for stiffness and heat-resistance. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient is well documented for talc reinforced polypropylene, but there are almost no technical papers for warpage. Therefore, using this kind of material and molding with an "L" shaped cross section, the influence of molding conditions on corner deformation is discussed in this study. The results of this study are as follows 1) Shrinkage rate in the thickness direction is a few times larger than that in the planar direction (flow direction and transverse direction). By SEM observation, talc orientation for planar direction was confirmed. This talc orientation can hinder shrinkage in the planar direction, so the shrinkage rate in the thickness direction is relatively larger. 2) Three relationships were confirmed; negative correlation between injected weight (i.e. specimen weight) and shrinkage rate in the thickness direction, positive correlation between shrinkage rate in the thickness direction and corner deformation, and injected weight was varied by molding condition. From the results above, corner deformation is examined when; molding condition changes the injected weight, injected weight varies the shrinkage rate in the thickness direction, and when the shrinkage rate in the thickness direction induces corner deformation.

  20. Powder injection molding of pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shibo; DUAN Bohua; HE Xinbo; QU Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    An improved wax-based binder was developed for powder injection molding of pure titanium. A critical powder loading of 69 vol.% and a pseudo-plastic flow behavior were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. The injection molding, debinding, and sintering process were studied. An ideal control of carbon and oxygen contents was achieved by thermal debinding in vacuum atmosphere (10-3 Pa). The mechanical properties of as-sintered specimens were less than those of titanium made by the conventional press-sintering process. Good shape retention and ±0.04 mm dimension deviation were achieved.

  1. Application of Snap Fit in Plastic Parts%搭扣配合在塑胶件中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳林; 王新科; 汤庆儒

    2016-01-01

    搭扣配合在塑胶产品中的应用非常广泛,搭扣配合可以在不使用粘合剂或铆接等方法的情况下实现塑胶零件之间的连接紧固。文中阐明了悬臂搭扣、环形搭扣和扭转搭扣3种搭扣配合形式,并通过对这3种搭扣配合形式的基本设计要点进行归纳总结,提炼具体参数,为塑胶件搭扣设计提供理论基础,达到降低制造模具过程中模具返修率的目的。%Snap fit is widely used in the plastic products. Snap fit can realize fastening connection among the plastic parts without the use of an adhesive or caulking. The paper introduces 3 snap fit forms, including the boom snap, the snap ring, and the snap-fit twist clasp. Through these 3 forms of snap fit, summarize the basic design elements, extract specific parameters, provide a theoretical basis for the design of plastic parts snap fit, and reduce mould repair rate in mould manufacturing process.

  2. 水平分型大型金属型模具设计及其应用%Design and Application of Large Permanent Casting Mold with Horizontal Parting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀; 梁建忠; 师文琴; 侯建兵; 原建明; 袁际章

    2013-01-01

    介绍了大型复杂铝合金箱体铸件采用水平分型的模具结构设计及铸造工艺的设计,侧重于直浇道正斜度浇注反斜度出型,冒口反斜度出型正斜度补缩的设计,以及通过在普通重力浇注机上增加反压装置的设计,实现了普通浇注机在无顶出油缸情况下完成铸件的出型和顶出.%The structure design and casting process of the large permanent casting mold with the horizontal parting for large and complex Al-alloy housing castings were introduced,focus on the process design with the positive draft angle sprue and the mold open with negative angle,as well as the process design of the mold open with negative draft angle dead head and the feeding with positive angle,by equipping the ordinary gravity filler with counterpressure device to assure that the ordinary filler fulfills the open and ejection without hydrocylinder.

  3. Injection Mould Design Delphi Plastic End Cover%小议塑料端盖注射模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2015-01-01

    The design detail of a plastic mold, molding characteristics from product and process analysis, to determine the performance of injection molding materials and sub-surface selection and gating system, injection machine selection and verification, side parting aspects of the work and molded parts, such as the size of the calculation are described.%详细地介绍了一个塑料制品成型模具,从制品的成型特点和工艺性分析、注射材料的成型性能和分型面的选择和浇注系统的确定、注射机的选择和校核、侧面分型以及成型零件工作尺寸的计算等方面进行了说明。

  4. A new insight into foaming mechanisms in injection molding via a novel visualization mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shaayegan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex mechanisms of bubble nucleation and dynamics in foam injection molding have not been uncovered despite many previous efforts due to the non-steady stop-and-flow nature of injection molding and the non-uniform temperature and pressure distributions in the mold. To this end, a new visualization mold was designed and manufactured for the direct observation of bubble nucleation and growth/collapse in foam injection molding. A reflective prism was incorporated into the stationary part of the injection mold with which the nucleation and growth behaviors of bubbles were successfully observed. The mechanisms of bubble nucleation in low- and high-pressure foam injection molding, with and without the application of gas-counter pressure, was investigated. We identified how the inherently non-uniform cell structure is developed in low-pressure foam injection molding with gate-nucleated bubbles, and when and how cell nucleation occurs in high-pressure foam injection molding with a more uniform pressure drop.

  5. Study On The External Gas-Assisted Mold Temperature Control For Thin Wall Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThanhTrung Do

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic mold surface temperature control (DMTC has many advantages in micro-injection molding as well as thin-wall molding product. In this paper, DMTC will be applied for the thin-wall molding part with the observation of the weldline appearance and the weldline strength. The heating step of DMTC will be achieved by the hot air flow directly to the weldline area. The results show that the heating rate could be reached to 4.5C/s, which could raising the mold surface from 30C to over 120C within 15 s. The melt filling was operated with high temperature at the weldline area; therefore, the weldline appearance was eliminated. In addition, the weldline strength was also improved. The results show that the thinner part had the higher strength of the weldline

  6. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  7. The exponentiated Hencky-logarithmic strain energy: part III—coupling with idealized multiplicative isotropic finite strain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Patrizio; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel

    2016-03-01

    We investigate an immediate application in finite strain multiplicative plasticity of the family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies F mapsto W_eH(F):= widehat{W}_eH(U) := μ/k e^{k | dev_n log {U}|^2}+κ/2 {widehat{k}} e^{widehat{k} [ tr(log U)]^2}&quad if& det F > 0, + ∞ & quad if & det F ≤ 0, based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor {log U} . Here, {μ > 0} is the infinitesimal shear modulus, {κ=2 μ+3λ/3 > 0} is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with λ the first Lamé constant, {k,widehat{k}} are additional dimensionless material parameters, {F=nabla \\varphi} is the gradient of deformation, {U=√{F^T F}} is the right stretch tensor, and dev n {log {U} =log {U}-1/n tr(log {U})\\cdot{1}} is the deviatoric part of the strain tensor {log U} . Based on the multiplicative decomposition {F=F_e F_p} , we couple these energies with some isotropic elasto-plastic flow rules {F_p {dt}/[F_p^{-1}]in-partial χ(dev_3 Σe)} defined in the plastic distortion F p , where {partial χ} is the subdifferential of the indicator function {χ} of the convex elastic domain {E_e({Σe},1/3{σ}_{y}^2)} in the mixed-variant {Σe} -stress space, {Σe=F_e^T D_{F_e}W_iso(F_e)} , and {W_iso(F_e)} represents the isochoric part of the energy. While {W_eH} may loose ellipticity, we show that loss of ellipticity is effectively prevented by the coupling with plasticity, since the ellipticity domain of {W_eH} on the one hand and the elastic domain in {Σe} -stress space on the other hand are closely related. Thus, the new formulation remains elliptic in elastic unloading at any given plastic predeformation. In addition, in this domain, the true stress-true strain relation remains monotone, as observed in experiments.

  8. Reduction of Injection Pressure for Thin Walled Molding using the Laser Metal Sintered Mold

    OpenAIRE

    米山, 猛; 内藤, 圭亮; 阿部, 諭; 宮丸, 充

    2010-01-01

    Using milling combined laser metal sintering, porous surface has been fabricated on the thin walled cavity closed by the surrounded thick cavity in the injection mold. Resin flows into the cavity of 2mm thick at first around the thin part and then flows into the thin cavity of 0.2mm thick with 11mm square by packing pressure. The packing pressure for filling the thin part was compared among laser metal sintered mold with or without porous surface, steel mold with or without porous block. The ...

  9. Antiplasticization and plasticization of Matrimid® asymmetric hollow fiber membranes. Part B. Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jong Suk

    2010-03-15

    A previous paper characterized effects of exposure of Matrimid® asymmetric fibers to either toluene or n-heptane or a combination of both contaminants during permeation. In all cases, reductions in the carbon dioxide permeance and the carbon dioxide/methane selectivity were observed for both annealed and non-annealed samples. In this paper, the respective potential impacts of competitive sorption, fiber compaction, and antiplasticization/plasticization on membrane performance during contaminant exposure are quantified and analyzed. The combined impact of competitive sorption and antiplasticization/plasticization are shown to account for the loss in membrane performance observed during exposure to highly sorbing feed stream contaminants. The dual mode transport model for penetrant mixtures was used to explain reduction in CO2 permeance due to competitive sorption effects, while free volume-based modeling explained decrease in CO2 permeance due to antiplasticization. Finally, the impact on CO2 permeance during exposure of the annealed Matrimid® fibers to contaminants is analyzed. The analysis is based on reduction in segmental mobility expected due to reduction of residual unrelaxed volume as compared to unanealed sample. © 2010.

  10. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  11. 注射成型工艺条件对聚丙烯制品光泽度的影响%Effects of Injection Molding Parameters on Glossiness of Polypropylene Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西文; 杨中文

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of injection molding parameters on the glossiness of polypropylene parts, Taguchi method was employed to determine the experiment factors and their weighs. It was found that the increase of melt temperature, mold temperature, dwell pressure,and injection rate could increase the glossiness of the parts; meanwhile the tensile and bending strengths would also increase at the cost of notch impact strength. The descending order in weigh of the influence factors was melt temperature, mold temperature, packing pressure, and injection rate.%通过一次因子法确定了Taguchi法的试验因子,采用Taguchi法对试验因子进行权重分析与优化,并进一步研究了注射成型工艺条件对聚丙烯制品光泽度的影响.结果表明,在注射成型过程中,提高熔体温度、模具温度、保压压力及注射速率都有助于提高制品的光泽度,同时也会提高制品的拉伸强度和弯曲强度,但会降低缺口冲击强度.影响聚丙烯制品光泽度的最显著因索是熔体温度.影响因子的权重大小顺序为:熔体温度、模具温度、保压压力、注射速率.

  12. Effects of mold geometry on fiber orientation of powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Aslam, Muhammad, E-mail: klaira73@gmail.com; Altaf, Khurram, E-mail: khurram.altaf@petronas.com.my; Shirazi, Irfan, E-mail: irfanshirazi@hotmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Fiber orientations in metal matrix composites have significant effect on improving tensile properties. Control of fiber orientations in metal injection molded metal composites is a difficult task. In this study, two mold cavities of dimensions 6x6x90 mm and 10x20x180 mm were used for comparison of fiber orientation in injection molded metal composites test parts. In both mold cavities, convergent and divergent flows were developed by modifying the sprue dimensions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the fiber orientations within the test samples. The results showed highly aligned fiber in injection molded test bars developed from the convergent melt flow. Random orientation of fibers was noted in the composites test bars produced from divergent melt flow.

  13. Mechanism of plasticity Development for Ceramic Dough (Part 2). Investigation on Plasticity by Particle Packing Structure; Seramiku nendo no kasakusei hatsugen mekanizumu 2. Nendo juten kozo to kasakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shuji. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ichikawa, Yukari.; Ishida, Hideki. [INAX Corporation, Aichi (Japan); Shibasaki, Yasuo.; Oda, Kiichi. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Plasticity and packing structure of clay and alumina dough, and of alumina mixed with water-soluble and non-water-soluble plasticizers were investigated. It was found that both plastic clay dough and alumina dough with plasticizers showed a two-peak pore population. When the larger-sized pores increased in volume, the fluidity of the dough was improved. On the otherhand, when the smaller-sized pores decreased in volume, a high rigidity was showed. An aggregate structure was observed in the clay and the dough mixed with water-soluble plasticizer like methyl cellulose. Plasticity was generated when the aggregates were deformed by using the larger-sized pores among each aggregate. The non-water-soluble curdlan did not dissolve in the dough and remained in gel. The larger-sized pores were formed by the gel, whose deformation produced plasticity. It was understood that plasticity is fenerated when either the aggregates or the gel act as a buffer in the dough and enhance deformation of the dough. (author)

  14. Injection-molded nanocomposites and materials based on wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S-W; Gällstedt, M; Johansson, E; Hedenqvist, M S

    2011-01-01

    This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the injection molding of materials where wheat gluten (WG) is the main component. In addition to a plasticizer (glycerol), 5 wt.% natural montmorillonite clay was added. X-ray indicated intercalated clay and transmission electron microscopy indicated locally good clay platelet dispersion. Prior to feeding into the injection molder, the material was first compression molded into plates and pelletized. The filling of the circular mold via the central gate was characterized by a divergent flow yielding, in general, a stronger and stiffer material in the circumferential direction. It was observed that 20-30 wt.% glycerol yielded the best combination of processability and mechanical properties. The clay yielded improved processability, plate homogeneity and tensile stiffness. IR spectroscopy and protein solubility indicated that the injection molding process yielded a highly aggregated structure. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a very promising method for producing WG objects.

  15. Injection molding of bushes made of tribological PEEK composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK composites have been extensively studied because of the excellent tribological behavior among plastics. However, laboratory specimens and tests are generally discussed, whereas application studies on industrial components are infrequent. In this paper, an injection molded bush made of tribological PEEK was analyzed to correlate wear behavior and molded material structure. Bushes were tested under unlubricated sliding conditions by means of a short wear test. Surface analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical microscopy were used to evaluate the distribution of the different composite fillers (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, graphite particles and carbon microfibers and their effect on the final bush behavior. A significant lack of homogeneity was observed in the molded bush and black bands appeared on the shaft surface after testing due to the sliding. The bush geometry and the injection molding process should be optimized to allow the best tribological behavior of the molded material under working conditions.

  16. Temperature and Thermal Stress Distribution for Metal Mold in Squeeze Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.H.Chang; G.C.Jang; C.H.Lee; S.H.Lee

    2008-01-01

    In the squeeze casting process, loaded high pressure (over approximately 100 MPa) and high temperature influence the thermo-mechanical behavior and performance of the used metal mold. Therefore, to safely maintain the metal molds, the thermo-mechanical characteristics (temperature and thermal stress) of metal mold in the squeeze casting must be investigated. In this paper, temperature and thermal stress distribution of steel mold in squeeze casting process were investigated by using a three-dimensional non-steady heat conduction analysis and a three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic analysis considering temperature-dependent thermo- physical and mechanical properties of the steel mold.

  17. Mold design with simulation for chalcogenide glass precision molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Wang, Zhibin; Li, Junqi; Zhang, Feng; Su, Ying; Wang, Zhongqiang

    2016-10-01

    Compare with the manufacturing of the traditional infrared material, such as signal crystal germanium, zinc sulfide, zinc selenide etc, chalcogenide infrared glass is suitable for precision molding for the low soften temperature to have large mass industry production. So the researches of precision glass molding are necessary, especially for the fast development of infrared product. The mold design is one of the key technologies of precision glass molding. In this paper, the mold processing of a sample chalcogenide glass from the technical drawing, mold design, molding to the lens are introduced. From the result of the precision molding, the technology of finite element simulation is a useful way to guiding the mold design. The molded lens by using mold process fit the design requirement.

  18. Silicon micro-mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  19. RESEARCH OF HIGH-GLOSS INJECTION TECHNOLOGY WITH DIRECT STEAM HEATING THE MOLD CAVITY%蒸汽直接加热模腔的高光注塑技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁业兴; 余春晖; 柴金龙; 林国勇; 李春波; 潘莹; 凌中水; 黄虹宾

    2011-01-01

    提出了蒸汽直接加热模具型腔表面的高光注塑新方法,研制了蒸汽直接加热模具型腔的高光注塑模具及模具温度控制机.该装置将高温蒸汽直接通入模腔,使模腔表面达到所需的温度,然后通入高温干空气,吹除模腔内残留的冷凝水,再注射、保压、冷却、开模,完成一个注塑周期.该方法使动定模模面得到均匀加热,熔融科前锋温度和速度高,且只加热模面以下1~2mm的模芯,能有效地缩短加热和冷却时间.结果表明,该技术能够有效地解决塑料件的熔接痕、流痕、翘曲、缩水、尺寸变形等缺陷,使塑料件获得极高的表面粗糙度等级,且节省热能,降低相关的模具制造成本.%A novel high-gloss injection method which the mold cavity was heated by steam directly was presented, the related high-gloss mold and special high-gloss mold temperature controller was developed. By this machine, the high-temperature steam was input the mold cavity for several seconds and the surface of mold cavity gained the demandable temperature, then the high-temperature dry air was switched to the mold cavity for blowing off residual condensation water on the surface of mold cavity. Subsequently, a cycle of injection molding was completed, including injection, packing, cooling, and mold opening. Surface of fixed and moving half molds were heated evenly by this method, the speed and temperature of the front of molten plastic were very high , and the metal of mold cores with depth of only 1-2 mm from mold surfaces was heated, so the method greatly shortened the heating and cooling time. The experimental results showed that the surface defects of plastic parts were improved effctively such as welding mark, flow mark, warping, craters, size deformation, et al. And extreme high grade of surface roughness was obtained, the technology also reduced heat energy consumption and saved mold manufacturing costs.

  20. Using Direct Metal Deposition to Fabricate Mold Plates for an Injection Mold Machine Allowing for the Evaluation of Cost Effective Near-Sourcing Opportunities in Larger, High Volume Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Groh, Bill [Radio Systems Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-10-31

    ORNL collaborated with Radio Systems Corporation to investigate additive manufacturing (AM) of mold plates for plastic injection molding by direct metal deposition. The team s modelling effort identified a 100% improvement in heat transfer through use of conformal cooling lines that could be built into the mold using a revolutionary design enabled by additive manufacturing. Using the newly installed laser deposition system at the ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) a stainless steel mold core was printed.

  1. JUSTIFICATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLDING VIBRATING TABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Anofriev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the efficient ways to obtain castings of complex shape is lost foam casting (LFC in the evacuated molds (containers. Upgrading the quality of this casting method requires improvement of molding techniques. The molding process involves layer-by-layer vibratory compaction of sand in the containers. Most of the lines of LFC sections are equipped with vibrating tables with inertia oscillators driven by induction motors, operating at nominal speed. A promising way of improving the molding technique is the rational setting of the following parameters of vibrating table: vibration displacement, velocity and acceleration. These parameters are determined by the elastic-mass characteristics of the system «vibrating table – mold» and perturbing forces created by inertia oscillators. The aim of the study is to determine the rational range of setting the parameters of oscillators at which the qualitative layer-by-layer compaction of the molding sand in the mold takes place. Methodology. The efficiency criterion for setting characteristics of the vibrating table there were taken the values of averaged accelerations of 6.5 – 7.5 m/s2 corresponding to maximum compaction degree of dry molding sand and the range of acceleration values 9 – 9.5 m/s2 for giving the sand «pseudo-yielding». For the study it was developed a mathematical model of oscillations of the movable part of vibrating table with two types of casting containers for steady and transient operation modes. Findings. In the process of research of the mold oscillations it was calculated the natural frequencies of oscillations at different elastic-mass characteristics of the system using a mathematical model. It was constructed the frequency response of displacements and accelerations of the moving part of the table with container filled with molding sand layer-by-layer. Originality. The author proposes a method of determining the range of frequency setting of inertial

  2. Diseño de moldes y tecnología para la fabricación de engranajes plásticos de dientes rectos asimétricos. // Diseño de moldes y tecnología para la fabricación de engranajes plásticos de dientes rectos asimétricos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. García Martínez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los procesos de moldeado por inyección de los engranajes, mostrándose las ventajas conrespecto al maquinado de los polímeros. Se brinda el procedimiento de cálculo para el diseño y fabricación de ruedas dentadas condientes rectos asimétricos, así como los métodos de obtención del herramental necesario que permite acabados de alta calidad en piezasfabricadas de materiales termoplásticos. Se usa una metodología de cálculo que incluye diferentes parámetros de un molde, tales como:número de cavidades, tiempo de enfriamiento, longitud de las vías de frío. Por otra parte se sugiere la configuración de los canales dealimentación y puntos de inyección entre otras. Finalmente se muestra el molde diseñado y fabricado para un caso particulardestacando la validez del método usado. Se resalta en particular la asimetría en los perfiles logrados mediante la utilización del métodode la electro erosión por hilo para fabricar la cavidad del molde.Palabras claves: moldes, engranajes asimétricos, electroerosivo._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.An analysis of the injection molding process of plastic gears, showing its advantages regarding width machining process itis made in this paper. Calculation procedure for designing and molding of spur gears with asymmetric teeth is offer,including necessary tools for obtaining high quality surface finishing of gears made from thermoplastic materials. Theprocedure includes different molding parameters such as number of cavities, cooling time, injection points, etc. Moldedspur gears, tools, machines and molds are showed.Key words: molds, gears, EDM.

  3. Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding...

  4. Integrated mold/surface-micromachining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Hetherington, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    We detail a new monolithically integrated silicon mold/surface-micromachining process which makes possible the fabrication of stiff, high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures integrated with finely detailed, compliant structures. An important example, which we use here as our process demonstration vehicle, is that of an accelerometer with a large proof mass and compliant suspension. The proof mass is formed by etching a mold into the silicon substrate, lining the mold with oxide, filling it with mechanical polysilicon, and then planarizing back to the level of the substrate. The resulting molded structure is recessed into the substrate, forming a planar surface ideal for subsequent processing. We then add surface-micromachined springs and sense contacts. The principal advantage of this new monolithically integrated mold/surface-micromachining process is that it decouples the design of the different sections of the device: In the case of a sensitive accelerometer, it allows us to optimize independently the proof mass, which needs to be as large, stiff, and heavy as possible, and the suspension, which needs to be as delicate and compliant as possible. The fact that the high-aspect-ratio section of the device is embedded in the substrate enables the monolithic integration of high-aspect-ratio parts with surface-micromachined mechanical parts, and, in the future, also electronics. We anticipate that such an integrated mold/surface micromachining/electronics process will offer versatile high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures that can be batch-fabricated and monolithically integrated into complex microelectromechanical systems.

  5. Glass molding process with mold lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Richard G.

    1978-06-27

    Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

  6. Permeable Steel and Its Application in Plastic-injection Mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhaoyao; CAO Wenjiong; WU Zhengqiang; YU Minqiang; LI Yuanyuan

    2010-01-01

    The gas in plastics mould has great influence on performance, appearance and lifespan of the injection molded parts. Venting channel and its appendix system should be used for gas exhausting in general. However, the dependence on the venting system complicates the mould design. Furthermore in certain condition, it is difficult to integrate the venting system into the mould. Currently a kind of mold material which has gas permeability has been developed in abroad, but the applications of this mold material were restricted by its higher cost and smaller size. In this research, a porous material which was made by powder metallurgy was applied to plastic mould to replace the venting system. Permeability of the steel with different secondary processing was tested and compared with a special apparatus. The metallographic samples of the steel with different secondary processing were prepared and investigated. Finally an actual injection set was established to investigate the applications of permeable steel. The metallographies indicate that the micro-holes inside permeable steel were interconnected. Moulds made of permeable steel exhibit good permeability in the plastic-injection experiments and gas generated in the mould cavity was smoothly exhausted. The melted plastic did not penetrate into the mould or block in the micro-holes. After several times of plastic-injection experiments, the mould still retained good permeability. The strength of this permeable steel is between 200-250 MPa and suitable for industrial applications. The venting systems simplified by permeable steel in plastic-injection have simple structures, which can be applied into any place that requires gas exhausting.

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF PLASTIC PARTS PRODUCED BY A FUSED DEPOSITION MODELING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Beniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Prototyping systems are nowadays increasingly used in many areas of industry, not only for producing design models but also for producing parts for final use. We need to know the properties of these parts. When we talk about the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and FDM devices, there are many possible settings for devices and models which could influence the properties of a final part. In addition, devices based on the same principle may use different operational software for calculating the tool path, and this may have a major impact. The aim of this paper is to show the tensile strength value for parts produced from different materials on the Fused Deposition Modeling device when the horizontal orientation of the specimens is changed.

  8. Parametric and non-parametric modeling of short-term synaptic plasticity. Part II: Experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Wang, Zhuo; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Berger, Theodore W

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a synergistic parametric and non-parametric modeling study of short-term plasticity (STP) in the Schaffer collateral to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron (SC) synapse. Parametric models in the form of sets of differential and algebraic equations have been proposed on the basis of the current understanding of biological mechanisms active within the system. Non-parametric Poisson-Volterra models are obtained herein from broadband experimental input-output data. The non-parametric model is shown to provide better prediction of the experimental output than a parametric model with a single set of facilitation/depression (FD) process. The parametric model is then validated in terms of its input-output transformational properties using the non-parametric model since the latter constitutes a canonical and more complete representation of the synaptic nonlinear dynamics. Furthermore, discrepancies between the experimentally-derived non-parametric model and the equivalent non-parametric model of the parametric model suggest the presence of multiple FD processes in the SC synapses. Inclusion of an additional set of FD process in the parametric model makes it replicate better the characteristics of the experimentally-derived non-parametric model. This improved parametric model in turn provides the requisite biological interpretability that the non-parametric model lacks.

  9. Relationship Between Casting Distortion, Mold Filling, and Interfacial Heat Transfer in Sand Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Parker; K. A. Woodbury; T. S. Piwonka; Y. Owusu

    1999-09-30

    This project sought to determine the relationship between casting dimensions and interfacial heat transfer in aluminum alloy sand castings. The program had four parts; measurement of interfacial heat transfer coefficients in resin bonded and green sand molds, the measurement of gap formation in these molds, the analysis of castings made in varying gatings, orientations and thicknesses, and the measurement of residual stresses in castings in the as-cast and gate removed condition. New values for interfacial heat transfer coefficients were measured, a novel method for gap formation was developed, and the variation of casting dimensions with casting method, gating, and casting orientation in the mold was documented.

  10. Optimizing the value of the posterior condylar offset, proximal tibial resection and slope in order to achieve the right balance of the posterior cruciate ligament - clinical application of the molding function of the two parts of the PCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogojevski, Ljubomir; Doksevska, Milena Bogojevska

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve the right balance of the posterior cruciate ligament using the skeletal method is very difficult, almost impossible (Mahoney). Our hypothesis for the right balance of the PCL by using the skeletal method is based on several defined facts: - PCL is a union based of two anatomically independent, but functionally synergic parts, posteromedial and anterolateral part. - The length of the posteromedial part of the PCL is determined by the belonging of the medial compartment and is shortest in varus and longest in valgus deformation. - The length of the anterolateral part of the PCL, placed centrally is unchangeable (cca 38 mm) in every knee and is independent from the anatomical appearance (deformation). - The cylindrical shape of the distal posterior part of the femur (Ficat) depends of the molding function of the PCL (Kapandji) and is a result of the proportion of the both parts of the PCL that is consisted of: shorter posteromedial part, less bone stock on the medial and more bone stock on the lateral condyle (varus knee) and vice versa, longer posteromedial part, more bone stock on the medial condyle and less on the lateral (valgus knee). According to that, the neutral bone stock is achieved by equalization of the lengths of the two parts (common radius of the cylinder) of the PCL, that is basis for the interligamentary balance of the posterior cruciate ligament. Methods: The basic characteristics of the interligamentary balance of the PCL that we started in 2008 are the following: 1. Posterior condylar offset is equal to the even length of the both part of the PCL. 2. Decrease of the values of proximal tibial resection from 10 in varus to 4-6 in valgus. 3. Femoral valgus cut from 6 in excessive varus deformity to 4 in valgus. Results: The clinical evaluation of the cases divided in groups excessive varus, mean varus, valgus type 1, 2 (Krakow) showed right distribution in the groups of the postoperative ROM and intraoperative

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF CELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.

  12. Injection molding of iPP samples in controlled conditions and resulting morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessa, Nino, E-mail: ninosessa.ns@gmail.com; De Santis, Felice, E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it; Pantani, Roberto, E-mail: rpantani@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Injection molded parts are driven down in size and weight especially for electronic applications. In this work, an investigation was carried out on the process of injection molding of thin iPP samples and on the morphology of these parts. Melt flow in the mold cavity was analyzed and described with a mathematical model. Influence of mold temperature and injection pressure was analyzed. Samples orientation was studied using optical microscopy.

  13. Plasticity in allocation of nicotine to reproductive parts inNicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, I T; Karb, M J

    1995-07-01

    Although little is known about the patterns of chemical defense allocation in reproductive tissues, optimal defense theory predicts a high constitutive allocation due to the tissues' high fitness value. To examine this prediction, we quantified the short- and long-term changes in the nicotine pools of reproductive tissues in response to both floral and leaf damage. Recently opened flowers (stage 5 capsules) do not alter their nicotine pools within a day in response to herbivory byManduca sexta larvae or mechanical damage to the corolla. Similarly, leaf damage during both vegetative and reproductive growth does not influence the nicotine pools of the first three stage-5 capsules produced. However, the nicotine pools of capsules produced later in reproductive growth were significantly larger (1.2- to 1.9-fold) on plants with leaf damage. These differences in floral nicotine pools were a result of both increases in nicotine pools of capsules on damaged plants and decreases in the nicotine pools of capsules on undamaged plants during reproductive growth. Leaf damage did not affect the rate of capsule maturation or the mass of stage-5 capsules at any time during reproductive growth. An allometric analysis of nicotine pools and biomass of reproductive parts in all stages of development from damaged and undamaged plants demonstrates that damaged plants allocated a significantly larger quantity of nicotine to reproductive parts in all stages of development than did undamaged plants. Given that nicotine is thought to be synthesized in the roots and transported to leaves and reproductive parts, nicotine could be allocated to reproductive parts in proportion to the number of developing capsules on a plant. We excised the first 27 stage-5 capsules on plants with and without leaf damage, with the expectation that plants with fewer capsules would allocate a larger amount of nicotine to the remaining capsules. In contrast to the prediction of this passive allocation model, floral

  14. Mold Image Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    The image library contains mold-related images in seven categories. There are also animated images that you can choose to view and download. These photos may be used for presentations and educational purposes without contacting EPA.

  15. Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must...... be minimized to avoid introducing uncertainties in the simulation calculations. Simulations of bulky sub-100 milligrams micro molded parts have been validated and a methodology for accurate micro molding simulations was established.......Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve...

  16. Development of mold for biodegradable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japitana, F.H.; Jabrica, A.M. [Metals Industry Research and Develeopment Center, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Science and Technology; Komatsu, M. [Komatsu Consulting Engineer Office, Iwaki City, Fukushima (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The improper disposal of non-biodegradable plastics adversely affect global environmental factors, principles of sustainability, industrial ecology and ecoefficiency. Therefore, a new generation of bio-based polymeric products has been developed. These polylactides (PLA), cellulose esters, starch plastics and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are made from renewable natural resources and are biodegradable. They meet environmental conditions and can compete with their petrochemical counterparts. Among them, PLA is particularly attractive as a sustainable alternative to synthetic polymers and a potential candidate for the fabrication of biocomposites. Certain blends have proved successful in medical implants, sutures and drug delivery systems because of their capacity to dissolve away with time. However, widespread use of PLA is limited because of cost. Biodegradable plastic products are currently 6 to 10 times more expensive than traditional plastics. Environmentalists argue that the cheaper price of traditional plastics does not reflect their true cost when their impact is considered. This paper presented a solution to reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics. In particular, it described a newly developed plastic injection mold for biodegradable materials which can produce a scrapless product. The system reduces processing time because it is not necessary to remove any gating or runners after the injection process. Takeout robots ensure that the quality of the product is maintained. 12 figs.

  17. The Elastic Mold Deformation During the Filling and Packing Stage of the Injection Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kleindel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate numerical prediction of the mold filling process of long and thin walled parts is dependent on numerous factors. This paper investigates the effect of various influencing variables on the filling pattern by means of simulation and experimental validation. It was found that mold temperature, process settings and venting conditions have little effect on the predicted filling pattern. However, in the actual case study, the filling behavior observed during the experiments was significantly different compared to the numerical prediction. A structural finite element analysis of the moving mold half showed an unacceptable large deformation of the mold plates under injection pressure. A very good correlation between simulation and experiment was attained after improving the stiffness of the mold. Therefore it can be concluded, that the elasticity of the mold may have a significant influence on the filling pattern when long and thin walled products are considered. Furthermore, it was shown, that even an apparently stiff mold can exhibit a distinct deformation during filling and packing stage.

  18. Virtual Mold Technique in Thermal Stress Analysis during Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Young Kwak; Jae-Wook Baek; Jeong-Ho Nam; Jeong-Kil Choi

    2008-01-01

    It is important to analyse the casting product and the mold at the same time considering thermal contraction of the casting and thermal expansion of the mold. The analysis considering contact of the casting and the mold induces the precise prediction of stress distribution and the defect such as hot tearing. But it is difficult to generate FEM mesh for the interface of the casting and the mold. Moreover the mesh for the mold domain spends lots of computational time and memory for the analysis due to a number of meshes. Consequently we proposed the virtual mold technique which only uses mesh of the casting part for thermal stress analysis in casting process. The spring bar element in virtual mold technique is used to consider the contact of the casting and the mold. In general, a volume of the mold is much bigger than that of casting part, so the proposed technique decreases the number of mesh and saves the computational memory and time greatly. In this study, the proposed technique was verified by the comparison with the traditional contact technique on a specimen. And the proposed technique gave satisfactory results.

  19. Diagnosis parameters of mold filling pattern for optimization of a casting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For optimal design of a gating system, the setting of diagnosis parameters is very important. In this study, the permanent mold casting process was selected because most of the other casting processes have more complicated factors that influence the mold filling pattern compared to the permanent mold casting process, such as the surface roughness of mold, gas generation from the mold wash and binder of sand mold, and the gas permeability through a sand mold, etc. Two diagnosis parameters (flow rate difference and arrival time difference of molten metal flow pattern in the numerical simulation are suggested for design of an optimum casting system with a permanent mold. The results show that the arrival time difference can be used as one important diagnosis parameter of the complexity of the runner system and its usefulness has been verified via making aluminum parts using permanent mold casting (Fig. 9.

  20. Injection molding of micro patterned PMMA plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeong-Eun YOO; Tae-Hoon KIM; Tae-Jin JE; Doo-Sun CHOI; Chang-Wan KIM; Sun-Kyung KIM

    2011-01-01

    A plastic plate with surface micro features was injection molded to investigate the effect of pressure rise of melt on the replication of the micro structures. Prism pattern, which is used in many optical applications, was selected as a model pattern. The prism pattern is 50 μm in pitch and 108° in the vertical angle. The overall size of the plate was 335 mm×213 mm and the thickness of the plate varied linearly from 2.6 mm to 0.7 mm. The prism pattern was firstly machined on the nickel plated core block using micro diamond tool and this machined pattern core was installed in a mold for injection molding of prism patterned plate. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a molding material. The pressure and temperature of the melt in the cavity were measured at different positions in the cavity and the replication of the pattern was also measured at the same positions. The results show that the pressure or temperature profile through the process depends on the shape and the size of the plate. The replication is affected by the temperature and pressure profiles at the early stage of filling, which is right after the melt reaches the position to be measured.

  1. Modelling and monitoring in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Peter

    2001-01-01

    -conforning unit is only expected very rarely during sampling, a moving sum chart and a CUSUM chart are equivalent. Finally, the correlation structure of 21 process variables has been studied prior to monitoring the process. Is is illustrated how the process can be analysed with multivariate techniques......This thesis is concerned with the application of statistical methods in quality improvement of injection molded parts. The methods described are illustrated with data from the manufacturing of parts for a medical device. The emphasis has been on the variation between cavities in multi-cavity molds...... taken within the same machine set-point did not cause great variation compared to the two preceding sources of variation. A simple graphical approach is suggested for finding patterns in the cavity differences. Applying this method to data from a 16 cavity mold, a clear connection was found between...

  2. THE INJECTION MOULD DESIGN OF PLASTIC SCREWS%塑料螺丝的注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文; 王成

    2011-01-01

    针对塑料螺丝零件,完成了浇口、流道、哈夫结构等的设计,使用Solidworks软件完成注塑模设计.结果表明,该螺纹塑件注塑模具简便实用,生产塑料螺纹零件方便快捷,塑料螺纹零件质地均匀,缺陷小,合格率高,模具损耗小.%The gate, port, half structure design of the plastic screws part mould structure were designed, and finally the injection mould was designed by Solidworks software.Results showed that the design of plastic screws part injection mold was simple and practical, the production of plastic thread parts was convenient and quick, plastic screws parts had homogeneous structure, low defect rate.

  3. Looking at plastic surgery through Google Glass: part 1. Systematic review of Google Glass evidence and the first plastic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Rosenfield, Lorne K

    2015-03-01

    Google Glass has the potential to become a ubiquitous and translational technological tool within clinical plastic surgery. Google Glass allows clinicians to remotely view patient notes, laboratory results, and imaging; training can be augmented via streamed expert master classes; and patient safety can be improved by remote advice from a senior colleague. This systematic review identified and appraised every Google Glass publication relevant to plastic surgery and describes the first plastic surgical procedures recorded using Google Glass. A systematic review was performed using PubMed National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, following modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Key search terms "Google" and "Glass" identified mutually inclusive publications that were screened for inclusion. Eighty-two publications were identified, with 21 included for review. Google Glass publications were formal articles (n = 3), editorial/commentary articles (n = 7), conference proceedings (n = 1), news reports (n = 3), and online articles (n = 7). Data support Google Glass' positive impact on health care delivery, clinical training, medical documentation, and patient safety. Concerns exist regarding patient confidentiality, technical issues, and limited software. The first plastic surgical procedure performed using Google Glass was a blepharoplasty on October 29, 2013. Google Glass is an exciting translational technology with the potential to positively impact health care delivery, medical documentation, surgical training, and patient safety. Further high-quality scientific research is required to formally appraise Google Glass in the clinical setting.

  4. Moldagem por injeção da PA 6.6 em moldes de estereolitografia metalizados com Ni-P pelo processo electroless Injection molding of PA 6.6 in stereolithography moulds coated with electroless Ni-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani C. Lencina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A fabricação de moldes por técnicas de prototipagem rápida, como a estereolitografia (SL, é considerada uma importante tecnologia no auxílio ao desenvolvimento de produtos de plástico moldados por injeção. Embora esta tecnologia se mostre vantajosa, a vida útil dos moldes pode ser bastante reduzida em decorrência, por exemplo, de forte adesão entre o polímero injetado e o material do molde SL. Neste trabalho é investigado o uso da técnica de recobrimento metálico com Ni-P por deposição electroless sobre moldes de injeção, fabricados por SL com a resina DSM SOMOS 7110®. Foram comparados resultados de moldagem de PA6.6 em moldes fabricados com e sem recobrimento metálico evidenciando a possibilidade de utilizar a técnica de metalização como alternativa para a moldagem deste material em moldes SL, uma vez que a vida útil foi superior.Manufacturing of moulds by rapid prototyping processes, such as stereolithography (SL, is considered an important technology to aid the development of injection moulding plastic products. Although this technology shows significant advantages, the lifetime of moulds may be drastically be reduced due to strong adhesion between the injected polymer and the material of the SL mould. This work investigates the use of Ni-P metal coating obtained by electroless deposition on SL moulds manufactured with the resin DSM SOMOS 7110. Specimens of PA6.6 have been injected into SL moulds manufactured with and without metal coating. The results showed that the electroless metal coating process can be an appropriate alternative to allow moulding of small series of PA6.6 parts in SL moulds.

  5. Effects of build parameters on linear wear loss in plastic part produced by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal

    2017-07-01

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the prominent additive manufacturing technologies for producing polymer products. FDM is a complex additive manufacturing process that can be influenced by many process conditions. The industrial demands required from the FDM process are increasing with higher level product functionality and properties. The functionality and performance of FDM manufactured parts are greatly influenced by the combination of many various FDM process parameters. Designers and researchers always pay attention to study the effects of FDM process parameters on different product functionalities and properties such as mechanical strength, surface quality, dimensional accuracy, build time and material consumption. However, very limited studies have been carried out to investigate and optimize the effect of FDM build parameters on wear performance. This study focuses on the effect of different build parameters on micro-structural and wear performance of FDM specimens using definitive screening design based quadratic model. This would reduce the cost and effort of additive manufacturing engineer to have a systematic approachto make decision among the manufacturing parameters to achieve the desired product quality.

  6. 工学结合课程《塑料挤出成型》教学方法及手段的改革探讨∗%Discussion of Reform on the Teaching Methods and Means of the Learning-working Combination Course of Plastics Extrusion Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金伟; 杨铃; 田红侠; 孔萍; 徐百平

    2015-01-01

    Teaching methods and means with suiting learning-working combination thinking were proposed after the course of plastics extrusion molding technology was reformed by learning-working combination. Some teaching methods were tried, for example the team rotation teaching, the guide text, the show board and brainstorming, and teaching means were tried to use the factory and teaching practice base, teaching simulation software and so on. This paper was attempted to provide a new way of professional courses teaching for higher vocational education in the new period by the reform try on the teaching methods and means of the learning- working combination course of plastics extrusion molding.%针对《塑料挤出成型》课程在进行工学结合改革后对课程的教学方法和手段的影响,提出了一些新的、适合工学结合思想的教学方法及手段:在教学方法方面尝试了小组轮换、引导课文、张贴板法、头脑风暴等多种教学方法进行教学;在教学手段方面尝试利用教学工厂及校外实习基地、仿真软件教学等教学手段。通过工学结合课程《塑料挤出成型》课程教学方法及手段的改革尝试,以期为新时期高职教育的专业课程教学提供一条新的思路和途径。

  7. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of an induction heated injection molding tool with flow visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    Using elevated mold temperature is known to have a positive influence of final injection molded parts. Induction heating is a method that allow obtaining a rapid thermal cycle, so the overall molding cycle time is not increased. In the present research work, an integrated multi-turn induction hea...

  8. Optimizing biomass blends for manufacturing molded packaging materials using mycelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  9. THE DURABILITY OF LARGE-SCALE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING COMPOSITE MOLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vaidya, Uday [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pipes, R. Byron [Purdue University; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology permits the rapid production of thermoplastic composite molds using a carbon fiber filled Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) thermoplastic. Demonstration tools (i.e. 0.965 m X 0.559 m X 0.152 m) for composite part fabrication have been printed, coated, and finished with a traditional tooling gel. We present validation results demonstrating the stability of thermoplastic printed molds for room temperature Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processes. Arkema s Elium thermoplastic resin was investigated with a variety of reinforcement materials. Experimental results include dimensional characterization of the tool surface using laser scanning technique following demolding of 10 parts. Thermoplastic composite molds offer rapid production compared to traditionally built thermoset molds in that near-net deposition allows direct digital production of the net geometry at production rate of 45 kg/hr.

  10. Flexible Interior-Impression-Molding Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1991-01-01

    Device used inside combustion chamber of complicated shape for nondestructive evaluation of qualities of welds, including such features as offset, warping, misalignment of parts, and dropthrough. Includes flexible polypropylene tray trimmed to fit desired interior surface contour. Two neodymium boron magnets and inflatable bladder attached to tray. Tray and putty inserted in cavity to make mold of interior surface.

  11. Residual thermal stresses in injection molded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, W.F.; Douven, L.F.A.; Ingen Housz, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Nonisothermal flow of a polymer melt in a cold mold cavity introduces stresses that are partly frozen-in during solidification. Flow-induced stresses cause anisotropy of mechanical, thermal, and optical properties, while the residual thermal stresses induce warpage and stress-cracking. In this study

  12. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  13. 洗衣机控制面板注塑模设计%Injection Mold Design of Washer Control Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洪雷; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    通过对某洗衣机控制面板进行工艺分析,对其注射模具进行了设计.根据洗衣机控制面板塑件的尺寸和具体结构特点,采用一模一腔模具,用热流道将熔融料输送到分型面,然后通过分流道分别以潜伏式、侧浇口形式进浇,采用油缸-隧道式结构及斜推杆机构实现侧抽动作,推杆、推管复合顶出塑件,复位杆复位.对模具采用的浇注系统、侧抽机构等设计作了简要分析.实践证明,模具结构合理、可行.%The injection mold was designed by analyzing process of the washer control panel. According to the washer control panel plastic part size and characteristics, injection mold with one mold and one cavity was used, the molten plastics was conveyed to parting surface by hot-runner system and then filled the cavity through the sub-runner with side-gate and submarine gate, the side core pulling was realized with oil cylinder-tunnel and slant ejector rod, the plastic part was ejected with ejector rod and ejector sleeve and the return rod returned. The brief analysis of the runner system and side core pulling mechanism were done. The practice prove that the structure is reasonable and feasible.

  14. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  15. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  16. DESIGN AND FEM STATIC ANALYSIS OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR SURFACE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF NON-PLANAR FUNCTIONAL SURFACES OF MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOYAN SLAVOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of a specialized instrument for formation different types of regular microshape roughness on functional surfaces of parts with non-planar macroshape by using the process, called “surface plastic deformation”. The elements of which it is constructed are explained and the results from carried out strength and deformation analysis, obtained by Finite Element Method, conducted using the Simulation module of the SolidWorks are also represented. On this basis some advantages and limitations of some of the surface plastic deformation process technological parameters are identified and recommendations for its implementation are given.

  17. Predictive engineering tools for injection-molded long-carbon-fiber thermoplastic composites - FY 2015 third quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mori, Steven [MAGNA Exteriors and Interiors Corp. Aurora, ON (Canada); Gandhi, Umesh N. [Toyota Research Institute North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wang, Jin [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Costa, Franco [Autodesk, Inc., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wollan, Eric J. [PlastiComp, Inc., Winona, MN (United States); Tucker, III, Charles L. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    During the third quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Magna oversaw the tool build and prepared the molding plan for the complex part of Phase II. 2) PlastiComp hosted a visit by Magna and Toyota on April 23rd to finalize the molding scope and schedule. The plan for molding trials including selection of molding parameters for both LFT and D-LFT for the U-shape complex part was established. 3) Toyota shipped the U-shape complex part tool to Magna on May 28th, 2015. 4) Plasticomp provided 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 compounded pellets to Magna for molding the complex part. 5) Magna performed preliminary molding trials on June 2nd, 2015 to validate wall thickness, fill profile, tool temperature and shot size requirements for the complex part. 6) Magna performed the first complex part run on June 16th and 17th, 2015 at Magna’s Composite Centre of Excellence in Concord, ON, Canada. Dale Roland of Plasticomp, and Umesh Gandhi of Toyota also attended the molding. 7) Magna discussed and finalized the plan with PNNL and the team for cutting samples from molded parts at selected locations for fiber orientation and length measurements. 8) Magna provided the computer-aided design (CAD) files of the complex parts with and without ribs to PNNL and Autodesk to build the corresponding ASMI models for injection molding simulations. Magna also provided the actual parameters used. 9) Plasticomp’s provided knowledge and experience of molding LCF materials essential to the successful molding of the parts including optimization of fill speed, tool temperatures, and plasticizing conditions for the 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 materials in both rib and non-rib versions. 10) Magna molded additional parts for evaluation of mechanical property testing including torsional stiffness on June 29th and 30th, 2015 at Magna’s Composite Center of Excellence. 11) Toyota began preparation for the torsion test of the specimens

  18. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, L.D.

    1993-12-31

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble- free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  19. Free-form nanostructured tools for plastic injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Lam, Yee Cheong;

    -nated typically by lithography. The nanostructures are imprinted by means of flexible stamps. After imprinting, nanostructures in the sol-gel are cured by baking, by which the material is converted to a quartz-like substance. Line patterns with depths up to about 500 nm and aspect ratio of up to 1 have been...... realized and successfully transferred to plastic parts during injection moulding.As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on a semi-spherical mold surface, followed by injection molding of the same. The deformation of the flexible stamp is characterized......We present results on a recently developed process to provide nanostructured surfaces on curved free-form injection moulding tools. The nanostructures are prepared using a sol-gel type coating, which can be applied by various means. Nanostructures are transferred from master structures origi...

  20. Phase separation micro molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the development of a new microfabrication method, Phase Separation Micro Molding (PSμM). While microfabrication is still best known from semiconductor industry, where it is used to integrate electrical components on a chip, the scope has immensely expan

  1. The demise of plastic encapsulated microcircuit myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, E. B.; Agarwal, R. K.; Pecht, M.

    1994-10-01

    Production of microelectronic devices encapsulated in solid, molded plastic packages has rapidly increased since the early 1980's. Today, millions of plastic-encapsulated devices are produced daily. On the other hand, only a few million hermetic (cavity) packages are produced per year. Reasons for the increased use of plastic-encapsulated packages include cost, availability, size, weight, quality, and reliability. Markets taking advantage of this technology range from computers and telecommunications to automotive uses. Yet, several industries, the military in particular, will not accept such devices. One reason for this reluctance to use the best available commercial parts is a perceived risk of poor reliability, derived from antiquated military specifications, standards, and handbooks; other common justifications cite differing environments; inadequate screens; inadequate test data, and required government audits of suppliers' processes. This paper describes failure mechanisms associated with plastic encapsulation and their elimination. It provides data indicating the relative reliability of cavity and solid-encapsulated packaging, and presents possible approaches to assuring quality and reliability in the procuring and applying this successful commercial technology.

  2. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  3. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  4. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  5. Injection-molded capsular device for oral pulsatile release: development of a novel mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Macchi, Elena; Foppoli, Anastasia; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The development of a purposely devised mold and a newly set up injection molding (IM) manufacturing process was undertaken to prepare swellable/erodible hydroxypropyl cellulose-based capsular containers. When orally administered, such devices would be intended to achieve pulsatile and/or colonic time-dependent delivery of drugs. An in-depth evaluation of thermal, rheological, and mechanical characteristics of melt formulations/molded items made of the selected polymer (Klucel® LF) with increasing amounts of plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500, 5%-15% by weight) was preliminarily carried out. On the basis of the results obtained, a new mold was designed that allowed, through an automatic manufacturing cycle of 5 s duration, matching cap and body items to be prepared. These were subsequently filled and coupled to give a closed device of constant 600 μm thickness. As compared with previous IM systems having the same composition, such capsules showed improved closure mechanism, technological properties, especially in terms of reproducibility of the shell thickness, and release performance. Moreover, the ability of the capsular container to impart a constant lag phase before the liberation of the contents was demonstrated irrespective of the conveyed formulation.

  6. Application of Soft Computing for the Prediction of Warpage of Plastic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar Reddy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of accurate warpage prediction model for plastic injection molded parts using softcomputing tools namely, artificial neural networks and support vector machines. For training, validating and testing of thewarpage model, a number of MoldFlow (FE analyses have been carried out using Taguchi’s orthogonal array in the designof experimental technique by considering the process parameters such as mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure,packing time and cooling time. The warpage values were found by analyses which were done by MoldFlow PlasticInsight (MPI 5.0 software. The artificial neural network model and support vector machine regression model have beendeveloped using conjugate gradient learning algorithm and ANOVA kernel function respectively. The adequacy of the developedmodels is verified by using coefficient of determination. To judge the ability and efficiency of the models to predictthe warpage values absolute relative error has been used. The finite element results show, artificial neural network modelpredicts with high accuracy compared with support vector machine model.

  7. Design of Injection Mold for Electric Kettle Handle%电热水壶手柄注塑模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪菊英

    2011-01-01

    分析了电热水壶手柄塑件的结构,并借助Pro/E软件完成了该塑件的注塑模具设计,阐述了模具分型面的选择以及浇注系统、成型系统、冷却系统和侧抽芯机构的设计.经生产实践验证,该模具结构紧凑,工作可靠,操作方便,成型塑件质量好.%The structure of plastic part of electric kettle handie was analyzed. The injection moid for this plastic part was designed by means of Prcw'E software. The selection of parting surface, and design of gating system, molding system, cooling system and side core-pulling mechanism for the moid were elaborated. The practical production proves that the mold is compact in structure, credible and easy in operation, and the quality of the plastic part is good.

  8. The thermal distortion of continuous-casting billet molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasekera, I. V.; Anderson, D. L.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1982-03-01

    Preliminary mathematical analyses involving plate bending theory and two-dimensional elastic calculations have revealed that the dominant component contributing to the distortion of continuous-casting billet molds is thermal expansion in the transverse directions. A three-dimensional, elasto-plastic, finite-element analysis of the mold wall has then shown that localized yielding initiates in a region close to the meniscus. The plastic flow is a result of the high thermal stresses induced by the geometric restraint to bending coupled with the locally high temperatures. The resultant distortion profile of the mold down the centerline of a face exhibits a maximum outward bulge of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, which is bounded above by a region of negative taper (1˜2 pct/m) and below by a region of positive taper (˜0.4 pct/m). Measurements of mold wall movement in an operating billet caster using linear displacement transducers compare favorably with model predictions, except in the meniscus region. Case studies of several industrial billet molds have shown that lowering the meniscus level with respect to the location of constraints, or modifying the method of support of the mold tube within its housing so as to reduce the restraint to thermal expansion in the meniscus region, may minimize the extent of permanent distortion. Also, wall thickness can have a significant effect on thermal distortion. Increasing wall thickness results in an increase in both peak wall temperatures and thermal gradients. The former increases the local distortion while the latter causes higher thermal stress levels and possibly permanent distortion. Of the casting variables that can be manipulated to major advantage, cooling water flow rate is the most important. Increasing the water velocity reduces mold wall temperatures, as well as both the total and permanent distortion of the wall.

  9. Optimization of Mold Yield in MultiCavity Sand Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vasudev D.; Joshi, Durgesh; Ravi, B.; Narasimhan, K.

    2013-06-01

    The productivity of ductile iron foundries engaging in mass production of castings for the automobile and other engineering sectors depends on the number of cavities per mold. A denser packing of cavities, however, results in slower heat transfer from adjacent cavities, leading to delayed solidification, possible shrinkage defects, and lower mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a methodology to optimize mold yield by selecting the correct combination of the mold box size and the number of cavities based on solidification time and mold temperature. Simulation studies were carried out by modeling solid and hollow cube castings with different values of cavity-wall gap and finding the minimum value of the gap beyond which there is no change in casting solidification time. Then double-cavity molds were modeled with different values of cavity-cavity gap, and simulated to find the minimum value of gap. The simulation results were verified by melting and pouring ductile iron in green sand molds instrumented with thermocouples, and recording the temperature in mold at predetermined locations. The proposed approach can be employed to generate a technological database of minimum gaps for various combinations of part geometry, metal and process, which will be very useful to optimize the mold cavity layouts.

  10. Diseño de moldes y tecnología para la fabricación de engranajes plásticos de dientes rectos asimétricos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. García Martínez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los procesos de moldeado por inyección de los engranajes, mostrándose las ventajas con respecto al maquinado de los polímeros. Se brinda el procedimiento de cálculo para el diseño y fabricación de ruedas dentadas con dientes rectos asimétricos, así como los métodos de obtención del herramental necesario que permite acabados de alta calidad en piezas fabricadas de materiales termoplásticos. Se usa una metodología de cálculo que incluye diferentes parámetros de un molde, tales como: número de cavidades, tiempo de enfriamiento, longitud de las vías de frío. Por otra parte se sugiere la configuración de los canales de alimentación y puntos de inyección entre otras. Finalmente se muestra el molde diseñado y fabricado para un caso particular destacando la validez del método usado. Se resalta en particular la asimetría en los perfiles logrados mediante la utilización del método de electro-erosión por hilo para fabricar la cavidad del molde.An analysis of the injection molding process of plastic gears, showing its advantages regarding width machining process it is made in this paper. Calculation procedure for designing and molding of spur gears with asymmetric teeth is offer, including necessary tools for obtaining high quality surface finishing of gears made from thermoplastic materials. The procedure includes different molding parameters such as number of cavities, cooling time, injection points, etc. Molded spur gears, tools, machines and molds are showed.

  11. Gastroresistant capsular device prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-01-20

    In the present work, the possibility of manufacturing by injection molding (IM) a gastro-resistant capsular device based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was investigated. By performing as an enteric soluble container, such a device may provide a basis for the development of advantageous alternatives to coated dosage forms. Preliminarily, the processability of the selected thermoplastic polymer was evaluated, and the need for a plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500) in order to counterbalance the glassy nature of the molded items was assessed. However, some critical issues related to the physical/mechanical stability (shrinkage and warpage) and opening time of the device after the pH change were highlighted. Accordingly, an in-depth formulation study was carried out taking into account differing release modifiers potentially useful for enhancing the dissolution/disintegration rate of the capsular device at intestinal pH values. Capsule prototypes with thickness of 600 and 900 μm containing Kollicoat(®) IR and/or Explotab(®) CLV could be manufactured, and a promising performance was achieved with appropriate gastric resistance in pH 1.2 medium and break-up in pH 6.8 within 1h. These results would support the design of a dedicated mold for the development of a scalable manufacturing process.

  12. Plastic Mould the Design of Gating System%塑件注射模具浇注系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明清; 李建友

    2012-01-01

    根据榨汁机的塑件结构,设计该产品注塑模具的浇注系统,对主流道、分流道、浇口、冷料穴、拉料杆分别进行分析,并进行三维设计,满足该模具对产品的生产要求。%According to the juice extractor plastic parts structure, the paper designed the molds gating system, and designed analysis respectively to mainstream way, split, runner, cold material, and the hole material stem, and 3D design which met the mold the production requirements.

  13. Experimental Study of Fiber Length and Orientation in Injection Molded Natural Fiber/Starch Acetate Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltola, Heidi; Madsen, Bo; Joffe, Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Composite compounds based on triethyl citrate plasticized starch acetate and hemp and flax fibers were prepared by melt processing. Plasticizer contents from 20 to 35 wt% and fiber contents of 10 and 40 wt% were used. The compounded composites were injection molded to tensile test specimens...

  14. Moldagem por compressão a frio do polietileno de ultra alto peso molecular. Parte 1: influência do tamanho, distribuição e morfologia da partícula na densidade a verde Cold compression molding of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. Part 1: influence of the size, distribution and morphology of particles on the green density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete A. Bittencourt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram investigadas as características de amostras de pó de polietileno de ultra alto peso molecular (PEUAPM, tais como porosidade, morfologia, tamanho médio e distribuição de partícula, que são importantes na moldagem por compressão a frio. Também foi avaliada a influência dessas características na densidade a verde de pré-formas. As amostras dos pós foram caracterizadas por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC, análise granulométrica, absorção de óleo, área superficial, porosimetria de mercúrio, fluidez do pó, densidade de compactação, densidade aparente e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Através das técnicas de caracterização estudadas ficou evidenciado que as características da partícula citadas anteriormente, assim como o parâmetro de densificação (DP, que é função direta da porosidade interparticular, favorecem a densidade a verde relativa (DVR e consequentemente a tensão de resistência à flexão (TRF.In this paper an investigation was made of the characteristics of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE powder samples, including porosity, particles average size, size distribution and morphology, which are important in cold compression molding. The influence of these characteristics on the green density of molded pre-shapes was also investigated. The UHMWPE powder samples were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, granulometric analysis, oil absorption, surface area, mercury porosity, density compaction, apparent density and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The characterization techniques used demonstrate that the UHMWPE particles characteristics cited above as well as the densification parameter (DP, which is a direct function of the interparticles porosity, affect the relative green density (RGD and hence, the flexural tensile strength (FTS.

  15. Analysis on Basic Points for Plastic Parts Design of Wall Switch%墙壁开关塑胶件设计基本要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀峰

    2014-01-01

    Plastic parts are the important material of wall switch; and the key point to realize the automatic produc-tion of wall switch. This paper detailedly analyzes the basic points for the plastic parts design of wall switch. And it proposes the design key points and matters needing attention to realize automatic production in wall switch industry according to the actual situation.%塑胶件是墙壁开关材料的重要组成部分,也是实现墙壁开关自动化生产的关键点,本文详细分析了墙壁开关塑胶件设计的基本要点,并根据实际情况提出了墙壁开关行业实现自动化生产的设计要点和注意事项。

  16. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  17. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    sprue-wells should be evaluated. In order for a runner extension to operate efficiently, it must have a small squared cross-section. If it is tapered, the first metal to enter the first metal to enter the system is not effectively trapped. If the cross section is large, there is less turbulence when the aluminum enters the mold cavity in comparison to the smaller cross sectioned, squared runner. However, a large runner reduces yield. In bottom-feeding gating systems, a filter can significantly improve the filling of the casting. The filter helps to slow the metal flow rate enough to reduce jetting into the mold cavity. In top feeding gating systems, a filter can initially slow the metal flow rate, but because the metal drops after passing the filter, high velocities are achieved during free fall when a filter is in place. Side feeding gating systems provide less turbulent flow into the mold cavity. The flow is comparable to a bottom-feeding gating system with a filter. Using properly designed side-gating system instead of a bottom-feeding system with a filter can potentially save the cost of the filter. Rough coatings promote better fill than smooth coatings. This conclusion seems at first counter intuitive. One tends to assume a rough coating creates more friction resistance to the flow of molten metal. In actuality the molten aluminum stream flows inside an oxide film envelope. When this film rests on top of the ridges of a rough coating the microscopic air pockets between the coating and the oxide film provide more thermal insulation than in a smooth coating. This insulation promotes longer feeding distances in the mold as demonstrated in the experiments. Much of this work is applicable to vertically parted sand molds as well, although the heat transfer conditions do vary from a metal mold generally used in permanent molding of aluminum. The flow measurements were conducted using graphite molds and real time X-Ray radiography recorded at a rate of 30 images per

  18. 客车空调面板造型及零件组合模具开发%Bus Air Conditioning Panel Modeling and the Parts of Composite Mold Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆专; 高清林

    2014-01-01

    根据客户提供的客车空调面板样件、生产要求等设计相应的注塑模具。把样件进行逆向造型,分析成型工艺,提出空调面板冷气口上三种零件组合模具设计方案,可以一同注塑成型三种零件,减少两套模具的设计与生产,提高产品装配质量、大大降低成本。%Design corresponding injection mould by samples of bus air conditioning panel and production requirements which provided by customer. Model the samples in reverse and analyze its molding process, put forward the composite mould design of three parts in cold tuyere of the air-conditioning pane,reduce design and production of two sets of mould,improve product assembly quality,reduce cost greatly.

  19. Warpage control of thin shell parts of injection-molded using taguchi method%基于正交优化的薄壳类注塑产品的翘曲控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敬华; 尹红灵

    2011-01-01

    The injection process of a thin shell part was simulated by finite element method.Numerical experiments were designed according to taguchi method. Injection quality was evaluated by warpage. Optimal process parameters about the material of PC/ABS were determined on the basis of comparison of the influencing degree of the different parameters having on warpage deformation values. The method could be used to optimize the injection molding.%以某电子产品上盖薄壳类注塑件的翘曲变形量为考核指标,采用多因素正交试验法,利用有限元分析软件对注塑成型过程进行数值模拟,比较不同注塑工艺参数对翘曲变形量的影响,最终获得PC/ABS材料塑料件优化的工艺参数组合,该方法可应用于优化注塑工艺.

  20. The role of dissipation and defect energy in variational formulations of problems in strain-gradient plasticity. Part 2: single-crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. D.

    2011-11-01

    Variational formulations are constructed for rate-independent problems in small-deformation single-crystal strain-gradient plasticity. The framework, based on that of Gurtin (J Mech Phys Solids 50: 5-32, 2002), makes use of the flow rule expressed in terms of the dissipation function. Provision is made for energetic and dissipative microstresses. Both recoverable and non-recoverable defect energies are incorporated into the variational framework. The recoverable energies include those that depend smoothly on the slip gradients, the Burgers tensor, or on the dislocation densities (Gurtin et al. J Mech Phys Solids 55:1853-1878, 2007), as well as an energy proposed by Ohno and Okumura (J Mech Phys Solids 55:1879-1898, 2007), which leads to excellent agreement with experimental results, and which is positively homogeneous and therefore not differentiable at zero slip gradient. Furthermore, the variational formulation accommodates a non-recoverable energy due to Ohno et al. (Int J Mod Phys B 22:5937-5942, 2008), which is also positively homogeneous, and a function of the accumulated dislocation density. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established for the various examples of defect energy, with or without the presence of hardening or slip resistance.

  1. Production and evaluation of measuring equipment for share viscosity of polymer melts included nanofiller with injection molding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takao; Sugino, Naoto; Takei, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Shear viscosity measurement device was produced to evaluate the injection molding workability for high-performance resins. Observation was possible in shear rate from 10 to 10000 [1/sec] that were higher than rotary rheometer by measuring with a plasticization cylinder of the injection molding machine. The result of measurements extrapolated result of a measurement of the rotary rheometer.

  2. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.; Zhang, S. L.; Wang, B. Y.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-02-01

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  3. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  4. Injection Molding and its application to drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2012-05-10

    Injection Molding (IM) consists in the injection, under high pressure conditions, of heat-induced softened materials into a mold cavity where they are shaped. The advantages the technique may offer in the development of drug products concern both production costs (no need for water or other solvents, continuous manufacturing, scalability, patentability) and technological/biopharmaceutical characteristics of the molded items (versatility of the design and composition, possibility of obtaining solid molecular dispersions/solutions of the active ingredient). In this article, process steps and formulation aspects relevant to IM are discussed, with emphasis on the issues and advantages connected with the transfer of this technique from the plastics industry to the production of conventional and controlled-release dosage forms. Moreover, its pharmaceutical applications thus far proposed in the primary literature, intended as either alternative manufacturing strategies for existing products or innovative systems with improved design and performance characteristics, are critically reviewed.

  5. Determination of heat transfer coefficients at the polymer-mold-interface for injection molding simulation by means of calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, M.; Steinbichler, G.

    2014-05-01

    Appropriate modeling of heat transfer from the polymer material to the injection mold is essential to achieve accurate simulation results. The heat transfer is commonly modeled using convective heat transfer and applying heat transfer coefficients (HTC) to the polymer-mold-interface. The set HTC has an influence on the results for filling pressure, cooling performance and shrinkage, among others. The current paper, presents a new strategy to measure HTC in injection molding experiments using Newtons law of cooling. The heat flux is calculated out of demolding heat (measured by means of calorimetry), injection heat (measured by means of an IR-sensor), cooling time and part mass. Cavity surface area, average mold surface temperature and average part surface temperature lead to the HTC.

  6. Fiber Reinforcement in Injection Molded Nylon 6/6 Spur Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelan, S.; Gnanamoorthy, R.

    2006-07-01

    Injection molded polymer composite gears are being used in many power and or motion transmission applications. In order to widen the utilization of reinforced polymers for precision motion transmission and noise less applications, the accuracy of molded gears should be increased. Since the injection molded gear accuracy is significantly influenced by the material shrinkage behaviour, there is a need to understand the influence of fiber orientation and gate location on part shrinkage behaviour and hence the gear accuracy. Unreinforced and 20% short glass fiber reinforced Nylon 6/6 spur gears were injection molded in the laboratory and computer aided simulations of gear manufacturing was also carried out. Results of the mold flow simulation of gear manufacturing were correlated with the actual fiber orientation and measured major geometrical parameters of the molded gears. Actual orientation of the fibers near the tooth profile, weld line region and injection points of molded gears were observed using optical microscope and correlated with predicted fiber orientation.

  7. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  8. Nanofabrication with molds & stamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron D. Gates

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of methods can be used to fabricate patterns with features having dimensions <100 nm. These techniques, however, can require specialized equipment and are often restricted to a cleanroom environment. Nanofabrication can be made accessible to multiple users by using elastomeric molds or stamps to transfer high-resolution patterns into other materials. These techniques are inexpensive and can transfer patterns into functional materials and onto a number of surfaces. This review describes recent advances in fabricating nanostructures using these techniques.

  9. Mold and Crucible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-28

    34;" -"""-"’" " " ""’’ "" "" ’"" ’ j * AD I. AT)-E 9 7 W CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCD-CR-86007 MOLD AND CRUCIBLE COATINGS Sylvia J. Canino Arthur L. Geary Nuclear...IFnlRpr April 1984_-_December 198, .. AUTNORfo) S. CONTRACT on CRAM? # "I MWef(e)I Sylvia J. Canino and Arthur L. Geary DAAK1O-84-C-0056 PERFORMING

  10. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  11. Injection Compression Molding of Replica Molds for Nanoimprint Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a breakthrough in the cost and durability of molds for nanoimprint lithography (NIL, replica molds are fabricated by injection compression molding (ICM. ICM is commonly used for optical disks such as DVDs or Blu-ray disks and is also a practical fabrication method for nanostructures. In this paper, I successfully demonstrated the fabrication of cycloolefin polymer replica molds with structures smaller than 60 nm by ICM. Furthermore, ultraviolet (UV-NIL using these replica molds was demonstrated. UV-cured resist was replicated over an area of 60 mm diameter. The degree of replication by UV-NIL in the first usage of each replica mold had good repeatability. Because ICM is a high-throughput, low-cost process, the replica mold can be disposed of after a certain time for UV-NIL. This method leads to a high-integrity UV-NIL process of patterned media because multiple large-area replica molds can be fabricated simultaneously.

  12. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F Wallace; David Schwam; Wen Hong dxs11@po.cwru.edu

    2001-09-14

    A test that involves immersion of the potential mod materials for permanent molds has been developed that provides a thermal cycle that is similar to the experienced during casting of aluminum in permanent molds. This test has been employed to determine the relative thermal fatigue resistance of several different types of mold materials. Four commercial mold coatings have been evaluated for their insulating ability, wear resistance and roughness. The results indicate that composition and structure of the mold materials have considerable effect on their thermal fatigue cracking behavior. Irons with a gray iron structure are the most prone to thermal fatigue cracking followed by compacted graphite irons with the least thermal fatigue cracking of the cast irons experienced by ductile iron. The composition of these various irons affects their behavior.

  13. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  14. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  15. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-06-27

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.

  16. Realizing Method of Thread Start Point Consistent Positioning or Rotating Speciifed Angle for Injection Molding Parts with Non-axisymmetric Outer Shapes%外形非轴对称注塑件螺纹起始点一致性定位或规定角度转动实现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅国帏

    2014-01-01

    对相配合的两件带螺纹且外形均为非轴对称的注塑件(如瓶盖和瓶体)分别进行了模具设计,在瓶盖注塑模具设计中,采用了可编程序控制器(PLC)作为主要的控制螺纹起始点位置的机电部件,采用光电传感器作为辅助部件,通过PLC的累加程序和输出电路,将PLC接入注塑机的液压顶出控制电路中,从而实现了瓶盖螺纹型芯在每次注塑完成后其螺纹起始点位置均保持一致的目的;在瓶体注塑模具设计中,通过对瓶盖模具PLC程序的改变,实现了瓶体螺纹型芯在每次注塑完成后其螺纹起始点转动一个规定角度的目的。通过以上设计,使得瓶盖和瓶体在装配后实现了规定的多样性特殊装配外观效果。%Mold design of two matching injection molding parts such as bottle cap and bottle with thread and nonaxisymmetric outer shapes was done respectively. In the mold design of bottle cap,PLC was used as the main electromechanical component for controlling thread start point position,and the photoelectric sensor was used as the auxiliary one,through the PLC accumulative procedure and the output circuit,the PLC was linked into the ejecting control circuit of the ejection machine,so the purpose is realized that the thread start point of the bottle cap thread core remains unchanged after completing each injection molding. In the mold design of bottle,through changing the PLC procedure of the bottle cap mold,the purpose is realized that the thread start point of the bottle rotates a specified angle after completing each injection molding. With these designs stated above,a specified various special assembly appearance effect is realized after assembling the bottle cap and bottle.

  17. Relevant Aspects in Modeling of Micro-injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Chung, Tham; Jüttner, Gábor; Pham, Tung; Mennig, Günter

    2008-07-01

    Growing demands in the manufacturing of micro and precision components in plastics require new concepts for molding machines and micro molds on the one hand. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the filling and solidification process in a micro mold is indispensable. In this work, the filling process of a micro spiral was analyzed by modeling the compressible flow using pressure dependent viscosity and adjusted heat transfer coefficients. At the same time, experimental filling studies were carried out on an accurately controlled micro-injection molding machine. Based on the relationship between the injection pressure and the filling degree, essential factors for the quality of the simulation can be identified. It can be shown that the flow behavior of the melt in a micro cavity of high aspect ratio is extremely dependent on the melt compressibility in the injection cylinder which needs to be considered in the simulation in order to predict an accurate flow rate. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficients between the melt and the mold wall vary significantly when changing cavity thickness and processing conditions. It is believed that a pressure dependent model for the heat transfer coefficient would be able to improve the quality of the process simulation.

  18. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  19. Thermophilic molds: Biology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Johri, B N; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-11-01

    Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids. Thermophilic molds are capable of efficiently degrading organic materials by secreting thermostable enzymes, which are useful in the bioremediation of industrial wastes and effluents that are rich in oil, heavy metals, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and polysaccharides. Thermophilic molds synthesize several antimicrobial substances and biotechnologically useful miscellaneous enzymes. The analysis of genomes of thermophilic molds reveals high G:C contents, shorter introns and intergenic regions with lesser repetitive sequences, and further confirms their ability to degrade agro-residues efficiently. Genetic engineering has aided in ameliorating the characteristics of the enzymes of thermophilic molds. This review is aimed at focusing on the biology of thermophilic molds with emphasis on recent developments in the analysis of genomes, genetic engineering and potential applications.

  20. Design of Instruction Cover Stopper Injection Mold of Double Gate High Precision for CAE Technology%基于CAE技术的双浇口高精度仪器挡罩注塑模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林权

    2016-01-01

    The welding wiring and warping deformation of the frame in the injection molding are common for this kind of plastic parts. Taking this in the instruction cover stopper for example, using Pro/E software to model 3D of plastic parts, applying moldflow to mocks, the injection molding process is analyzed, and then the double spruce injection system is established, which optimizes the cooling system and forming method and obtains the flow and filling characteristics of plastic parts. Then the design of injection mold structure is made, and the design of mold cavity, newel and launch reset are completed. The practice indicates that instruction cover stopper model has reliability and qualified, which provides the reference for other similar model design.%注射成型中细长的边框易产生的熔接线、翘曲变形等问题一直是该类塑件常见缺陷,在此以仪器挡罩为例,利用Pro/E软件对塑件进行三维建模,应用Moldflow对塑件进行注塑成型过程模拟分析,确立了双浇口浇注系统,优化了冷却系统和成型方案,获取挡罩塑件流动充型特性,继而进行注塑模具结构设计,完成了模具型腔、型芯、推出复位等机构的设计,经实践证明,仪器挡罩注塑模具运动可靠,产品合格,为其他类似模具设计提供参考。

  1. The Shrinkage Behavior and Surface Topographical Investigation for Micro Metal Injection Molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian;

    2014-01-01

    by 2½D surface structures containing thin ribs of different aspect ratios and thicknesses in the sub-mm dimensional range. The test parts were molded from Catamold 316L with a conventional injection molding machine. Afterwards, the parts were de-binded and sintered to produce the final test samples...

  2. 基于 CAE 早餐杯密封盖模具的开发%Development of Breakfast Cup Sealing Cover Mold Based on the CAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明哲

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the structural characteristics of breakfast cup sealing cover , designed 4 × 8 stacked injection mould .The pressure drop ,temperature and CAE simulation molding process of the drop and the filling time , determine the size of molding and casting system of multi cavity mold; mold structure with multilayer combined movable core and cavity ,pushing plate forced demolding mechanism ,reasonable set of die structure,reliable action,products be moulding successfully ,production which is high precision plastic parts meets customer requirements fully ,have a reference value to similar shape plastic parts .%通过对早餐杯密封盖的结构、材料、成型等特征的分析,自主开发4(层)×8(腔)注射模具。运用了CAE对模具的成型性能分析,优化模具的成型工艺性能,预测塑件的成型质量;模具结构采用多层叠组合活动型芯和型腔,定距开模,推件板强制脱模机构,整套模具结构合理,动作可靠,制品脱模顺利,生产的塑件精度高,产品完全达到客户要求,对同类形状塑件具有一定的参考价值。

  3. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental setup is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a microelectromechanical system gas sensor...... mounted inside the mold. The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidences about...

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS BASED ON NUMERICAL SIMULATIONAND BP NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 邢渊; 阮雪榆

    2001-01-01

    Plastic injection molding is a very complex process and its process planning has a direct influence on product quality and production efficiency. This paper studied the optimization of injection molding process by combining the numerical simulation with back-propagation(BP) networks. The BP networks are trained by the results of numerical simulation. The trained BP networks may:(1) shorten time for process planning;(2) optimize process parameters;(3) be employed in on-line quality control;(4) be integrated with knowledge-based system(KBS) and case-based reasoning(CBR) to make intelligent process planning of injection molding.

  5. Capability Database of Injection Molding Process— Requirements Study for Wider Suitability and Higher Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Eifler, Tobias; Jepsen, Jens Dines O.

    2017-01-01

    Generally, there is little disagreement that an early consideration of dimensional accuracies achieved in production is conducive to the success of development of injection molding products. While different process capability databases (PCDBs) provide guidance for a meaningful estimation...... for an improved applicability of corresponding database solutions in an industrial context. A survey of database users at all phases of product value chain in the plastic industry revealed that 59% of the participating companies use their own, internally created databases, although reported to be not fully...... of the expected part variation, the adoption of corresponding guidelines and (proprietary) software tools seems to be, however, limited in industrial practice so far. This research paper addresses the gap between the available PCDBs and the requirement of designers in practice and investigates the key drivers...

  6. Localized rapid heating process for precision chalcogenide glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Peng; Yu, Jianfeng; Lee, L. James; Yi, Allen Y.

    2015-10-01

    Precision glass molding is an important process for high volume optical fabrication. However, conventional glass molding is a bulk heating process that usually requires a long thermal cycle, where molding assembly and other mechanical parts are heated and cooled together. This often causes low efficiency and other heating and cooling related problems, such as large thermal expansion in both the molds and molded optics. To cope with this issue, we developed a localized rapid heating process to effectively heat only very small part of the glass. This localized rapid heating study utilized a fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer to heat only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating heat on and near the coating. The feasibility of this process was validated by both experiments and numerical simulation. To demonstrate the advantages of the localized rapid heating, both localized rapid heating process and bulk heating process were performed and carefully compared. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was also demonstrated. In summary, localized rapid heating process by using graphene coated fused silica wafer was characterized and can be readily implemented in replication of micro scale chalcogenide glasses. A fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer was utilized for localized rapid heating only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating high temperature on and near the coating. This process is fast and efficient since only interested areas are heated without affecting the entire glass substrate or the mold assembly. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was demonstrated by comparing both localized rapid heating

  7. HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS WITH COVARIATES FOR ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE INDUSTRIAL MACHINE PARTS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Monthly counts of industrial machine part errors are modeled using a two-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in order to describe the effect of machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction on the likelihood of the machine part to be in a “defective” or “non-defective” state. The number of machine parts errors were collected from a thermo plastic injection molding machine in a car bumper auto parts manufacturer in Liberec city, Czech Re...

  8. Numerical modeling of magnetic induction and heating in injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    Injection molding of parts with special requirements or features such as micro- or nanostructures on the surface, a good surface finish, or long and thin features results in the need of a specialized technique to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. The aim of this study is to increase...... numerical modeling of the induction heating in the mold to investigate how the temperature in the mold will be distributed and how it is affected by different material properties....

  9. Rotational molding of bio-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Forleo, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    This paper is aimed to study the suitability of bio-polymers, including poly-lactic acid (PLLA) and Mater-Bi, for the production of hollow components by rotational molding. In order to reduce the brittleness of PLLA, the material was mixed with two different plasticizers, bis-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG). The materials were characterized in terms of sinterability. To this purpose, thermomechanical (TMA) analysis was performed at different heating rates, in order to identify the endset temperatures of densification and the onset temperatures of degradation. Results obtained indicated that the materials are characterized by a very fast sintering process, occurring just above the melting temperature, and an adequately high onset of degradation. The difference between the onset of degradation and the endset of sintering, defined as the processing window of the polymer, is sufficiently wide, indicating that the polymers can be efficiently processed by rotational molding. Therefore, a laboratory scale apparatus was used for the production of PLLA and Mater-Bi prototypes. The materials were processed using very similar conditions to those used for LLDPE. The production of void-free samples of uniform wall thickness was considered as an indication of the potentiality of the process for the production of biodegradable containers.

  10. Injection molding tools with micro/nano-meter pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for embedded a micrometer and/or nanometer pattern into an injection molding tool. In a first main aspect, a micro/nanometer structured imprinting device is applied in, or on, an active surface so as to transfer the micro/nanometer patterned structure...... to the tool while the imprinting device is, at least partly, within a cavity of the injection molding tool. In a second main aspect, a base plate with a micro/nanometer structured pattern positioned on an upper part is positioned on the active surface within the tool, the lower part of the base plate facing...... the tool, the active surface receiving the base plate being non-planar on a macroscopic scale. Both aspects enable a simple and effective way of transferring the pattern, and the pattern may be transferred on the active working site of tool immediately prior to molding without the need for extensive...

  11. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  12. 全套方案实现汽车塑料件绿色化的研究%Research of a Comprehensive Plan to Achieve Greening of Automotive Plastic Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友根

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive plan to achieve the development of automotive plastics materials, products, molding, waste recycling in the green in all aspects of green technology is analysed. It is pointed that the health, environmental protection, resource utilization to maximize are the core of the automotive plastic green. The development of automotive plastic green health standards to create a good ecological environment is put forward.%分析了全套方案实现汽车塑料件绿色化中的材料、制品、成型加工、废弃物回收利用等各个环节绿色化技术的发展,指出健康化、环保化、资源利用率最大化是汽车塑料件绿色化的核心,提出制定汽车塑料件绿色化健康标准以达到营造良好的生态环境.

  13. Rapid control of mold temperature during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liparoti, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Hunag, Tsang Min; Cakmak, Mukerrem [Department of Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Sorrentino, Andrea [Institute for Polymers, Composite and Biomaterials (IPCB) - CNR, P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2015-05-22

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that determines surface morphology and its dimension in thickness direction. It can also affect the frozen molecular orientation and the mold surface replicability in injection molded products. In this work, thin thermally active films were used to quickly control the mold surface temperature. In particular, an active high electrical conductivity carbon black loaded polyimide composites sandwiched between two insulating thin polymeric layers was used to condition the mold surface. By controlling the heating time, it was possible to control precisely the temporal variation of the mold temperature surface during the entire cycle. The surface heating rate was about 40°C/s and upon contact with the polymer the surface temperature decreased back to 40°C within about 5 s; the overall cycle time increased only slightly. The effect on cross section sample morphology of samples of iPP were analyzed and discussed on the basis of the recorded temperature evolution.

  14. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  15. 基于CAE技术大型注塑件浇注系统的设计%Design of Gating System for Large Injection Plastic Parts Based on CAE Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董金虎

    2011-01-01

    Take an automobile interior part for example, the gating system for large injection mold part was analyzed and evaluated accurately by using CAE technology. The rational design scheme of gating system was determined through analysis and comparison for four schemes.%以某汽车内饰件为例,采用CAE技术,较为准确地对大型注塑件浇注系统进行分析评估.通过对四个方案的分析对比,确定了合理的浇注系统设计方案.

  16. Prevention of Mold Contamination : Ozone Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nakarmi, Kanchan

    2016-01-01

    Mold is a common pest that can cause diseases and decay property. Moreover, certain mold can produce toxic chemicals which leads directly or indirectly to additional health impacts and economic losses. Therefore, prevention of mold growth is a major concern, and disinfection of mold has become a center of attention. The purpose of this thesis was to study about the effect of ozone in the disinfection of mold and the method of producing ozone. The usage of ozone for disinfection in in...

  17. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloß, P.; Jüttner, G.; Jacob, S.; Löser, C.; Michaelis, J.; Krajewsky, P.

    2014-05-01

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process "all" thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  18. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloß, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jüttner, G., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Löser, C., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Michaelis, J., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Krajewsky, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de [Kunststoff-Zentrum in Leipzig gGmbH (KuZ), Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  19. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena,Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed w...

  20. The Development of a Ceramic Mold for Hot-Forging of Micro-Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Todd; Garino, Terry

    1999-06-25

    A new mold material has been developed for use in making rare-earth permanent magnet components with precise dimensions in the 10 to 1000 µm range by hot-forging. These molds are made from molds poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) made by deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). An alumina bonded with colloidal silica has been developed for use in these molds. This material can be heated to 950°C without changing dimensions where it develops the strength needed to withstand the hot-fmging conditions (750°C, 100 MPa). In addition, it disintegrates in HF so that parts can be easily removed after forging.

  1. Geographic Distribution of Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Molds in USA Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Vesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to quantify and describe the distribution of the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. Materials and Methods. As part of the 2006 American Healthy Homes Survey, settled dust samples were analyzed by mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR for the 36 ERMI molds. Each species' geographical distribution pattern was examined individually, followed by partitioning analysis in order to identify spatially meaningful patterns. For mapping, the 36 mold populations were divided into disjoint clusters on the basis of their standardized concentrations, and First Principal Component (FPC scores were computed. Results and Conclusions. The partitioning analyses failed to uncover a valid partitioning that yielded compact, well-separated partitions with systematic spatial distributions, either on global or local criteria. Disjoint variable clustering resulted in seven mold clusters. The 36 molds and ERMI values themselves were found to be heterogeneously distributed across the United States of America (USA.

  2. Optimization of Injection Molding Process Parameters of Automotive Interior Parts Based on Taguchi DOE and Moldflow%基于Taguchi DOE和Moldflow的汽车内饰件注射成型工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蒙蒙; 丁武学; 曹春平; 杨成福

    2012-01-01

    Taking a large-scale automotive plastic part as an example, Taguchi DOE and Moldflow numerical simulation technology were conducted to study the influence of process parameters on volume shrinkage variation and warpage, which were regarded as quality indicators.Moreover.an optimal set of the parameters was obtained based on different levels. As formula predicted and numerical simulation proved, the optimal set of the parameters made volume shrinkage variation and warpage minimum during experimental range%以某汽车大型塑料件为例,以体积收缩率变化及翘曲量为质量指标,结合Taguchi DOE及Moldflow数值模拟技术,研究相关工艺参数对质量指标的影响,并得到了各工艺参数水平的最优组合.经公式预测及Moldflow数值模拟验证,工艺参数的优化组合使体积收缩率变化和翘曲量达到试验范围内最小.

  3. 基于Siemens NX平台的复杂壳体注塑模具设计与制造%CAD/CAM of Injection Mold for Some Shell Part Based on Siemens NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The injection mold is designed and produced based on Siemens NX. The runner which is based on the principle of balance arrangement is determined by the simulation and analysis on Moldflow. The method im⁃proves the injection mold production quality and design efficiency. It has a reference value for production.%  采用Siemens NX平台完成了某复杂壳体注塑模的设计与制造。并通过Moldflow进行流动模拟分析。依据平衡式布置原理确定了浇注系统的设计方案。该方法缩短了复杂塑件的模具设计周期。提高了模具制造的质量。

  4. Other solutions for the plastic residue from the automobile industry and used as additives in the asphaltic bitumens; Alternativas de los residuos plasticos de la automocion y su empleo como aditivos de los betunes asfalticos. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Vidriero, E.; Castillo, F. [CEDEX. Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    This article forms part of an investigation which aims to achieve two adjectives. The first is to cooperate in the improvement of the environment by decreasing the amount of plastic residue from the automobile industry. The second is to improve the characteristics of asphaltic bitumens used in roofing and waterproofing in civil engineering, through the addition of plastic residue from the automobile industry. (Author) 4 refs.

  5. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process...

  6. Investigation of Heat Transfer at the Mold/Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Light Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Pehlke; John T. Berry

    2005-12-16

    Accurate modeling of the metal casting process prior to creating a mold design demands reliable knowledge of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the mold metal interface as a function of both time and location. The phenomena concerned with the gap forming between the mold and the solidifying metal are complex but need to be understood before any modeling is attempted. The presence of mold coatings further complicates the situation. A commercial casting was chosen and studied in a gravity permanent mold casting process. The metal/mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) was the focus of the research. A simple, direct method has been used to evaluate the IHTC. Both the simulation and experiments have shown that a reasonably good estimate of the heat transfer coefficient could be made in the case studied. It has been found that there is a good agreement between experiments and simulations in the temperature profiles during the solidification process, given that the primary mechanism of heat transfer across the gap in permanent mold casting of light alloys is by conduction across the gap. The procedure utilized to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient can be applied to other casting processes. A recently completed project involving The University of Michigan and Mississippi State University, together with several industrial partners, which was supported by the USDOE through the Cast Metals Coalition, examined a number of cases of thermal contact. In an investigation which gave special consideration to the techniques of measurement, several mold coatings were employed and results presented as a function of time. Realistic conditions of coating thickness and type together with an appropriate combination of mold preheat and metal pouring temperature were strictly maintained throughout the investigation. Temperature sensors, in particular thermocouples, play an important part in validating the predictions of solidification models. Cooling

  7. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  8. Impacts of the manufacturing process using fiberglass reinforced plastic composite on the environment and occupational health: the automotive industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Madureira Orth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of fiberglass reinforced plastic composite parts may cause serious damages to the health of workers and/or the environment, especially due to the generation of process trimmings, noise level and gas emission.  In view of that, this essay aims at assessing the main impacts of the Molding and Finish processes of an automotive plant on the environment and occupational health. It was observed that the open molding method adopted by the studied plant is the main cause of the generation of residues and that the waste of raw materials as trimmings may reach up to 30%. The final destination of those trimmings, which represent 45% of all the residues generated by the factory, is the industrial landfill. It was also observed that, due to the use of open molds, the levels of styrene and fiber dust were above the tolerance limits, presenting risks to the health of the workers.  Therefore, the studied company should consider the possibility of adopting less aggressive technologies, such as that used in closed molds. The reduction of the negative impacts of the productive processes in their source should be part of the company’s policy. Furthermore, the prevention must be continuous and improved every day.

  9. STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN HYDROPHILIC AUXILIARIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POROUS FILMS Part II-HYGIENIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to obtain certain PVC films with improved hygienic properties, with applications both in the artificial leather industry and in other domains. This was done by introducing certain hydrophilic auxiliaries with free chemical functions into the chemical structure of the PVC films, such as: collagen hydrolysates (CH, hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS and nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE. The use of these hydrophilic auxiliaries combined with the action of the high frequency electric fields (H.F.E.F. allows the attainment of cellular structures where the walls of the cells obtained from the expanding process display an enhanced humidity absorption. The collagen hydrolysates used to obtain the plasticized PVC porous films was obtained by electrolytic hydrolysis starting from Chamois leather powder waste resulting from buffing operation, according to a methodology described in a previous paper. The first part of this study was concerned with the influence of the addition of hydrophilic agents upon the moisture sorption of the plasticized PVC porous films. In this paper, there was investigated the water vapour and air permeability as well as the water vapour absorption of the porous films expanded in the H.F.E.F. in correlation with the nature and the recipe variant of the hydrophilic auxiliaries. The results highlighted the fact that the use of certain combinations of hydrophilic agents led to obtaining materials with adequate hygienic properties.

  10. New Opportunities in Developing Engineering Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Weicai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Owing to their excellent mechanical property, electric behavior, chemical resistance, heat resistance, abrasion resistance, size stability, weather resistance, lighter weight than metal materials and small energy consumption in molding, engineering plastics are extensively used in the sectors-electronic/electric, automobile, construction and office equipment.

  11. Drag material change in hot runner injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋炳炎; 黄伯云

    2001-01-01

    Quick material change is often encountered for the different colors or kinds of polymer in hot runner injecting molding process. Time-costing and incompleteness of material change process often affects the quality and productivity of products. In the practical production, multi-injection or white material as the transition material is often adopted for quick material change. Based on the rheological behavior of the new and the previous plastic melt, the researches on the related problems were carried out. The concept of drag material change was originally presented. The physical and mathematical model on the simultaneous flow process of the new and the previous plastic melt in hot runner were built up, which can well explain the influence of the injection speed, pressure, viscosity difference, temperature and mold structure on the drag material change efficiency. When temperature in different position in the mold was increased and adjusted, the viscosity difference between the two kinds of melt can be controlled. Therefore the material change ability can be greatly improved during the whole material change process, getting rid of more and more difficult changing in the late stage.

  12. The flexible resin transfer molding (FRTM) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael F.

    1992-12-01

    An innovative composite manufacturing process, FRTM, which is based on detailed cost analysis intended to be 'cost effective by design', is described. FRTM is based on a combination of the technical characteristics and respective favorable economics of diaphragm forming, and resin transfer molding. The process control system determines the optimal time for compaction and forming using an empirical resin polymerization model, a fluid flow model, and dielectric sensing of in-situ resin properties. The modified FRTM process is capable of producing high-quality parts with low thickness variation, low void content, and high fiber volume.

  13. Plastic masters-rigid templates for soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Salil P; Freeman, Dennis M; Voldman, Joel

    2009-06-07

    We demonstrate a simple process for the fabrication of rigid plastic master molds for soft lithography directly from (poly)dimethysiloxane devices. Plastics masters (PMs) provide a cost-effective alternative to silicon-based masters and can be easily replicated without the need for cleanroom facilities. We have successfully demonstrated the use of plastics micromolding to generate both single and dual-layer plastic structures, and have characterized the fidelity of the molding process. Using the PM fabrication technique, world-to-chip connections can be integrated directly into the master enabling devices with robust, well-aligned fluidic ports directly after molding. PMs provide an easy technique for the fabrication of microfluidic devices and a simple route for the scaling-up of fabrication of robust masters for soft lithography.

  14. 瓶盖热流道注射模设计%Design of the Cap Hot Runner Injection Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明哲

    2014-01-01

    通过分析带有浅腔型内螺纹塑料瓶盖的结构特征,模具设计为十八腔均衡式分布热流道浇注系统,螺纹推管旋转自动卸螺纹的推出机构,整套注射模具结构合理,动作可靠,制品脱模顺利,生产的塑料铸件精度高,完全达到客户要求,模具结构对同类形状塑料铸件具有一定的参考价值。%Through the analysis with structural characteristics shallow cavity type inner screw of plastic bottle cap,die design for the eighteen cavity balanced distribution of hot runner system, push pipe thread rotation launch mechanism of automatic screw thread unloading,Reasonable set of die structure,reliable action,products be moulding successfully,production which is high precision plastic parts meets customer requirements fully,long service life can be in bulk the production of products, the structure of molds have a reference value to similar shape plastic parts.

  15. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  16. Experimental Study of Fiber Length and Orientation in Injection Molded Natural Fiber/Starch Acetate Composites

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Composite compounds based on triethyl citrate plasticized starch acetate and hemp and flax fibers were prepared by melt processing. Plasticizer contents from 20 to 35 wt% and fiber contents of 10 and 40 wt% were used. The compounded composites were injection molded to tensile test specimens. The effect of processing, melt viscosity and fiber type on the fiber length was investigated. The lengths of fully processed fibers were determined by dissolving the matrix and measuring the length of the...

  17. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  18. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  19. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of cells with a plasmonic dish integrally molded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Keiko; Sasakawa, Chisato; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Chie; Nishii, Junji; Oike, Makoto; Kakinuma, Norihiro

    2016-03-01

    A plastic dish with a wavelength-scale periodic structure at a bottom panel was integrally molded and coated with thin metal films. The integrally molded dish called plasmonic dish was applied to bioimaging under a fluorescence microscope. On the plasmonic substrate, the enhanced electric field based on a grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GC-SPR) can provide an enhanced fluorescence. In this study, two kinds of cells, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and neuronal cells, were observed in our plasmonic dish. Fluorescence images of HEK cells were above 10 times brighter than those obtained on a conventional glass-bottomed dish. Neuronal cells were successfully cultured for 10 d on the plasmonic dish integrally molded, and in fluorescence images with transmitted light, a higher contrast was obtained than in epifluorescence images. The plasmonic dish integrally molded, as well as that fabricated by the UV nanoimprint method, was also found to be useful for sensitive bioimaging.

  20. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque A. Osornio-Rios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected.

  1. Micro-optical fabrication by ultraprecision diamond machining and precision molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Likai; Naples, Neil J.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Yi, Allen Y.

    2017-06-01

    Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.

  2. Determining the effects of thermal conductivity on epoxy molds using profiled cooling channels with metal inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaf, Khurram; Rani, Abdul Ahmad Majdi; Ahmad, Faiz; Baharom, Masri [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Manufacturing, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    Polymer injection molds are generally manufactured with metallic materials, such as tool steel, which provide reliable working of molds and extended service life. The manufacture of injection molds with steel is a prolonged process because of the strength of steel. For a short prototype production run, one of the suitable choices could be the use of aluminum-filled epoxy material, which can produce a functional mold in a short time as compared with a conventionally machined tool. Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling is a good choice for short production runs for engineering applications, yet works best for relatively simple shapes. The advantages in relation to the fabrication of injection molds with epoxy-based materials include time saving in producing the mold, epoxy curing at ambient temperature, and ease of machining and post processing. Nevertheless, one major drawback of epoxy material is its poor thermal conductivity, which results in a relatively longer cooling time for epoxy injection molds. This study investigates some of the innovative ideas for enhancing the thermal conductivity for epoxy molds. The basic concept behind these ideas was to embed a highly thermally conductive metal insert within the mold between cavities with an innovative design of cooling channels called profiled cooling channels. This technique will increase the effective thermal conductivity of the epoxy mold, leading to the reduction in cooling time for the injection molded polymer part. Experimental analysis conducted in the current study also verified that the mold with profiled cooling channels and embedded metal insert has significantly reduced the cooling time.

  3. Optimization of biomass blends in the manufacture of molded packaging materials produced using fungal mycelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  4. A New Approach for Heating the Plastics Injection Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilius Vasilache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plastics injection molding machines are one of the most eager consumers of energy. The plasticizing unit itself is the most important energetic consumer among the subassemblies of these machines; that is why this subassembly is the target of most actions of consumption decreasing on such machines. Our concerns on this direction got the shape of developing a new heating system for the plasticizing unit, which system was already patented [1].

  5. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...... to the polymer part was mainly influenced by packing pressure level and distance from the gate....

  6. An investigation into the injection molding of PMR-15 polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaluca, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The chemorheological behavior of the PRM-15 molding compounds were characterized, the range of suitable processing parameters for injection molding in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine was determined, and the effects of the injection molding processing parameters on the mechanical properties of molded PMR-15 parts were studied. The apparatus and procedures for measuring viscosity and for determining the physical response of the material during heating are described. Results show that capillary rheometry can be effectively used with thermosets if the equipment is designed to overcome some of the inherent problems of these materials. A uniform temperature was provided in the barrel by using a circulating hot oil system. Standard capillary rheometry methods can provide the dependence of thermoset apparent viscosity on shear rate, temperature, and time. Process conditions resulting in complete imidization should be carefully defined. Specification of controlled oven temperature is inadequate and can result in incomplete imidization. For completely imidized PMR-15 heat at 15 C/min melt flow without gas evolution occurs in the temperature range of 325 C to 400 C.

  7. Internal stresses analysis in telectroformed nickel shells for thermoplastics injection mold core (rapid tooling); Analisis de las tensiones internas en las cascaras de niquel electroconformadas que se utilizan como inserto de un molde de inyeccion de termoplasticos (rapid tooling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, M. D.; Marrero, M. D.; Benitez, A. N.; Hernandez, P. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study deals with a research field started at the LFI (Laboratorio de Fabricacion Integrada) of the ULPGC (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria). Its aim is to analyse and propose improvements in the electroformed nickel cores manufacture. The main application of these cores is to be used as plastic injection molds. It has been considered an important part of this study taking under consideration internal stresses that appear in the nickel electroformed core. These stresses play a determinant role towards reaching a dimensional and resistant quality standard of the shells, which will be later transformed into cores. The investigation includes not only a theoretic study but also an experimental one. the testing method has the remarkable advantage of a wide industrial application because of its simplicity, low cost and reproducibility of the electrolytic bath actual conditions. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  9. Finding efficient frontier of process parameters for plastic injection molding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Wu-Lin; Huang, Chin-Yin; Huang, Ching-Ya

    2013-01-01

    .... To find the settings for the process parameters such that the multiple quality indices can be simultaneously optimized is becoming a research issue and is now known as finding the efficient frontier...

  10. Experimental Studies on the Bonding Strength and Fracture Behavior of Incompatible Materials Bonded by Mechanical Adhesion in Multilayer Rotational Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löhner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotational molding is a plastic processing method that allows for the production of seamless, hollow parts. Defined shaping of the polymeric material only takes place on the outer surface where contact to the tooling is given. The inner surface forms by surface tension effects. By sequential adding of materials, complex multilayer build-up is possible. Besides pure, single materials, filled, or multiphase systems can be processed as well. In this work, possibilities to generate bonding between supposedly incompatible materials by adding a mix-material interlayer are investigated. Interlock mechanisms on a microscale dimension occur and result in mechanical bonding between the used materials, polyethylene (PE and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPE-U. The bonding strength between the materials was investigated to reveal the correlations between processing parameters, resulting layer build-up, and bonding strength. The failure behavior was analyzed and inferences to the influence of the varied parameters were drawn.

  11. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface topogra...

  12. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  13. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid and natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tanrattanakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid. Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the derived TPE. Four plasticizers were selected: tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC, tributyl citrate (TBC, glycerol triacetate (GTA, and triethyl-2-acetyl citrate (TEAC. The investigated properties were the tensile properties, tear strength, thermal ageing and ozone resistance, hardness, resilience, tension set and compression set. All plasticizers increased the strain at break. TBAC and TBC increased the stress at break. All plasticizers decreased the tear strength, hardness and resilience, and slightly changed the tension and compression set. TBAC seemed to be the best plasticizer for the TPE. The presence of 4 pph (parts per hundred resin of plasticizer provided the highest strength and tensile toughness and the strain at break increased with the increasing plasticizer content. The plasticizers decreased the Tg and Tcc of the PLA and did not affect the degree of crystallinity of PLA in the TPE.

  14. Is Mold the New Asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to architects and their educational clients. The Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program offers help to districts seeking to tackle IAQ issues. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.…

  15. Stochastic resin transfer molding process

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M

    2016-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of stochastic resin transfer molding process, which are formulated as random moving boundary problems. We study their properties, analytically in the one-dimensional case and numerically in the two-dimensional case. We show how variability of time to fill depends on correlation lengths and smoothness of a random permeability field.

  16. Is Mold the New Asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to architects and their educational clients. The Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program offers help to districts seeking to tackle IAQ issues. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.…

  17. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  18. Frequency and amplitude dependences of molding accuracy in ultrasonic nanoimprint technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2009-12-01

    We use neither a heater nor ultraviolet lights, and are researching and developing an ultrasonic nanoimprint as a new nano-patterning technology. In our ultrasonic nanoimprint technology, ultrasonic vibration is not used as a heat generator instead of the heater. A mold is connected with an ultrasonic generator, and mold patterns are pushed down and pulled up at a high speed into a thermoplastic. Frictional heat is generated by ultrasonic vibration between mold patterns and thermoplastic patterns formed by an initial contact force. However, because frictional heat occurs locally, the whole mold is not heated. Therefore, a molding material can be comprehensively processed at room temperature. A magnetostriction actuator was built into our ultrasonic nanoimprint system as an ultrasonic generator, and the frequency and amplitude can be changed between dc-10 kHz and 0-4 µm, respectively. First, the ultrasonic nanoimprint was experimented by using this system on polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Tg = 69 °C), whose the glass transition temperature (Tg) is comparatively low in engineering plastics, and it was ascertained that the most suitable elastic material for this technique was an ethyl urethane rubber. In addition, we used a changeable frequency of the magnetostriction actuator, and nano-patterns in an electroformed-Ni mold were transferred to a 0.5 mm thick sheet of PET, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), which are typical engineering plastics, under variable molding conditions. The frequency and amplitude dependence of ultrasonic vibration to the molding accuracy were investigated by measuring depth and width of imprinted patterns. As a result, regardless of the molding material, the imprinted depth was changed drastically when the frequency exceeded 5 kHz. On the other hand, when the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration grew, the imprinted depth gradually deepened. Influence of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration was not observed

  19. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding

    OpenAIRE

    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan; Pranov, Henrik J.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process. At isothermal mold conditions, the average pillar height increases by up to 100% and a more uniform height distribution is observed compared to a traditional metal mold insert. Thermal heat transfer simulat...

  20. Design of Injection Mold with Internal Thread Automatic Demoulding for Perfume Bottle Cap%香水瓶盖内螺纹自动脱模注塑模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维合

    2014-01-01

    According to the structural characteristics of the perfume bottle cap,a pair of automatic unscrewing injection mold was designed. The molded parts,the cooling system,the ejection system and the given-distance parting mechanism were mainly analyzed. By using“hydraulic cylinder+rack+gear”transmission mechanism and multi-step sequential liquid ejection mechanism, the purposes of internal thread automatic demoulding is reached. Practice prove that the mold structure is advanced and reasonable, plastic parts reaches the technical requirements.%根据香水瓶盖的结构特点,设计了自动脱螺纹注塑模,重点分析了成型零件、冷却系统、脱模系统和定距分型结构。通过采用“液压油缸+齿条+齿轮”的传动机构和多步骤顺序脱模机构,达到了内螺纹自动脱模的目的。实践证明,模具结构先进合理,塑料件达到各项技术要求。

  1. Mold After a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  2. Fabrication and spectral characterization of the porous dielectric THz waveguides using microstructured molding technique

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, A; Desevedavy, F; Rosé, M; Skorobogatiy, M

    2010-01-01

    We report two novel fabrication techniques, as well as spectral transmission and propagation loss measurements of the subwavelength plastic wires with highly porous (up to 86%) and non-porous transverse geometries. The two fabrication techniques we describe are based on the microstructured molding approach. In one technique the mold is made completely from silica by stacking and fusing silica capillaries to the bottom of a silica ampoule. The melted material is then poured into the silica mold to cast the microstructured preform. Another approach uses microstructured mold made of plastic which is co-drawn with a cast preform. Material of the mold is then dissolved after fiber drawing. We also describe a novel THz-TDS setup with an easily adjustable optical path length, designed to perform cutback measurements using THz fibers of up to 50 cm in length. We find that while both porous and non-porous subwavelength fibers of the same outside diameter have low propagation losses (\\alpha \\leg 0.02cm-1), however, the...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Cooling Process Based on 3D Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIShu-biao; ZHOUHua-min; LIDe-qun

    2004-01-01

    The design of the coohng system of injection molds directly affects both productivity and the quality of the final part. Using the cooling process CAE system to instruct the mold design, the efficiency and quality of design can be improved greatly. At the same time, it is helpful to confirm the cooling system structure and optimize the process conditions. In this paper, the 3D surface model of mold cavity is used to replace the middle-plane model in the simulation by Boundary Element Method, which break the bottleneck of the application of the injection molding simulation softwares base on the middle-plane model. With the improvements of this paper, a practical and commercial simulation software of injection molding cooling process named as HsCAE3D6.0 is developed.

  4. Implementation of Molding Constraints in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, S.; Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    In many cases the topology optimization method yield inadmissible solutions in respect to a particular manufacturing process, e.g. injection molding. In the present work it is chosen to focus on the most common injection molding parameters/factors determining the quality of the mold geometry, i.......e. uniform thickness, filling of the die and ejection of the molded item, i.e. extrusion. The mentioned injection mold parameters/factors are introduced in the topology optimization by defining a centerline of the initial domain and then penalize elements in respect to the distance to the defined centerline...

  5. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  6. In-mold sensor concept to calculate process-specific rheological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, G. A.; Berger, G. R.; Friesenbichler, W.; Gruber, D. P.; Macher, J.

    2014-05-01

    To gain extended knowledge on the flow behavior of polymer melts during filling phase of the injection molding process, an injection mold featuring complex sensor technology was developed. Three triple-combined FOS MTPS408 cavity sensors (FOS Messtechnik GmbH) are aligned along the flow path of a plate-shaped cavity. Each sensor features an infrared detector, a type K thermocouple, and a piezo-electric pressure detector. This configuration enables the local and transient recording of melt temperature, mold temperature and cavity pressure near gate, part center and end of part simultaneously. Averaged melt velocities are determined by evaluating the differing times of the rising edges of the infrared sensors. Local melt velocities and viscosities are calculated at each sensor position by evaluation of the gradients of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the used injection mold is equipped with RHCM technologies to additionally influence the mold surface temperature and hence the filling of the cavity. The specimens are plate-shaped parts having cut-outs and ribs similar to geometries found in numerous industrial applications such as cover panels. The application of this in-mold sensor concept provides novel possibilities for the systematic in-line analysis and evaluation of process-parameters in injection molding. Further studies will be carried out to connect the process-specific properties to the specimen morphology; aiming at controlling morphology by adjusting process parameters.

  7. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold......A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  8. 浅谈冰箱显示组件结构设计方法%Discussion on the Method of Structure Design of Refrigerator Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to the need of the molding product structure of plastic parts used more and more, plas-tic parts of the design and quality becomes more and more important. In this paper, through a number of exam-ples of the refrigerator part especially the plastic parts of the structure design method.%  为了造型的需要产品结构件中塑料零件用的越来越多,塑料件的设计质量显得越来越重要。本文通过多个实例阐述冰箱显示组件尤其是塑料零件的结构设计方法。

  9. Design on curves of wall-thickness for Blow Molding Machine based on HMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Properly control of blow molding machine’s wall-thickness relates to the quality of plastic products,design on curves is the key technology of blow molding machine’s wall-thickness control.Adopted cubic spline curve as a fitting prototype,used advanced HMI as a design platform,by cooperation with HMI configuration function and macro code,an interface of curves was designed,a good performance of human-computer interaction and core data’s transmission in the whole machine were realized.By using this method,the integration of the system was increased and costs was reduced dramatically.

  10. LCI Databases Sensitivity Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Injection Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elduque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, society’s concern for the environment has increased. Specific tools like the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, and software and databases to apply this method have been developed to calculate the environmental burden of products or processes. Calculating the environmental impact of plastic products is relevant as the global plastics production rose to 288 million tons in 2012. Among the different ways of processing plastics, the injection molding process is one of the most used in the industry worldwide. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of the environmental impact of the injection molding process has been carried out. In order to perform this study, the EcoInvent database inventory for injection molding, and the data from which this database is created, have been studied. Generally, when an LCA of a product is carried out, databases such as EcoInvent, where materials, processes and transports are characterized providing average values, are used to quantify the environmental impact. This approach can be good enough in some cases but in order to assess a specific production process, like injection molding, a further level of detail is needed. This study shows how the final results of environmental impact differ for injection molding when using the PVC’s, PP’s or PET’s data. This aspect suggests the necessity of studying, in a more precise way, this process, to correctly evaluate its environmental burden. This also allows us to identify priority areas and thereby actions to develop a more sustainable way of manufacturing plastics.

  11. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically excluded from any requirements in this subpart: application of mold sealing and release agents; mold stripping and cleaning; repair of parts that you did not manufacture, including non-routine... casting; and closed molding operations (except for compression/injection molding). Note that the...

  12. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  13. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  14. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  15. Ozone reaction on slime mold. [Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, F.

    1972-01-01

    To determine the effect of ozone, the motive force responsible for protoplasmic streaming in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum was measured by the Double chamber method which was developed by Kamiya. The effects of ozone on the motive force were investigated by comparison of the Dynamoplasmogram of controls with that of ozone exposure. In the case of high concentration exposure, thickening of plasmagel, inversion of the period of flow and reduction of the extreme point were observed. Succinoxidase of exposed homogenates showed stronger activity than that of controls. It is certain that the Pasteur reaction takes place when plasmodium is kept under high ozone exposure condition. It appears that ozone inhibited a part of the process of glycolysis. 32 references, 8 figures.

  16. Research on Warpage of Molded Plastic Parts with Stiffeners Based on Taguchi Method%基于Taguchi方法的带筋注塑件翘曲变形研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小青; 孙庆东; 尹晨

    2015-01-01

    加强筋对提高注塑件强度和刚度有着重要的作用.以带有不同截面形状和位置角度筋的注塑件为研究对象,基于Taguchi试验方法,利用ANOVA方法对PC/ABS、POM和PA66带筋注塑件翘曲变形进行比较研究.结果表明,利用Taguchi方法得到了不同材料带筋注塑件的最优工艺参数组合和最小的翘曲变形值;加强筋对PC/ABS和PA66带筋注塑件翘曲变形影响最大.

  17. 应用Taguchi实验设计法最小化注塑成型制品沉降斑%Minimization of Sink Mark of Plastics Injection Molded Part by Taguchi Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利霞; 张娜; 申长雨; 李倩

    2004-01-01

    基于注塑成型充填后的充填模拟,应用Taguchi实验设计(DOE)技术,采用L9(34)正交矩阵进行实验, 并采用变量分析(ANOVA)研究了工艺参数对制品内最大沉降斑的影响,优化工艺参数以使注塑制品内的沉降斑指数最小,从而提高制品质量.

  18. Warpage Optimization of Molded Part with Plastics Injection Based on Taguchi Method%基于Taguchi试验设计方法的注塑成型翘曲优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴真繁; 孙宝寿; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    应用Taguchi试验设计方法,选用正交表L9(34)进行正交试验设计和方差分析,对注塑流动过程进行CAE模拟分析,研究了熔体温度、模具温度、保压压力和保压时间等因素对制品翘曲影响的显著性和贡献度.并根据上述试验得到的影响度排名,将最重要因素的水平进行密化,通过混合水平正交试验设计,获取各因素最佳水平组合,对注塑工艺参数进行优化,大大提高了注塑产品质量.

  19. 应用Taguchi实验设计法最小化ABS注塑制品翘曲变形量%Minimization of warpage of plastic injection molded parts of ABS by Taguchi method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨风霞; 王天喜; 杨胜凯; 杨新兵

    2008-01-01

    运用Taguchi DOE技术研究了工艺参数对丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯共聚物(ABS)注塑制品翘曲变形的影响,并获得优化的工艺参数以使制品的翘曲变形量最小.文中以碱性蓄电池盖为例,利用L9(34)正交矩阵进行实验,并采用标准变量分析法(ANOVA)对熔体温度、注射时间、冷却时间、保压压力等工艺参数对制品翘曲变形的影响程度进行了研究,结果表明,在所选工艺参数中,保压压力和熔体温度对翘曲变形的影响程度最大.

  20. Technologies for Use in the Formation of a Differentiated Structure in Iron Billets Used in Glass Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leushin, I. O.; Chistyakov, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    Causes for the failure of pig iron press molds that are parts of a glass mold are described. Criteria for differentiating the structure of pig iron are established. Ways of obtaining a differentiated structure of a casting product are outlined. A heat treatment regime for the billets is determined.

  1. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  2. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  3. Developmental plasticity and evolution--quo vadis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moczek, A P

    2015-01-01

    The role of developmental (phenotypic) plasticity in ecology and evolution is receiving a growing appreciation among the biologists, and many plasticity-specific concepts have become well established as part of the mainstream evolutionary...

  4. On the use of topology optimization for improving heat transfer in molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, A.; LeGoff, R.; Truc-Vu, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the plastic industry, one of the key factor is to control heat transfer. One way to achieve that goal is to design an effective cooling system. But in some area of the mold, where it is not possible to design cooling system, the use of a highly conductive material, such as copper pin, is often used. Most of the time, the location, the size and the quantity of the copper pin are made by empirical considerations, without using optimization procedures. In this article, it is proposed to use topology optimization, in order to improve transient conductive heat transfer in an injection/blowing mold. Two methodologies are applied and compared. Finally, the optimal distribution of cooper pin in the mold is given.

  5. Investigation of CFRP in aerospace field and improvement of the molding accuracy by using autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Takunori

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) has come to be used in a wide range of industries such as sporting goods, fishing tackle and cars because it has a large number of advantages. In this situation, even the passenger aircraft industry also pays attention to the material. CFRP is an ideal material for airplanes because it has a lot of advantages such as light weight and strong, chemical resistance and corrosion resistance. Generally, autoclave is used for molding CFRP in the field of aerospace engineering. Autoclave is a machine that can mold a product by heating and pressurizing material in an evacuated bag. What is examined in this paper is an observation on handmade CFRP by a polarizing microscope. In addition, mechanical characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, an improvement of accuracy in CFRP molding using an autoclave is suggested from viewpoint of thermodynamics.

  6. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  7. Tackification of textile preforms for resin transfer molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuyunqiqige; YI; Xiao-su

    2005-01-01

    Tackified textile fiber preforms are used widely in resin transfer molding (RTM) to produce aerospace-grade composite parts. In the present study, a new tackifier was developed to improve RTM laminate performance. The influence of tackifier concentration on spring back, thermal properties and mechanical performance was studied . It has showed that the new tackifier was compatible with the matrix resin and improved the textile handling ability; the ILSS was slightly increased without decreasing of thermal properties, modulus and flexural strength.

  8. Solidification process and infrared image characteristics of permanent mold castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, Roman; Breuer, Markus; Haferkamp, Heinz; Kruessel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Matthias

    1999-03-01

    Interdependence between the development of temperature gradients at the solid-liquid interface during solidification of metals and the formation of local defects demands for thermal investigation. In foundry practice thermocouples are used to control the die's overall cooling-rate, but fluctuations in product quality still occur. Capturing FIR- thermograms after opening the die visualizes the state, when most thermal throughput has already flattened the temperature gradients in the mold. Rapid dissipation of heat from liquid metal to the mold during solidification forces further approach of the process investigation by slowing down the heat flux or the use of transparent mold material. Aluminum gravity casting experiments under technical vacuum conditions lead to decelerated solidification by suppression of convection and image sequences containing explicit characteristics that could be assigned to local shrinkage of the casting. Hence relevant clusters are extracted and thermal profiles are drawn from image series, pointing out correlations between feeding performance from the sink heads and the appearance of local defects. Tracing thermal processes in vacuum casting can scarcely be transferred to image data in foundry practice, since only little analogies exist between atmospheric and vacuum casting. The diagnosis of the casting process requires detection of the still closed mold using a transparent silica- aerogel sheet as part of the die. Hereby thermograms of the initial heat input are recorded by adapting a NIR-camera in addition to the FIR-unit. Thus the entire thermal compensation at the joint face for each casting is visualized. This experimental set-up is used for image sequence analysis related to the intermediate casting phases of mold filling, body formation and solidification shrinkage.

  9. Estudio experimental del llenado de moldes pulvimetalúrgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istúriz, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Die filling is the first step in the process of powder compaction. The density distribution depends of the powder characteristics and method of filling. In this work we present the first results obtained with different experimental methods of the filling. Results have been analyzed using a video system which permits the observation of the powder flow. The aim of the work is to determinate the effects of size, morphology and nature of the powder, as well as shoe speed, and die geometry on the apparent density distribution in industrial dies of complex geometry.

    En el proceso de conformado pulvimetalúrgico, la consolidación del polvo se inicia con el llenado del molde en el que se fabricará la preforma porosa, el cual está caracterizado por la distribución de densidades del polvo dentro del molde y depende tanto de las propiedades del mismo como del método de llenado utilizado. A continuación, presentamos los primeros resultados obtenidos mediante un montaje experimental que reproduce el llenado de moldes y que, empleando un sistema de video, permite analizar el flujo de las partículas durante el llenado. El objetivo es determinar el efecto del tamaño, naturaleza y morfología del polvo, así como el de la velocidad del cargador y la geometría del molde en la distribución de la densidad aparente en moldes industriales de geometría compleja.

  10. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process – Taguchi approach. ... plays a very important role in controlling the quality of the injection molded products. ... of injection molding variables on sink marks using Taguchi approach.

  12. Design on Injection Mold for Wine Bottle Cover with Outer Side Core-pulling Mechanism of Slanted Slide Block%利用斜滑块实现外侧抽芯的酒瓶下盖注塑模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊毅; 于玲

    2012-01-01

    The structure characteristics of wine bottle cover was analyzed, and outer side core-pulling was realized by adding a parting surface, controlling mold open order, and using the plastic product to make slanted slide block move.After verification of production, the mold is proved to be reasonable in structure, and reliable in movement.%分析了酒瓶下盖的结构特点,通过增加一个分型面、控制开模顺序,以及利用塑件带动斜滑块的移动实现了该注塑模具的外侧抽芯.经过生产验证,该模具结构合理、动作可靠.

  13. Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all, may produce toxins or poisonous substances called mycotoxins that may cause effects in humans. Although there are many types of mycotoxins, aflatoxins are probably the best known and most ...

  14. Strength of cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites with variable fiber and plasticizer content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Roberts; Madsen, Bo; Nättinen, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the performance of injection-molded short flax and hemp fibers in plasticized starch acetate were analyzed in terms of strength. Parameters involved in the analysis are a variable fiber and plasticizer content. The measured strength of the composites varies in the rang...

  15. Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded and Compression Molded Samples from Nature-Butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobak Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show what extent there is an impact on the mechanical properties (tensile strength and tear strength of a standardized testing sample made of rubber compound based on nature rubber and butadiene rubber produced by injection molding in comparison with a sample produced by classic preparation (cutting out a compression molded plate according to the standard ISO 23529. For realization of this study it was necessary to design and produce an injection mold for all types testing samples. Subsequently, mechanical properties such as the tensile stress-strain and tear strenght of compression molded samples and injection molded samples were studied, compared and discussed.

  16. Nonlinear Modeling of a High Precision Servo Injection Molding Machine Including Novel Molding Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪松; 王旭永; 冯正进; 章志新; 杨钦廉

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear mathematical model of the injection molding process for electrohydraulic servo injection molding machine (IMM) is developed.It was found necessary to consider the characteristics of asymmetric cylinder for electrohydraulic servo IMM.The model is based on the dynamics of the machine including servo valve,asymmetric cylinder and screw,and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of polymer melt in injection molding is also considered.The performance of the model was evaluated based on novel approach of molding - injection and compress molding,and the results of simulation and experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  17. Effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the mold-filling behavior of titanium melts in vertically rotating molds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Daming; Jia Limin; Fu Hengzhi

    2008-01-01

    The vertical centrifugal-casting technique is widely used in the manufacture of various irregularly-shaped castings of advanced structural alloys with thin walls, complex shapes and/or large sizes. These castings are used in the increasing applications in aero-space/aviation industries, human teeth/bone repairs with near-net shaped components, etc. In a vertically rotating casting system, the mold-filling processes of alloy melts, coupled with solidification-heat transfer, may be much more complicated, because they are driven simultaneously by gravity, centrifugal and Codolis forces. In the present work, an N-S/VOF-equations-based model, solved using a SOLA-VOF algorithm, under a rotating coordinate system was applied to numerically investigate the impacts of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on metallic melt mold-filling processes in different vertical centrifugal-casting configurations with different mold-rotation rates using an authors' computer-codes system. The computational results show that the Coriolis force may cause remarkable variations in the flow patterns in the casting-part-cavities of a large horizontal-section area and directly connected to the sprue via a short ingate in a vertical centrifugal-casting process. A "turn-back" mold-filling technique, which only takes advantage of the centrifugal force in a transient rotating melt system, has been confirmed to be a rational centrifugal-casting process in order to achieve smooth and layer-by-layer casting-cavities-filling control. The simulated mold-filling processes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy melt, in a vertical centrifugal-casting system with horizontally-connected plate-casting cavities, show reasonable agreement with experimental results from the literature.

  18. Gas-Assisted Heating Technology for High Aspect Ratio Microstructure Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shia-Chung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hot gas is used for heating the cavity surface of a mold. Different mold gap sizes were designed. The mold surface temperature was heated to above the glass transition temperature of the plastic material, and the mold then closed for melt filling. The cavity surface can be heated to 130°C to assist the melt filling of the microfeatures. Results show that hot gas heating can improve the filling process and achieve 91% of the high aspect ratio microgrooves (about 640.38 μm of the maximum of 700 μm. The mold gap size strongly affects the heating speed and heating uniformity. Without surface preheating, the center rib is the highest. When the heating target temperature is 90°C or 100°C, the three microribs have a good uniformity of height. However, when the target temperature exceeds 100°C, the left side rib is higher than the other ribs.

  19. Development and Demonstration of Adanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Enrique J. Lavernia

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research results in the project Development and Demonstration of Advanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies. Molds, dies and related tooling are used to manufacture most of the plastic and metal products we use every day. Conventional fabrication of molds and dies involves a multiplicity of machining, benching and heat treatment unit operations. This approach is very expensive and time consuming. Rapid Solidifcation Process (RSP) Tooling is a spray-forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The appraoch combines rapid solidifcation processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. An atomized spray of a tool-forming alloy, typically a tool steel, is deposited onto an easy-to-form tool pattern to replicate the pattern's shape and surface features. By so doing, the approach eliminates many machining operations in conventional mold making, significantly reducing cost, lead time and energy. Moreover, rapid solidification creates unique microstructural features by suppressing carbide precipitation and growth, and creating metastable phases. This can result in unique material properties following heat treatment. Spray-formed and aged tool steel dies have exhibited extended life compared to conventional dies in many forming operations such as forging, extrusion and die casting. RSP Tooling technolocy was commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC in Solon, Oh.

  20. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  1. The Thermal Distortion of a Funnel Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeler, Lance C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Schimmel, Ronald C.; Abbel, Gert

    2012-10-01

    This article investigates the thermal distortion of a funnel mold for continuous casting of thin slabs and explores the implications on taper and solidification of the steel shell. The three-dimensional mold temperatures are calculated using shell-mold heat flux and cooling water profiles that were calibrated with plant measurements. The thermal stresses and distorted shape of the mold are calculated with a detailed finite-element model of a symmetric fourth of the entire mold and waterbox assembly, and they are validated with plant thermocouple data and measurements of the wear of the narrow-face copper mold plates. The narrow-face mold distorts into the typical parabolic arc, and the wide face distorts into a "W" shape owing to the large variation in bolt stiffnesses. The thermal expansion of the wide face works against the applied narrow-face taper and funnel effects, so the effect of thermal distortion must be considered to accurately predict the ideal mold taper.

  2. 基于共注成型原理的多色仪表盖模具设计%Injection Mould Design for Multi-color Meter Lids Based on the Principle of Co-injection Molding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋彦; 傅强

    2009-01-01

    The principle of co-injection molding was illustrated and was applied to the injection procedure for the multi-color meter lid. Based on the material characters and the structure analysis of the part, a set of multi-color and multi-component injection mold with two different gating systems composed of six different dimensioned cavities was developed, which could fill three lids in the different cavities with different kind or different color plastics simultaneously. This set of mold could exchange the position of two cavities and strip the lids successively by a rotary mechanism and a eccentric mechanism.%介绍了共注成型工艺及设备工作原理,并将其应用于多色仪表盖的成型与模具设计中.通过对塑件材料及结构的工艺性分析,采用多色多模清色注塑方式,布置一模六腔两个模位两个不同的浇注系统,实现1个成型周期中多种色彩塑料3个塑件的同时注射,并利用转盘机构与偏心顶出机构实现先后两个模位成型多色仪表盖并顺利脱模的过程.

  3. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  4. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  5. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  6. Plastic plus stainless-steel fibers make resilient, impermeable material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirra, J. R.

    1965-01-01

    Plastic material combined with stainless-steel fibers and molded under heat and pressure into a desired configuration is both soft enough to deform under a load and resilient enough to return to its original shape when the load is removed.

  7. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  8. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  9. Design of conformal cooling for plastic injection moulding by heat transfer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling channels of a mold for plastic injection have to be as close as possible to the part geometry in order to ensure fast and homogeneous cooling. However, conventional methods to manufacture cooling channels (drilling can only produce linear holes. Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing technique capable to manufacture complex cooling channels (known as conformal cooling. Nevertheless, because of the high costs of SLM the benefits of conformal collings are still not clear. The current work investigates two designs of conformal coolings: i parallel circuit; ii serial circuit. Both coolings are evaluated against to traditional cooling circuits (linear channels by CAE simulation to produce parts of polypropylene. The results show that if the conformal cooling is not properly designed it cannot provide reasonable results. The deformation of the product can be reduced significantly after injection but the cycle time reduced not more than 6%.

  10. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  11. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  12. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  13. Comparing suppository mold variability which can lead to dosage errors for suppositories prepared with the same or different molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella; Hart, Christine; Hejduk, Courtney; Chillas, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Suppository molds must be properly calibrated to ensure accurate dosing. There are often slight differences between molds and even in the cavities within a mold. A method is presented for the calibration of standard aluminum 6-, 12-, 50-, or 100-well suppository molds. Ten different molds were tested using water for volume calibration, and cocoa butter for standardization involving establishing the density factor. This method is shown to be straightforward and appropriate for calibrating suppository molds.

  14. Rapid prototyping of a complex model for the manufacture of plaster molds for slip casting ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. C. Velazco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer assisted designing (CAD is well known for several decades and employed for ceramic manufacturing almost since the beginning, but usually employed in the first part of the projectual ideation processes, neither in the prototyping nor in the manufacturing stages. The rapid prototyping machines, also known as 3D printers, have the capacity to produce in a few hours real pieces using plastic materials of high resistance, with great precision and similarity with respect to the original, based on unprecedented digital models produced by means of modeling with specific design software or from the digitalization of existing parts using the so-called 3D scanners. The main objective of the work is to develop the methodology used in the entire process of building a part in ceramics from the interrelationship between traditional techniques and new technologies for the manufacture of prototypes. And to take advantage of the benefits that allow us this new reproduction technology. The experience was based on the generation of a complex piece, in digital format, which served as the model. A regular 15 cm icosahedron presented features complex enough not to advise the production of the model by means of the traditional techniques of ceramics (manual or mechanical. From this digital model, a plaster mold was made in the traditional way in order to slip cast clay based slurries, freely dried in air and fired and glazed in the traditional way. This experience has shown the working hypothesis and opens up the possibility of new lines of work to academic and technological levels that will be explored in the near future. This technology provides a wide range of options to address the formal aspect of a part to be performed for the field of design, architecture, industrial design, the traditional pottery, ceramic art, etc., which allow you to amplify the formal possibilities, save time and therefore costs when drafting the necessary and appropriate matrixes

  15. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  16. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  17. 基于CAE的手机面板注塑模设计%Design of Injection Mold for Mobile Phone Panel Based on CAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓勇

    2011-01-01

    针对塑件结构不对称造成的充填不均衡的问题,提出了将点浇口和潜伏式浇口进行组合的浇注系统布置方式,并借助于Moldflow软件的分析结果得到了最优方案.为确保在推出塑件前可靠地切断潜伏式浇口并推出浇口凝料,模具采用由两块推板,一块推杆固定板和两块阶梯式垫块组成的二级推出机构.生产实践表明:该模具结构合理,动作可靠,塑件脱模顺利,质量稳定.%A runner arrangement method combined by pin-point gate and submarine gate was proposed to solve the filting unbalance problem of the asymmetrical structure plastic part. Optimal filling plan was obtained by aid of the analysis results of Moldflow software. To ensure the submarine gate been reliably cut off and the submarine gate freezing material been pulled out before the plastic part was put out, simple and practical two-stage ejection mechanism was adopted in the mold. The mechanism was consisted of two ejector plates, one ejector retainer plate and two ladder-shape ejector housings. Practice shows that: the mold has rational structure, reliable action, smooth ejection and stable quality.

  18. Challenges in mold manufacturing for high precision molded diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Schweizer, Klaus; Bergs, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal precision glass molding of imaging optics is the key technology for mass production of precise optical elements. Especially for numerous consumer applications (e.g. digital cameras, smart phones, …), high precision glass molding is applied for the manufacturing of aspherical lenses. The usage of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can help to further reduce the number of lenses in the optical systems which will lead to a reduced weight of hand-held optical devices. But today the application of molded glass DOEs is limited due to the technological challenges in structuring the mold surfaces. Depending on the application submicrometer structures are required on the mold surface. Furthermore these structures have to be replicated very precisely to the glass lens surface. Especially the micro structuring of hard and brittle mold materials such as Tungsten Carbide is very difficult and not established. Thus a multitude of innovative approaches using diffractive optical elements cannot be realized. Aixtooling has investigated in different mold materials and different suitable machining technologies for the micro- and sub-micrometer structuring of mold surfaces. The focus of the work lays on ultra-precision grinding to generate the diffractive pattern on the mold surfaces. This paper presents the latest achievements in diffractive structuring of Tungsten Carbide mold surfaces by ultra-precision grinding.

  19. Study on Effects of Mold Temperature on the Injection Molded Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han J.-H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the effects of temperature of injection mold on the injection molded article. By supplying water of the proper temperature in the cooling line of mold in the cooling process, the mold was the appropriate temperature, and the deformation of the injection molded article was examined according to the mold temperature. In this study, we conducted simulation analysis and experiments, and the results were analyzed. The minimum deformation of the injection molded article model obtained by supplying 50°C water in the cooling line is 0.003 mm, and the maximum deformation was 0.813 mm. Injection molded article models obtained by supplying 20°C water were found to be a minimum of 0.002 mm, with deformation of up to 0.761 mm. When comparing both conditions, the error rate of injection molded article obtained by supplying 20°C water in the mold cooling line was lower by about 0.18%.

  20. Thermal Viscoelastic Analysis of Plastic Components Considering Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chel Woo; Jeoung, Kab Sik; Moon, Hyung-Il; Kim, Heon Young

    Plastics is commonly used in consumer electronics because of it is high strength per unit mass and good productivity, but plastic components may often become distorted after injection molding due to residual stress after the filling, packing, and cooling processes. In addition, plastic deteriorates depending on various temperature conditions and the operating time, which can be characterized by stress relaxation and creep. The viscoelastic behavior of plastic materials in the time domain can be expressed by the Prony series using the ABAQUS commercial software package. This paper suggests a process for predicting post-production deformation under cyclic thermal loading. The process was applied to real plastic panels, and the deformation predicted by the analysis was compared to that measured in actual testing, showing the possibility of using this process for predicting the post-production deformation of plastic products under thermal loading.

  1. PROPERTIES OF THERMO-MOLDED GLUTEN/GLYCEROL/SILICA COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zheng; Zheng-zheng Lai

    2008-01-01

    Environmentally friendly thermosetting composites were successfully prepared by conventional blending wheat gluten as matrix.glycerol as plasticizer and silica as filler followed by thermo-molding of the mixture at 120℃.The strong interfacial interaction between silica particles and gluten proteins leaded to an increase in storage modulus and a decrease in loss factor as revealed by dynamic mechanical analysis.The moisture absorption and elongation at break decrease while Young's modulus and tensile strength increase with increasing silica content from 0 to 10 wt%.However,the moisture absorption and mechanical properties show discontinuous changes at a silica content of 6 wt%.The glycerol content also has a marked influence on the moisture absorption and mechanical properties of the composites with a constant gluten-to-silica ratio.

  2. Composite materials molding simulation for purpose of automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Ł.; Baier, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2016-08-01

    Composite materials loom large increasingly important role in the overall industry. Composite material have a special role in the ever-evolving automotive industry. Every year the composite materials are used in a growing number of elements included in the cars construction. Development requires the search for ever new applications of composite materials in areas where previously were used only metal materials. Requirements for modern solutions, such as reducing the weight of vehicles, the required strength and vibration damping characteristics go hand in hand with the properties of modern composite materials. The designers faced the challenge of the use of modern composite materials in the construction of bodies of power steering systems in vehicles. The initial choice of method for producing composite bodies was the method of molding injection of composite material. Molding injection of polymeric materials is a widely known and used for many years, but the molding injection of composite materials is a relatively new issue, innovative, it is not very common and is characterized by different conditions, parameters and properties in relation to the classical method. Therefore, for the purpose of selecting the appropriate composite material for injection for the body of power steering system computer analysis using Siemens NX 10.0 environment, including Moldex 3d and EasyFill Advanced tool to simulate the injection of materials from the group of possible solutions were carried out. Analyses were carried out on a model of a modernized wheel case of power steering system. During analysis, input parameters, such as temperature, pressure injectors, temperature charts have been analysed. An important part of the analysis was to analyse the propagation of material inside the mold during injection, so that allowed to determine the shape formability and the existence of possible imperfections of shapes and locations air traps. A very important parameter received from

  3. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  4. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  5. Additive technology of soluble mold tooling for embedded devices in composite structures: A study on manufactured tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhuparna

    Composite textiles have found widespread use and advantages in various industries and applications. The constant demand for high quality products and services requires companies to minimize their manufacturing costs, and delivery time in order to compete in general and niche marketplaces. Advanced manufacturing methods aim to provide economical methods of mold production. Creation of molding and tooling options for advanced composites encompasses a large portion of the fabrication time, making it a costly process and restraining factor. This research discusses a preliminary investigation into the use of soluble polymer compounds and additive manufacturing to fabricate soluble molds. These molds suffer from dimensional errors due to several factors, which have also been characterized. The basic soluble mold of a composite is 3D printed to meet the desired dimensions and geometry of holistic structures or spliced components. The time taken to dissolve the mold depends on the rate of agitation of the solvent. This process is steered towards enabling the implantation of optoelectronic devices within the composite to provide sensing capability for structural health monitoring. The shape deviation of the 3D printed mold is also studied and compared to its original dimensions to optimize the dimensional quality to produce dimensionally accurate parts. Mechanical tests were performed on compact tension (CT) resin samples prepared from these 3D printed molds and revealed crack propagation towards an embedded intact optical fiber.

  6. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of stability for monolayer injection molding tools coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    We tested and characterized molecular coating of Aluminium and Nickel prototype molds and mold inserts for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energy and roughness data have been...... and especially suitable for rapid prototyping and mold geometry testing....

  8. Shrink-induced superhydrophobic and antibacterial surfaces in consumer plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschauf, Lauren R; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces have become particularly desirable as stable antibacterial surfaces. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties prohibit bacteria growth, structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces obviate bacterial resistance common with chemical agents, and therefore a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. In this study, we present a rapid fabrication method for creating such superhydrophobic surfaces in consumer hard plastic materials with resulting antibacterial effects. To replace complex fabrication materials and techniques, the initial mold is made with commodity shrink-wrap film and is compatible with large plastic roll-to-roll manufacturing and scale-up techniques. This method involves a purely structural modification free of chemical additives leading to its inherent consistency over time and successive recasting from the same molds. Finally, antibacterial properties are demonstrated in polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyethylene (PE) by demonstrating the prevention of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria growth on our structured plastic surfaces.

  9. Influence of the Mold Current on the Electroslag Remelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Mathilde; Dussoubs, Bernard; Jardy, Alain; Escaffre, Jessica; Poisson, Henri

    2016-08-01

    The electroslag remelting process is widely used to produce high value-added alloys. The use of numerical simulation has proven to be a valuable way to improve its understanding. In collaboration with Aubert & Duval, the Institute Jean Lamour has developed a numerical transient model of the process. The consumable electrode is remelted within a mold assumed to be electrically insulated by the solidified slag skin. However, this assumption has been challenged by some recent studies: the solidified slag skin may actually allow a part of the melting current to reach the mold. In this paper, the evolution of our model, in order to take into account this possibility, is presented and discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data, while several sensitivity studies show the influence of some slag properties and operating parameters on the quality of the ingot. Even, a weakly conductive solidified slag skin at the inner surface of the mold may be responsible for a non-negligible amount of current circulating between the slag and crucible, which in turn modifies the fluid flow and heat transfer in the slag and ingot liquid pool. The fraction of current concerned depends mainly on the electrical conductivities of both the liquid and solidified slag.

  10. 电器盖注射模设计%Design of Electrical Cover Injection Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,taking the design of electrical injection mold as masterstroke,moulding process,design of mold structure,machining ways of mold parts,general assembly and so on were researched.The paper introduced electrical cover injection mold,which has two-cavity mold with a mold,that is to say,forming a combination of the two shell pieces,and at the same time,briefly described the machining process of inserts.%以电器盖注射模具设计为主线,研究了成型工艺、模具结构设计、模具零件的加工方法及模具的总装配等.介绍了一种电器盖注射模具,该模具采用一模两腔,即一次成型2个壳件的组合,同时,简单介绍了镶件的加工工艺.

  11. Surface topographic characterization for polyamide composite injection molds made of aluminum and copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A; Hernández, P; Martinez, J; Pérez, J A; Mathia, T G

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure flexibility and rapid new product development, the mold industry made use of soft materials for cavity inserts in injection molds. However, materials of this kind are prone to wear. This article analyzes the topographic characterization of the surface and wear processes in injection molds cavities. Two materials have been used to produce the cavities: aluminum alloy EN AW‐6082 T4 and copper alloy Cu Zn39 Pb3. The surface topography was measured with the use of optical interferometry profiling technology; roughness and surface parameters were determined according to ISO 4287, ISO 25178, and EUR 15178N. In order to complete this research, an experimental part with different thicknesses and shapes was designed, and cavity inserts of aluminum and copper were made. Polyamide PA6, with 30% fiberglass reinforcement, was employed in the experimental procedure. Measurements of cavity mold surfaces were performed after 9,200 cycles on each mold and at different locations on the mold. The surface measurement was made with a white light vertical scanning interferometry, also known as coherence scanning interferometry (ISO DIS 25178‐604). The results are analyzed and differences between the two types of cavity inserts materials are discussed.

  12. Characterization of curing behavior of UV-curable LSR for LED embedded injection mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Joon-Sung; Yim, Kyung-Gyu; Rhee, Byung-Ohk; Kwak, Jae B.

    2016-11-01

    For many applications, liquid silicone rubber (LSR) injection molding is widely used for their great design flexibility and high productivity. In particular, a sealing part for a mobile device such as smartphone and watch has been produced by injection molding. While thermally curable LSR causes deformation problem due to a high mold temperature, UV-curable LSR can be molded at room temperature, which has advantages for over-molding with inserts of temperature-sensitive materials. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have advantages such as a longer service life, a lower heat dissipation, and smaller size to equip into the mold than conventional halogen or mercury UV lamps. In this work, rheological behavior of UV-curable LSR during curing process was analyzed by UV LEDs available in the market. UV-LEDs of various wave lengths and intensities were tested. The steady shear test was applied to find the starting time of curing and the SAOS was applied to find the ending time of curing to estimate processing time. In addition, the hardness change with irradiation energy was compared with the rheological data to confirm the reliability of the rheological test.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded and Compression Molded Samples from Nature-Butadiene Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Skrobak Adam; Janoštík Václav; Stanek Michal; Manas David; Ovsik Martin; Senkerik Vojtech; Reznicek Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show what extent there is an impact on the mechanical properties (tensile strength and tear strength) of a standardized testing sample made of rubber compound based on nature rubber and butadiene rubber produced by injection molding in comparison with a sample produced by classic preparation (cutting out a compression molded plate) according to the standard ISO 23529. For realization of this study it was necessary to design and produce an injection mold for all typ...

  14. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  15. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  16. Development of polylactide (PLA) and PLA nanocomposite foams in injection molding for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Chaloupli, Naqi

    Plastic materials are extensively used in automotive structures since they make cars more energy efficient. Recently, the automotive industry is searching for bio-based and renewable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Among polymers originating from renewable sources, polylactide (PLA) has attracted significant interest. The use of this polymer in durable industries is promising. Fuel-efficient automobiles are nowadays demanded due to the increasing concerns about environmental and fuel issues. The automobile fuel efficiency can be improved by using a lightweight material and, thereby, reducing the automobile weight. A potential method to achieve this objective is the use of the foaming technology. Foam is a material where a gas phase is encapsulated by a solid phase. Foaming technology helps to manufacture lightweight parts with superior properties in comparison with their solid counterparts. The basic mechanisms of foaming process normally consists of gas implementation, formation of uniform polymer-gas solution, cell nucleation, cell growth and, finally, cell stabilization. PLA foaming has, however, proved to be difficult mainly due to poor rheological properties, small processing window, and slow crystallization kinetics. The ultimate purpose of this work is to reduce by 30 % the weight of polylactide (PLA)-clay based nanocomposites by manufacturing injection-molded foamed parts. To use standard processing equipment, a chemical blowing agent (CBA) was employed. The injection molding technique was utilized in this project because it is the most widely used fabrication process in industry that can produce complex shaped articles. This process, however, is more challenging than other foaming processes since it deals with many additional controlling parameters. In the first part of this project, we illustrated how long chain branching (LCB) and molecular structure impact the melt rheology, crystallization and batch

  17. Assessment of mold concentrations in Singapore shopping centers using mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Jennifer; Toh, Zhen Ann; Goh, Vivien; Ng, Lee Chen; Vesper, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Molds can pose a human health threat and may amplify in buildings in humid climates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold growth in Singapore shopping centers based on the collection of 40 dust samples from 15 shopping centers, including one with a history of water damage. The dust was analyzed by a DNA-based technology called mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR). In a water-damaged shopping center, most of the 26 water-damage indicator species were detected at some concentration and many were much more abundant than the average in the shopping centers. MSQPCR is a useful method for quantifying indoor molds in tropical climates.

  18. Molds on Food: Are They Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food was stored. Check nearby items the moldy food might have touched. Mold spreads quickly in fruits and vegetables. See the attached chart "Moldy Food: When to Use, When to Discard." FOOD HANDLING ...

  19. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.

    2012-01-01

    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  20. Three-Dimensional Pneumatic Molding of Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Gaff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to introduce a new testing method suitable for the evaluation of the three-dimensional (3-D moldability of veneers and to use this method to test the impact of specific factors on the 3-D pneumatic molding process. The tested factors included veneer moisture content, wood species, shape of test piece, and fixing method on the maximum wood deflection. Veneers were molded using compressed air on equipment designed by our group for the sole purpose of this experiment. The results indicated that the monitored factors had an effect on deflection during the 3-D molding process. The results of this investigation extend the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this technology and indicate the possibility of utilizing this innovative testing method for 3-D molded veneers.

  1. Secondary metabolites of slime molds (myxomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, Valery M; Rezanka, Tomás; Spízek, Jaroslav; Hanus, Lumír O

    2005-04-01

    The compounds reported from the slime molds (myxomycetes) species are described. Almost 100 natural compounds including their chemical structures and biological activities are described in this review article. Only metabolites with a well-defined structure are included.

  2. Rozen : steeds meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.P.; Kohrman, E.

    2009-01-01

    Onderzoek naar Black Mold heeft al veel informatie opgeleverd over de verspreiding, bestrijding en ontwikkeling van de oculatieschimmel. In dit artikel de nieuwste resultaten van PPO en Cultus Agro Advies

  3. Facts about Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization issued additional guidance, the WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould [PDF - 2.52 MB] . Other ... reliable sampling for mold can be expensive, and standards for judging what is and what is not ...

  4. Custom molded thermal MRg-FUS phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Matthew D. C.; Snell, John W.; Hananel, Arik; Kassell, Neal F.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes a method for creating custom-molded thermal phantoms for use with MR-guided focused ultrasound systems. The method is defined here for intracranial applications, though it may be modified for other anatomical targets.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Wind Turbine Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richardson, Bradley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nolet, Stephen [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Hannan, James [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for low cost manufacturing of wind turbine molds. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and TPI Composites (TPI) collaborated to design and manufacture a printed mold that can be used for resin infusion of wind turbine components. Specific focus was on required material properties (operating temperatures and pressures, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), thermal conductivity), surface finish (accuracy and coatings) and system integration (integrated vacuum ports, and heating element). The project began with a simple proof of principle components, targeting surface coatings and material properties for printing a small section (approximately 4’ x 4’ x 2’) of a mold. Next, the second phase scaled up and integrated with the objective of capturing all of the necessary components (integrated heating to accelerate cure time, and vacuum, sealing) for resin infusion on a mold of significant size (8’ x 20’ x 6’).

  6. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Expert Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 11, 2017 Location: ... 11, 2017 Click Here to View Most Recent Pollen and Spore Levels (04/10/2017) If you ...

  7. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  9. Development and Characterization of a Metal Injection Molding Bio Sourced Inconel 718 Feedstock Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Royer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The binder plays the most important role in the metal injection molding (MIM process. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape during injection molding. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part and must be easy to remove from the molded part. Moreover, it must be recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical. Also, the miscibility between polymers affects the homogeneity of the injected parts. The goal of this study is to develop a feedstock of superalloy Inconel 718 that is environmentally friendly. For these different binders, formulations based on polyethylene glycol (PEG, because of his water solubility property, and bio sourced polymers were studied. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA were investigated as a bio sourced polymer due to its miscibility with the PEG. The result is compared to a standard formulation using polypropylene (PP. The chemical and rheological behavior of the binder formulation during mixing, injection and debinding process were investigated. The feedstock was characterized in the same way as the binders and the interactions between the powder and the binders were also studied. The results show the well adapted formulation of polymer binder to produce a superalloy Inconel 718 feedstock.

  10. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  11. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  12. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  13. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  14. Feedback control of the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dirk; Graf, A.; Fink, Bruce K.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    1999-02-01

    The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) technique is a liquid-molding process that offers the potential to significantly reduce fabrication costs for large-scale composite structures. The VARTM workcell is used to evaluate control strategies and sensors such as SMARTweave to provide feedback for an intelligent control system. Current VARTM systems lack automated control systems resulting in part to part variability. This research presents a continuously controlled vacuum actuator system and the influence of vacuum gradients on resin flow front control.

  15. Design Experience and Skills of Large Injection Mold%大型注塑模具设计经验与技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维合

    2012-01-01

    Design experience and skills of large injection mold were introduced by using the refrigerator transparent store content ark injection mould as an example. The hydraulic cylinder for lateral oblique core-pulling, the fission style inclined top for inside-oblique core pulling, the pressure gas and push block for plastic parts demolding were adopted. Its side core-pulling mechanism was complex, and cooling system design was reasonable. Production practice proved that the forming period and plastic parts quality could meet the requirements of customer.%以某电冰箱透明储物柜注塑模具为例,简述了大型注塑模具的设计经验与技巧.模具采用液压油缸进行外侧斜向抽芯,采用分体式斜顶进行内侧斜向抽芯,采用气压和推块联合推出塑件.模具侧向抽芯机构复杂,冷却系统设计合理.实际运行表明,成型周期和塑件质量符合客户要求.

  16. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  17. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  18. COMPUTER MODELING IN DEFORM-3D FOR ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC FLOW IN HIGH-SPEED HOT EXTRUSION OF BIMETALLIC FORMATIVE PARTS OF DIE TOOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of industrial production is closely connected with the use of science-based and high technologies to ensure competitiveness of the manufactured products on the world market. There is also much tension around an energy- and resource saving problem which can be solved while introducing new technological processes and  creation of new materials that provide productivity increase through automation and improvement of tool life. Development and implementation of such technologies are rather often considered as time-consuming processes  which are connected with complex calculations and experimental investigations. Implementation of a simulation modelling for materials processing using modern software products serves an alternative to experimental and theoretical methods of research.The aim of this paper is to compare experimental results while obtaining bimetallic samples of a forming tool through the method of speed hot extrusion and the results obtained with the help of computer simulation using DEFORM-3D package and a finite element method. Comparative analysis of plastic flow of real and model samples has shown that the obtained models provide high-quality and reliable picture of plastic flow during high-speed hot extrusion. Modeling in DEFORM-3D make it possible to eliminate complex calculations and significantly reduce a number of experimental studies while developing new technological processes.

  19. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  20. Protection of active implant electronics with organosilicon open air plasma coating for plastic overmolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeppenfeld Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome challenges for manufacturing of modern smart medical plastic parts by injection molding, e.g. for active implants, the optimization of the interface between electronics and the polymer component concerning adhesion and diffusion behavior is crucial. Our results indicate that a nano-sized SiOxCyHz layer formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD via open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and by use of a hexamthyldisiloxane (HMDSO precursor can form a non-corrosive, anti-permeable and biocompatible coating. Due to the open air character of the APPJ process an inline coating before overmolding could be an easy applicable method and a promising advancement.