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Sample records for plastic mixture volume

  1. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  2. First approach to radionuclide mixtures quantification by using plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J.F. [Departament de Pintura, Universitat de Barcelona, Pau Gargallo 4, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jfgarcia@ub.edu; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-08

    Recent studies have evaluated the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to liquid scintillation (LS) in radionuclide activity determination without mixed waste production. In order to complete the comparison, we now assess the extent to which PS can be used to quantify mixtures of radionuclides and the influence of the diameter of the plastic scintillation beads in detection efficiency. The results show that the detection efficiency decreases and the spectrum shrink to lower energies when the size of the plastic scintillation beads increases, and that the lower the energy of the beta particle, the greater the variation takes place. Similar behaviour has been observed for beta-gamma and alpha emitters. Two scenarios for the quantification of mixtures are considered, one including two radionuclides ({sup 14}C and {sup 60}Co) whose spectra do not overlap significantly, and the other including two radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y), where the spectra of one the isotopes is totally overlapped by the other The calculation has been performed by using the conventional window selection procedure and a new approach in which the selected windows correspond to those with lower quantification errors. Relative errors obtained using the proposed approach (less than 10%) are lower than those of the conventional procedure, even when a radionuclide is completely overlapped, except for those samples with extreme activity ratios that were not included in the window optimization process.

  3. Mixture quantification using PLS in plastic scintillation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A.; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J.F., E-mail: jfgarcia@ub.ed [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    This article reports the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) combined with multivariate calibration (Partial least squares; PLS) to detect and quantify alpha and beta emitters in mixtures. While several attempts have been made with this purpose in mind using liquid scintillation (LS), no attempt was done using PS that has the great advantage of not producing mixed waste after the measurements are performed. Following this objective, ternary mixtures of alpha and beta emitters ({sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y) have been quantified. Procedure optimisation has evaluated the use of the net spectra or the sample spectra, the inclusion of different spectra obtained at different values of the Pulse Shape Analysis parameter and the application of the PLS1 or PLS2 algorithms. The conclusions show that the use of PS+PLS2 applied to the sample spectra, without the use of any pulse shape discrimination, allows quantification of the activities with relative errors less than 10% in most of the cases. This procedure not only allows quantification of mixtures but also reduces measurement time (no blanks are required) and the application of this procedure does not require detectors that include the pulse shape analysis parameter.

  4. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  5. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

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    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  6. Influence of shape and size of the particles on jigging separation of plastics mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Fernando; Castilho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Plastics are popular for numerous applications due to their high versatility and favourable properties such as endurance, lightness and cheapness. Therefore the generation of plastic waste is constantly increasing, becoming one of the larger categories in municipal solid waste. Almost all plastic materials are recyclable, but for the recycling to be possible it is necessary to separate the different types of plastics. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of the jig separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. For this study six granulated plastics had been used: Polystyrene (PS), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET-S, PET-D) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC-M, PVC-D). Plastics mixtures were subjected to jigging in a laboratorial Denver mineral jig. The results showed that the quality of the jigging separation varies with the mixture, the density differences and with the size and shape of the particles. In the case of particles with more regular shapes the quality of separation of bi-component plastic mixtures improved with the increase of the particle size. For lamellar particles the influence of particle size was minimal. In general, the beneficiation of plastics with similar densities was not effective, since the separation efficiency was lower than 25%. However, in bi-component plastic mixtures that join a low density plastic (PS) with a high density one (PMMA, PET-S, PET-D, PVC-M and PVC-D), the quality of the jigging separation was greatly improved. The PS grade in the sunk was less than 1% for all the plastic mixtures. Jigging proved to be an effective method for the separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. Jigging separation will be enhanced if the less dense plastic, that overflows, has a lamellar shape and if the denser plastic, that sinks, has a regular one.

  7. Effects of plasticizers and their mixtures on estrogen Receptor and thyroid hormone functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    Plasticizers are additives used to increase the flexibility or plasticity of the material to which they are added, normally rigid plastic and as additives in paint and adhesives. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the estrogen and the thyroid hormone (TH) systems...... was lower than predicted, suggesting a potential antagonizing effect of the mixture. In conclusion, the tested plasticizers and phenols elicited endocrine-disrupting potential that can be mediated via interference with the estrogen and TH systems. Moreover, the observed mixture effect stresses...

  8. The contribution of phenotypic plasticity to complementary light capture in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqi; van der Werf, Wopke; Anten, Niels P R; Vos, Jan; Evers, Jochem B

    2015-09-01

    Interspecific differences in functional traits are a key factor for explaining the positive diversity-productivity relationship in plant communities. However, the role of intraspecific variation attributable to phenotypic plasticity in diversity-productivity relationships has largely been overlooked. By taking a wheat (Triticum aestivum)-maize (Zea mays) intercrop as an elementary example of mixed vegetation, we show that plasticity in plant traits is an important factor contributing to complementary light capture in species mixtures. We conceptually separated net biodiversity effect into the effect attributable to interspecific trait differences and species distribution (community structure effect), and the effect attributable to phenotypic plasticity. Using a novel plant architectural modelling approach, whole-vegetation light capture was simulated for scenarios with and without plasticity based on empirical plant trait data. Light capture was 23% higher in the intercrop with plasticity than the expected value from monocultures, of which 36% was attributable to community structure and 64% was attributable to plasticity. For wheat, plasticity in tillering was the main reason for increased light capture, whereas for intercropped maize, plasticity induced a major reduction in light capture. The results illustrate the potential of plasticity for enhancing resource acquisition in mixed stands, and indicate the importance of plasticity in the performance of species-diverse plant communities.

  9. Pyrolysis kinetics of olive residue/plastic mixtures by non-isothermal thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulkas, A.; El harfi, K. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Materiaux et l' Optimisation des Procedes, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences et en Techniques, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); El bouadili, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 523, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Nadifiyine, M.; Benchanaa, M.; Mokhlisse, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Materiaux et l' Optimisation des Procedes & lt; & lt; REMATOP& gt; & gt; , Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2009-05-15

    The TGA studies of a pyrolytic decomposition of mixtures of olive residue/plastic were carried out. The investigation was made at the temperature ranging from 300 to 1273 K) in the nitrogen atmosphere at four heating rates {beta} = 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min{sup -} {sup 1}. High density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were selected as plastic samples. Based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first two were dominated by the olive residue pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the plastics pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on pyrolysis olive residue/plastic mixtures. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those of the individual components. These experimental results indicate a significant synergistic effect during olive residue and plastic co-pyrolysis at the high temperature region. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data. A reasonable fit to the experimental data was obtained for all materials and their mixtures. (author)

  10. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    122 xii TEST PLAN DEVELOPMENT FOR PLASTIC AM4MINITION CONTAINERS - VOLUME I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project...11 LA 00 Li C:0 z CP -0 133 0( LIE r r ’ D2 U)~ E C IP a g 0- L) LaLn 4’ MOIAIV3H-Q3.~f-trCYin, 20o Tabla 6-D Performance Prediction Model 155ram

  11. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

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    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  12. Investigation on pyrolysis of Moroccan oil shale/plastic mixtures by thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulkas, A.; El harfi, K. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); Departement de chimie, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Nadifiyine, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); El bouadili, A. [Departement de chimie, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

    2008-11-15

    Thermal degradation processes for a series of mixtures of oil shale/plastic were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at four heating rates of 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min{sup -} {sup 1} from ambient temperature to 1273 K. High density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) were selected as plastic samples. Based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first is attributed to the drying of absorbed water; the second was dominated by the overlapping of organic matter and plastic pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the mineral matter pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those of the individual components; thus an increase in thermal stability was expected. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data. A reasonable fit to the experimental data was obtained for all materials and their mixtures. (author)

  13. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  14. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

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    Z. S. Shashok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  15. Thermoplastic starch plasticized with alginate-glycerol mixtures: Melt-processing evaluation and film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Olivia V; Ninago, Mario D; Lencina, M M Soledad; García, María A; Andreucetti, Noemí A; Ciolino, Andrés E; Villar, Marcelo A

    2015-08-01

    Corn starch melt-processing in the presence of a commonly used plasticizer mixture (water/glycerol) and a non-conventional alternative (alginate/glycerol) was evaluated. All assayed formulations were successfully processed by melt-mixing and injected in circular probes. It was determined that all samples presented a typical viscoelastic behavior, observing a decrease in storage and loss modulus with water and alginate concentration, which facilitated samples processability. Concerning to thermal stability, it was not affected neither for water nor alginate presence. From injected probes, flexible films were obtained by thermo-compression. Films with the highest assayed water content presented a sticky appearance, whereas those containing alginate were non-tacky. Plasticizing action of water and alginate was evidenced by the occurrence of homogeneous fracture surfaces, without the presence of unmelted starch granules. Besides, the shift of glass transition temperature to lower values also corroborated the plasticizing effect of both additives. In conclusion, obtained results demonstrated the well-plasticizing action of sodium alginate on starch matrix, turning this additive into a promissory alternative to replace water during melt-processing of thermoplastic corn-starch.

  16. Behavioral plasticity is not signiifcantly associated withhead volume ina wild Chestnut Thrush (Turdus rubrocanus) population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingshan Zhao; Yuehua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The drivers of intraspeciifc variation in behavioral plasticity are poorly known. A widely held hypothesis is that brain size is positively correlated with behavioral plasticity. Methods: A total of 71 Chestnut Thrushes (Turdus rubrocanus) were caught in the wild population. We quantiifed behavior plasticity of activity of individuals measured in the same cage across two contexts (common and with a novel object stimulation), using a random regression analysis. We then investigated whether head volume (a proxy for brain size) was associated with behavioral plasticity in activity level using Spearman rank-order correlation. Results: We found no signiifcant evidence that activity plasticity was associated with relative head volume. There was no sex difference in head volume or in variance in head volume. Conclusions: We speculate that the absence of an association between brain volume and activity behavior plasticity may result from the inaccuracy of using external skull measurements to estimate brain size, or from a particular part of the brain being responsible for plasticity in activity level.

  17. A novel approach to predict the excess volume of hydrocarbon mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H. J.; Bosma, J. C.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether principles obtained for the packing of solid macroscopic particles can be applied to the study of excess volumes of liquid mixtures. The approach is applied to mixtures of 'pure' hydrocarbons, i.e. containing only C- and H-atoms. In this new approach a set of equations wa

  18. Optimization of the Production Mixture of Selected Raw Material for Plastic Production: A Case Study of Louis Carter Plastic Manufacturing Industry

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    Okolie Paul Chukwulozie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistical experiment design and analysis tools for the production have being developed specifically for the purpose of optimizing mixes, such as plastic products, in which the final product properties depend on the relative proportions of the components rather than their absolute amounts. Although mixture methods have been used in industries to develop products such as gasoline, metal alloys, detergents and foods, they have seen little application in the plastic industry. This paper describes an analysis in which a statistical mixture design tool called response surface design optimization tool was used to optimize the six mixture components of 25mm waste pipe, in order to obtain the optimal mixture ratio and their corresponding product yield. The results obtained show an optimal mixture ratio of PVC (45442.820, Stabilizer (1514.760, Calcium carbonate (0.0, Steric acid (151.480, Titanium (12.120, and Pigment (1.4079 for 25mm waste pipe. The optimal yield and composite desirability for 25mm waste pipe are 51990kg and 0.99990. The objective of the study from the result above was to reduce the wastage of raw materials, so as to increase the profitability of the final products. In addition, the model in use is recommended to the case company for effective utilisation of their various raw material mixes so as to obtain various optimal solutions of their raw materials mix and their various production yields.

  19. A New Life for Cross-Linked Plastic Waste as Aggregates and Binder Modifier for Asphalt Mixtures

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    Liliana M. B. Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year, millions of tons of plastic waste, with potential to be reused, are wasted in landfills. Based on a literature review and in a local market analysis, cross-linked polyethylene (PEX waste arose as the material with the greatest potential to be tested for incorporation in asphalt mixtures due to the difficulty in its recycling and the lack of solutions for its reuse. Thus, in the present work, mixtures produced with and without PEX were tested in order to compare their performance, aiming at understanding if this waste could successfully be used as an alternative material for this type of application. Thus, water sensitivity, rutting resistance, stiffness modulus and fatigue cracking resistance tests were carried out on asphalt mixtures with up to 5% PEX. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the incorporation of PEX in asphalt mixtures is a viable solution for paving works, especially when high service temperatures are expected. It also decreases the density of the mixture, which can be attractive to lighten structures. Thus, this technology contributes to give new life to cross-linked polyethylene plastic waste.

  20. Derivation of Plastic Work Rate Done per Unit Volume for Mean Yield Criterion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewen ZHAO; Yingjie XIE; Xiaowen WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2005-01-01

    In Haigh Westergaard stress space linear combination of twin shear stress and Tresca yield functions is called the mean yield (MY) criterion. The mathematical relationship of the criterion and its plastic work rate done per unit volume were derived. A generalized worked example of slab forging was analyzed by the criterion and its corresponding plastic work rate done per unit volume. Then, the precision of the solution was compared with those by Mises and Twin shear stress yield criterions, respectively. It turned out that the calculated results by MY criterion were in good agreement with those by Mises criterion.

  1. Effects of volume fraction condition on thermodynamic restrictions in mixture theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛永红; 苗天德

    2002-01-01

    Volume fraction condition is a true constraint that must be taken into consideration in deducing the thermodynamic restrictions of mixture theory applying the axiom of dissipation. For a process to be admissible, the constraints imposed by the volume fraction condition include not only the equation obtained by taking its material derivative with respect to the motion of a given phase, but also those by taking its spatial gradient. The thermodynamic restrictions are deduced under the complete constraints, the results obtained are consistent for the mixtures with or without a compressible phase,and in which the free energy of each phase depends on the densities of all phases.

  2. BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS FROM A MIXTURE OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE AND CASSAVA STARCH WITH THE ADDITION OF ACRYLIC ACID

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    Susilawati Susilawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A research of preparation biodegradable plastics, from LDPE and cassava starch mixture with the addition of acrylic acid, had been conducted. This research purpose to  studied compatibility properties of the material and percent weight loss during the biodegradation test. Optimum weight loss (59,26% was showed after 60 days witches LDPE and starch composition ratio 6 : 4 (w/w  while tensile strength  equal to 0,38 Kgf/mm2.  SEM characterization showed that biodegradation has occurred by  formation of hole in the biodegradable plastic surface. DTA test gave Tg = 130 °C, Tm = 230 °C and Td = 370-450 °C while FT-IR analysis showed that the biodegradable plastics have a chemistry interaction.

  3. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary liquid mixtures containing n-alkanes at 298.15 K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Vyas; T Nautiyal

    2002-10-01

    Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary mixture, i.e., n-heptane + n-hexane. Remaining five binary mixtures, n-heptane + toluene, cyclohexane + n-heptane, cyclohexane + n-hexane, toluene + nhexane and n-decane + n-hexane show negative excess molar volumes over the whole composition range. However, the large negative values of excess molar volume becomes dominant in toluene + n-hexane mixture. Deviation in isentropic compressibility is negative over the whole range of composition in the case of all the six binary mixtures. Existence of specific intermolecular interactions in the mixtures has been analyzed in terms of excess molar volume and deviation in isentropic compressibility.

  4. Deduction of plastic work rate per unit volume for unified yield criterion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; LI Jing; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    A unified linear expression of plastic work rate per unit volume is deduced from the unified linear yield criterion and the associated flow rule. The expression is suitable for various linear yield loci in the error triangle between Tresca's and twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane. It exhibits generalization in which the different value of criterion parameter b corresponds to a specific linear formula of plastic work rate per unit volume. Finally, with the unified linear expression of plastic work rate and upper-bound parallel velocity field the strip forging without bulge is successfully analyzed and an analytical result is also obtained. The comparison with traditional solutions shows that when b=1/(1+(√3)) the result is the same as the upper bound result by Mises' yield criterion, and it also is identical to that by slab method with m=1, σ0=0.

  5. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Binary Mixture of Diethyl Carbonate+Ethanol at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Peisheng; LI Nannan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to report excess molar volumes and dynamic viscosities of the binary mixture of diethyl carbonate (DEC)+ethanol. Densities and viscosities of the binary mixture of DEC+ethanol at temperatures 293.15 K-343.15 K and atmospheric pressure were determined over the entire composition range. Densities of the binary mixture of DEC+ethanol were measured by using a vibrating U-shaped sample tube densimeter. Viscosities were determined by using Ubbelohde suspended-level viscometer. Densities are accurate to 1.0×10-5 g·cm-3, and viscosities are reproducible within ±0.003 mPa·s. From these data, excess molar volumes and deviations in viscosity were calculated. Positive excess molar volumes and negative deviations in viscosity for DEC+ethanol system are due to the strong specific interactions.All excess molar vo-lumes and deviations in viscosity fit to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation.The fitting parameters were presented,and the average deviations and standard deviations were also calculated.The errors of correlation are very small.It proves that it is valuable for estimating densities and viscosities of the binary mixture by the correlated equation.

  6. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  7. Volume-discharge formed in SF6 and C2H6 mixtures without preionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Ke, Changjun; Zhang, Shujuan

    2014-11-01

    A new approach to obtain glow discharge in working mixtures of non-chain HF laser has been brought forward. The most advantage of the approach is without pre-ionization, so the contamination of pre-ionization will not happen and the laser equipment is compact and simple. It is found, if the cathode surface is equally rough, we can obtain uniform volume-discharge in SF6 mixtures without any pre-ionization, and dispense with uniform electric field electrode profile. The form of Self-Sustained Volume Discharge (SSVD) is a Self-Initiated Volume Discharge (SIVD). We show here the possibility of obtaining SIVD with a uniform energy deposition in a system of electrodes with non-uniform electric field. Experiments show that, with rough cathode and even anode, a volume discharge is forming in non-uniform electric-field without pre-ionization in SF6 and C2H6 mixtures. At the beginning of the discharge, many diffuse channels attached to bright circular cathode spots, then, diverge towards the anode, with the channels overlapping, form a spatially uniform glow discharge. SIVD has been performed at a total mixture pressure up to 8kPa and energy deposition up to 200J/l. We also report measurements of the V-I characteristics of SIVD with SF6 and C2H6 mixtures at pressure up to about 8kPa. The experimental results indicate that SSVD in SF6 and C2H6 mixtures develops in the form of SIVD is promising for creation of high energy and pulse-periodic HF laser.

  8. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: A free-volume scaled-particle approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lekkerkerker, H. N. W.; Oversteegen, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc concentrations in systems now experimentally available. The gas–liquid equilibrium of the spheres becomes stable at comparable size ratios as with bimodal mixtures of spheres or mixtures of rods and ...

  9. Measurement and correlation of excess molar volumes for mixtures of 1-propanol and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlyan, Suman; Rani, Manju; Maken, Sanjeev Kumar [Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal (India); Lee, Inkyu; Moon, Il [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Excess molar volumes (V{sub m}{sup E} ) have been measured at 303.15 K for 1-propanol+benzene or toluene or o- or m- or p-xylene mixtures using V-shape dilatometer. The V{sub m}{sup E} values, for an equimolar composition, vary in the order: benzene>toluene-m-xylene>o-xylene>p-xylene. The V{sub m}{sup E} data have been used to calculate partial molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes, and apparent molar volumes of 1-propanol and aromatic hydrocarbons over the entire range of composition. The excess volume data have also been interpreted in terms of graph-theoretical approach and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory (PFP). While PFP theory fails to predict the V{sub m}{sup E} values for systems with s-shaped V{sub m}{sup E} versus x{sub 1} graph, the V{sub m}{sup E} values calculated by graph theory compare reasonably well with the corresponding experimental values. This graph theory analysis has further yielded information about the state of aggregation of pure components as well as of the mixtures.

  10. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Mixtures of Methylheptenone+Alkanols at 298.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Excess molar volume(VE) data on binary liquid mixtures of methylheptenone (MHO) with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol or n-butanol have been determined from the density measurements at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The values of VE in all the systems over the entire composition range are quantified by the Redlich-Kister equation. The effects of the chain length of alkanols on VE are discussed.

  11. Influence of fibre volume fraction and temperature on fatigue life of glass fibre reinforced plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wegener

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fibre volume fraction and temperature on fatigue life of continuous glass fibre reinforced plastics is investigated in detail. The physical causes of the two effects on the slope of the S-N-curve in fibre direction at R = 0.1 are researched and can be explained with help of micrographs. A new phenomenological approach is presented to model both effects in fibre dominated laminates with different stacking sequences using only the static ultimate strength as an input. Static and fatigue tests of different layups and fibre volume fractions are performed at different temperatures to validate the fatigue life predictions. Additionally it is derived that there is an optimal fibre volume fraction regarding a minimum damage sum. This fibre volume fraction is dependent on a given loading spectra and can be calculated using the phenomenological model.

  12. Composition dependence of the synergistic effect of nucleating agent and plasticizer in poly(lactic acid: A Mixture Design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Fehri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of commercial poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(lactic acid oligomer (OLA8 as plasticizer and a sulfonic salt of a phthalic ester and poly(D-lactic acid as nucleating agents were prepared by melt extrusion, following a Mixture Design approach, in order to systematically study mechanical and thermal properties as a function of composition. The full investigation was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and tensile tests. The crystallization half-time was also studied at 105 °C as a function of the blends composition. A range of compositions in which the plasticizer and the nucleation agent minimized the crystallization half-time in a synergistic way was clearly identified thanks to the application of the Mixture Design approach. The results allowed also the identification of a composition range to maximize the crystallinity developed during the rapid cooling below glass transition temperature in injection moulding, thus allowing an easier processing of PLA based materials. Moreover the mechanical properties were discussed by correlating them to the chemical structural features and thermal behaviour of blends.

  13. Mixture theory for a thermoelasto-plastic porous solid considering fluid flow and internal mass exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristinmaa, M.; Ottosen, N.S.; Johannesson, Björn

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelastic-plastic body consisting of two phases, a solid and a fluid, each comprising two constituents is considered where one constituent in one phase is allowed to exchange mass with another constituent (of the same substance) in the other phase. A large strain setting is adopted and the ...

  14. Specific heat and thermal conductivity of explosives, mixtures, and plastic-bonded explosives determined experimentally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytos, J.F.

    1979-09-01

    The specific heat and thermal conductivity of explosives and plastic-bonded explosives of interest to WX operations, determined experimentally, are reported in three tables. Specific heat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry against sapphire standards. Thermal conductivity was determined by two means: the guarded hot-plate method or the differential scanning calorimeter comparative method on miniature samples.

  15. Density and molar volumes of imidazolium-based ionic liquid mixtures and prediction by the Jouyban-Acree model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Noraini Abd; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Mat, Ahmad Nazeer Che; Khoubnasabjafari, Mehry; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2016-11-01

    The density of imidazolium-based ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate with sulfolane were measured at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were performed at T= (293 - 343) K over the complete mole fractions. Physical and thermodynamic properties such as molar volumes, V0, and excess molar volumes, VE for this binary mixtures were derived from the experimental density data. The Jouyban-Acree model was exploited to correlate the physicochemical properties (PCPs) of binary mixtures at various mole fractions and temperatures.

  16. Crowding, molecular volume and plasticity: An assessment involving crystallography, NMR and simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Selvaraj; Rais Ahmad; Umesh Varshney; M Vijayan

    2012-12-01

    The discrepancy between the X-ray and NMR structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in relation to the functionally important plasticity of the molecule led to molecular dynamics simulations. The X-ray and the NMR studies along with the simulations indicated an inverse correlation between crowding and molecular volume. A detailed comparison of proteins for which X-ray and the NMR structures appears to confirm this correlation. In consonance with the reported results of the investigations in cellular compartments and aqueous solution, the comparison indicates that the crowding results in compaction of the molecule as well as change in its shape, which could specifically involve regions of the molecule important in function. Crowding could thus influence the action of proteins through modulation of the functionally important plasticity of the molecule.

  17. Fuels by Waste Plastics Using Activated Carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and Their Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material was pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor at 530-540°C using different catalysts, such as activated carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and their mixtures. Products were investigated by gas-chromatography, EDXRFS and standardized methods. Catalysts significantly affected the yields of volatiles; e.g. HZSM-5 catalyst increased especially the yield of gaseous hydrocarbons, while MCM-41 catalyst was responsible for increasing the pyrolysis oil yield. Synergistic effects were found using mixtures of different catalysts. Furthermore the catalysts modified the main carbon frame of the products. Pyrolysis oil obtained over HZSM-5 catalyst contained large amounts of aromatics, while MCM-41 catalyst mainly isomerized the carbon frame. Regarding contaminants it was concluded, that the sulphur content could be significantly decreased by activated carbon, however it had only a slight effect to the other properties of the products.

  18. The valorization of the plastic waste to the rheological characteristics of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherba, Mohammed; Kriker, Abdelouahed; Kebaili, Nabil

    2017-02-01

    The valorization of materials used at the end of the cycle currently constitutes one of the major challenges for the state for the safeguarding of the environment. Indeed, plastic waste from their obstruction and weak biodegradability often constitutes a threat for health, nature and the environment. The present study treats a mining method and valorization of these wastes in the road, where this waste is incorporated in the pure bitumen of asphalt concretes using the Dry process. The vital objective of this work is to see their impact on the mechanical behavior of these concretes using the Marshall Test and NAT.

  19. The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

    2005-07-01

    Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

  20. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: a free-volume scaled-particle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversteegen, S M; Lekkerkerker, H N W

    2004-02-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc concentrations in systems now experimentally available. The gas-liquid equilibrium of the spheres becomes stable at comparable size ratios as with bimodal mixtures of spheres or mixtures of rods and spheres. Introducing finite thickness of the platelets gives rise to a significant lowering of the fluid branch of the binodal. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  1. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: A free-volume scaled-particle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Oversteegen, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc co

  2. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: A free-volume scaled-particle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Oversteegen, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc

  3. Thermal decomposition and kinetics of plastic bonded explosives based on mixture of HMX and TATB with polymer matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes thermal decomposition behaviour of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs based on mixture of l,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX and 2,4,6- triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB with Viton A as polymer binder. Thermal decomposition of PBXs was undertaken by applying simultaneous thermal analysis (STA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to investigate influence of the HMX amount on thermal behavior and its kinetics. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the thermal decomposition of PBXs based on mixture of HMX and TATB was occurred in a three-steps. The first step was mainly due to decomposition of HMX. The second step was ascribed due to decomposition of TATB, while the third step was occurred due to decomposition of the polymer matrices. The thermal decomposition % was increased with increasing HMX amount. The kinetics related to thermal decomposition were investigated under non-isothermal for a single heating rate measurement. The variation in the activation energy of PBXs based on mixture of HMX and TATB was observed with varying the HMX amount. The kinetics from the results of TGA data at various heating rates under non-isothermal conditions were also calculated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods. The activation energies calculated by employing FWO method were very close to those obtained by KAS method. The mean activation energy calculated by FWO and KAS methods was also a good agreement with the activation energy obtained from single heating rate measurement in the first step decomposition.

  4. Study of the slow batch pyrolysis of mixtures of pine, plastics and tires. Application of response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradela, Filipe; Pinto, Filomena; Ramos, Ana M.; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The aim of this work was to optimise pyrolysis experimental conditions of three types of waste in a batch reactor, particularly the influence of the reaction time, temperature, initial pressure and waste mixture composition in the yield and composition of liquid products. The wastes studied were. biomass (pine), used tyres and recycled plastic, whose main components were polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Experimental tests were made in a 1L stainless steel autoclave, in which the experimental conditions like: initial pressure, waste mixture composition, temperature and time of reaction were varied and optimized. The three product fractions obtained (liquids, solids and gases) were collected and analyzed. Two immiscible liquid phases were formed whenever pine was pyrolysed, one being mainly water with traces of compounds commonly produced by fast biomass pyrolysis, and the other being a less dense organic phase. Liquids were distilled into three fractions. The lighter one distilled between 35 and 150 deg. C, the next fraction distilled between 150 and 270 deg. C, whilst the other presented a distillation range higher than 270 deg. C. Each fraction was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC/MS (Mass Spectrometry) to identify their main compounds. Gases were also analyzed by GC and its density was also measured. The remaining liquid in the solid phase was extracted with solvents and analyzed by GC. Liquid products yield and composition were affected by experimental conditions. Previous studies (1) showed that the rise of reaction temperature decreased liquid yields, by increasing solids and gases yields. The increase of initial pressure did not lead to significant variations in products yields and composition. The increase or pyrolysis reaction time led to a small decrease in liquids formation, favouring the production of lighter liquid compounds. The optimisation of experimental parameters was done by response surface

  5. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework – cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts – which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

  6. Anatomical and functional plasticity in early blind individuals and the mixture of experts architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew S; Fine, Ione

    2014-01-01

    As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework-cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts-which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

  7. A Gaussian mixture model for definition of lung tumor volumes in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Penney, Bill C; Martel, Mary K; Pelizzari, Charles A

    2007-11-01

    The increased interest in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in radiation treatment planning in the past five years necessitated the independent and accurate segmentation of gross tumor volume (GTV) from FDG-PET scans. In some studies the radiation oncologist contours the GTV based on a computed tomography scan, while incorporating pertinent data from the PET images. Alternatively, a simple threshold, typically 40% of the maximum intensity, has been employed to differentiate tumor from normal tissue, while other researchers have developed algorithms to aid the PET based GTV definition. None of these methods, however, results in reliable PET tumor segmentation that can be used for more sophisticated treatment plans. For this reason, we developed a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based segmentation technique on selected PET tumor regions from non-small cell lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a GMM-based tumor volume definition in a robust, reliable and reproducible way. A GMM relies on the idea that any distribution, in our case a distribution of image intensities, can be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian densities representing different classes. According to our implementation, each class belongs to one of three regions in the image; the background (B), the uncertain (U) and the target (T), and from these regions we can obtain the tumor volume. User interaction in the implementation is required, but is limited to the initialization of the model parameters and the selection of an "analysis region" to which the modeling is restricted. The segmentation was developed on three and tested on another four clinical cases to ensure robustness against differences observed in the clinic. It also compared favorably with thresholding at 40% of the maximum intensity and a threshold determination function based on tumor to background image intensities proposed in a recent paper. The parts of the

  8. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis.

  9. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Miller, Benjamin T.; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-01

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol VE as a function of ethanol mole fraction XE is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has "brittle" hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  10. Investigations into the free-volume changes within starch/plasticizer/nanoclay systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huihua, E-mail: h.liu@federation.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Vic (Australia); Chaudhary, Deeptangshu, E-mail: deepc@ers.com.au [ERS Environmental Risk Solutions PTY LTD, Perth, WA (Australia); Campbell, Colin, E-mail: colin.campbell@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Roberts, Jason, E-mail: jxr107@physics.anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Buckman, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Sullivan, James, E-mail: james.sullivan@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-11-14

    The free-volume of a matrix is a fundamental parameter that relates to its molecular and bulk characteristics, such as crystalline change and glass transition behavior. In starch-based bionanocomposite, we investigated the effect of the addition of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) and food plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol) on changes of molecular pore size (including pore volume and pore distribution) using the Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) method. The results demonstrated counter-intuitive impact of MMT on the total free-volume where the total free-volume increased within the polymeric matrix. When compared to the pure matrix free-volume, the addition of MMT also resulted in the appearance of a broader distribution of the void sizes. The plasticizers, on the other hand, apparently occupied the void spaces, and therefore decreased the free-volume of the matrix. Further, together with the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, we concluded that this is a result of interplay between the plasticizer-plasticizer interactions and the polymer–plasticizer interactions. For example, in the starch/glycerol/MMT system, the pore radii slightly decrease upon the increasing of glycerol amount (OG210 = O.27 nm and OG220 = 0.26 nm), but the relative weight did increase with the increasing glycerol concentration. However, increasing the sorbitol amount increased the pore size from 0.23 nm(OS210) to 0.28 nm(OS220). Furthermore, the addition MMT in the OS010 system, promote the emergence of a new dateable pore radius(0.90 nm), and the total weight significantly increased from 13.70 (OS010) to 19.5% (OS210). We suggest that the pore variation (size and distribution) due to the MMT and plasticizers are reflected in the polymer glass transition and crystallinity because ultimately, the, total free-volume is a reflection of level of interactions existing within the bulk of these nanocomposites. - Highlights: • PALS is applied to explore the

  11. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R. [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057 (United States); Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R. [Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20892 (United States); Ichiye, Toshiko, E-mail: ti9@georgetown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057 (United States); Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol V{sub E} as a function of ethanol mole fraction X{sub E} is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has “brittle” hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  12. Partial molar volumes of aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and aluminium nitrate in water-rich binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and aluminium nitrate have been determined in water rich binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (5, 10, 15, 20% by weight of tetrahydrofuran with the help of density measurements. The density measurements were made by using Ward and Millero method and results have been analysed by Masson’s equation and interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. The partial molar volumes vary with temperature as a power series of temperature. Structure making or breaking capacities of aluminium salts have been inferred from the sign à2/ Φvo p i.e second derivative of partial molar volume with respect to temperature at constant pressure. The aluminium salts have been found as structure breakers in binary aqueous mixture of tetrahydrofuran.

  13. Excess volumes of binary mixtures of 1,3-dichloropropane with isomeric butanols at 298. 15 and 313. 15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, C.; Pardo, J.; Rodriguez, V.; Royo, F.M.; Urieta, J.S. (Univ. de Zargoza (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica)

    1993-10-01

    Excess molar volumes, V[sub m][sup E], for binary mixtures of 1,3-dichloropropane with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol have been determined from density measurements at 298.15 and 313.15 K by means of an Anton Paar DMA-58 vibrating tube densimeter. V[sub m][sup E] is positive over the whole composition range except for mixtures containing 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol at 298.15 K in which V[sub m][sup E] shows negative values at low mole fractions of dichloroalkane.

  14. Composition and Temperature Dependence of Excess Volume of Heavy Oil-Stocks Mixtures + (Gas oil or Toluene or Reformate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahad Z. Atta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary mixtures of three, heavy oil-stocks was subjected to density measurements at temperatures of 30, 35 and 40 °C. and precise data was acquired on the volumetric behavior of these systems. The results are reported in terms of equations for excess specific volumes of mixtures. The heavy oil-stocks used were of good varity, namely 40 stock, 60 stock, and 150 stock. The lightest one is 40 stock with API gravity 33.69 while 60 stock is a middle type and 150 stock is a heavy one, with API gravity 27.74 and 23.79 respectively. Temperatures in the range of 30-40 °C have a minor effect on excess volume of heavy oil-stock binary mixture thus, insignificant expansion or shrinkage is observed by increasing the temperature this effect becomes more significant although the heavy oil-stocks is spiked with hydrocarbons like (gas oil, toluene and reformate. Blending of Heavy oil-stocks with hydrocarbons spikes (gas oil, toluene and reformate form non-ideal mixtures, for which excess volume can be positive or negative depending on nature species. Spiking of Heavy oil-stocks with either gas oil or reformate resulted in negative excess volume. This shrinkage is greater for the lowest boiling point spike as in the case of reformate, While, the presence of methyl groups in aromatic rings results in a positive excess volume, as shown in toluene when blended with 40 stock but a negative excess volume was found when blended with 60 stock and 150 stock. The API gravity of heavy oil-stocks has an effect on excess volume when the oil-stocks spiked with hydrocarbons like (gas oil, toluene and reformate. This 40 stocks as a typical light types resulted in minimum negative excess volume of -0.47 at 30 °C, when it was spiked with the gas oil; while the spiked heavy oil-stock with kerosene shows a maximum excess volume of -15.56 at 40 °C.

  15. Excess molar volumes and viscosities of binary mixtures of 1,2-diethoxyethane with chloroalkanes at 298 15 K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amalendu Pal; Rakesh Kumar Bhardwaj

    2001-06-01

    Excess molar volumes ($V^{E}_{m}$) and viscosities () of the binary mixtures of 1,2-diethoxyethane with di-, tri- and tetrachloromethane have been measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire mole fraction range. The deviations in viscosities (ln) and excess energies of activation ( *) for viscous flow have been calculated from the experimental data. The Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) model has been used to calculate $V^{E}_{m}$, and the results have been compared with experimental data. The Bloomfield and Dewan model has been used to calculate viscosity coefficients and these have also been compared with experimental data for the three mixtures. The results have been discussed in terms of dipole-dipole interactions between 1,2-diethoxyethane and chloroalkanes and their magnitudes decreasing with the dipole character of the molecules. A short comparative study with results for mixtures with polyethers and chloroalkanes is also described.

  16. 废旧塑料改性沥青混合料动态模量研究%Research on dynamic modulus of waste plastic modified asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 谢来斌; 李彦伟; 何勇海; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    Waste plastic is reused in pavement engineering in this research. The purpose of the study is to probe the possibility of using waste plastic in asphalt mixture as a kind of modifier so as to find a way to solve the problem of the waste plastic disposal. High Density Polyethylene plastic bags obtained from supermarket were shredded into pieces and were added into asphalt mixture at three percentages of 2%, 5% and 8%. The corresponding control samples were also made and tested. Three different temperatures were used (4°C, 21. 3°C and 39. 2°C) and the frequencies ranged from 0. 1 Hz to 25 Hz in this dynamic modulus test. When compared with the test results of the control samples, almost all the dynamic modulus of the plastic modified samples( except 4 results) are greater than those of the control samples. No regular pattern is shown in the test results of the phase angle. Modified asphalt mixture with 2% plastic is of the greatest dynamic modulus and phase angle.%针对目前大量废旧塑料处置问题,尝试将其用于改性沥青混合料,以探索其在道路工程中使用的可能性.采用超市废旧高密度聚乙烯购物塑料袋,将其切碎后按照2%.5%和8%的掺量制作沥青混合料试件,采用三种试验温度在六种加载频率下进行动态模量试验,与未掺加塑料混合料的相应指标进行对比.试验结果显示在各个试验温度和加载频率下,掺加塑料屑的混合料动态模量普遍提高.掺加塑料与否对相位角指标的影响未呈现一定规律.在各个试验温度和加载频率下,2%塑料掺量混合料均具有较高的动态模量和相位角.

  17. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental ...

  18. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s‑1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  19. Excess volumes and excess viscosities of binary mixtures of some cyclic ethers + bromocyclohexane at 298.15 and 313.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Lafuente, C.; Carrión, J. A.; Royo, F. M.; Urieta, J. S.

    1996-11-01

    Excess Volumes, V E, and excess viscosities, η E, at 293.15 and 313.15 K are reported for binary mixtures of some cyclic ethers (tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran) + bromocyclohexane. These properties were obtained from density and viscosity measurements. γ E and η E show negatives values for all the mixtures.

  20. Sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium of binary mixtures of charged colloids including volume effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium of binary mixtures of charged colloids in the presence of small ions and for non-dilute conditions, by extending the work of Biben and Hansen (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 A345). For a monocomponent system, they included a Carnahan-Starling har

  1. Effect of excluded volume interactions on the interfacial properties of colloid-polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortini, A.; Bolhuis, P.G.; Dijkstra, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a numerical study of equilibrium phase diagrams and interfacial properties of bulk and confined colloid-polymer mixtures using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Colloidal particles are treated as hard spheres, while the polymer chains are described as soft repulsive spheres. The

  2. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a multiphase screw pump, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raebiger, K. [LEISTRITZ Pumpen GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany); Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Hausmann, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Building Services Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)

  3. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    KRIVENKO PAVEL; O. Kovalchuk; PASKO ANTON; CROYMANS TOM; HULT MIKAEL; LUTTER GUILLAUME; VANDEVENNE N.; SCHREURS S.; Schroeyers, W.

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  4. The Compositional Variation of Microindentation Induced Densified and Plastic Deformation Volumes in Simple Silicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Matsuoka, Jun; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The densification and plastic deformation occurring in glass subjected to microindentation are established as two independent deformation mechanisms, and thought to be intimately linked to the concept of hardness and crack nucleation (quantified by the load at which radial cracks nucleate at half...

  5. Solution of the square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic using the finite volume method

    CERN Document Server

    Syrakos, Alexandros; Alexandrou, Andreas N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the performance of the finite volume method in solving viscoplastic flows. The creeping square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic is chosen as the test case and the constitutive equation is regularised as proposed by Papanastasiou [J. Rheol. 31 (1987) 385-404]. It is shown that the convergence rate of the standard SIMPLE pressure-correction algorithm, which is used to solve the algebraic equation system that is produced by the finite volume discretisation, severely deteriorates as the Bingham number increases, with a corresponding increase in the non-linearity of the equations. It is shown that using the SIMPLE algorithm in a multigrid context dramatically improves convergence, although the multigrid convergence rates are much worse than for Newtonian flows. The numerical results obtained for Bingham numbers as high as 1000 compare favourably with reported results of other methods.

  6. Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, F; Nisticò, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

    2014-01-01

    D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans.

  7. Effect of Specimen Size on the Tensile Strength Behavior of the Plastic Waste Fiber Reinforced Soil – Lime – Rice Husk Ash Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of tensile strength in fiber reinforced soil is an important research topic. A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out split tensile strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of specimen size to the tensile strength behavior. Testing procedure was formulated using extended ASTM C496 standard. The laboratory investigation results showed that split-tensile strength of reinforced specimens increased with increase in size. The limitations of the dataset indicate that specimen size of 70 mm in diameter is the threshold to produce reasonable representative strengths.

  8. Optimisation of belt-type electrostatic separation of granular plastic mixtures tribocharged in a propeller-type device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloudi, M.; Medles, K.; Tilmatine, A.; Brahami, M.; Dascalescu, L.

    2011-06-01

    Electrostatic separation has already proven its efficiency as a method to recover metals and plastics from granular waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Nevertheless, there still is some work to do regarding the sorting of the various sorts of plastics (ABS, ABS-PC, HIPS, PC) contained in information technology wastes. The main objective of this paper is to optimize the electrode configuration and the operation of a belt-type electrostatic separator employed in conjunction with a new tribo-aerodynamic charging device. This application is particularly designed for the recovery of granular materials issued from shredding of computer cases, which contain large quantities of ABS. The following control variables were considered for the optimization: (i) distance between the axis of the high-voltage electrode and the surface of the grounded belt electrode; (ii) angular position of the high-voltage electrode with respect to the horizontal plane; (iii) high-voltage level. Experimental design methodology was employed for determining the optimum value of each variable, using commercial software (MODDE, Umetrics, Sweden).

  9. Optimizing mixtures for producing biosolid soilless sod over plastic%污泥无土草皮基质配方优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑霞; 张俊卫; 尹少华

    2012-01-01

    The simplex lattice design was used to optimize the mixtures for producing biosolid soilless sod over plastic by using coal cinder,mushroom mulch,and sand.The nutrients,heavy metals content,bermudagrass growth and integrated turf quality of 11 mixtures were analyzed over plastic with method of grey correlation coefficient by establishing the correlative regression model between the turf integrated qualities and mixing ingredients.The results of this study indicated than the chlorophyll content kept stable but above and underground biomass,sod weight,root activity,density,establishment rate,and sod-forming rate were significantly different.The optimal mixture was that the content of biosolid,coal cinder,mushroom mulch and sand were 51.41% to 51.83%,18.32% to 18.86%,18.19% to 18.81% and 10.87% to 11.72%,respectively.The turfgrass plant enriched heavy metals and the heavy metal content decreased when turf was harvest,and the heavy metal of which conformed to national farmland environmental quality evaluation standards.%以塑料薄膜为阻隔材料,以污水处理厂污泥为主要基质,煤渣、蘑菇渣和沙等为配材,采用单形格子配方试验设计和灰色关联系数法,对11种不同配方基质的营养成分、重金属含量、无土草皮坪用性状及综合品质进行了评定,建立了草皮综合品质与各配方成分间显著相关的回归模型。结果表明,除叶绿素含量外,其他7种坪用性状差异显著。通过模拟寻优,得到基质优化配方方案为:污泥含量51.41%~51.83%,煤渣含量18.32%~18.86%,蘑菇渣含量18.19%~18.81%,沙含量10.87%~11.72%。草坪草可富集较多的重金属元素,收获草皮后的基质中重金属含量降低且符合农用基质标准。

  10. Determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a compacted sand-bentonite mixture under constant volume and free-swell conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yu-Jun; Loiseau, Cyril; Delage, Pierre; 10.1016/j.pce.2008.10.017

    2008-01-01

    Highly compacted sand-bentonite mixtures are often considered as possible engineered barriers in deep high-level radioactive waste disposals. In-situ, the saturation of these barriers from their initially unsaturated state is a complex hydro-mechanical coupled process in which temperature effects also play a role. The key parameter of this process is the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the barrier. In this paper, isothermal infiltration experiments were conducted to determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity according to the instantaneous profile method. To do so, total suction changes were monitored at different locations along the soil specimen by using resistivity relative humidity probes. Three constant volume infiltration tests were conducted showing, unexpectedly, a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity during infiltration. One test performed under free-swell conditions showed the opposite and standard trend. These observations were interpreted in terms of microstructure changes during wett...

  11. Rheological Characterisation of the Flow Behaviour of Wood Plastic Composites in Consideration of Different Volume Fractions of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, N.; Hansmann, H.; Koch, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the rheological properties of wood plastic composites (WPC) with different polymeric matrices (LDPE, low-density polyethylene and PP, polypropylene) and with different types of wood filler (hardwood flour and softwood flour) have been investigated by means of high pressure capillary rheometry. The volume fraction of wood was varied between 0 and 60 %. The shear thinning behaviour of the WPC melts can be well described by the Ostwald - de Waele power law relationship. The flow consistency index K of the power law shows a good correlation with the volume fraction of wood. Interparticular interaction effects of wood particles can be mathematically taken into account by implementation of an interaction exponent (defined as the ratio between flow exponent of WPC and flow exponent of polymeric matrix). The interaction exponent shows a good correlation with the flow consistency index. On the basis of these relationships the concept of shear-stress-equivalent inner shear rate has been modified. Thus, the flow behaviour of the investigated wood filled polymer melts could be well described mathematically by the modified concept of shear-stress-equivalent inner shear rate. On this basis, the shear thinning behaviour of WPC can now be estimated with good accuracy, taking into account the volume fraction of wood.

  12. User's manual for MODCAL: Bounding surface soil plasticity model calibration and prediction code, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennatale, J. S.; Herrmann, L. R.; Defalias, Y. F.

    1983-02-01

    In order to reduce the complexity of the model calibration process, a computer-aided automated procedure has been developed and tested. The computer code employs a Quasi-Newton optimization strategy to locate that set of parameter values which minimizes the discrepancy between the model predictions and the experimental observations included in the calibration data base. Through application to a number of real soils, the automated procedure has been found to be an efficient, reliable and economical means of accomplishing model calibration. Although the code was developed specifically for use with the Bounding Surface plasticity model, it can readily be adapted to other constitutive formulations. Since the code greatly reduces the dependence of calibration success on user expertise, it significantly increases the accessibility and usefulness of sophisticated material models to the general engineering community.

  13. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  14. Cortical and Subcortical Structural Plasticity Associated with the Glioma Volumes in Patients with Cerebral Gliomas Revealed by Surface-Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients. The compensation mechanism following contralateral cortical and subcortical structural plasticity is considered. We adopted the surface-based morphometry to investigate the difference of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM volumes in a cohort of 14 healthy controls and 13 patients with left-hemisphere cerebral gliomas [including 1 patients with World Health Organization (WHO I, 8 WHO II, and 4 WHO III]. The glioma volume ranges from 5.1633 to 208.165 cm2. Compared to healthy controls, we found significantly increased GM volume of the right cuneus and the left thalamus, as well as a trend toward enlargement in the right globus pallidus in patients with cerebral gliomas. Moreover, the GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with the glioma volumes of the patients. These results provide evidence of cortical and subcortical enlargement, suggesting the usefulness of surface-based morphometry to investigate the structural plasticity. Moreover, the structural plasticity might be acted as the compensation mechanism to better fulfill its functions in patients with cerebral gliomas as the gliomas get larger.

  15. Application of ERAS-model and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volumes for ternary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanlarzadeh, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iloukhani, H., E-mail: iloukhani@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Density of ternary and three binary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) determined. > Excess molar volume, partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated. > Excess molar volume was correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and Cibulka equation for all mixtures. > The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the ERAS-model and PFP theory. - Abstract: Densities of the ternary mixture consisting of {l_brace}2-chlorobutane (1) + butylacetate (2) + isobutanol (3){r_brace} and related binary mixtures were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes V{sub m}{sup E} for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V-bar{sub m,i} excess partial molar volumes, V-bar{sub i}{sup E} partial molar volumes at infinite dilution V-bar{sub m,i}{sup 0} and apparent molar volumes V-bar{sub {phi},i} were also calculated. For all binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fractions V{sub m}{sup E} data are positive. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the extended real associated solution (ERAS-model) and Prigogine-Flory-Paterson (PFP) theory.

  16. Emission characteristics of plasma of a transverse volume discharge in mixtures of helium, argon, and krypton with sulfur hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Sabov, I. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.

    2007-03-01

    The emission characteristics of the plasma of repetitively pulsed spontaneous UV-VUV radiation sources on the basis of ArF* (193 nm) and KrF* (249 nm) molecules, and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride molecules pumped by a transverse volume discharge in a mixture of inert gases with sulfur hexafluoride molecules have been investigated. The discharge emission spectra in the range of 190 780 nm at the low-current and high-current stages of the transverse discharge, the time characteristics of the voltage across the electrodes, the pump current, and the emission of excimer molecules and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride have been studied. It is shown that, in the gas-static operation mode of the radiator at the number of discharge pulses smaller than 103, the 193-nm ArF* and 249-nm KrF* bands are main in the emission spectrum. Upon further operation of the radiator, a spectral continuum is formed on the basis of sulfur molecular bands in the range 260 550 nm.

  17. Chemically Modified Plastic Tube for High Volume Removal and Collection of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gaitas

    Full Text Available In this preliminary effort, we use a commercially available and chemically modified tube to selectively capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs from the blood stream by immobilizing human anti-EpCAM antibodies on the tube's interior surface. We describe the requisite and critical steps required to modify a tube into a cancer cell-capturing device. Using these simple modifications, we were able to capture or entrap about 85% of cancer cells from suspension and 44% of cancer cells from spiked whole blood. We also found that the percentage of cells captured was dependent on the tube's length and also the number of cancer cells present. It is our strong belief that with the utilization of appropriate tube lengths and procedures, we can ensure capture and removal of nearly the entire CTC population in whole blood. Importantly after a patient's entire blood volume has circulated through the tube, the tube can then be trypsinized to release the captured live CTCs for further analysis and testing.

  18. The Use of Waste Plastic as a Partial Substitution Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Aschuri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, Indonesia faces serious problems managing solid waste such as plastic. Annually, Indonesia produces approximately 5.4 million tons of waste plastic, accounting for 14% of the country’s total solid waste production. Using waste plastic as a partial substitution aggregate in asphalt concrete pavement would be one of solutions for reducing environmental problems from the high volume of waste plastic. Previous studies show that it may be possible to use waste plastic in road pavement to improve the engineering performance of road pavement and increase its service life. This study investigates the performance of asphalt concrete mixtures containing varying amounts of waste plastic as a partial aggregate substitution as compared to that of conventional mixtures. The waste plastic used in this study was chopped into small pieces of approximately passing sieve number 30 and retained sieve number 40, which would replace (by weight a portion of the mineral aggregates. All mixtures were prepared using 5.82% optimum bitumen content. The performance of asphalt concrete characteristics was studied using the Marshall test, The Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test, The Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM test, and the Cantabro Loss (CL test in terms of strength, stiffness modulus, and durability characteristics. In general, laboratory results showed that asphalt concrete mixtures containing waste plastic have higher performance than conventional asphalt concrete mixtures.

  19. Isolating cells from female/male blood mixtures using florescence in situ hybridization combined with low volume PCR and its application in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Cai-Xia; Han, Jun-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Hu, Lan

    2015-11-01

    To obtain single-source short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in trace female/male blood mixture samples, we combined florescence in situ hybridization (FISH), laser microdissection, and low volume PCR (LV-PCR) to isolate male/female cells and improve sensitivity. The results showed that isolation of as few as 10 leukocytes was sufficient to yield full STR profiles in fresh female or male blood samples for 32 independent tests with a low additional alleles rate (3.91%) and drop-out alleles rate (5.01%). Moreover, this procedure was tested in two fresh blood mixture series at three ratios (1:5, 1:10, and 1:20), two mock female/male blood mixture casework samples, and one practical casework sample. Male and female STR profiles were successfully detected in all of these samples, showing that this procedure could be used in forensic casework in the future.

  20. A study of partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid in water and binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol at various temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M L Parmar; R K Awasthi; M K Guleria

    2004-01-01

    Partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight of ethanol) at different temperatures and acid concentrations from the solution density measurements. The data have been evaluated by using Masson equation and the obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The partial molar volumes vary with temperature as a power series of temperature. Structure making/breaking capacities of the organic acids have been inferred from the sign of [2$\\phi^{0}_{v}$/2], i.e. secondderivative of partial molar volume with respect to temperature at constant pressure. Both the organic acids behave as structure breakers in water and water + ethanol.

  1. Excess Molar Volume,Viscosity and Heat Capacity for the Mixture of 1,2—Propanediol—Water at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长生; 马沛生; 唐多强; 靳凤民

    2003-01-01

    Experimental densities,viscosities and heat capacities at different emperatures were presented over the entire mole fraction range for the binary mixture of 1,2-propanediol and water,Density values were used in the determination of excess molar volumes,VE,At the same time,the excess viscosity was in vestigated,The values of VE and ηE were fitted to the Redlich-kister equation.Good agreement was observed,The excess volumes are negative over the entire range of composition.They show an U-shaped-concentration dependence and decrease in abolute values with increase of temperature,Values of ηE are negative over the entire range of the composition,and has a trend very similar to that of VE ,The analysis shows that at any temperature the specific heat of mixture is a linear function of the composition as x1>20%,All the extended lines intersect at one point.An empirical equation is obtained to calculate the specific heat to mixture at any composition and temperature in the experimental range.

  2. Emission characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of the plasma of a transverse volume discharge initiated in a mixture of heavy inert gases with chlorine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chygin, V. I.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Gorun, P. P.; Obukhovskii, R. O.

    2010-05-01

    The results of studying the radiation due to argon, krypton, and xenon monochloride bands, as well as to the bands of chlorine molecules, from the plasma of a transverse Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl2 volume discharge are reported. The working mixture of a pulse radiation source is optimized with regard to its pressure and elemental composition and parameters of an excitation system. By numerically solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics of plasma electrons and discharge power specific losses are found for different values of the reduced electric field strength. The plasma parameters are simulated for the quaternary mixture, which is most appropriate for a multiwave UV-VUV source. Qualitative analysis is conducted for the most important electron processes in the multicomponent plasma that govern the joint formation of argon, krypton, and xenon monochlorides in the transverse discharge.

  3. Excess molar volumes and viscosities of binary mixtures of some polyethers with 1-propanol at 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amalendu Pal; Anil Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Excess molar volumes ($V_{m}^{E}$) and viscosities () have been measured as a function of composition for binary liquid mixtures of 1-propanol, C3H7OH, with diethylene glycol diethyl ether (bis(2-ethoxyethyl)ether), C2H5(OC2H4)2OC2H5, and diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (bis(2-butoxyethyl)ether), C4H9(OC2H4)2OC4H9, at 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. The excess volume results included the following mixing quantities at all range of concentrations and at equimolar concentrations: , volume expansivity; ( $V^{E}_{m}$/ ), and ( /) at 298.15 K. The obtained results were then compared with the calculated values by using the Flory theory of liquid mixtures. The theory predicts the values rather well, while the calculated values of ( $V^{E}_{m}$/ ) and ( /) show variation with alkyl chain length of the polyether. The results are discussed in terms of order or disorder creation. From the viscosity data, deviations in viscosity ( ) have been calculated. These values are negative over the entire range of composition. The results for $V^{E}_{m}$, and are discussed in terms of interaction between components.

  4. Excess Molar Volume and Apparent Molar Volume of Binary Mixtures of 2—Methyl—3—buten—2—ol with 1—Alcohol at 298.15K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDixia; LIHaoran; 等

    2002-01-01

    Excess molar volumes (VmE) of binary mixtures of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol[CH3C(OH)(CH3)CHCH2] with four 1-alcohols:methanol,ethanol,1-propanol and 1-butanol at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure are derived from density measurements with a vibrating-tube densimeter.All the excess volumes are negative in the systems over the entire composition range. The results are correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation.The effects of chain length of 1-alcohols on VmE are discussed.The apparent molar volumes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 1-alcohols are calculated respectively.

  5. Centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser on a plastic lab-on-a-disk for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27 μl) with a relative variation of ±0.02 μl. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical.

  6. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  7. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

  8. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  9. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities for Binary Mixtures of 1-Alkoxypropan-2-ols with 1-Butanol,and 2-Butanol at 298.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAL Amalendu; GABA Rekha

    2007-01-01

    Excess molar volumes VEm and kinematic viscosities v have been measured as a function of composition for binary mixtures of propylene glycol monomethyl ether (1-methoxy-2-propanol),MeOCH2CH(OH)Me,propylene glycol monoethyl ether (1-ethoxy-2-propanol), EtOCH2CH(OH)Me,propylene glycol monopropyl ether (1-propoxy-2-propanol), PrOCH2CH(OH)Me, propylene glycol monobutyl ether (1-butoxy-2-propanol),BuOCH2CH(OH)Me,and propylene glycol tert-butyl ether (1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol),t-BuOCH2CH(OH)Me with 1-butanol,and 2-butanol,at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure.The excess molar volumes are negative across the entire range of composition for all the systems with 1-butanol,and positive for the systems 2-butanol+1-methoxy-2-propanol,and +1-propoxy-2-propanol,negative for the systems 2-butanol+1-butoxy-2-propanol,and change sign for the systems 2-butanol+1-ethoxy-2-propanol,and +1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol.From the experimental data,the deviation in dynamic viscosity η from Σxiηi has been calculated.Both excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations have been correlated using a Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation by the method of least-squares for the estimation of the binary coefficients and the standard errors.

  10. PALS investigations of free volumes thermal expansion of J-PET plastic scintillator synthesized in polystyrene matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The polystyrene doped with 2,5-diphenyloxazole as a primary fluor and 2-(4-styrylphenylbenzoxazole as a wavelength shifter prepared as a plastic scintillator was investigated using positronium probe in wide range of temperatures from 123 to 423 K. Three structural transitions at 260, 283, and 370 K were found in the material. In the o-Ps intensity dependence on temperature, the significant hysteresis is observed. Heated to 370 K, the material exhibits the o-Ps intensity variations in time.

  11. PALS investigations of free volumes thermal expansion of J-PET plastic scintillator synthesized in polystyrene matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Wieczorek, A; Jasińska, B; Gorgol, M; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, S; Pałka, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Strzelecki, A; Wiślicki, W; Zieliński, M; Moskal, P

    2015-01-01

    The polystyrene dopped with 2,5-diphenyloxazole as a primary fluor and 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole as a wavelength shifter, prepared as a plastic scintillator was investigated using positronium probe in wide range of temperatures from 123 to 423 K. Three structural transitions at 260 K, 283 K and 370 K were found in the material. In the o-Ps intensity dependence on temperature, the significant hysteresis is observed. Heated to 370 K, the material exhibits the o-Ps intensity variations in time.

  12. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  13. A mathematical model for the effects of volume fraction and fiber aspect ratio of biomass mixture during enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Wang, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Renewable energy or biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative way to replace the depleting fossil fuels. The production cost can be reduced by increasing the concentration of biomass particles. However, lignocellulosic biomass is a suspension of natural fibres, and processing at high solid concentration is a challenging task. Thus, understanding the factors that affect the rheology of biomass suspension is crucial in order to maximize the production at a minimum cost. Our aim was to develop a mathematical model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by combining three scales: the macroscopic flow field, the mesoscopic particle orientation, and the microscopic reactive kinetics. The governing equations for the flow field, particle stress, kinetic equations, and particle orientation were coupled and were simultaneously solved using a finite element method based software, COMSOL. One of the main results was the changes in rheology of biomass suspension were not only due to the decrease in volume fraction of particles, but also due the types of fibres. The results from the simulation model agreed qualitatively with the experimental findings. This approach has enables us to obtain better predictive capabilities, hence increasing our understanding on the behaviour of biomass suspension.

  14. Identifying Structure-Property Relationships Through DREAM.3D Representative Volume Elements and DAMASK Crystal Plasticity Simulations: An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Martin; Groeber, Michael; Haase, Christian; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-03-01

    Predicting, understanding, and controlling the mechanical behavior is the most important task when designing structural materials. Modern alloy systems—in which multiple deformation mechanisms, phases, and defects are introduced to overcome the inverse strength-ductility relationship—give raise to multiple possibilities for modifying the deformation behavior, rendering traditional, exclusively experimentally-based alloy development workflows inappropriate. For fast and efficient alloy design, it is therefore desirable to predict the mechanical performance of candidate alloys by simulation studies to replace time- and resource-consuming mechanical tests. Simulation tools suitable for this task need to correctly predict the mechanical behavior in dependence of alloy composition, microstructure, texture, phase fractions, and processing history. Here, an integrated computational materials engineering approach based on the open source software packages DREAM.3D and DAMASK (Düsseldorf Advanced Materials Simulation Kit) that enables such virtual material development is presented. More specific, our approach consists of the following three steps: (1) acquire statistical quantities that describe a microstructure, (2) build a representative volume element based on these quantities employing DREAM.3D, and (3) evaluate the representative volume using a predictive crystal plasticity material model provided by DAMASK. Exemplarily, these steps are here conducted for a high-manganese steel.

  15. Identifying Structure-Property Relationships Through DREAM.3D Representative Volume Elements and DAMASK Crystal Plasticity Simulations: An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Martin; Groeber, Michael; Haase, Christian; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-05-01

    Predicting, understanding, and controlling the mechanical behavior is the most important task when designing structural materials. Modern alloy systems—in which multiple deformation mechanisms, phases, and defects are introduced to overcome the inverse strength-ductility relationship—give raise to multiple possibilities for modifying the deformation behavior, rendering traditional, exclusively experimentally-based alloy development workflows inappropriate. For fast and efficient alloy design, it is therefore desirable to predict the mechanical performance of candidate alloys by simulation studies to replace time- and resource-consuming mechanical tests. Simulation tools suitable for this task need to correctly predict the mechanical behavior in dependence of alloy composition, microstructure, texture, phase fractions, and processing history. Here, an integrated computational materials engineering approach based on the open source software packages DREAM.3D and DAMASK (Düsseldorf Advanced Materials Simulation Kit) that enables such virtual material development is presented. More specific, our approach consists of the following three steps: (1) acquire statistical quantities that describe a microstructure, (2) build a representative volume element based on these quantities employing DREAM.3D, and (3) evaluate the representative volume using a predictive crystal plasticity material model provided by DAMASK. Exemplarily, these steps are here conducted for a high-manganese steel.

  16. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  17. Excess molar volumes and deviation in viscosities of binary liquid mixtures of acrylic esters with hexane-1-ol at 303.15 and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata S. Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Densities and viscosities for the four binary liquid mixtures of methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate with hexane-1-ol at temperatures 303.15 and 313.15 K and at atmospheric pressure were measured over the entire composition range. These values were used to calculate excess molar volumes and deviation in viscosities which were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. Recently proposed Jouyban Acree model was also used to correlate the experimental values of density and viscosity. The mixture viscosities were correlated by several semi-empirical approaches like Hind, Choudhary–Katti, Grunberg–Nissan, Tamura and Kurata, McAllister three and four body model equations. A graphical representation of excess molar volumes and deviation in isentropic compressibility shows positive nature whereas deviation in viscosity shows negative nature at both temperatures for all four binary liquid mixtures. Positive values of excess molar volumes show that volume expansion is taking place causing rupture of H-bonds in self associated alcohols. The results were discussed in terms of molecular interactions prevailing in the mixtures.

  18. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassein-bey-Larouci, A., E-mail: hasseinbey@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Igoujilen, O.; Aitkaci, A. [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Segovia, J.J.; Villamañán, M.A. [TERMOCAL Research Group, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x_1 propanol + x_2 DMF + x_3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*{sup E}) and excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones.

  19. A hybrid mixture discriminant analysis-random forest computational model for the prediction of volume of distribution of drugs in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Franco; Obach, R Scott; Dicapua, Frank M; Bakken, Gregory A; Lu, Jing; Potter, David M; Gao, Feng; Miller, Michael D; Zhang, Yao

    2006-04-06

    A computational approach is described that can predict the VD(ss) of new compounds in humans, with an accuracy of within 2-fold of the actual value. A dataset of VD values for 384 drugs in humans was used to train a hybrid mixture discriminant analysis-random forest (MDA-RF) model using 31 computed descriptors. Descriptors included terms describing lipophilicity, ionization, molecular volume, and various molecular fragments. For a test set of 23 proprietary compounds not used in model construction, the geometric mean fold-error (GMFE) was 1.78-fold (+/-11.4%). The model was also tested using a leave-class out approach wherein subsets of drugs based on therapeutic class were removed from the training set of 384, the model was recast, and the VD(ss) values for each of the subsets were predicted. GMFE values ranged from 1.46 to 2.94-fold, depending on the subset. Finally, for an additional set of 74 compounds, VD(ss) predictions made using the computational model were compared to predictions made using previously described methods dependent on animal pharmacokinetic data. Computational VD(ss) predictions were, on average, 2.13-fold different from the VD(ss) predictions from animal data. The computational model described can predict human VD(ss) with an accuracy comparable to predictions requiring substantially greater effort and can be applied in place of animal experimentation.

  20. Excess molar volumes and refractive indices of (methoxybenzene+benzene, or toluene, or o-xylene, or m-xylene, or p-xylene, or mesitylene) binary mixtures between T=(288.15 to 303.15)K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandary, Jasem A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)]. E-mail: jalkandary@yahoo.com; Al-Jimaz, Adel S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait); Abdul-Latif, Abdul-Haq M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2006-11-15

    Densities {rho} and refractive indices n{sub D} for (anisole+benzene, or toluene, or o-xylene, or m-xylene or p-xylene or mesitylene) binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fraction, at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15)K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured. The excess molar volume V{sup E} and molar refraction deviation {delta}R{sub m}, have been calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial relation to estimate the binary coefficients and standard errors. The excess molar volumes are positive for (anisole+mesitylene) binary mixtures and negative for (anisole+benzene, or toluene, or xylene isomers) binary mixtures at various temperatures. Partial molar volumes V-bar {sub i} and partial excess molar volumes V-bar {sub i}{sup E} have been also derived from the experimental data. The calculated values have been used to explain the dependency of intermolecular interaction between the mixing components on the alkyl substitution on benzene ring.

  1. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  2. Mixture Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  3. Studies on Excess Volume, Viscosity, and Speed of Sound of Binary Mixtures of Methyl Benzoate in Ethers at T=(303.15,308.15, and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rathnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Densities, viscosities, and speed of sound have been determined at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K for the binary mixtures of methyl benzoate with tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, anisole, and butyl vinyl ether over the entire range of composition. Using these measured values, excess volume VE, deviation in viscosities Δη, excess Gibb’s free energy of activation for viscous flow ΔG*E, and deviation in isentropic compressibility Δks have been calculated. These calculated binary data have been fitted to Redlich-Kister equation to determine the appropriate coefficients. The values of excess volume VE and deviation in viscosities Δη are negative over the entire range of composition for all the binary systems at the studied temperatures. The behavior of these parameters with composition of the mixture has been discussed in terms of molecular interactions between the components of liquids.

  4. Heuristic rule for binary superlattice coassembly: mixed plastic mesophases of hard polyhedral nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Mihir R; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2014-10-17

    Sought-after ordered structures of mixtures of hard anisotropic nanoparticles can often be thermodynamically unfavorable due to the components' geometric incompatibility to densely pack into regular lattices. A simple compatibilization rule is identified wherein the particle sizes are chosen such that the order-disorder transition pressures of the pure components match (and the entropies of the ordered phases are similar). Using this rule with representative polyhedra from the truncated-cube family that form pure-component plastic crystals, Monte Carlo simulations show the formation of plastic-solid solutions for all compositions and for a wide range of volume fractions.

  5. Optimizing Biosolid Mixtures for Producing Soilless Manilagrass Sod Over Plastic%污泥生产马尼拉无土草皮基质配方优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢亚萍; 刘宏; 胡惠蓉; 尹少华

    2012-01-01

    利用污泥等废弃物生产无土草皮可以使废弃物循环利用,还可以降低生产成本,因此以马尼拉(Zoysia matrella)为材料,利用不同废弃物筛选出最优的基质配方,为无土草皮的生产提供依据.采用混料设计中的极端顶点设计,以污泥为主要基质,蘑菇渣、稻壳和沙子为配材,对12个不同配方基质的理化性质、无土草皮的坪用性状及综合品质进行评价,建立草皮综合品质与各配方因子之间显著相关的回归模型.结果表明:不同配方基质草皮的成卷时间、成坪时间、地上生物量、地下生物量、草皮重量、叶绿素、根系活力、密度等坪用性状差异均显著(P<0.05),通过对回归模型的优化分析,筛选出优化配方方案为:污泥71.75%~72.85%,蘑菇渣9.7%~11.7%,稻壳3.13%~3.67%,沙子12.54%~14.66%.马尼拉草坪草可富集较多的重金属元素,收获草皮后的基质中重金属含量大幅降低.%Producing soilless sod using waste not only recycles waste, but also reduces the production cost of sod. Different wastes with manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) are used as material to select an optimal mixture and provide some theoretical guidance for soilless sod production. Extreme vertex design is applied using bio-solid as the major substrate, with mushroom compost, rice hull and sand as mixing ingredients. The physical and chemical properties of twelve tested mixtures, manila grass sod performances and its integrated turf quality are analyzed. The significantly correlative regression model between integrated turf quality and mixture factors is established. Results indicate that sod-forming rate, establishment rate, above and underground biomass, sod weight, chlorophyll content, root activity and density all differ significantly among each tested mixture (P<0. 05). The optimal mixture is bio-solid, mushroom mulch, rice hull and sand at 71.75% to 72.85%, 9.7% to 11.7%, 3.13% to 3.67% and 12

  6. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  7. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  8. MEASURED DENSITIES, REFRACTIVE INDICES, EXCESS MOLAR VOLUMES AND DEVIATIONS CALCULATED FROM MOLAR REFRACTION OF THE BINARY MIXTURE OF ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL AND TERNARY MIXTURE ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL + WATER AT 293.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Densities, and refractive indices were measured for the binary system ethanol + 1-nonanol and ternary system ethanol + 1-nonanol + water at 293.15 K. The excess molar volumes, and the deviations molar refraction were calculated for binary and ternary system. Redlich-Kister type equation was fitted to the excess molar volumes and, the deviations from a mole fraction average of the molar refraction, and the values of coefficients were calculated

  9. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  10. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  11. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  12. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.; Zhang, S. L.; Wang, B. Y.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-02-01

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  13. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  14. The study of partial and excess molar volumes for binary mixtures of nitrobenzene and benzaldehyde with xylene isomers from T = (298.15 to 318.15 K and P = 0.087 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Rafiee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on density measurements, partial and excess molar volumes for binary mixtures of nitrobenzene and benzaldehyde with three isomers of xylene have been measured. The whole range of composition and temperatures from T = (298.15 to 318.15 K at ambient pressure 0.087 MPa, has been considered. The excess molar volumes were negative and decreased by increasing temperature for all mixtures which are explained based on intermolecular interactions. Excess molar volumes for solutions including nitrobenzene were absolutely larger than benzaldehyde binary mixtures. The partial and excess molar volumes for each component have been appraised and reported. The excess molar volumes have been successfully fitted to Redlich–Kister equation.

  15. Ultrasonic velocities, densities, and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide with methyl acrylate, or ethyl acrylate, or butyl acrylate, or 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate at T = 308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondaiah, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sravana Kumar, D. [Dr. V.S. Krishna Govt. Degree College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sreekanth, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Krishna Rao, D., E-mail: krdhanekula@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Positive values of V{sub m}{sup E}, indicate dispersion forces between acrylic esters and DMF. > V{sub m}{sup E} values compared with Redlich-Kister polynomial. > Partial molar volumes data conclude that weak interactions exist in the systems. > Measured velocity values compared with theoretical values obtained by polynomials. - Abstract: Ultrasonic velocities, u, densities, {rho}, of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), butyl acrylate (BA), and 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA), including pure liquids, over the entire composition range have been measured at T = 308.15 K. Using the experimental results, the excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, partial molar volumes, V-bar {sub m,1}, V-bar{sub m,2}, and excess partial molar volumes, V-bar{sub m,1}{sup E}, V-bar{sub m,2}{sup E} have been calculated. Molecular interactions in the systems have been studied in the light of variation of excess values of calculated properties. The excess properties have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial and the corresponding standard deviations have been calculated. The positive values of V{sub m}{sup E} indicate the presence of dispersion forces between the DMF and acrylic ester molecules. Further theoretical values of sound velocity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and have been compared with experimental sound velocities to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied. Theoretical ultrasonic velocity data have been used to study molecular interactions in the binary systems investigated.

  16. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  17. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities for the Binary Mixtures of n-Octane, n-Decane, n-Dodecane, and n-Tetradecane with Octan-2-ol at 298.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind R. Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental values of densities (ρ and viscosities (η in the binary mixtures of n-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane, and n-tetradecane with octan-2-ol are presented over the whole range of mixture composition at T=298.15 K. From these data, excess molar volume (VmE, deviations in viscosity (Δη, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation ΔG∗E have been calculated. These results were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equations to estimate the binary coefficients and standard errors. Jouyban-Acree model is used to correlate the experimental values of density and viscosity at T=298.15 K. The values of VmE have been analyzed using Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP theory. The results of the viscosity composition are discussed in the light of various viscosity equations suggested by Grunberg-Nissan, Tamara and Kurata, Hind et al., Katti and Chaudhri, Heric, Heric and Brewer, and McAllister multibody model. The values of Δlnη have also been analyzed using Bloomfield and Dewan model. The experiments on the constituted binaries are analyzed to discuss the nature and strength of intermolecular interactions in these mixtures.

  18. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  19. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  20. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  1. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  2. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  3. Density, viscosity, surface tension, and molar volume of propylene glycol + water mixtures from 293 to 323 K and correlations by the Jouyban–Acree model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Khattab

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Density, viscosity, surface tension and molar volume of propylene glycol + water mixtures at 293, 298, 303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K are reported, compared with the available literature data and the Jouyban–Acree model was used for mathematical correlation of the data. The mean relative deviation (MRD was used as an error criterion and the MRD values for data correlation of density, viscosity, surface tension and molar volume at different investigated temperatures are 0.1 ± 0.1%, 7.6 ± 6.4%, 3.4 ± 3.7%, and 0.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. The corresponding MRDs for the predicted properties after training the model using the experimental data at 298 K are 0.1 ± 0.2%, 12.8 ± 9.3%, 4.7 ± 4.1% and 0.6 ± 0.5%, respectively for density, viscosity, surface tension, and molar volume data.

  4. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  5. Characterization and evaluation physical properties biodegradable plastic composite from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni, Glar Donia; Dhaningtyas, Shalihat Afifah; Fajar, Ibnu; Sudarno

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and evaluation of biodegradable plastic composed of a mixture PVA - carrageenan - chitosan was conducted in this study. Obtained data were then compared to commercial biodegradable plastic. Characteristic of plastic was mechanical tested such as tensile - strength and elongation. Plastic degradation was studied using composting method for 7 days and 14 days. The results showed that the increase carrageenan will decrease tensile-strength and elongation plastic composite. In addition, increase carrageenan would increase the degraded plastics composite.

  6. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  7. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flotation separation of waste plastics for recycling-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jian-gang; Liu, You-nian

    2015-07-01

    The sharp increase of plastic wastes results in great social and environmental pressures, and recycling, as an effective way currently available to reduce the negative impacts of plastic wastes, represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Froth flotation is a promising method to solve the key problem of recycling process, namely separation of plastic mixtures. This review surveys recent literature on plastics flotation, focusing on specific features compared to ores flotation, strategies, methods and principles, flotation equipments, and current challenges. In terms of separation methods, plastics flotation is divided into gamma flotation, adsorption of reagents, surface modification and physical regulation.

  9. Combustion characteristics of stratified mixture. 1st Report. Measurement of mixture distribution in a constant-volume combustion chamber using laser-induced NO2 fluorescence; Sojo kongoki no nensho tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Laser reiki NO2 keikoho ni yoru teiyo nenshokinai kongoki bunpu no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Hiroyasu, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tabata, M. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    Laser-induced fluorescence from nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as gas fuel tracer was applied to determine mixture stratification in a pancake-type constant-volume combustion chamber using propane and hydrogen fuels. The second-harmonic output of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser was used as a light source for fluorescence excitation. The fluorescence images were corrected by a gated image-intensified CCD camera. The quantitative analysis of fuel concentration was made possible by the application of linearity between fluorescence intensity and NO2 concentration at a low trace level. The stratified mixture (center-rich or center-lean) was concentrically formed in the central region of the chamber by a jet flow from a tangentially oriented port. The concentration difference in the radial direction of the chamber decreased with time from the start of injection. The rate of decrease was faster for hydrogen than for propane. After 300 ms from start of injection, however, the time histories of the concentration difference were nearly constant for both fuels regardless of overall concentration. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  11. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  12. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  13. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  14. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  15. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  16. Fundamentals of the theory of plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kachanov, L M

    2004-01-01

    Intended for use by advanced engineering students and professionals, this volume focuses on plastic deformation of metals at normal temperatures, as applied to strength of machines and structures. 1971 edition.

  17. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  18. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  19. 2-甲基-3-丁烯-2-醇+直链一元醇二元体系的过量摩尔体积和表观摩尔体积298.15 K)%Excess Molar Volume and Apparent Molar Volume of Binary Mixtures of 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol with 1-Alcohol at 298.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪霞; 李浩然; 邓东顺; 韩世钧

    2002-01-01

    Excess molar volumes (VEm) of binary mixtures of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol [CH3C(OH)(CH3)CHCH2]with four 1-alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure are derived from density measurements with a vibrating-tube densimeter. All the excess volumes are negative in the systems over the entire composition range. The results are correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation. The effects of chain length of 1-alcohols on VmE are discussed. The apparent molar volumes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 1-alcohols are calculated respectively.

  20. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  1. 大掺量矿物细粉掺和料活性粉末混凝土高温性能%High Temperature Performance of High Volume Fine Mineral Mixture of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟红; 宋少民

    2012-01-01

    This paper researches the burst properties of high temperature and compressive strength after heating of high volume fine mineral mixture of reactive powder concrete. Results show that with the decrease of the water-cement ratio, the burst temperature of the specimen decreases and the burst probability increases. The initial time and temperature of high-temperature burst decrease with increasing amount of fine mineral mixture. Polypropylene fiber can effectively improve the anti-burst performance of reactive powder concrete. Reactive powder concrete after 200 ℃ heating can increase the compressive strength. In addition, adding polypropylene fiber can improve the compressive strength of reactive powder concrete and residual strength ratio in the range of 200 ℃.%研究了大掺量矿物细粉活性粉末混凝土高温爆裂性能和高温后的抗压强度.结果表明,试件的爆裂温度随着水胶比的减小而降低,爆裂几率随水胶比的降低而增大;高温爆裂的初始时间和温度随矿物细粉掺和料掺量增多而降低;聚丙烯纤维能有效地改善活性粉末混凝土抗爆裂性能;活性粉末混凝土经200屯高温后的抗压强度有所增加,且聚丙烯纤维的加入可使活性粉末混凝土抗压强度和200℃范围内残余强度率有一定幅度提高.

  2. Volumes of common industrial wastes: a study report; Dechets industriels banals: quel tonnage? rapport d`etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The total common industrial waste volume production in France has been evaluated, taking into consideration all the industrial and commercial sectors and the following materials: glass, metals, plastics, rubber, textiles, papers, cardboard, wood, leather, organic matters, building wastes, mixtures. Results are presented for the various regions of France, as a function of enterprise size, waste type and destination; data are also given concerning packaging materials, and waste collection and processing. Comparisons are made with data from other information sources and calculations

  3. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  4. The plastic compressibility of 7075-T651 aluminum-alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, A. D.; Sandor, B. I.

    1986-01-01

    The change in volume, and therefore the change in mass density, of an aluminum alloy was measured in uniaxial tension using clip-on extensometers. The experimental data do not agree with the assumption of plastic incompressibility found in the classical theories of plasticity. In fact, the elastic and plastic volume changes are of the same order of magnitude. Plastic anisotropy is thought to be the prime cause of this plastic compressibility.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF THE FLOW TEMPERATURE OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYMER ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND CONCENTRATION OF THE POLYMER AND THE PLASTICIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askadskiy Andrey Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials are widely used in construction. The properties of polymeric construction materials vary to a substantial extent; their durability, thermal stability, frost resistance, waterproof and dielectric properties are particularly pronounced. Their properties serve as the drivers of the high market demand for these products. These materials are applied as finishing materials, molded sanitary engineering products and effective thermal insulation and water proofing materials. The authors analyze the influence of the chemical structure and structural features of polymers on their properties. The authors consider flow and vitrification temperatures of polymers. These temperatures determine the parameters of polymeric products, including those important for the construction process. The analysis of influence of concentration of the plasticizer on the vitrification temperature is based on the two basic theories. In accordance with the first one, reduction of the vitrification temperature is proportionate to the molar fraction of the injected plasticizer. According to the second concept, reduction of the vitrification temperature is proportionate to the volume fraction of the injected solvent. Dependencies of the flow temperature on the molecular weight and the molar fraction of the plasticizer are derived for PVC. As an example, two plasticizers were considered, including dibutyl sebacate and dioctylftalatalate. The basic parameters of all mixtures were calculated through the employment of "Cascade" software programme (A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelemental Connections, Russian Academy of Sciences.

  6. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  7. Excess Molar Volume, Viscosity and Heat Capacity for the Binary Mixture of p-Xylene and Acetic Acid at Different Temperatures%对二甲苯和醋酸二元液体混合物在不同温度下的超额摩尔体积、粘度和热容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长生; 马沛生; 唐多强; 尹秋响; 赵长伟

    2002-01-01

    Experimental densities, viscosities and heat capacities at different temperatures were presented overthe entire range of mole fraction for the binary mixture of p-xylene and acetic acid. Density values were used in thedetermination of excess molar volumes, VE. At the same time, the excess viscosity and excess molar heat capacitieswere calculated. The values of VE, ηE and cpE were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Good agreements wereobserved. The excess molar volumes are positive with a large maximum value located in the central concentrationrange. The excess viscosity has an opposite trend to the excess molar volume VE. ηE values are negative over theentire range of the mixture. The cure of dependence of cEp on concentration has a special shape. The molecularinteraction between p-xylene and acetic acid is discussed.

  8. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy in the plastics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Rutz, F.; Jördens, C.; Krumbholz, N.; Vieweg, N.; Jansen, C.; Wilk, R.; Koch, M.

    2008-03-01

    The worldwide production volume of polymers is still rising exponentially and the number of applications for plastic components steadily increases. Yet, many branches within the polymer industry are hardly supported by non-destructive testing techniques. We demonstrate that terahertz (THz) spectroscopy could be the method of choice to ensure high-quality polymer products. Applications range from the in-line monitoring of extrusion processes and the quality control of commodities in a mass production up to a total inspection of high-tech safety relevant products. Furthermore, we present an extension to THz time-domain spectroscopy in the form of a new data extraction algorithm, which derives the absorption coefficient, the refractive index and the thickness of a sample with very high precision in a single pass. Apart from that, we discuss the ability of THz systems for quality control of polymeric compounds. Here, it is essential to monitor the additive content as well as additive inhomogeneities within the mixture. Recently, we built a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer for in-line monitoring of compounding processes. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of THz systems for the non-destructive and contactless testing of structural components. THz imaging is capable of analyzing material thicknesses, superstructures, the quality of plastic weld joints, and of detecting flaws in components. Plastics and THz form a very fruitful symbiosis. In return, plastics industry can provide THz systems with custom-tailored components, which have very attractive properties and extremely low costs. Examples of this development are photonic crystals or polymeric Bragg filters, which have recently been demonstrated.

  9. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  10. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  11. Simulation of mixture microstructures via particle packing models and their direct comparison with real mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Eric A.

    particle-size distributions or mixture composition. Control charts based on tessellation measurements were used for direct, quantitative comparisons between real and simulated mixtures. Four sets of simulated and real mixtures were examined. Data from real mixture was matched with simulated data when the samples were well mixed and the particle size distributions and volume fractions of the components were identical. Analysis of mixture components that occupied less than approximately 10 vol% of the mixture was not practical unless the particle size of the component was extremely small and excellent quality high-resolution compositional micrographs of the real sample are available. These methods of analysis should allow future researchers to systematically evaluate and predict the impact and importance of variables such as component volume fraction and component particle size distribution as they pertain to the uniformity of powder mixture microstructures.

  12. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian mixture...

  13. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plasti...... to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming....

  14. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  15. Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, A.G.; Huang, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry - CHIS 2, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in plastics cracking, a process developed to recycle plastic wastes into useful petrochemical materials. Under thermal cracking conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. By adopting customary fluid cracking catalysts and reforming catalysts, more aromatics and naphthenes in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} range can be produced, which are valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons. More tests are, however, needed to verify the pyrolysis process in a pilot scale particularly for treatment of mixtures of bulk plastics. Plastics cracking is only an elementary conversion technology; its application has to be combined with other technologies such as municipal solid waste collection, classification and pretreatment at the front end, as well as hydrocarbon distillation and purification at the back end. Social, environmental and economic factors are also important in industrial implementation of the technology

  16. Numerical and experimental study of the influence of the operational parameters on the formation mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion of mixtures of cellulosic and plastic materials; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des parametres operatoires sur les mecanismes de formation des oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion de melanges de materiaux cellulosiques et plastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andzi Barhe, T.

    2004-10-15

    The current thesis was performed within a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD of the University of Poitiers) and the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie d'Environnement (LPCE) of the University of Ouagadougou. It was financed by Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). The principle object of this study is the optimisation of the combustion process during the incineration of waste. This optimisation is aimed at the reduction of the polluting emissions, principally CO and NO, during the incineration of cellulosic and plastic materials. It involves the analysis of the influence of the operational parameters on the polluting emissions and the control of reaction mechanisms of formation and reduction of these pollutants during the combustion process. Consequently, the study was performed in two parts: an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental part was realised using a fixed bed counterflow reactor. This setup simulates the combustion within an industrial waste incinerator. The reactor allows the combustion of a vertical layer of waste mixture (wood, cardboard, PET, polyamide) to be followed. Three model mixtures representative of the makeup of household waste were studied in order to determine the influence of the composition of the waste on the emission of pollutants (CO and NO). The obtained results show that this parameter has a practically negligible influence within the tested parameter range. Consequently the formation of pollutants depends on the operating parameters - the equivalence ratio and the temperature. A numerical study of the influence of these parameters in order to show their impact on the mechanisms of pollutant formation and to determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. The numerical study was performed with software developed at the LCD. This programme based on a detailed chemical model coupled to a simple physical model. It uses the

  17. Investigations of Properties of Wax Mixtures Used in the Investment Casting Technology – New Investigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. Themeasurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function wereperformed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.

  18. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof;

    The shear and equi-biaxial straining responses of periodic voided single crystals are analysed using discrete dislocation plasticity and a continuum strain gradient crystal plasticity theory. In the discrete dislocation formulation the dislocations are all of edge character and are modelled as line...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  19. Mapping the jamming transition of bidisperse mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeze, D. J.; Vågberg, D.; Tjoa, B. B. T.; Tighe, B. P.

    2016-03-01

    We systematically map out the jamming transition of all 2D bidisperse mixtures of frictionless disks in the hard-particle limit. The critical volume fraction, mean coordination number, number of rattlers, structural order parameters, and bulk modulus each show a rich variation with mixture composition and particle size ratio, and can therefore be tuned by choosing certain mixtures. We identify two local minima in the critical volume fraction, both of which have low structural order; one minimum is close to the widely studied 50 : 50 mixture of particles with a ratio of radii of 1 : 1.4. We also identify a region at low size ratios characterized by increased structural order and high rattler fractions, with a corresponding enhancement in the stiffness.

  20. Pyrolysis of plastics and tyres wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Miguel; Costa, Paula; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The main aim of the work is to characterize the nature of liquids produced by pyrolysing various blends of wastes were several mixtures of tyres and plastics wastes were pyrolysed. The plastics wastes used were polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). The tyre waste also included natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene rubber (BR).The influence of the following operating conditions as well as different mixture of wastes on nature of the products was investigated; run temperature: 380-450 deg C, run pressure: 0.2-8.0 MPa, reaction time: 10 to 60 minutes, waste composition: several mixtures of plastics and tyres in different quantities. The final objective was to optimize operating condition to maximize the production of liquids and to achieve selectivity in the nature of the liquids obtained. The results obtained showed that the composition of the end products was highly dependent of the components of the blend of wastes used. Several solvents with different H-donor capacity were also added to the reaction mixture to investigate the nature of liquids formed to verify if a higher degree of selectivity could be achieved with regard to the nature of liquid products. Solvents used included 1,2,3,4 - Tetrahydronaphthalene and 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydroquinoline. Liquids yields obtained so far were found to be very promising, reaching values around 70% (v/v), while gas and residual solid amounts were around 10% (v/v) and 20% (v/v).

  1. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  2. The molecular interfacial structure and plasticizer migration behavior of "green" plasticized poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2015-02-14

    Tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC), a widely-used "green" plasticizer, has been extensively applied in products for daily use. In this paper, a variety of analytical tools including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), contact angle goniometry (CA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied together to investigate the molecular structures of TBAC plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and the migration behavior of TBAC from PVC-TBAC mixtures into water. We comprehensively examine the effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatments on the surface structures of PVC-TBAC thin films containing various bulk percentages of plasticizers and the leaching behavior of TBAC into water. It was found that TBAC is a relatively stable PVC plasticizer compared to traditional non-covalent plasticizers but is also surface active. Oxygen plasma treatment increased the hydrophilicity of TBAC-PVC surfaces, but did not enhance TBAC leaching. However, argon plasma treatment greatly enhanced the leaching of TBAC molecules from PVC plastics to water. Based on our observations, we believe that oxygen plasma treatment could be applied to TBAC plasticized PVC products to enhance surface hydrophilicity for improving the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of PVC products. The structural information obtained in this study will ultimately facilitate a molecular level understanding of plasticized polymers, aiding in the design of PVC materials with improved properties.

  3. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  4. Low temperature asphalt mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Modrijan, Damjan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the problem of manufacturing and building in the asphalt mixtures produced by the classical hot procedure and the possibility of manufacturing low temperature asphalt mixtures.We will see the main advantages of low temperature asphalt mixtures prepared with bitumen with organic addition Sasobit and compare it to the classical asphalt mixtures. The advantages and disadvantages of that are valued in the practical example in the conclusion.

  5. Excess Molar Volume, Viscosity and Heat Capacity for the Mixture of 1,2-Propanediol-Water at Different Temperatures%1,2-丙二醇水溶液在不同温度下的超额摩尔体积黏度和热容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长生; 马沛生; 唐多强; 靳凤民

    2003-01-01

    Experimental densities, viscosities and heat capacities at different temperatures were presented over the entire mole fraction range for the binary mixture of 1,2-propanediol and water. Density values were used in the determination of excess molar volumes, VE. At the same time, the excess viscosity was investigated. The values of VE and ηE were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Good agreement was observed. The excess volumes are negative over the entire range of composition. They show an U-shaped-concentration dependence and decrease in absolute values with increase of temperature. Values of ηE are negative over the entire range of the composition, and has a trend very similar to that of VE . The analysis shows that at any temperature the specific heat of mixture is a linear function of the composition as x1>20%. All the extended lines intersect at one point. An empirical equation is obtained to calculate the specific heat to mixture at any composition and temperature in the experimental range.

  6. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  7. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  8. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  9. Excess compressibility in binary liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, F; Gapiński, J; Pochylski, M; Ponterio, R C; Saija, F; Salvato, G

    2007-06-14

    Brillouin scattering experiments have been carried out on some mixtures of molecular liquids. From the measurement of the hypersonic velocities we have evaluated the adiabatic compressibility as a function of the volume fraction. We show how the quadratic form of the excess compressibility dependence on the solute volume fraction can be derived by simple statistical effects and does not imply any interaction among the components of the system other than excluded volume effects. This idea is supported by the comparison of the experimental results with a well-established prototype model, consisting of a binary mixture of hard spheres with a nonadditive interaction potential. This naive model turns out to be able to produce a very wide spectrum of structural and thermodynamic features depending on values of its parameters. An attempt has made to understand what kind of structural information can be gained through the analysis of the volume fraction dependence of the compressibility.

  10. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  11. From Oil to Plastic. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Raphaelle

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explains in text and pictures how plastic is made from oil, the problems with this nearly indestructible material, and the future of plastics. Topics include: (1) formation of oil; (2) history of…

  12. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  13. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  14. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  15. Surface properties of beached plastic pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2012-10-01

    The presence of pollutants on plastic debris is an emerging environmental hot topic. Understanding the surface alteration of plastics while in the marine environment increases our understanding of the pollutant-plastic debris interaction. Plastic pellets are widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Eroded and virgin polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) pellets were studied for their surface properties to better understand the interaction between plastic and compounds in marine environment. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors which affect sorption. Virgin plastic pellets had homogeneous smooth surfaces that do not have any acid-base behavior. Eroded PE demonstrates an altered surface that at seawater pH acquires a negative charge due to ketone groups. The uneven surface and possible functional groups could have been formed from the erosion processes while floating at the sea surface and might explain the interaction of eroded plastics with microbes and metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastic deformation modelling of tempered martensite steel block structure by a nonlocal crystal plasticity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boeff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plastic deformations of tempered martensite steel representative volume elements with different martensite block structures have been investigated by using a nonlocal crystal plasticity model which considers isotropic and kinematic hardening produced by plastic strain gradients. It was found that pronounced strain gradients occur in the grain boundary region even under homogeneous loading. The isotropic hardening of strain gradients strongly influences the global stress–strain diagram while the kinematic hardening of strain gradients influences the local deformation behaviour. It is found that the additional strain gradient hardening is not only dependent on the block width but also on the misorientations or the deformation incompatibilities in adjacent blocks.

  17. 4. pi. physics with the plastic ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Loehner, H.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Warwick, A.; Weik, F.; Wieman, H.

    1982-10-01

    4 ..pi.. data taken with the Plastic Ball show that cluster production in relativistic nuclear collisions depends on both the size of the participant volume and the finite size of the cluster. The measurement of the degree of thermalization and the search for collective flow will permit the study of the applicability of macroscopic concepts such as temperature and density.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and computational studies of novel tetra-azido compounds as energetic plasticizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghersad, Mohammad Hadi; Habibi, Azizollah; Heydari, Akbar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, four azido compounds have been synthesized and characterized as new energetic plasticizers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) have been used to identify and determine the properties of the synthesized plasticizers. The plasticization effect of plasticizers on glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been investigated by viscosity measurements and thermal analysis of the prepolymer-plasticizer mixtures and plasticized binders. The plasticized mixtures were cured by a diisocyanate curing agent and the glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature of the cured polyurethane binders were measured. Thermal analysis of the prepolymer-plasticizer and cured polymer mixtures showed that the synthesized plasticizers are completely compatible with the GAP binder and have a very good plasticizing effect. Furthermore, equilibrium geometry and heats of formation of each of the plasticizer molecules were obtained using the thermochemical T1 recipe, which is available in wave function Spartan software. Comparing empirical heats of combustion and calculated heats of combustion by using the heats of formation showed that the suggested optimum molecular structure by the T1 recipe has a high similarity to the real molecular structure of these molecules.

  19. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  20. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  1. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  2. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  3. Derived thermodynamic properties of alcohol + cyclohexylamine mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVONA R. RADOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal expansion coefficients, α, excess thermal expansion coefficients, αE, isothermal coefficients of pressure excess molar enthalpy, (∂HE/∂pT,x, partial molar volumes, , partial molar volumes at infinite dilution, , partial excess molar volumes, , and partial excess molar volumes at infinite dilution, , were calculated using experimental densities and excess molar volumes, , data. All calculations are performed for the binary systems of cyclohexylamine with 1-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol. The Redlich–Kister polynomial and the reduced excess molar volume approach were used in the evaluation of these properties. In addition, the aim of this investigation was to provide a set of various volumetric data in order to asses the influence of temperature, chain length and position of hydroxyl group in the alcohol molecule on the molecular interactions in the examined binary mixtures.

  4. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  5. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  6. Antiplasticization and plasticization of Matrimid® asymmetric hollow fiber membranes. Part B. Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jong Suk

    2010-03-15

    A previous paper characterized effects of exposure of Matrimid® asymmetric fibers to either toluene or n-heptane or a combination of both contaminants during permeation. In all cases, reductions in the carbon dioxide permeance and the carbon dioxide/methane selectivity were observed for both annealed and non-annealed samples. In this paper, the respective potential impacts of competitive sorption, fiber compaction, and antiplasticization/plasticization on membrane performance during contaminant exposure are quantified and analyzed. The combined impact of competitive sorption and antiplasticization/plasticization are shown to account for the loss in membrane performance observed during exposure to highly sorbing feed stream contaminants. The dual mode transport model for penetrant mixtures was used to explain reduction in CO2 permeance due to competitive sorption effects, while free volume-based modeling explained decrease in CO2 permeance due to antiplasticization. Finally, the impact on CO2 permeance during exposure of the annealed Matrimid® fibers to contaminants is analyzed. The analysis is based on reduction in segmental mobility expected due to reduction of residual unrelaxed volume as compared to unanealed sample. © 2010.

  7. Saturation Transfer Difference NMR as an Analytical Tool for Detection and Differentiation of Plastic Explosives on the Basis of Minor Plasticizer Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    SATURATION TRANSFER DIFFERENCE NMR AS AN ANALYTICAL TOOL FOR DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF PLASTIC EXPLOSIVES...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2010 – Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Saturation Transfer Difference NMR as an Analytical Tool for Detection and... NMR methodology has been developed to support the unambiguous identification and discrimination of Semtex and C-4 plastic explosive mixtures in

  8. 对、邻二甲苯和醋酸二元液体混合物在不同温度和压力下的密度和超额摩尔体积%Density and Excess Molar Volume of Binary Mixtures of p-Xylene+Acetic Acid and o-Xylene+Acetic Acid at Different Temperatures and Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天宇; 夏淑倩; 邸志国; 马沛生

    2008-01-01

    A new apparatus was designed with a thick-walled glass capillary, electric heater tube with red copper and heat preservation. The thick-walled glass capillary was used for its advantages of resistance to acid corrosion and pressure, and ease of observation. The experimental densities over the entire range of mole fraction for the bi- nary mixture of p-xylene+acetic acid and o-xylene+acetic acid were measured using the new apparatus at tempera- tures ranging from 313.15K to 473.15K and pressure ranging from 0.20 to 2.0 MPa. The density values were used in the determination of excess molar volumes, VE. The Redlich-Kister equation was used to fit the excess molar volume values, and the coefficients and estimate of the standard error values were presented. The experimental re- suits prove that the density measurement apparatus is successful.

  9. Study on Thermo-Conductive Plastic Finned Tube Radiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses thermo-conductive plastic finned tube radiators used in water saving type power stations.First,the development of thermo-conductive plastics is introduced.Second,in order to determine the rational geometric dimensions of thermo-conductive plastic finned tubes,an objective function which takes the minimum volume of the consumed material for making finned tubes as an object is introduced.On the basis of the function,the economy comparison between thermo-conductive plastic finned tubes and metal finned tubes is conducted.

  10. Partial enthalpies and related quantities in mixtures from computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindzingre, P.; Ciccotti, G.; Massobrio, C.; Frenkel, D.

    1987-01-01

    We report a method of calculating partial molar quantities in mixtures by computer simulation. The method is based on an extension of Widom's potential distribution theorem and provides an alternative way of computing partial enthalpies and volumes.

  11. On the mixture model for multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, M.; Taivassalo, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical flow simulation utilising a full multiphase model is impractical for a suspension possessing wide distributions in the particle size or density. Various approximations are usually made to simplify the computational task. In the simplest approach, the suspension is represented by a homogeneous single-phase system and the influence of the particles is taken into account in the values of the physical properties. This study concentrates on the derivation and closing of the model equations. The validity of the mixture model is also carefully analysed. Starting from the continuity and momentum equations written for each phase in a multiphase system, the field equations for the mixture are derived. The mixture equations largely resemble those for a single-phase flow but are represented in terms of the mixture density and velocity. The volume fraction for each dispersed phase is solved from a phase continuity equation. Various approaches applied in closing the mixture model equations are reviewed. An algebraic equation is derived for the velocity of a dispersed phase relative to the continuous phase. Simplifications made in calculating the relative velocity restrict the applicability of the mixture model to cases in which the particles reach the terminal velocity in a short time period compared to the characteristic time scale of the flow of the mixture. (75 refs.)

  12. Experiments with Mixtures Designs, Models, and the Analysis of Mixture Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cornell, John A

    2011-01-01

    The most comprehensive, single-volume guide to conducting experiments with mixtures"If one is involved, or heavily interested, in experiments on mixtures of ingredients, one must obtain this book. It is, as was the first edition, the definitive work."-Short Book Reviews (Publication of the International Statistical Institute)"The text contains many examples with worked solutions and with its extensive coverage of the subject matter will prove invaluable to those in the industrial and educational sectors whose work involves the design and analysis of mixture experiments."-Journal of the Royal S

  13. Recycling of plastic waste by density separation: prospects for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Diego, Isidro

    2009-03-01

    A review of existing industrial processing and results of alternative processing investigations for separating solid mixtures and specifically recycling plastic waste by density separation is presented. Media density separation is shown to be fundamental for separation and/or pre-concentration in the recycling of plastics. The current use of static media processes limits the capacity and size of material that can be treated commercially. Investigations have shown that the hydroscopic properties of plastics can be reduced to improve such separations. This indicates that an alternative processing method is required to increase the commercial recovery of recyclable plastics. Cylindroconical and cylindrical cyclone-type media separators, such as those used for processing coal, are reviewed and suggested as a potential substitute. Both have superior production capacities and are able to process a larger range in particle sizes treated. A summary of results of investigations with cyclone media devices for recycling plastics is presented.

  14. 1,2-丙二醇+丁醇/戊醇/己醇二元系的过量体积和黏度%Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Binary Mixtures Composed of 1,2-Propanediol with Butanol, Pentanol or Hexanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌锦龙; 李灵; 杨佳琳

    2016-01-01

    常压下测定了1,2-丙二醇分别与丁醇、戊醇和己醇组成的二元系在293.15~318.15 K下的密度和黏度,建立了混合液密度和黏度随温度和组成变化的方程。计算了过量摩尔体积VE,黏度偏差∆η和过量流动活化自由能∆G*E。结果表明,三个二元系的过量摩尔体积在全浓度范围内均为正值,随温度升高,偏差增大,但发生最大偏差时的溶液组成不同;过量摩尔体积值按丁醇-戊醇-己醇顺序逐渐增大;黏度偏差和过量流动活化自由能三个体系显示了相同的变化关系,均为负值,且都随温度降低而偏差增大。利用Redlich-Kister方程对过量性质进行了关联。分析和讨论了分子间相互作用。%The densities and viscosities of binary mixtures consisting of butanol, pentanol or hexanol with 1,2-propanediol(12PD) were measured using pycnometer and Ubbelohde viscometer at 293.15~318.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The density and viscosity data of the binary mixtures were fitted as functions of composition and temperature. Excess molar volumes (VE), viscosity deviations (∆η) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (∆G*E) were calculated from the experimental data. The results show that the excess molar volumes are positive over the whole mole fraction range in the temperature range studied for all of the binary mixtures, and the deviation increases as temperature increases. However, the largest deviation varies in different solution compositions. The excess molar volume value increases following an order of butanol - pentanol – hexanol. Both∆η and∆G*E are negative over the whole mole fraction range in the temperature range studied for all of the binary mixtures, and the deviation increases as temperature decreases. All of the excess properties are correlated by the Redlich-Kister equation and the molecular interactions are analyzed.

  15. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  16. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  17. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  18. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  19. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  20. Microstructure transformation during plastic deformation of the austempered ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent properties of ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron are widely praised by the world technical literature. These properties depend onthe cast iron microstructure formed during the heat treatment process of a specific type. The matrix of ADI is a mixture of lamellar ferrite and high-carbon austenite. It seems, however, that it is the austenite that is responsible for the high strength and ductility of this material, although investigations and analyses have proved that it is not homogeneous. Various types of austenite found in the ADI matrix include unreacted austenite, stable austenite, and metastable austenite which will be transferred into martensite during machining of castings.In this study an attempt has been made to determine the fraction of metastable austenite and to evaluate its effect on ADI properties.The heat treatment enabled manufacturing ADI characterised by the following properties: T.S.>1000MPa, El.>10%, Y.S.>600MPa. As anext step, the controlled process of plastic deformation of the samples was carried out. Applying the new method it has been established that due to 15% cold work, the structure of the examined ADI contains 9% of martensite; this volume fraction goes up to 17% after 25% cold work. The results of the investigations were cofirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and magnetic measurements.Consequently, it has been proved that ADI characterised by properties satisfying the criteria of an international standard developed for this particular material contains a large amount of metastable austenite subject to the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity effect.

  1. Innovative plasticized alginate obtained by thermo-mechanical mixing: Effect of different biobased polyols systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengcheng; Pollet, Eric; Avérous, Luc

    2017-02-10

    Plasticized alginate films with different biobased polyols (glycerol and sorbitol) and their mixtures were successfully prepared by thermo-mechanical mixing instead of the usual casting-evaporation procedure. The microstructure and properties of the different plasticized alginate formulations were investigated by SEM, FTIR, XRD, DMTA and uniaxial tensile tests. SEM and XRD results showed that native alginate particles were largely destructured with the plasticizers (polyols and water), under a thermo-mechanical input. With increasing amount of plasticizers, the samples showed enhanced homogeneity while their thermal and mechanical properties decreased. Compared to sorbitol, glycerol resulted in alginate films with a higher flexibility due to its better plasticization efficiency resulting from its smaller size and higher hydrophilic character. Glycerol and sorbitol mixtures seemed to be an optimum to obtain the best properties. This work showed that thermo-mechanical mixing is a promising method to produce, at large scale, plasticized alginate-based films with improved properties.

  2. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  3. The stress statistics of the first pop-in or discrete plastic event in crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, P. M.; Maaß, R.

    2016-12-01

    The stress at which the first discrete plastic event occurs is investigated using extreme value statistics. It is found that the average of this critical stress is inversely related to the deforming volume, via an exponentially truncated power-law. This is demonstrated for the first pop-in event observed in experimental nano-indentation data as a function of the indenter volume, and for the first discrete plastic event seen in a dislocation dynamics simulation. When the underlying master distribution of critical stresses is assumed to be a power-law, it becomes possible to extract the density of discrete plastic events available to the crystal, and to understand the exponential truncation as a break-down of the asymptotic Weibull limit.

  4. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels.

  5. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Chris; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  6. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  7. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  8. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT.

  9. A sealing mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrullin, S.R.; Firsov, I.A.; Ongoyev, V.M.; Shekhtman, E.N.; Taskarin, B.T.

    1983-01-01

    A plugging mixture is proposed which contains triethanolamine, caustic soda, water and an additive. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the cost of the mixture while preserving its operational qualities, it additionally contains clay powder and as the additive, ground limestone with the following component ratio in percent by mass: ground limestone, 50 to 60; triethanolamine, 0.1 to 0.15; caustic soda, 2 to 3; clay powder, 8 to 10 and water the remainder. The mixture is distinguished by the fact that the ground limestone has a specific surface of 2,000 to 3,000 square centimeters per gram.

  10. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  11. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  12. Swelling characteristics of immersed sand-bentonite mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰土根; 崔红斌; 孙德安; 杜冰

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory one-dimensional consolidation apparatus was employed to research the swelling stress and volume of the sand-bentonite mixture under immersed conditions. The stress-strain characteristics of mixtures under varied mixing ratios and loading statuses were analyzed. Based on the results of tests, the mechanism of mixture swelling and collapsing was further discussed. The results show that mixtures with low sand ratios are suitable as hydraulic barrier or containment barriers of general landfills, geological repository and other hydraulic infrastructure works.

  13. Flows and chemical reactions in heterogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This book - a sequel of previous publications 'Flows and Chemical Reactions' and 'Chemical Reactions in Flows and Homogeneous Mixtures' - is devoted to flows with chemical reactions in heterogeneous environments.  Heterogeneous media in this volume include interfaces and lines. They may be the site of radiation. Each type of flow is the subject of a chapter in this volume. We consider first, in Chapter 1, the question of the generation of environments biphasic individuals: dusty gas, mist, bubble flow.  Chapter 2 is devoted to the study at the mesoscopic scale: particle-fluid exchange of mom

  14. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  15. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  16. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  17. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  18. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  19. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  20. Constitutive modeling of the behavior of a sand-bentonite mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadat, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste proposes a compacted mixture of sand and bentonite (known as buffer) as one of several barriers limiting radionuclide escape to the biosphere. To ensure acceptable performance of the buffer, it is necessary to understand its stress-strain-time behavior under rising groundwater pressure up to 10 MPa in the vault. High pressure triaxial laboratory tests have been performed at mean effective pressures up to 9 MPa, and porewater pressures up to 7 MPa at ambient temperatures. The results indicate that the strength of the buffer is dominated by the bentonite, and the material exhibits strain-softening behavior in shear. Three different approaches for constitutive modeling of the buffer behavior are examined in this thesis. A three-modulus anisotropic hyperelastic model is proposed for the small strain range. This model accounts for the anisotropic nature of the buffer and permits coupling of mean pressures with shear strains, or deviator stresses with volume strains. A second three-function hypoelastic model is also developed to describe constitutive relationships for straining-to-failure. The third elastic-plastic model (belonging to the Cam clay family) accounts for non-reversibility, non-linearity and dilatancy in the plastic range. In addition to these predictive models, a conceptual model is proposed based on critical state soil mechanics to provide a coherent framework for describing the behavior of buffer compacted to different densities. Finally, the interactions between buffer, container, rock and backfill are examined in the non-linear finite element analyses using the proposed elastic-plastic model for the buffer. The preliminary results suggest that swelling of the buffer against compressive backfill could potentially produce large shear strains in the buffer.

  1. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  2. Crowding in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly crowded environment, filled with a multicomponent, polydisperse mixture of biopolymers and nuclear bodies dispersed in a viscous solvent. With volume fractions approaching 20%, excluded-volume interactions play a key role in determining the structure, dynamics, and function of macromolecules in vivo. Under such constraints, the ensembles of macromolecular conformations can differ substantially from those prevailing in dilute solutions. Crowding thus can affect protein and RNA folding, conformational stability, and reaction kinetics, as well as phase stability of macromolecular mixtures. From the perspective of soft matter physics, this chapter reviews recent studies on crowding in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures, seeking to demonstrate the utility of simple physical models for addressing challenging issues in cell biology. The focus is on applications of free-volume theory and Monte Carlo simulation, based on geometrical models of polymers as fluctuating spheres or ellipsoids. Ideal polymer coils respond to hard-sphere crowding agents by compactifying, reducing their radius of gyration, and becoming more spherical. At sufficiently high concentrations, polymers and crowders phase-separate. The goal of this review is to identify universal principles governing macromolecular crowding and to establish a general framework for future explorations of more realistic models that may include nonsteric (e.g., electrostatic) interactions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  4. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  5. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  6. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of substituting an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS for refined glycerol as a polymer plasticizer we have prepared cast gelatin films plasticized with a simulated BCS, i.e., mixtures of glycerol and some of the typical components found in BCS (methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. We measured the tensile properties as a function of plasticizer composition, and analyzed the specific effect of each individual component on tensile properties. We found that it is the unrecovered alkyl esters that largely determine the tensile properties, and that BCS can be successfully used to plasticize cast gelatin films as long as the BCS contains 11 parts by weight, or less, of unrecovered alkyl esters per 100 parts glycerol.

  7. Structural plasticity of axon terminals in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; Caroni, Pico

    2007-10-01

    There is now conclusive evidence for widespread ongoing structural plasticity of presynaptic boutons and axon side-branches in the adult brain. The plasticity complements that of postsynaptic spines, but axonal plasticity samples larger volumes of neuropil, and has a larger impact on circuit remodeling. Axons from distinct neurons exhibit unique ratios of stable (t1/2>9 months) and dynamic (t1/2 5-20 days) boutons, which persist as spatially intermingled subgroups along terminal arbors. In addition, phases of side-branch dynamics mediate larger scale remodeling guided by synaptogenesis. The plasticity is most pronounced during critical periods; its patterns and outcome are controlled by Hebbian mechanisms and intrinsic neuronal factors. Novel experience, skill learning, life-style, and age can persistently modify local circuit structure through axonal structural plasticity.

  8. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  9. Lubricant for cold plastic metal working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postolov, Yu.M.; Larina, N.F.; Osadchuk, Ye.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Syroyezhko, A.M.; Vikhorev, A.A.; Yakovlev, V.I.

    1980-03-28

    A lubricant is proposed for cold plastic metal working based on fatty acids from the process of pyrolysis of castor oil (ZhKPM) with increased screening properties and which improve the quality of PV of finished parts. The lubricant contains (percent): cyclohexanol 0.5-60, levulinic and/or ketoenanthic acid 0.5-20, ZhKPM up to 100; the content of ketoenanthic acid in mixture with levulinic acid is 20-50 percent. Tests of the number of proposed lubricants were conducted for cold stampling of parts from a metal strip on a 10 ton mechanical press. Tool stability (number of pieces until adhesion) was 1200-1400, purity class Pv-7. In tests under a similar condition of vegetable oil, ZhKPM and a mixture of ZhKPM with esters (nonlubricant) tool stability was 1100, and the purity class Pv-6.

  10. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Flory-Huggins theory for athermal mixtures of hard spheres and larger flexible polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sear, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    A simple analytic theory for mixtures of hard spheres and larger polymers with excluded volume interactions is developed. The mixture is shown to exhibit extensive immiscibility. For large polymers with strong excluded volume interactions, the density of monomers at the critical point for demixing decreases as one over the square root of the length of the polymer, while the density of spheres tends to a constant. This is very different to the behaviour of mixtures of hard spheres and ideal po...

  12. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  13. Refractive index of liquid mixtures: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Carlos R; Lampreia, Isabel M S; Santos, Angela F S; Moita, Maria Luísa C J; Douhéret, Gérard

    2010-12-03

    An innovative approach is presented to interpret the refractive index of binary liquid mixtures. The concept of refractive index "before mixing" is introduced and shown to be given by the volume-fraction mixing rule of the pure-component refractive indices (Arago-Biot formula). The refractive index of thermodynamically ideal liquid mixtures is demonstrated to be given by the volume-fraction mixing rule of the pure-component squared refractive indices (Newton formula). This theoretical formulation entails a positive change of refractive index upon ideal mixing, which is interpreted in terms of dissimilar London dispersion forces centred in the dissimilar molecules making up the mixture. For real liquid mixtures, the refractive index of mixing and the excess refractive index are introduced in a thermodynamic manner. Examples of mixtures are cited for which excess refractive indices and excess molar volumes show all of the four possible sign combinations, a fact that jeopardises the finding of a general equation linking these two excess properties. Refractive indices of 69 mixtures of water with the amphiphile (R,S)-1-propoxypropan-2-ol are reported at five temperatures in the range 283-303 K. The ideal and real refractive properties of this binary system are discussed. Pear-shaped plots of excess refractive indices against excess molar volumes show that extreme positive values of excess refractive index occur at a substantially lower mole fraction of the amphiphile than extreme negative values of excess molar volume. Analysis of these plots provides insights into the mixing schemes that occur in different composition segments. A nearly linear variation is found when Balankina's ratios between excess and ideal values of refractive indices are plotted against ratios between excess and ideal values of molar volumes. It is concluded that, when coupled with volumetric properties, the new thermodynamic functions defined for the analysis of refractive indices of liquid

  14. Plastic and free shrinkages cracking of blended white cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, A.M.; White, T.; Ariaratnam, S.; Knutson, K. [Housing and Building National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the plastic and free shrinkages of white portland cement concrete, concrete incorporating silica fume (SF) and concrete incorporating metakaolin (MK) compared to regular plain gray portland cement concrete. An experimental program was designed to investigate the plastic and free shrinkage of concrete containing gray and white blended cement. The paper discussed the experimental details including materials and cement types such as SF, MK, aggregate, and superplasticizer as well as concrete mixtures and specimen preparation including mixture proportions, preparation and curing of concrete specimens, and test specimens. It also presented the determination of concrete properties such as slump of fresh concrete, plastic shrinkage, and dry shrinkage. Test results and discussion of results were also provided. It was concluded that plain white portland cement concrete showed less number of plastic cracks but slightly higher average crack width compared to other concrete mixtures with MK or SF. In addition, free shrinkage behavior of plain white cement and plain gray cement matrix was comparable. 23 refs.

  15. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  16. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara

    2014-01-01

    solutions for the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) used in the study was found. In addition, a specific method to tailor cleaning mixtures for plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) objects was developed by means of Hildebrand solubility parameters and the formulation of a Plasticizer Index calculated......This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artificial...

  17. Mixture Segmentation of Multispectral MR Brain Images for Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Li

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a fully automatic mixture model-based tissue classification of multispectral (T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR brain images. Unlike the conventional hard classification with a unique label for each voxel, our method models a mixture to estimate the partial volumes (PV of multiple tissue types within a voxel. A new Markov random field (MRF model is proposed to reflect the spatial information of tissue mixtures. A mixture classification algorithm is performed by the maximum a posterior (MAP criterion, where the expectation maximization (EM algorithm is utilized to estimate model parameters. The algorithm interleaves segmentation with parameter estimation and improves classification in an iterative manner. The presented method is evaluated by clinical MR image datasets for quantification of brain volumes and multiple sclerosis (MS.

  18. Computational material design for Q&P steels with plastic instability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guang; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin

    2017-07-17

    In this paper, the deformation limits of Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steels are examined with the plastic instability theory. For this purpose, the constituent phase properties of various Q&P steels were first experimentally obtained, and used to estimate the overall tensile stress-strain curves based on the simple rule of mixture (ROM) with the iso-strain and iso-stress assumptions. Plastic instability theory was then applied to the obtained overall stress-strain curves in order to estimate the deformation limits of the Q&P steels. A parametric study was also performed to examine the effects of various material parameters on the deformation limits of Q&P steels. Computational material design was subsequently carried out based on the information obtained from the parametric study. The results show that the plastic instability theory with iso-stress-based stress-strain curve may be used to provide the lower bound estimate of the uniform elongation (UE) for the various Q&P steels considered. The results also indicate that higher austenite stability/volume fractions, less strength difference between the primary phases, higher hardening exponents of the constituent phases are generally beneficial for the performance improvement of Q&P steels, and that various material parameters may be concurrently adjusted in a cohesive way in order to improve the performance of Q&P steel. The information from this study may be used to devise new heat treatment parameters and alloying elements to produce Q&P steels with the improved performance.

  19. Thermogravimetrical investigation of synthetic plastic and raw biomaterials; Thermogravimetrische Untersuchungen von Kunststoffen und Biorohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, M. [Tech. Univ. Stettin (Poland); Ahlhaus, M. [Inst. fuer Energie und Umwelt e.V. (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    TGA is a method which analyzes the decomposition of organic solids as a function of temperature and time. Loss of solid matter in a sample is measured continuously in a controlled temperature programme. Further applications are in fission gas and residue analysis, where TGA is combined e.g. with a mass spectrometer or gas chromatograph. The decomposition characteristics of different plastics and plastics mixtures was compared with biogenic materials (wood, grass, sewage sludge). The analyses were carried out at temperatures of 20-900 C at heating rates of 5 K/min, 10 K/min, 20 K/min and in isothermal conditions at 250, 300, 350, 400 C. The temperature for the isothermal analyses should be selected in dependence of the analyzed plastic material. The experiments were made in a nitrogen atmosphere and in air. The gas volume flow was varied between 20 ml/min and 100 ml/min. The experimental findings are presented in examples. [German] Die 'Thermogravimetrische Analyse (TGA)' ist eine Methode, mit der die Zersetzung organischer Feststoffe in Abhaengigkeit von Temperatur und Zeit untersucht wird. Die Probe wird einem kontrollierten Temperaturprogramm unterworfen und der Verlust der Feststoffmasse kontinuierlich aufgezeichnet. Weitere Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten ergeben sich bei der zusaetzlichen Analyse von Spaltgasen und Rueckstaenden, wozu die TGA mit z.B. Massenspektrometer oder Gaschromatograph gekoppelt wird. Das Zersetzungsverhalten verschiedener Kunststoffe und Kunststoffmischungen wurde mit biogenen Roh- und Abfallstoffen (Hoelzer, Graeser, Klaerschlamm) verglichen. Die Untersuchungen wurden im Temperaturbereich von 20 bis 900 C bei Heizraten von 5 K/min, 10 K/min, 20 K/min und bei isothermen Bedingungen bei 250, 300, 350, 400 C durchgefuehrt. Die Temperaturwahl fuer die isothermen Analysen ist von dem zu untersuchenden Kunststoff abhaengig. Die Versuche wurden unter Stickstoff- und Luftatmosphaere durchgefuehrt. Der Gasvolumenstrom wurde zwischen 20 ml

  20. Densidades y Propiedades Volumétricas de Mezclas N,N-Dimetilformamida + Agua a Presión Constante de 98.93 kPa y a varias Temperaturas Densities and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures N,N-Dimethylformamide + Water at Constant Pressure of 98.93 kPa and various Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel S Páez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo proporciona un conjunto de datos volumétricos para evaluar la influencia de la concentración y la temperatura sobre las interacciones moleculares entre N, N-Dimetilformamida (DMF y agua. Con este propósito e midió la densidad de mezclas acuosas binarias de DMF sobre el rango completo de concentración, a la presión de 98.93 kPa y a temperaturas desde 293,15K a 313,15K usando un densímetro de tubo vibratorio. Se calculó los volúmenes molares de exceso, volúmenes molares parciales y volúmenes molares parciales a dilución infinita. Los volúmenes molares parciales a dilución infinita de DMF en solución acuosa fueron obtenidos por extrapolación a cada temperatura. Los volúmenes molares de exceso fueron calculados a partir de los datos de densidad y correlacionados usando la ecuación polinomial de Redlich-Kister. La DMF presenta un comportamiento hidrofóbico similar a otros solutos orgánicos en medio acuoso, como alcoholes y polioles.This work provides a set of volumetric data to evaluate the influence of the concentration and the temperature on the molecular interactions between N, N-Dimetilformamida (DMF and water. Densities of binary aqueous mixtures of N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF were measured over the entire composition range at constant pressure of 98.93 kPa and at temperatures from 293,15K and 313,15K using a vibrating-tube densimeter. Excess molar volumes and partial molar volume at infinite dilution were also calculated. The partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of DMF in aqueous solution were obtained by extrapolation at each temperature. The excess molar volumes were calculated from density data and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The DMF presents a hydrophobic behavior similar to other organic solutes in water such alcohols and polyols.

  1. From binder to mixture: experimental programme on permanent deformation behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt mixture, the most common road construction material, comprises bitumen, filler, fine and coarse aggregates, and air voids. Traditionally and for simplification, the mixture is treated as a continuous and homogenous material confined in the domain of linear behaviour. The demand for more durable roads, particularly with the progressive growth in traffic volumes and loads, has raised the requirement for improved design methods. Wisely, before the complex adoption of the nonlinear behavi...

  2. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  3. CRAG (Composite Research Advisory Group) Test Methods for the Measurement of the Engineering Properties of Fibre Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    coefficients in fibre reinforced plastic laminates. RAE Technical Report 81105, August 1981. UNLIMITED fig 900.1 00 Z a r40 N 6)l I...through- thickness moisture distribution and diffusion coefficients in fibre reinforced plastic laminates. RAE Technical Report 81105, August 1981. 4 C...procedures to be used to determine the fibre volume fraction (Vf) and the resin volume fraction (Vr) of cured fibre reinforced plastic laminates. It is not

  4. Ocean acidification challenges copepod phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmaa, Anu; Almén, Anna-Karin; Brutemark, Andreas; Paul, Allanah; Riebesell, Ulf; Furuhagen, Sara; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-11-01

    Ocean acidification is challenging phenotypic plasticity of individuals and populations. Calanoid copepods (zooplankton) are shown to be fairly plastic against altered pH conditions, and laboratory studies indicate that transgenerational effects are one mechanism behind this plasticity. We studied phenotypic plasticity of the copepod Acartia sp. in the course of a pelagic, large-volume mesocosm study that was conducted to investigate ecosystem and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification. We measured copepod egg production rate, egg-hatching success, adult female size and adult female antioxidant capacity (ORAC) as a function of acidification (fCO2 ˜ 365-1231 µatm) and as a function of quantity and quality of their diet. We used an egg transplant experiment to reveal whether transgenerational effects can alleviate the possible negative effects of ocean acidification on offspring development. We found significant negative effects of ocean acidification on adult female size. In addition, we found signs of a possible threshold at high fCO2, above which adaptive maternal effects cannot alleviate the negative effects of acidification on egg-hatching and nauplii development. We did not find support for the hypothesis that insufficient food quantity (total particulate carbon < 55 µm) or quality (C : N) weakens the transgenerational effects. However, females with high-ORAC-produced eggs with high hatching success. Overall, these results indicate that Acartia sp. could be affected by projected near-future CO2 levels.

  5. Influence of mineral aggregates on the rheological properties of concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to determine how the change of concrete mixture constituents: concentration of fine and coarse aggregate as well as the amount of fine particles, not exceeding 0.25 mm, influence concrete mixture's rheological properties. Firstly, inner- concentration of fine aggregate (sand, fraction of 0/1 and 0/4) was changed. Secondly, coarse aggregate (gravel, fraction of 4/16) concentration was changed and finally, the amount of fine particles was changed. Results have shown that with the increase of sand (fraction of 0/1) quantity, the plastic viscosity also increased. On the other hand, yield stress, at the beginning decreased, but eventually - increased. The increase of coarse aggregate quantity acted differently: plastic viscosity and yield stress decreased. Finally, the increase of fine particles quantity decreased the plastic viscosity as well as yield stress of concrete mixture.

  6. Plastic theory for the multi-crystal metals-From infinitesimal deformation to finite deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Multi-crystal metals have the property of volume conservation in the plastic state. In the infinitesimal deformation plasticity the strain tensor can be split into a deviator part and a volumetric part. The vanishing of the first variant of the strain tensor is equivalent to the volume conservation. Furthermore, the split of the strain into an elastic part and a plastic part is also adopted widely. The flow rule is thus established. These two splits are not confirmed in the finite deformation plasticity. The plasticity criterion and the flow rule are thus facing great challenge. There are various definitions of strain measures in the finite deformation theory. Though the choosing of strain measure is arbitrary in the elastic problem, it is strongly restricted in the plastic problem. By theoretical and experimental studies, it is shown that the logarithmic strain is the only suitable strain measure in the metal forming problem.

  7. Pointer Sentinel Mixture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Merity, Stephen; Xiong, Caiming; Bradbury, James; Socher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Recent neural network sequence models with softmax classifiers have achieved their best language modeling performance only with very large hidden states and large vocabularies. Even then they struggle to predict rare or unseen words even if the context makes the prediction unambiguous. We introduce the pointer sentinel mixture architecture for neural sequence models which has the ability to either reproduce a word from the recent context or produce a word from a standard softmax classifier. O...

  8. Vertical flow of a multiphase mixture in a channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a multiphase mixture consisting of a viscous fluid and solid particles between two vertical plates is studied. The theory of interacting continua or mixture theory is used. Constitutive relations for the stress tensor of the granular materials and the interaction force are presented and discussed. The flow of interest is an ideal one where we assume the flow to be steady and fully developed; the mixture is flowing between two long vertical plates. The non-linear boundary value problem is solved numerically, and the results are presented for the dimensionless velocity profiles and the volume fraction as functions of various dimensionless numbers.

  9. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  10. Flory-Huggins theory for athermal mixtures of hard spheres and larger flexible polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, Richard P

    2002-11-01

    A simple analytic theory for mixtures of hard spheres and larger polymers with excluded volume interactions is developed. The mixture is shown to exhibit extensive immiscibility. For large polymers with strong excluded volume interactions, the density of monomers at the critical point for demixing decreases as one over the square root of the length of the polymer, while the density of spheres tends to a constant. This is very different from the behavior of mixtures of hard spheres and ideal polymers, these mixtures, although even less miscible than those with polymers with excluded volume interactions, have a much higher polymer density at the critical point of demixing. The theory applies to the complete range of mixtures of spheres with flexible polymers, from those with strong excluded volume interactions to ideal polymers.

  11. Dielectric constant of liquid alkanes and hydrocarbon mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Arakelian, T.

    1992-01-01

    The complex dielectric constants of n-alkanes with two to seven carbon atoms have been measured. The measurements were conducted using a slotted-line technique at 1.2 GHz and at atmospheric pressure. The temperature was varied from the melting point to the boiling point of the respective alkanes. The real part of the dielectric constant was found to decrease with increasing temperature and correlate with the change in the molar volume. An upper limit to all the loss tangents was established at 0.001. The complex dielectric constants of a few mixtures of liquid alkanes were also measured at room temperature. For a pentane-octane mixture the real part of the dielectric constant could be explained by the Clausius-Mosotti theory. For the mixtures of n-hexane-ethylacetate and n-hexane-acetone the real part of the dielectric constants could be explained by the Onsager theory extended to mixtures. The dielectric constant of the n-hexane-acetone mixture displayed deviations from the Onsager theory at the highest fractions of acetone. The dipole moments of ethylacetate and acetone were determined for dilute mixtures using the Onsager theory and were found to be in agreement with their accepted gas-phase values. The loss tangents of the mixtures exhibited a linear relationship with the volume fraction for low concentrations of the polar liquids.

  12. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plastic waste was received at a material recovery facility (MRF) and processed for granulation and subsequent downstream use. In the three alternatives, plastic was assumed to be substituting virgin plastic in new products, wood in low-strength products (outdoor furniture, fences, etc.), and coal or fuel oil in the case of energy utilization. GHG accounting was organized in terms of indirect upstream emissions (e.g. provision of energy, fuels, and materials), direct emissions at the MRF (e.g. fuel combustion), and indirect downstream emissions (e.g. avoided emissions from production of virgin plastic, wood, or coal/oil). Combined, upstream and direct emissions were estimated to be roughly between 5 and 600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on treatment at the MRF and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Potential downstream savings arising from substitution of virgin plastic, wood, and energy fuels were estimated to be around 60- 1600 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of plastic waste depending on substitution ratios and CO(2) emissions from electricity production. Based on the reviewed data, it was concluded that substitution of virgin plastic should be preferred. If this is not viable due to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming.

  13. Concrete mixture characterization. Cementitious barriers partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Protiere, Yannick [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the characterization study performed on two concrete mixtures used for radioactive waste storage. Both mixtures were prepared with approximately 425 kg of binder. The testing protocol mostly focused on determining the transport properties of the mixtures; volume of permeable voids (porosity), diffusion coefficients, and water permeability were evaluated. Tests were performed after different curing durations. In order to obtain data on the statistical distribution of transport properties, the measurements after 2 years of curing were performed on 10+ samples. Overall, both mixtures exhibited very low tortuosities and permeabilities, a direct consequence of their low water-to-binder ratio and the use of supplementary cementitious materials. The data generated on 2-year old samples showed that porosity, tortuosity and permeability follow a normal distribution. Chloride ponding tests were also performed on test samples. They showed limited chloride ingress, in line with measured transport properties. These test results also showed that both materials react differently with chloride, a consequence of the differences in the binder chemical compositions.

  14. Cementitious barriers partnership concrete mixture characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Protiere, Yannick [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the characterization study performed on two concrete mixtures used for radioactive waste storage. Both mixtures were prepared with approximately 425 kg of binder. The testing protocol mostly focused on determining the transport properties of the mixtures; volume of permeable voids (porosity), diffusion coefficients, and water permeability were evaluated. Tests were performed after different curing durations. In order to obtain data on the statistical distribution of transport properties, the measurements after 2 years of curing were performed on 10+ samples. Overall, both mixtures exhibited very low tortuosities and permeabilities, a direct consequence of their low water-to-binder ratio and the use of supplementary cementitious materials. The data generated on 2-year old samples showed that porosity, tortuosity and permeability follow a normal distribution. Chloride ponding tests were also performed on test samples. They showed limited chloride ingress, in line with measured transport properties. These test results also showed that both materials react differently with chloride, a consequence of the differences in the binder chemical compositions.

  15. Application of biotests for the determination of soil ecotoxicity after exposure to biodegradable plastics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics are mostly applied in packaging materials (e.g. shopping bags), waste collection bags, catering products, and agricultural applications. In this last case, degradation takes place directly in soil where biodegradable plastic products are intentionally left after use (e.g. mulch films for weeds control). Due to the growing volumes of biodegradable polymers and plastics, interest in their environmental safety is increasing and more research is carried out. Some attempt ha...

  16. Yield Functions and Plastic Potentials for BCC Metals and Possibly Other Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R M

    2005-09-29

    Yield functions and plastic potentials are expressed in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor for polycrystalline metals and other isotropic materials. The plastic volume change data of Richmond is used to evaluate the embedded materials properties for some bcc metals and one polymer. A general form for the plastic potential is found that is intended to represent and cover a wide range of materials types.

  17. Computer Implementation of the Bounding Surface Plasticity Model for Cohesive Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    23 REFERENCES 1. Dafalias, Y.F., and L.R. Herrmann, "A Bounding Surface Soil Plasticity Model", Proceedings of the International Symposium of Soils...Herrmann, "Bounding Surface Formulatin of Soil Plasticity ", Chapter in Soil Mechanics - Transient and Cyclic Loads, John Wiley and Sons, Eds. O.C...Herrmann and Y.F. r)afalias, "User’s Manual for MODCAL-Bounding Surface Soil Plasticity Model Calibration and Prediction Code (Volume I)," Civil

  18. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  19. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  20. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  1. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  2. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  3. Fresh properties of high-volume fly ash self consolidating concretes[ACI SP-235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmaran, M.; Yaman, I.O.; Tokyay, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has excellent deformability, high resistance to segregation and can be filled into heavily reinforced molds without applying vibration. In addition to these technical advantages, SCC shortens construction time and guarantees higher durability and strength. Self consolidating characteristics are typically achieved using new generation superplasticizers to provide the required flowability. However, plasticizers reduce the viscosity of the SCC. The required cohesion can be achieved by a variety of methods, including the use of viscosity modifying admixtures, but all of the methods increase the cost of SCC. For that reason, mineral admixtures or inert materials such as limestone powder, natural pozzolans and fly ash (FA) are used to increase the viscosity and to reduce the cost of SCC. FA, a by-product of thermal power plants, has been shown to improve the mechanical properties and durability of concrete when used as a cement replacement material. This study evaluated the effects of adding high volumes of high-lime and low-lime FA on the fresh properties of SCCs. Properties of SCC in the fresh and hardened states with both high-lime and low-lime FA types were also examined. Following the mixing procedure, tests were performed on the fresh concrete to determine slump flow time to reach a concrete 500 mm spread circle and diameter, V-funnel flow time, L-box test, GTM sieve stability, setting times, and rheological parameters, relative yield stress and plastic viscosity. During the slump flow test, segregation and bleeding were also visually checked. The results of density and compressive strength of hardened SCC mixtures at 28 and 90 days were also presented. It was concluded that the addition of low-lime FA at high volumes reduced the water requirement of the SCC mixture. Slump flow time, V-funnel flow time and the relative plastic viscosity were related to the viscosity of concrete. The segregation resistance, L-box height ratio and

  4. Modeling plasticity of materials with nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinova, N. R.

    2017-02-01

    A new approach to modeling of the plasticity of materials with the particle size in the range from 3 to 20 nm (nanostructure) has been proposed. It is based on classical thermodynamic approach employing the surface tension of nanoparticles. Its main advantage is the minimum number of physical parameters in use. In the context of the proposed model, we calculated the dependence of the melting temperature on the nanoparticle size which is consistent with experimental data. The volume density of the surface energy of nanoparticles was also determined. This energy is assumed to be a significant part of the internal energy during deformation Yield point was interpreted as the result of changes of grains surface energy during the deformation. The obtained yield point dependence on the grain size was related to the Hall–Petch law, and this resulted in confirmation of the hypothesis on the crucial role of surface tension forces in the initial stage of plastic deformation of nanomaterials.

  5. Molecular thermodiffusion (thermophoresis) in liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Semen N; Schimpf, Martin E

    2005-10-01

    Thermodiffusion (thermophoresis) in liquid mixtures is theoretically examined using a hydrodynamic approach. Thermodiffusion is related to the local temperature-induced pressure gradient in the liquid layer surrounding the selected molecule and to the secondary macroscopic pressure gradient established in the system. The local pressure gradient is produced by excess pressure due to the asymmetry of interactions with surrounding molecules in a nonuniform temperature field. The secondary pressure gradient is considered an independent parameter related to the concentration gradient formed by volume forces, calculated from the generalized equations for mass transfer. Values of Soret coefficients for mixtures of toluene and -hexane are calculated using parameters in the literature. When the molecules are assumed to be similar in shape, the calculated Soret coefficients are lower than the empirical values found in the literature. However, by introducing an asymmetry parameter, which is calculated from independent measurements of component diffusion in the literature, very good agreement is obtained.

  6. Essays on Finite Mixture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFinite mixture distributions are a weighted average of a ¯nite number of distributions. The latter are usually called the mixture components. The weights are usually described by a multinomial distribution and are sometimes called mixing proportions. The mixture components may be the

  7. Essays on Finite Mixture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFinite mixture distributions are a weighted average of a ¯nite number of distributions. The latter are usually called the mixture components. The weights are usually described by a multinomial distribution and are sometimes called mixing proportions. The mixture components may be the sam

  8. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...

  9. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  10. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Groten, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures

  11. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  12. The effects of ingested plastic on growth and survival of albatross chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Paul R.; Sileo, Louis

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effects of ingested plastic on the growth and survival of chicks of Laysan Albatrosses Diomedea immutabilis and Black-footed albatrosses D. nigripes on Midway Atoll during the nesting seasons of 1986 and 1987. Weights and proventricular contents of the chicks were determined periodically through the nesting cycle. Large (>22 cm1)volumes of plastic were present in the proventriculi of 27% of the Laysan and 16% of the Black-footed albatross chicks examined by endoscopy. Prior to fledging, albatross chicks regurgitated pellets composed of plastic and other indigestible material from their proventriculi. Laysan Albatross chicks with large volumes of proventricular plastic had asymptotic fledging weights significantly lower (122 g) than did chicks with low amounts of plastic. The effect of depresses fledging weights on postfledging survival was not determined. Plastic had no detectable effect on the growth of Black-footed Albatross chicks. All chicks that died were examined by necropsy. Mechanical lesions from ingested plastic were the cause of death of one of 45 Laysan Albatross chicks examined in 1986, but were not the cause of death of 93 individuals examined in 1987. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. In general, ingested plastic was not a significant direct cause of death in nestlings, but there was some evidence that it may have affected survival in 1986, when the volume of plastic ingested was highest.

  13. Application of fluidization to separate packaging waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Teresa; Ferreira, Célia; Portela, Antía; Santos, João Tiago

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the experimental work described in this paper is the study of the separation of PS (polystyrene) from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) from drop-off points using a fluidized bed separator. This is a low-cost process commonly used in the hydro-classification of mineral ores. Firstly, experimental tests were carried out with artificial granulated samples with different grain sizes, types and sources of plastic ("separability tests"). The particle settling velocities were determined under different operating conditions. Then, based on the results, the laboratory tests continued with real mixtures of waste plastics ("separation tests") and the efficiency of the process was evaluated. From a PET-rich mixture, a concentrate of PS with a 75% grade in PS was produced while the underflow was quite clear from PS (grade less than 0.5% in PS).

  14. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borde, Preeti; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; McGuigan, Kevin G; Keogh, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    .... The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l). Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities...

  15. High Efficiency, High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (HEHO-PMWC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative High Efficiency, High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (HEHO-PMWC) is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction...

  16. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  17. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  18. A plastic micropump constructed with conventional techniques and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, P.

    1999-01-01

    A plastic micropump which can be produced using conventional production techniques and materials is presented. By applying well-known techniques and materials, economic fabrication of micropumps for various applications is feasible even at low production volumes. The micropump is capable of pumping

  19. Recrystallization kinetics of nanostructured copper processed by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin; Pantleon, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    The recrystallization kinetics of nanostructured copper samples processed by dynamic plastic deformation was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the evolution of the recrystallized volume fraction as a function of annealing time has a very low slope (n=0.37) when...

  20. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  1. Biodegradable plastic agricultural mulches and key features of microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhagen, Marion; Peyron, Mark; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra Ann

    2015-02-01

    The development of biodegradable plastic mulch films for use in agriculture has been ongoing for decades. These films consist of mixtures of polymers with various additives. As a result, their physical and chemical properties differ from those of the pure polymers often used for in vitro enzymatic and microbial degradation studies, raising questions about the biodegradation capability of mulch films. Currently, standards exist for the biodegradation of plastics in composting conditions but not in soil. Biodegradation in soil or compost depends on a complex synergy of biological and abiotic degradative processes. This review discusses the physicochemical and structural properties of biodegradable plastic mulches, examines their potential for on-site decomposition in light of site-to-site variance due to environmental and biological conditions, and considers the potential for long-term effects on agroecosystem sustainability and functionality.

  2. Performance of Light-Weight Concrete with Plastic Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Ramesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to explore the suitability of recycled plastics (high density polyethylene as coarse aggregate in concrete by conducting various tests like workability by slump test, compressive strength of cube and cylinder, splitting tensile strength test of cylinder, flexural strength of R.C.C as well as P.CC. beams to determine the properties and behaviour in concrete. Effect of replacement of coarse aggregate with various percentages (0% to 40% of plastic aggregate on behaviour of concrete was experimentally investigated and the optimum replacement of coarse aggregate was found out. The results showed that the addition of plastic aggregate to the concrete mixture improved the properties of the resultant mix.

  3. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecherková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into blocks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for outlier detection and removal. It is based on modelling the corrupted data by a two-component probabilistic mixture. The first component of the mixture models uncorrupted process data, while the second models outliers. When the outlier component is detected to be active, a prediction from the uncorrupted data component is computed and used as a reconstruction of the observed data. The resulting reconstruction filter is compared to standard methods on simulated and real data. The filter exhibits excellent properties, especially in the case of blocks of outliers. 

  4. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  5. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M. I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation and strain...... predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model chosen to be $0.325\\mu m$ (around ten times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  6. Plasticity size effects in voided crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussein, M.I.; Borg, Ulrik; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2008-01-01

    as line singularities in an elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of length scales investigated, both the discrete dislocation...... between predictions of the two formulations for all crystal types and void volume fractions considered when the material length scale in the non-local plasticity model is chosen to be 0.325 mu m (about 10 times the slip plane spacing in the discrete dislocation models)....

  7. Low temperature creep plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kassner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of crystalline materials at low temperatures (T < 0.3Tm is discussed. In particular, the phenomenological relationships that describe primary creep are reviewed and analyzed. A discussion of the activation energy for creep at T < 0.3Tm is discussed in terms of the context of higher temperature activation energy. The basic mechanism(s of low temperature creep plasticity are discussed, as well.

  8. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  10. Dynamic Plasticity and Fracture in High Density Polycrystals: Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    polycrystalline WHA specimens on the response under combined compressive -shear loading and found that a certain degree of pre-twisting of the...conducted via isostatic pressing and sintering of a mixture of W, Ni, and Fe powders, followed by annealing to remove absorbed hydrogen and then possible...this ‘‘stored energy of cold work’’ can be viewed as an extension to finite crystal plasticity theory of the macroscopic, linearized elastic–plastic

  11. Mixing subattolitre volumes in a quantitative and highly parallel manner with soft matter nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sune M.; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Hatzakis, Nikos;

    2012-01-01

    Handling and mixing ultrasmall volumes of reactants in parallel can increase the throughput and complexity of screening assays while simultaneously reducing reagent consumption. Microfabricated silicon and plastic can provide reliable fluidic devices, but cannot typically handle total volumes sma...

  12. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  13. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  14. Predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-01-01

    Employing well-established mixing rules for mean properties,appropriate expressions are aerivea for predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures in terms of monocomponent values for the velocity and the bed voidage at incipient fluidization.Based on flow regime and the mixing level of constituent species,it is found that these relationships differ significantly from each other,whether related to size-different or density-different mixtures.For mixed beds of size-different mixtures,the effect of volume contraction is accounted for by the mean voidage term,which is absent for segregated beds.Incorporating the volume-change of mixing leads to values of the mixture minimum fluidization velocities even lower than corresponding values for segregated bed,thus conforming to the trend reported in the literature.Size-different mixtures exhibit flow regime dependence irrespective of whether the bed is mixed or segregated.On the other hand,the mixing of constituent species does not affect the minimum fluidization velocity of density-different mixtures,as the difference in the expressions for a segregated and a mixed system is rather inconsequential.Comparison with experimental data available in the literature is made to test the efficacy of the minimum fluidization velocity expressions derived here.

  15. Rheology of binary granular mixtures in the dense flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Khakhar, D. V.

    2011-11-01

    We study the rheology of granular mixtures in a steady, fully developed, gravity-driven flow on an inclined plane, by means of discrete element method (DEM) simulations. Results are presented for a single component system and binary mixtures with particles of different size and density. Inclination angles, composition, size ratios and density ratios are varied to obtain different segregated configurations at equilibrium. Steady state profiles of the mean velocity, volume fractions, shear stress, shear rate, inertial number and apparent viscosity across the depth of the flowing layer are reported for the different cases. The viscosity varies with height and is found to depend on the local bulk density and composition, which, in turn, depend on the size ratio, the mass ratio and the degree of segregation. For a single component system, a viscoplastic rheological model [P. Jop et al., Nature 441, 727 (2006)] describes the data quite well. We propose a modification of the model for the case of mixtures. The mixture model predicts the viscosity for both well-mixed and segregated granular mixtures differing in size, density or both, using the same model parameters as obtained for the single component system. The predictions of a model for the volume fraction of the mixtures also agree well with simulation results.

  16. Promise and Limitations of Big Data Research in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Victor Zhang; Tuggle, Charles Thompson; Au, Alexander Francis

    2016-04-01

    The use of "Big Data" in plastic surgery outcomes research has increased dramatically in the last 5 years. This article addresses some of the benefits and limitations of such research. This is a narrative review of large database studies in plastic surgery. There are several benefits to database research as compared with traditional forms of research, such as randomized controlled studies and cohort studies. These include the ease in patient recruitment, reduction in selection bias, and increased generalizability. As such, the types of outcomes research that are particularly suited for database studies include determination of geographic variations in practice, volume outcome analysis, evaluation of how sociodemographic factors affect access to health care, and trend analyses over time. The limitations of database research include data which are limited only to what was captured in the database, high power which can cause clinically insignificant differences to achieve statistical significance, and fishing which can lead to increased type I errors. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project is an important general surgery database that may be useful for plastic surgeons because it is validated and has a large number of patients after over a decade of collecting data. The Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons Program is a newer database specific to plastic surgery. Databases are a powerful tool for plastic surgery outcomes research. It is critically important to understand their benefits and limitations when designing research projects or interpreting studies whose data have been drawn from them. For plastic surgeons, National Surgical Quality Improvement Project has a greater number of publications, but Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons Program is the most applicable database for plastic surgery research.

  17. Concomitant variables in finite mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M

    The standard mixture model, the concomitant variable mixture model, the mixture regression model and the concomitant variable mixture regression model all enable simultaneous identification and description of groups of observations. This study reviews the different ways in which dependencies among

  18. Plastic packaging materials and environmental problems. Plastic hosozai to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, T. (Sekisui Plastics Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the recent trends in the environmental problems created from used plastic packaging materials. The 23 wards of the city of Tokyo produce refuses daily of 12,000 tons (1990), with plastics accounting for 15% by volume. Discussions to deal with plastic refuses that are bulky and standing out began as early as in 1971 when the disposal study meeting was inaugurated. As a result, wastes from polyvinyl chloride sheet for agricultural green houses had 40% recovered and recycled out of 100,000 tons generated annually, and styrofoam wastes at 10% of 150,000 tons. The wastes disposal law and the recycling law were established in 1991 aiming at reducing volume of wastes, promoting re-utilization, and assuring appropriate disposal methods and facilities. The Wastes Re-utilization Association was organized to handle styrofoam wastes that are attracting strong attention recently, the association having begun its activities with a good start. It is expected that styrofoam wastes will be molten thermally and regenerated into the same styrofoam products. Styrofoam could be more energy saving and resource saving material than paper cups. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  20. Plastic Strain Induced Damage Evolution and Martensitic Transformation in Ductile Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2002-01-01

    The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behaviour at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution. Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain. Both of thes...

  1. Mechanism of plasticity Development for Ceramic Dough (Part 2). Investigation on Plasticity by Particle Packing Structure; Seramiku nendo no kasakusei hatsugen mekanizumu 2. Nendo juten kozo to kasakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shuji. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ichikawa, Yukari.; Ishida, Hideki. [INAX Corporation, Aichi (Japan); Shibasaki, Yasuo.; Oda, Kiichi. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Plasticity and packing structure of clay and alumina dough, and of alumina mixed with water-soluble and non-water-soluble plasticizers were investigated. It was found that both plastic clay dough and alumina dough with plasticizers showed a two-peak pore population. When the larger-sized pores increased in volume, the fluidity of the dough was improved. On the otherhand, when the smaller-sized pores decreased in volume, a high rigidity was showed. An aggregate structure was observed in the clay and the dough mixed with water-soluble plasticizer like methyl cellulose. Plasticity was generated when the aggregates were deformed by using the larger-sized pores among each aggregate. The non-water-soluble curdlan did not dissolve in the dough and remained in gel. The larger-sized pores were formed by the gel, whose deformation produced plasticity. It was understood that plasticity is fenerated when either the aggregates or the gel act as a buffer in the dough and enhance deformation of the dough. (author)

  2. Protein mixtures: interactions and gelation

    OpenAIRE

    Ersch, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gelation is a ubiquitous process in the preparation of foods. As most foods are multi constituent mixtures, understanding gelation in mixtures is an important goal in food science. Here we presented a systematic investigation on the influence of molecular interactions on the gelation in protein mixtures. Gelatin gels with added globular protein and globular protein gels with added gelatin were analyzed for their gel microstructure and rheological properties. Mixed gels with altered microstruc...

  3. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  4. Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari

    2004-01-01

    The short-term stability and the water sorption of films prepared from binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were evaluated using free films. The aqueous polymer solutions of the free films contained 2% (w/w) film formers, glycerol, or erythritol as a plasticizer...... in the crystallinity of the films are evident within a 3-month period of storage, and the changes in the solid state are dependent on the plasticizer and storage conditions. When stored at ambient conditions for 3 months, the aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with erythritol exhibited a partly...

  5. EDCs Mixtures: A Stealthy Hazard for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are exogenous chemicals that may occur naturally (e.g., phytoestrogens, while others are industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide to which human exposure, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs can interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones and, consequently, can simultaneously trigger diverse signaling pathways which result in diverse and divergent biological responses. Additionally, EDCs can also bioaccumulate in lipid compartments of the organism forming a mixed “body burden” of contaminants. Although the independent action of chemicals has been considered the main principle in EDCs mixture toxicity, recent studies have demonstrated that numerous effects cannot be predicted when analyzing single compounds independently. Co-exposure to these agents, particularly in critical windows of exposure, may induce hazardous health effects potentially associated with a complex “body burden” of different origins. Here, we performed an exhaustive review of the available literature regarding EDCs mixtures exposure, toxicity mechanisms and effects, particularly at the most vulnerable human life stages. Although the assessment of potential risks to human health due to exposure to EDCs mixtures is a major topic for consumer safety, information regarding effective mixtures effects is still scarce.

  6. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    “Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  7. Fabrication of plastic biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaem, Ishtiaq; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Alam, S. Munir; Tian Jingdong [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A versatile surface functionalization procedure based on rf magnetron sputtering of silica was performed on poly(methylmethacrylate), polycarbonate, polypropylene, and cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 6015). The hybrid thermoplastic surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis and contact angle measurements. The authors then used these hybrid materials to perform a sandwich assay targeting an HIV-1 antibody using fluorescent detection and biotinylated peptides immobilized using the bioaffinity of biotin-neutravidin. They found a limit of detection similar to arrays on glass surfaces and believed that this plastic biochip platform may be used for the development of disposable immunosensing and diagnostic applications.

  8. UTILIZING WASTE PLASTIC POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AS ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATES TO PRODUCE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM H. ALFAHDAWI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, there is an increasing need for the fabrication of mortar and concrete that can be characterised as sustainable and environmentally friendly. Ideally, this concrete should be inexpensive, lightweight, and outstanding in terms of its physical and mechanical specifications. Plastic materials have increasingly been used in the fabrication of different types of concrete admixtures and mortar constituents. These plastic materials take the form of fillers or shredded fibres derived from polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of plastic materials presents the following benefits: (i enhanced mixture quality and (ii a reduction in the amount of accumulated single-use plastic materials that negatively impact the environment. This work reviews several previous studies on the utilisation and preparations of plastic materials and their effects on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Other topics, including hardened concrete, fresh concrete, application, and thermo-physical characteristics, are also elaborated.

  9. Neurotoxicity of Metal Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V M; Aschner, M; Marreilha Dos Santos, A P

    2017-01-01

    Metals are the oldest toxins known to humans. Metals differ from other toxic substances in that they are neither created nor destroyed by humans (Casarett and Doull's, Toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, London, 2013). Metals are of great importance in our daily life and their frequent use makes their omnipresence and a constant source of human exposure. Metals such as arsenic [As], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], aluminum [Al] and cadmium [Cd] do not have any specific role in an organism and can be toxic even at low levels. The Substance Priority List of Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ranked substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure. In this list, As, Pb, Hg, and Cd occupy the first, second, third, and seventh positions, respectively (ATSDR, Priority list of hazardous substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, 2016). Besides existing individually, these metals are also (or mainly) found as mixtures in various parts of the ecosystem (Cobbina SJ, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Wub X, Feng W, Wang W, Mao G, Xu H, Zhang Z, Wua X, Yang L, Chemosphere 132:79-86, 2015). Interactions among components of a mixture may change toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (Spurgeon DJ, Jones OAH, Dorne J-L, Svendsen C, Swain S, Stürzenbaum SR, Sci Total Environ 408:3725-3734, 2010) and may result in greater (synergistic) toxicity (Lister LJ, Svendsen C, Wright J, Hooper HL, Spurgeon DJ, Environ Int 37:663-670, 2011). This is particularly worrisome when the components of the mixture individually attack the same organs. On the other hand, metals such as manganese [Mn], iron [Fe], copper [Cu], and zinc [Zn] are essential metals, and their presence in the body below or above homeostatic levels can also lead to disease states (Annangi B, Bonassi S, Marcos R, Hernández A, Mutat Res 770(Pt A):140-161, 2016). Pb, As, Cd, and Hg can induce Fe, Cu, and Zn

  10. Smartphone-Aided Measurements of the Speed of Sound in Different Gaseous Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe classroom-based procedures aiming at the estimation of the speed of sound in different gas mixtures with the help of a plastic drain pipe and two iPhones or iPod touches. The procedures were conceived to be performed with simple and readily available tools.

  11. Canary in a coal mine: does the plastic surgery market predict the american economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy W; Davis, Drew G; Son, Andrew K; Camp, Matthew C; Gupta, Subhas C

    2010-08-01

    Economic tools have been used in the past to predict the trends in plastic surgery procedures. Since 1992, U.S. cosmetic surgery volumes have increased overall, but the exact relationship between economic downturns and procedural volumes remains elusive. If an economic predicting role can be established from plastic surgery indicators, this could prove to be a very powerful tool. A rolling 3-month revenue average of an eight-plastic surgeon practice and various economic indicators were plotted and compared. An investigation of the U.S. procedural volumes was performed from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons statistics between 1996 and 2008. The correlations of different economic variables with plastic surgery volumes were evaluated. Lastly, search term frequencies were examined from 2004 to July of 2009 to study potential patient interest in major plastic surgery procedures. The self-payment revenue of the plastic surgery group consistently proved indicative of the market trends approximately 1 month in advance. The Standard and Poor's 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average, National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, and Standard and Poor's Retail Index demonstrated a very close relationship with the income of our plastic surgery group. The frequency of Internet search terms showed a constant level of interest in the patient population despite economic downturns. The data demonstrate that examining plastic surgery revenue can be a useful tool to analyze and possibly predict trends, as it is driven by a market and shows a close correlation to many leading economic indicators. The persisting and increasing interest in plastic surgery suggests hope for a recovering and successful market in the near future.

  12. Influence of uncoated and coated plastic waste coarse aggregates to concrete compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Heru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic waste as coarse aggregates in concrete is part of efforts to reduce environmental pollution. In one hand the use of plastic as aggregates can provide lighter weight of the concrete than concrete using natural aggregates, but on the other hand bond between plastic coarse aggregates and hard matrix give low concrete compressive strength. Improvement of the bond between plastic coarse aggregate and hard matrix through a sand coating to plastic coarse aggregate whole surface is studied. Sand used to coat the plastic aggregates are Merapi volcanic sand which are taken in Magelang. Three mixtures of polypropylene (PP coarse plastic aggregates, Cimangkok river sand as fine aggregates, water and Portland Cement Composite with a water-cement ratio of 0.28, 0.3 and 0.35 are conducted. Compression test are performed on concrete cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 10 cm and a height of 20 cm. The results in general show that concrete specimens using plastic aggregates coated with sand have higher compressive strength compared to those of concrete specimens using plastic aggregates without sand coating. The bond improvement is indirectly indicated by the betterment of concrete compressive strength.

  13. Investigation of fluorescence spectra disturbances influencing the classification performance of fluorescently labeled plastic flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Petr; Brunner, Siegfried; Kargel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The recycling of plastic products becomes increasingly attractive not only from an environmental point of view, but also economically. For recycled (engineering) plastic products with the highest possible quality, plastic sorting technologies must provide clean and virtually mono-fractional compositions from a mixture of many different types of (shredded) plastics. In order to put this high quality sorting into practice, the labeling of virgin plastics with specific fluorescent markers at very low concentrations (ppm level or less) during their manufacturing process is proposed. The emitted fluorescence spectra represent "optical fingerprints" - each being unique for a particular plastic - which we use for plastic identification and classification purposes. In this study we quantify the classification performance using our prototype measurement system and 15 different plastic types when various influence factors most relevant in practice cause disturbances of the fluorescence spectra emitted from the labeled plastics. The results of these investigations help optimize the development and incorporation of appropriate fluorescent markers as well as the classification algorithms and overall measurement system in order to achieve the lowest possible classification error rates.

  14. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  15. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  16. Viscosity and density of methanol/water mixtures at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. G.; Kurata, F.; Swift, G. W.

    1968-01-01

    Viscosity and density are measured at low temperatures for three methanol/water mixtures. Viscosity is determined by a modified falling cylinder method or a calibrated viscometer. Density is determined by the volume of each mixture contained in a calibrated glass cell placed in a constant-temperature bath.

  17. EOS of a material mixture in pressure equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles W. Cranfill

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is presented for calculating the equation of state (EOS) of a material mixture whose constituents are in pressure equilibrium but not necessarily in temperature equilibrium. A Newton-Raphson iteration is performed to determine the constituent partial volumes and energies that give equal partial pressures subject to the constraints that the total volume and energy of the mixture are specified. During each iteration, the changes in EOS quantities are chosen to be fixed (but arbitrary) linear combinations of their temperature-equilibrium and isentropic values, so those two extremes can be reproduced as special cases. The changes in the constituent partial volumes and energies are limited to prevent the Newton-Raphson iteration from diverging.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. A computational investigation on random packings of sphere-spherocylinder mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Random packings of binary mixtures of spheres and spherocylinders with the same volume and the same diameter were simulated by a sphere assembly model and relaxation algorithm. Simulation results show that, independently of the component volume fraction, the mixture packing density increases and then decreases with the growth of the aspect ratio of spherocylinders, and the packing density reaches its maximum at the aspect ratio of 0.35. With the same volume particles, results show that the dependence of the mixture packing density on the volume fraction of spherocylinders is approximately linear. With the same diameter particles, the relationship between the mixture packing density and component volume fraction is also roughly linear for short spherocylinders, but when the aspect ratio of spherocylinders is greater than 1.6, the curves turn convex which means the packing of the mixture can be denser than either the sphere or spherocylinder packing alone. To validate the sphere assembly model and relaxation algorithm, binary mixtures of spheres and random packings of spherocylinders were also simulated. Simulation results show the packing densities of sphere mixtures agree with previous prediction models and the results of spherocylinders correspond with the simulation results in literature.

  20. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  1. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  2. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  3. Nondestructive Quantification of Local Plasticizer Concentration in PVC by (1)H NMR Relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alina; Kwamen, Rance; Woldt, Benjamin; Graß, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The properties of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) , one of the most important polymers today, are strongly dictated by the concentration of plasticizer. Yet, it has been impossible to quantify this concentration at different positions inside a PVC product without its destruction because of a lack of suitable analytical methods. Thus, this paper introduces a simple, fast, and efficient way to determine truly nondestructively the concentration of plasticizer in PVC by single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). With the help of correlation curves between the concentration of plasticizer inside nonaged PVC samples and the corresponding volume-averaged NMR parameters, single-sided NMR allows the quantification of the local concentration of plasticizer in aged PVC plates at different depths by spatially resolved relaxation measurements. The presented approach represents a fundamental step toward in situ characterization of plasticized PVC.

  4. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  5. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  6. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./ Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997, Volume 4, Part 8 - Neutron Poison Plates in Assemblies Containing Homogeneous Mixtures of Polystyrene-Moderated Plutonium and Uranium Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the 1970s at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a series of critical experiments using a remotely operated Split-Table Machine was performed with homogeneous mixtures of (Pu-U)O{sub 2}-polystyrene fuels in the form of square compacts having different heights. The experiments determined the critical geometric configurations of MOX fuel assemblies with and without neutron poison plates. With respect to PuO{sub 2} content and moderation [H/(Pu+U)atomic] ratio (MR), two different homogeneous (Pu-U) O{sub 2}-polystyrene mixtures were considered: Mixture (1) 14.62 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 30.6 MR, and Mixture (2) 30.3 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 2.8 MR. In all mixtures, the uranium was depleted to about O.151 wt% U{sup 235}. Assemblies contained copper, copper-cadmium or aluminum neutron poison plates having thicknesses up to {approximately}2.5 cm. This evaluation contains 22 experiments for Mixture 1, and 10 for Mixture 2 compacts. For Mixture 1, there are 10 configurations with copper plates, 6 with aluminum, and 5 with copper-cadmium. One experiment contained no poison plate. For Mixture 2 compacts, there are 3 configurations with copper, 3 with aluminum, and 3 with copper-cadmium poison plates. One experiment contained no poison plate.

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  8. Evaporating Drops of Alkane Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Guéna, Geoffroy; Poulard, Christophe; Cazabat, Anne-Marie

    2005-01-01

    22 pages 9 figures; Alkane mixtures are model systems where the influence of surface tension gradients during the spreading and the evaporation of wetting drops can be easily studied. The surface tension gradients are mainly induced by concentration gradients, mass diffusion being a stabilising process. Depending on the relative concentration of the mixture, a rich pattern of behaviours is obtained.

  9. Protein mixtures: interactions and gelation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gelation is a ubiquitous process in the preparation of foods. As most foods are multi constituent mixtures, understanding gelation in mixtures is an important goal in food science. Here we presented a systematic investigation on the influence of molecular interactions on the gelation in protein mixt

  10. Evaporating Drops of Alkane Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu'ena, G; Poulard, C; Cazabat, Anne-Marie; Gu\\'{e}na, Geoffroy; Poulard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Alkane mixtures are model systems where the influence of surface tension gradients during the spreading and the evaporation of wetting drops can be easily studied. The surface tension gradients are mainly induced by concentration gradients, mass diffusion being a stabilising process. Depending on the relative concentration of the mixture, a rich pattern of behaviours is obtained.

  11. Protein mixtures: interactions and gelation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gelation is a ubiquitous process in the preparation of foods. As most foods are multi constituent mixtures, understanding gelation in mixtures is an important goal in food science. Here we presented a systematic investigation on the influence of molecular interactions on the gelation in protein mixt

  12. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  13. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environment conservation have grown in recent years, mainly in industrialized countries, due to growing awareness in these societies regarding the importance of environment quality as the basis for the preservation of future generations. Thus, rather than viewing the environment as a good to be consumed by the productive sector, it is seen as world heritage of humanity. Although lubricant oil represents a small percentage of the waste generated by humans, its impact is very great. One ton of lubricant oil dumped into water systems is equivalent to the pollution caused by 40,000 inhabitants. Thus, only one liter of oil is able to consume the oxygen of a million liters of water, forming, in few days, a fine layer on the surface of 1000 m2 which blocks the passage of air and light for the aquatic organisms. In this context, a study was carried out to collect empty plastic automotive lubricant oil bottles at various gasoline stations in Rio Claro-SP to verify the final destination and determine the volume of lubricant remaining in the bottles. = As preocupações com a conservação do meio ambiente têm crescido nos últimos anos, principalmente em países industrializados, devido à consciência que tem sido construída nessas sociedades sobre a importância da qualidade ambiental como base para a preservação da vida das futuras gerações. A sua carga poluidora é equivalente a 40.000 habitantes por tonelada de óleo despejada em corpos d’água. Apenas um litro de óleo é capaz de esgotar o oxigênio de um milhão de litros de água, formando, em poucos dias, uma fina camada sobre a superfície de 1.000 m2, o que bloqueia a passagem de ar e luz, impedindo a respiração e a fotossíntese. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma pesquisa nos centros de lubrificação e postos de combustíveis do município de Rio Claro-SP para verificar o destino final das embalagens já utilizadas, teoricamente vazias, e também houve coleta destas

  15. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  16. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  17. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  18. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  19. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  20. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  1. The scope of plastic surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-03

    Aug 3, 2013 ... areas of surgery (especially general surgery), plastic surgeons are arguably the .... Who do you feel are experts in laparoscopic surgery? e (general surgeons) a. Maxillofacial .... of pressure sore. ORIF = open reduction internal fixation. ... Plastic versus cosmetic surgery: What's the difference? Plast Reconstr.

  2. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  3. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  4. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  5. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  6. Upcycling : converting waste plastics into paramagnetic, conducting, solid, pure carbon microspheres.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, V.

    2010-06-15

    The recent tremendous increase in the volume of waste plastics (WP) will have a harmful environmental impact on the health of living beings. Hundreds of years are required to degrade WP in atmospheric conditions. Hence, in coming years, in addition to traditional recycling services, innovative 'upcycling' processes are necessary. This article presents an environmentally benign, solvent-free autogenic process that converts various WP [low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), or their mixtures] into carbon microspheres (CMSs), an industrially significant, value-added product. The thermal dissociation of these individual or mixed WP in a closed reactor under autogenic pressure (1000 psi) produced dry, pure powder of CMSs. In this paper, the optimization of process parameters such as the effect of mixing of WP with other materials, and the role of reaction temperature and time are reported. Employing advanced analytical techniques, the atomic structure, composition, and morphology of as-obtained CMSs were analyzed. The room-temperature paramagnetism in CMSs prepared from waste LDPE, HDPE, and PS was further studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The conducting and paramagnetic nature of CMSs holds promise for their potential applications in toners, printers, paints, batteries, lubricants, and tires.

  7. Comparison of Inhibitory Effect of Gripe Mixture and Caraway Mixture on Acetylcholine Induced Spasm in Rat jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zeraati

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In comparison of effects of various drugs with the same indications produced by different companies or comparing drugs manufactured in Iran with their foreign counterparts may result in producing drugs with higher qualities in our country. In this study the spasmolithic effect of two herbal drugs , gripe mixture and caraway mixture , that are prescribed as spasmolithic and carminative in infants were compared. 2 cm of rat jejunum was placed in a organ bath containing tyrode solution (37 C , 100% O2 . The jejunum was contracted because of acetylcholine (1 ml. when the muscle contraction reached the plateau the different volumes of drug were added to the organ bath. The inhibitory effect of drug indicated by physiograph , the intestine was washed two times. When the intestine reached the basal tonicity , the different volumes of second drug were tested. The results were compared using paired t.test The results show that both drugs inhibit the spasm induced by acetylcholine in rat jejunum . This inhibitory effect was dose dependent. The caraway mixture showed a higher effect in comparison with gripe mixture (P<0.05. The caraway mixture has a higher inhibitory effect on acetylcholine induced spasm in rat jejunum . It seems that it has the same effect on human.

  8. Chemical thermodynamics of ultrasound speed in solutions and liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Carlos R; Santos, Angela F S; Lampreia, Isabel M S

    2010-02-01

    A comprehensive formalism is developed to treat thermodynamically speed of ultrasound data for solutions and liquid mixtures. For solutions, the apparent speed of ultrasound of a solute is introduced and proposed to take the place of empirically defined quantities. The partial speed of ultrasound of a solute is defined and related to the partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression. For liquid mixtures, the concept of speed of sound before mixing pure liquids is presented and used to define the change in speed of ultrasound upon ideal mixing, which is predicted to be generally a negative quantity. A new thermodynamic equation is derived linking the values for excess speed of ultrasound, excess molar volume and excess molar isentropic compression of a mixture, and its applications are discussed. Ideal and excess apparent speeds of ultrasound, as well as ideal and excess partial speeds of ultrasound, are defined for substances making up a liquid mixture. Accurate speeds of ultrasound in 31 mixtures of water with the amphiphile 2-(ethylamino)ethanol at 293.15 K are reported. These data are used to demonstrate the ability of the apparent speed of ultrasound to describe the impact of solutes on sonic properties of solutions and the advantages of analysing thermodynamic properties of binary liquid mixtures in terms of the dependence on composition of Balankina's ratios between excess and ideal values. It is concluded that the new thermodynamic functions defined for speeds of ultrasound in solutions and liquid mixtures give, at the least, equivalent information on molecular aspects to the usual functions related to the isentropic compressibility, without needing density data for this purpose.

  9. Asymptotic Limits for Transport in Binary Stochastic Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve stochastic spectral expansion of a random binary mixture of immiscible fluids in planar geometry is used to explore asymptotic limits of radiation transport in such mixtures. Under appropriate scalings of mixing parameters - correlation length, volume fraction, and material cross sections - and employing multiple- scale expansion of the angular flux, previously established atomic mix and diffusion limits are reproduced. When applied to highly contrasting material properties in the small cor- relation length limit, the methodology yields a nonstandard reflective medium transport equation that merits further investigation. Finally, a hybrid closure is proposed that produces both small and large correlation length limits of the closure condition for the material averaged equations.

  10. Influencing of foundry bentonite mixtures by binder activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beňo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although new moulding processes for manufacture of high quality castings have been developed and introduced into foundry practice in recent years, the green-sand moulding in bentonite mixture still remains the most widely used technology. Higher utility properties of bentonite binders are achieved through their activation. This contribution is aimed at finding a suitable activating agent. A number of sodium salts and MgO based agents has been chosen. In the framework of the experiment the swelling volume of chosen agents was tested and technological parameters of a bentonite mixture with a binder activated with the studied agents were determined.

  11. Universal features of amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Castellanos, David Fernandez; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics. It captures the complex shear patterning observed for a wide variety of deformation modes, as well as the avalanche dynamics of plastic flow. Avalanches are described by universal size exponents and scaling functions, avalanche shapes, and local stability distributions, independent of system dimensionality, boundary and loading conditions, and stress state. Our predictions consistently differ from those of mean-field depinning models, providing evidence that plastic yielding is a distinct type of critical phenomenon.

  12. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  13. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  14. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  15. An Investigation on Thermal Recycling of Recycled Plastic Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Ryuji; Miura, Katsuya; Ishino, Yojiro; Ohiwa, Norio

    Thermal recycling of recycled plastic resin is focused in this investigation. Fine grinding of plastic resin and preparation of high temperature oxidizing atmosphere are indispensable for effective and successful burn-up of plastic resin. Polyethylene terephthalate resin powder is employed and high temperature oxidizing atmosphere is generated downstream an annular burner. Through a circular nozzle set coaxially in the closed bottom end of the annular burner, PET-powder and propane-air mixture are issued vertically upward into the high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Temperature and O2 concentration fields downstream the annular burner are first examined by varying the circular jet equivalence ratio with the air flow rate kept constant and without PET-powder supply. PET-powder having a mass-median diameter of either 89.7µm or 145µm is then issued into the high temperature region along with propane-air mixture by varying the PET-powder mass flow rate. Appearances of the PET-powder flame are observed using a high-speed CCD video camera and unburnt PET particles are traced during their passages in the high temperature region. Variation of O2 concentration fields due to PET-powder combustion is also measured in the PET flame. According to the results, overall limit conditions for effective burn-up of PET-powder are finally discussed.

  16. An Investigation into the Properties and Microstructure of Cement Mixtures Modified with Cellulose Nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jessica; Kamali, Mahsa; Ghahremaninezhad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the hydration, transport behavior, and microstructure of cement mixtures. The addition of CNC delayed hydration at an early age but improved hydration at later ages. A small increase in the electrical resistivity of the cement mixtures with CNC was observed. Statistical nanoindentation showed a small tendency to a larger volume fraction of high density calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) and a smaller volume fraction of low-density C-S-H in the mixture with CNC. PMID:28772857

  17. Oxidized potato starch based thermoplastic films : Effect of combination of hydrophilic and amphiphilic plasticizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of hydrophilic (glycerol and water) and amphiphilic (isoleucine) plasticizers were studied in the production of thermoplastic starch (TPS) powders and films from oxidized potato starch. All powder samples had an irregular and shrivelled morphology. In all mixtures containing i

  18. Heat transfer, condensation and fog formation in crossflow plastic heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer of air-water-vapour mixtures in plastic crossflow heat exchangers is studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a model for heat transfer without condensation is derived, resulting in a set of classical differential equations. Subsequently, heat transfer with wall c

  19. Stability and photodegradation mechanisms of conjugated polymer/fullerene plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neugebauer, H.; Brabec, C.; Hummelen, J.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    Degradation studies of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MDMO-PPV), fullerenes ((6,6)-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C-60), and mixtures, which are the photoactive components in plastic solar cells, are shown. The degradation processes of the indivi

  20. CO2 Plasticization of Polyethersulfone/Polyimide Gas-Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapantaidakis, G.; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; Kaldis, S.P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports the CO2 plasticization of gas-separation hollow-fiber membranes based on polyimide and polyethersulfone blends. The feed pressure effect on the permeance of pure gases (CO2, N2) and the separation performance of a gaseous mixture (CO2/N2, 55/45%) is examined. Contrary to dense

  1. Heat transfer, condensation and fog formation in crossflow plastic heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; van der Geld, C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer of air-water-vapour mixtures in plastic crossflow heat exchangers is studied theoretically and experimentally. First, a model for heat transfer without condensation is derived, resulting in a set of classical differential equations. Subsequently, heat transfer with wall

  2. CORRELATION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF PLASTICIZED PVC USING A LATTICE FLUID MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...

  3. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  4. Sensitivity of Some Explosive/Brine Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    concentration in brine mixtures. 3 Friction test results of brine mixtures. 10 4 Thermal test results of brine mixtures. 11 Li 71 - INTRODUCTION A...also carried out on these impact insensitive mixtures. Of the seven mixtures only the 15% M28-Comp. B sample passed the thermal test , since smoking

  5. Plasticity in the visual system is associated with prosthesis use in phantom limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra ePreißler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of strong phantom limb pain (PLP in arm amputees was previously shown to be associated with structural neural plasticity in parts of the cortex that belong to dorsal and ventral visual streams. It has been speculated that this plasticity results from the extensive use of a functional prosthesis which is associated with increased visual feedback to control the artificial hand.To test this hypothesis, we reanalyzed data of cortical volumes of 21 upper limb amputees and tested the association between the amount of use of the hand prosthesis and cortical volume plasticity.On the behavioral level, we found no relation between PLP and the amount of prosthesis use for the whole patient group. However, by subdividing the patient group into patients with strong PLP and those with low to medium PLP, stronger pain was significantly associated with less prosthesis use whereas the group with low PLP did not show such an association.Most plasticity of cortical volume was identified within the dorsal stream. The more the patients that suffered from strong PLP used their prosthesis, the smaller was the volume of their posterior parietal cortex.Our data indicate a relationship between prosthesis use and cortical plasticity of the visual stream. This plasticity might present a brain adaption process to new movement and coordination patterns needed to guide an artificial hand.

  6. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  7. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  8. Microstructure-property relationships and constitutive response of plastically graded case hardened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Michael A.

    Case hardened materials, popularly used in many demanding engineering applications such as bearings, gears, and wear/impact surfaces, have high surface hardness and a gradient in material properties (hardness, yield strength, etc.) as a function of depth; therefore, they behave as plastically graded materials. In the current study, two different commercially available case carburized steels along with two through hardened steels are characterized to obtain relationships among the volume fraction of subsurface carbides, indentation hardness, elastic modulus, and yield strength as a function of depth. A variety of methods including microindentation, nanoindentation, ultrasonic measurements, compression testing, rule of mixtures, and upper and lower bound models are used to determine the relationships for elastic modulus and compare the experimental results with model predictions. In addition, the morphology, composition, and properties of the carbide particles are also determined. The gradient in hardness with depth in graded materials is commonly determined using microindentation on the cross-section of the material which contains the gradation in microstructure or composition. In the current study, a novel method is proposed to predict the hardness gradient profile using solely surface indentations at a range of loads. The method does not require the graded material to be sectioned, and has practical utility in the surface heat-treatment industry. For a material with a decreasing gradient in hardness, higher indent loads result in a lower measured hardness due to the influence of the softer subsurface layers. A power-law model is presented which relates the measured surface indentation hardness under increasing load to the subsurface gradient in hardness. A coordinated experimental and numerical study is presented to extract the constitutive response of graded materials, utilizing relationships between hardness, plastic deformation, and strain hardening response

  9. The effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yinping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses the top layer SMA-13 asphalt mixture material as the research object. Basalt was selected as pavement material, and modified SBS asphalt was used as a cementing material. Two basalt aggregates with different densities were used to carry out standard Marshall test in the laboratory.Aimed at the volume parameters of the asphalt mixture carry on anaiysis,and obtian the effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture, which is that the density of aggregate has a significant effect on the void ratio, saturation, and the gap rate of the aggregate, thus affecting the pavement performance of the asphalt mixture

  10. Compactibility of mixtures of calcium carbonate and microcrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, M de Lourdes; Villafuerte, Leopoldo

    2002-01-01

    A patented coprocessed mixture of microcrystalline cellulose (MC) and calcium carbonate (CC) is claimed to perform, as a pharmaceutical excipient, equal or better than pure MC. To investigate it, the tensile strength (T) of tablets made of mixtures of MC type 102, CC, magnesium stearate (MS) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and formed under a compaction pressure (P(c)) ranging up to 618 MPa has been determined. The compactibility of the mixtures was defined through regression parameters obtained with ln(-ln(1-T/T(max)))=slope x lnP(c) + intercept. MC/CC mixtures, P(c)=618 MPa, show a small decrease in tablet tensile strength with CC proportions up to about 20%, falling considerably thereafter. Lower compaction pressures, P(c)tablet tensile strength due to 2%-MS, P(c)=487 MPa, was recovered to 35% of its original value admixing about 25% CC. This maximal value of recovery showed a shift to lower proportions of CC, up to 10%, as compaction pressure decreased. This was attributed to lower CC-particles fragmentation or agglomerates spreading at lower compaction pressures. Mixtures with increased plasticity (MC/CC/PVP and MC/CC/PVP/MS) showed an increased compactibility, which was more evident at higher compaction pressures and higher CC proportions, presumably due to higher deformation and erosion of PVP particles. Inclusion of about 40% CC in a MC/PVP/MS mixture showed 60% recovery of the original MC tablet tensile strength. Lower MS proportions are expected to allow a higher recovery.

  11. Compactibility of agglomerated mixtures of calcium carbonate and microcrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón Serra, María de Lourdes; Villafuerte Robles, Leopoldo

    2003-06-04

    The tablet tensile strength (T) of agglomerated mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose-Avicel PH 102 (MC), calcium carbonate (CC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone, PVP), lubricated with magnesium stearate (MS), and formed under a compaction pressure (P(c)) ranging up to 618MPa has been determined. The compactibility was defined through: ln(-ln(1-T/T(max)))=Slope x lnP(c)+Intercept. MC/CC mixtures added of an agglutinant, before and after lubrication, show an important positive effect on their tablet tensile strength compared to a lineal relationship. This positive effect becomes smaller with decreasing compaction pressures. By different mixing methods, the higher the mixing efficiency the higher the compactibility, following the order: spray-dried>wet massing>tumble mixing. The compactibility of MC/CC/PVP spray-dried mixtures with calcium carbonate content from 20 to 60% was equal to or greater than that of pure microcrystalline cellulose. After lubrication with 2% MS the compactibility decreased, only the mixture with the maximal tablet tensile strength attained the tensile strength of pure microcrystalline cellulose. The presence of the binder, the lubricant and higher compaction pressures allow the accommodation of higher calcium carbonate proportions in the mixtures, at the maximal tablet tensile strength of the series. The lubricant decreases in a greater extent the compactibility of mixtures with a continuous phase of MC/PVP than that of CC/PVP. This is attributed to the plastic behavior of the MC/PVP continuous phase compared to a calcium carbonate continuous phase able to disrupt the Povidone and the possible lubricant coatings allowing a stronger interparticle interaction.

  12. Laboratory investigations into some parameters of water-ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postawa, J.; Stryczek, F.; Kraj, L. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa Podziemnego i Bezpieczenstwa Pracy)

    1990-06-01

    Presents results of laboratory investigations of certain parameters that are of essential importance in the utilization of water-ash mixtures in underground mining. Mixtures of fly ash and water were examined at 293 K. The following properties of the mixture were investigated: density, fluidity, relative viscosity, structural strength, water separation after 1, 2, 4 and 24 hours, rheological properties and plastic viscosity. The properties were measured by the AzNII cone, Ford cup, shear tester and Fonn viscosimeter. Results are presented for water to ash proportion: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0. The conclusions are reached that water ash mixtures belong to the Bingham (rheostable) fluids, can be transported by gravitational methods and can fill cavities between lumps of caving rubble. Their ability to bind and harden creates a wide application range in mining (sealing caving rubble and fissured zones and execution of packing stoppings). The parameters found can be used in planning and designing stowing operations. 9 refs.

  13. Performance Test for Open Grade Bitumen and Cement Mixture OGBC-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. L.; Li, C. M.; Gan, X. Z.; Xiong, X. J.

    For effective prevention of urban road intersection special sections for nit diseases and improving the pavement durability, an open grade bitumen and cement (OGBC-20) mixture is proposed. In organic hydraulic cement mixture design, mix proportion designs of cement mortar and matrix open-graded bitumen were done. The matrix mixture gradation was adjusted .It has greater void of air volume than that of ATPB-25. A variety of tests in laboratory for OGBC-20 were performed. The experimental results show that: The void of air volume of adjusted gradation matrix asphalt mixture is up to 23%. and binder drainage loss is ≤ 0.3%. Cement mortar filling is fuller and better water stability and low temperature crack resistance compared to ordinary bitumen mixture. It has the absolute advantage on high temperature stability and shows the superiority of the new pavement materials.

  14. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  15. ABOUT PLASTIC LANGUAGE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorica Liliana NEGOESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We live in a mixture of images. From all side we are assaulted by various and disparate visual information. Landmarks of contemporary art of a restless world are in constant motion and transformation. The border between the visual arts and information, especially for the new generations, is in a continuous confrontation. But here, the field of the arts once in elite, being conditioned by the access to education and culture offered by a particular social standard and by the welfare condition, tends to expand and become more accessible to all social groups. The images tend to become a subject of debate. Along with the new millennium, increasing masses of people discover the cultural tourism, take note of the existence of the art and overwhelmed with their presence the great museums of the world.

  16. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere.

  17. Optimal Parameters Multicomponent Mixtures Extruding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil F. Sagitov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of multicomponent mixtures extruding from production wastes are carried out, unit for production of composites from different types of waste is presented. Having analyzed dependence of multicomponent mixtures extruding energy requirements on die length and components content at three values of angular rate of screw rotation, we received the values of energy requirements at optimal length of the die, angular speed and percent of binding additives.

  18. Gaussian-mixture umbrella sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Maragakis, Paul; van der Vaart, Arjan; Karplus, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the Gaussian-mixture umbrella sampling method (GAMUS), a biased molecular dynamics technique based on adaptive umbrella sampling that efficiently escapes free energy minima in multi-dimensional problems. The prior simulation data are reweighted with a maximum likelihood formulation, and the new approximate probability density is fit to a Gaussian-mixture model, augmented by information about the unsampled areas. The method can be used to identify free energy minima in multi-dimen...

  19. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  20. Urban Trash Containers Made of Recycled Plastic Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto Ledur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost and easy-to-handle manufacturing procedure for urban trash containers, made of recycled plastic lumber, was developed focusing on the following aspects: materials selection, materials compounding, plastic sheet manufacturing and mechanical testing, urban trash container design and assembly, and a pilot test. The material, a composite of polyethylene (PE urban waste, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA industrial waste and calcium carbonate, was prepared in a Drais batch mixer. The mixture was hot compression molded as rectangular-shaped sheets of 900 mm length, 600 mm width and 12 mm or 7 mm thickness. These sheets were characterized with regard to mechanical properties, microstructure and UV resistance. An urban trash container prototype was prepared from the plastic sheets and a hundred trash containers were submitted to a pilot test. All the steps, material compounding, plastic sheet processing, and trash container design and manufacturing were optimized in order to give the required physico-mechanical properties, functional characteristics and finish of the urban trash containers.

  1. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  2. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  3. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  4. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Frank

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity.

  5. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  6. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for facial plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Saman, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures.

  7. Experimental wax mixtures for dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1997-07-01

    Improvements in the properties of dental waxes were sought by alterations in their composition. Twenty-six blends of paraffin wax, beeswax and inorganic filler were subjected to the following tests: plastic deformation (flow), linear thermal expansion, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Flow tests were conducted in accordance with the corresponding ISO specification. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated using thermomechanical analysis. Mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Pure paraffin and beeswax were used as controls. The results were subjected to analysis using correlation and regression. Regression coefficients in the range of 0.90-0.99 were obtained in most cases, flow tests exhibiting the highest coefficients and flexural strength the lowest. The incorporated filler particles reduced the flow of the natural waxes, especially of the ester-containing beeswax, and improved the elastic modulus and strength. Good correlation was found between the ingredient proportions and measured properties, suggesting a relationship between them, although this is quite complicated in the case of tertiary wax mixtures. The experimental blends exhibited properties that are potentially useful for a range of clinical applications.

  8. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zannikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. The smoke levels are between the 3rd and 4th grades of the smoke number scale. Measuring the carbon monoxide emission, it was observed that the burning of the plastic in the mixture with biomass increases the carbon monoxide emissions from 10% to 30% as compared to carbon monoxide emission from sawdust biomass emissions which was used as a reference.

  9. Analysis of asphalt mixtures on town roads

    OpenAIRE

    Glavica, Primož

    2006-01-01

    Asphalt mixtures are most commonly used composite for construction of top layers of different drive ways. By definition asphalt mixtures are composed of crushed rock, fill, bitumen and additives. Percentage of individual components wary according to the purpose asphalt mixture is to be used for. Asphalt mixtures must be capable of enduring different types of load. According to the type of load asphalt mixtures are divided into asphalt mixtures used for supporting layers and asp...

  10. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  11. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  12. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  13. Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Steel Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Il-Cheol [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong [Steel Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoungkoo [Materials Technology Development Team, DHIC, Changwon 642-792 (Korea, Republic of); Zargaran, A. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nack J., E-mail: njkim@postech.ac.kr [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-17

    The effect of wire drawing on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel has been investigated. The inhomogeneities of the stress state, texture, microstructure, and mechanical properties were clarified over the cross section of drawn wire with the aid of numerical simulation, Schmid factor analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The analysis of texture in drawn wire shows that a mixture of <111> and <100> fiber texture was developed with strain; however, the distribution of <111> and <100> fibers was inhomogeneous along the radial direction of wire due to uneven strain distribution and different stress state along the radial direction. It has also been shown that the morphology, volume fraction, and variant system of twins as well as twinning rate were dependent on the imposed stress state. The surface area was subjected to larger strain and more complex stress state involving compression, shear, and tension than the center area, resulting in a larger twin volume fraction and more twin variants in the former than in the latter at all the strain levels. While the surface area was saturated with twins at an early stage of drawing, the center area was not saturated with twins even at fracture, implying that the fracture of wire were initiated at the surface area because of the exhaustion of ductility due to twinning. Based on these results, it is suggested that imposing a uniform strain distribution along the radial direction of wire by the control of processing conditions such as die angle and amount of reduction per pass is necessary to increase the drawing limit of TWIP steel.

  14. Thermodynamic properties and diffusion of water + methane binary mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J., E-mail: rsadus@swin.edu.au [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218 Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2014-03-14

    Thermodynamic and diffusion properties of water + methane mixtures in a single liquid phase are studied using NVT molecular dynamics. An extensive comparison is reported for the thermal pressure coefficient, compressibilities, expansion coefficients, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, zero frequency speed of sound, and diffusion coefficient at methane concentrations up to 15% in the temperature range of 298–650 K. The simulations reveal a complex concentration dependence of the thermodynamic properties of water + methane mixtures. The compressibilities, heat capacities, and diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing methane concentration, whereas values of the thermal expansion coefficients and speed of sound increase. Increasing methane concentration considerably retards the self-diffusion of both water and methane in the mixture. These effects are caused by changes in hydrogen bond network, solvation shell structure, and dynamics of water molecules induced by the solvation of methane at constant volume conditions.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Thermocapillary Convection Based on Two-Phase Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanni; Xu, Zelin

    2017-08-01

    Numerical investigation of nanofluid thermocapillary convection in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity was carried out, in which the two-phase mixture model was used to simulate the nanoparticles-fluid mixture flow, and the influences of volume fraction of nanoparticles on the flow characteristics and heat transfer performance were discussed. The results show that, with the increase of nanoparticle volume fraction, thermocapillary convection intensity weakens gradually, and the heat conduction effect strengthens; meanwhile, the temperature gradient at free surface increases but the free surface velocity decreases gradually. The average Nusselt number of hot wall and the total entropy generation decrease with nanoparticle volume fraction increasing.

  16. Rock Plasticity from Microtomography and Upscaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Reem Freij-Ayoub; Klaus Regenauer-Lieb

    2015-01-01

    We present a workflow for upscaling of rock properties using microtomography and percolation theory. In this paper we focus on a pilot study for assessing the plastic strength of rocks from a digital rock image. Firstly, we determine the size of mechanical representative volume ele-ment (RVE) by using upper/lower bound dissipation computations in accordance with thermody-namics. Then the mechanical RVE is used to simulate the rock failure at micro-scale using FEM. Two cases of different pressures of linear Drucker-Prager plasticity of rocks are computed to com-pute the macroscopic cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the rock. We also detect the criti-cal exponents of yield stress for scaling laws from a series of derivative models that are created by a shrinking/expanding algorithm. We use microtomographic data sets of two carbonate samples and compare the results with previous results. The results show that natural rock samples with irregular structures may have the critical exponent of yield stress different from random models. This unex-pected result could have significant ramifications for assessing the stability of solid materials with internal structure. Therefore our pilot study needs to be extended to investigate the scaling laws of strength of many more natural rocks with irregular microstructure.

  17. The control of volume flow heating gases oh coke plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostúr Karol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with mixture and coke gases volume quantity determination for coke battery in term of their optimal redistribution at single blocks in consideration of accurate observance of corresponding technological temperature.

  18. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  19. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  20. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  1. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  2. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  3. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  4. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Morisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-coated polycarbonate (PC. Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a fast response time less than 1 minute.

  5. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  6. [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Seidel, S

    2010-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS.

  7. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  8. Multicomponent recycled plastics: considerations about their use in food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, C; Salafranca, J; Rubio, C; Cacho, J

    1998-10-01

    Two multicomponent post-use recycled plastics named as NPP40A3 (formulated with 85% HDPE and 15% of a PP-PS-PVC mixture) and NPP40A6 (formulated with 80% NPP40A3, 10% ABS and 10% HIPS), both of them with 3.1% of plasticizer and 0.6% of stabilizer to obtain a better final product, have been analysed. Plastics were extracted both with dichloromethane and methylbenzene, and analysed by HPLC and GC-MS to identify the maximum possible number of compounds. Major additives quantified were di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (3.262% and 2.955% respectively) and Irganox 1010 (0.473% and 0.498% respectively). Several degradation compounds have been detected. In order to check if these plastics could be used in food contact applications, global and specific migration tests have been applied. The results obtained are discussed.

  9. Survey analysis of volatile organics released from plastics under thermal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    Irritating or toxic vapors can be produced from plastic process materials by a variety of operations, such as injection molding, hot wire cutting, bandsawing and milling. These components typically are not reported in the combustion toxicology literature for the materials used, but rather represent the volatilization of plasticizers, unreacted monomer, mold-release agents or other additives, or lubricants. A method for the characterization of the complex mixtures that can result from thermal stressing of plastic and of relating quantitatively to process temperatures and amounts of plastic used is presented. The method utilizes both Thermo-Gravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic headspace GC/MS with on-column cryogenic focusing. Application to actual occupational situations is illustrated with three examples.

  10. Thermophysical study of 1,4-dioxane with cycloalkane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Ciudad Universitaria, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Giner, B. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Ciudad Universitaria, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Haro, M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Ciudad Universitaria, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Artigas, H. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Ciudad Universitaria, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lafuente, C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Ciudad Universitaria, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: celadi@unizar.es

    2006-07-15

    Densities, refractive indices, and surface tension for the binary mixtures 1,4-dioxane with cyclopentane or cylohexane have been determined at ambient pressure and at T = (283.15, 298.15, and 313.15) K. Excess volumes and refractive index and surface tension deviations have been calculated from the experimental data. Several relations between the thermophysical properties studied here have been tested using our experimental results.

  11. Surface study of mixtures containing cyclic ethers and isomeric chlorobutanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royo, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villares, A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martin, S. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Giner, B. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lafuente, C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: celadi@unizar.es

    2007-05-15

    Experimental surface tensions and the corresponding surface tensions deviations for the mixtures containing 1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane and 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane or 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, measured with a drop volume tensiometer, are reported at the temperatures of 298.15 K and 313.15 K. The excess surface concentrations of isomeric chlorobutanes are also evaluated using a monolayer model.

  12. Influence of stimulated plasticity training method on coordination indicators of high pedagogic educational estableshments’ girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolumbet A.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study of stimulated plasticity training’s influence on coordination indicators of pedagogic HEEs’ girl students. Material: 264 girl students participated in the research. Experiment was being carried out during three years. Responding abilities, static and dynamic balance, orientation in space, promptness of operative thinking, volume of mechanical memorizing, distribution of attention, accuracy, quickness and of attention re-switching, accuracy of tasks’ fulfillment were assessed. Results: it was found that plasticity has different kinds and forms of manifestation. Creative motor tasks require different conditions for their realization. We determined rates of plasticity increment by its main kinds. Plasticity of body movements was achieved at high level of different muscular groups’ coordination, optimal rhythm, rational correlation of tension and relaxation. Conclusions: it was found that plasticity shall be trained in compliance with its kinds and manifestations. It requires appropriated approach to content of methodic of its perfection.

  13. Limited streamer chambers for the Large Volume Detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.; Cindolo, F.; Daniello, L.; Felici, M. De; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, D.; Fabbri, F.L.; Giardoni, M.; Laakso, I.; Lindozzi, M.; Pallante, E.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zallo, A.; Bari, G.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Contin, A.; Papa, C. Del; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Mencarini, D.; Kania, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Qazi, N.I.; Sarwar, S.; Mao, C.S.; Wu, Y.R.

    1991-01-01

    The tracking system of the Large Volume Detector, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use ~15000 limited streamer chambers. We describe a comparison between the standard binary mixture (30% argon + 70% isobutane) and a low-hydrocarbon ternary mixture (2% argon + 10%

  14. Limited streamer chambers for the Large Volume Detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.; Cindolo, F.; Daniello, L.; Felici, M. De; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, D.; Fabbri, F.L.; Giardoni, M.; Laakso, I.; Lindozzi, M.; Pallante, E.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zallo, A.; Bari, G.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Contin, A.; Papa, C. Del; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Mencarini, D.; Kania, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Qazi, N.I.; Sarwar, S.; Mao, C.S.; Wu, Y.R.

    1991-01-01

    The tracking system of the Large Volume Detector, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use ~15000 limited streamer chambers. We describe a comparison between the standard binary mixture (30% argon + 70% isobutane) and a low-hydrocarbon ternary mixture (2% argon + 10%

  15. Plasticity in the visual system is associated with prosthesis use in phantom limb pain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The experience of strong phantom limb pain (PLP) in arm amputees was previously shown to be associated with structural neural plasticity in parts of the cortex that belong to dorsal and ventral visual streams. It has been speculated that this plasticity results from the extensive use of a functional prosthesis which is associated with increased visual feedback to control the artificial hand. To test this hypothesis, we reanalyzed data of cortical volumes of 21 upper limb amputees and tested t...

  16. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  17. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-thomsen, Søren; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  18. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  19. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  20. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  1. The Story of the Plastics Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Don, Ed.

    This is an illustrated informative booklet, designed to serve members of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and the plastics industry as a whole. It provides basic information about the industry's history and growth, plastics raw materials, typical uses of plastics, properties, and methods of processing and fabricating. (Author/DS)

  2. [Mutual relations between plastic materials and bacteria (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, C T; Kanz, E

    1976-12-01

    The complex problems of microbiological degradation of synthetic plastics and a fairly wide variety of 62 testing materials, belonging to 14 major groups of plastics, are described. Adaequate and reliable testing techniques had to be devised. Drawing on the experiences of H. Braun, 1930, and of Bushnell and Haas, 1941, as to the metabolism of bacteria and the utilization of certain hydrocarbons by microorganisms, and previous research work by A. Schwartz in Berlin, 1959-60, on microbial corrosion of plastics, methods of laboratory testing were developed. The bacteriological technique was based on selection of aerobic microorganisms, which were, by starvation, adapted to use the plastic materials as their only carbon source; foreign carbon sources had to be strictly eliminated; emphasis was laid on proper, double control cultures. The test organisms involved included P. aeruginosa and fluorescens strains, also a certain species of Candida, and mixtures of soil, sewage and garbage organisms grown on exposed plastic surfaces. By means of series of passages the selective adaptation and conservation of these organisms was continued up to 4 1/2 years. An anaerobic adaptation method for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was developed and used successfully. After preliminary experimentation (Soil burial, sewage and garbage exposure tests) in the laboratory as well as in the open, a large scale Field testing programme under realistic and to some extent extreme conditions was implemented: Nine different plastic materials comprising eight plain high polymer plastics and for comparison one synthetic Cellulose derivate, together with glass control samples, were exposed in twelve different sewage, garbage, and soil media over a period of 3 months to 2 years, and subsequently examined. On the basis of the bacteriological results obtained from the adaptation series the test materials were classified into three categories, corresponding to the stimulation of bacterial growth: Group one

  3. A mathematical model of cancer cells with phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells is recently becoming a cutting-edge research area in cancer, which challenges the cellular hierarchy proposed by the conventional cancer stem cell theory. In this study, we establish a mathematical model for describing the phenotypic plasticity of cancer cells, based on which we try to find some salient features that can characterize the dynamic behavior of the phenotypic plasticity especially in comparison to the hierarchical model of cancer cells. Methods: We model cancer as population dynamics composed of different phenotypes of cancer cells. In this model, not only can cancer cells divide (symmetrically and asymmetrically and die, but they can also convert into other cellular phenotypes. According to the Law of Mass Action, the cellular processes can be captured by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs. On one hand, we can analyze the long-term stability of the model by applying qualitative method of ODEs. On the other hand, we are also concerned about the short-term behavior of the model by studying its transient dynamics. Meanwhile, we validate our model to the cell-state dynamics in published experimental data.Results: Our results show that the phenotypic plasticity plays important roles in both stabilizing the distribution of different phenotypic mixture and maintaining the cancer stem cells proportion. In particular, the phenotypic plasticity model shows decided advantages over the hierarchical model in predicting the phenotypic equilibrium and cancer stem cells’ overshoot reported in previous biological experiments in cancer cell lines.Conclusion: Since the validity of the phenotypic plasticity paradigm and the conventional cancer stem cell theory is still debated in experimental biology, it is worthy of theoretically searching for good indicators to distinguish the two models through quantitative methods. According to our study, the phenotypic equilibrium and overshoot

  4. Effect of hydrostatic stress on yield function and plastic constitutive relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2001-01-01

    A new yield function taking effect of hydrostatic stress into account is presented through establishing and solving the functional equation satisfied by the yield function, and its characteristic is simple in form and strong in generality. In order to reveal its availability, a comparison is made between the results obtained with it and the experimental results of grey cast iron has be done, both seem to be in good agreement. At the same time, taking the yield function obtained here as a potential function, a new associative plastic constitutive equation taking effect of hydrostatic stress into account is built, and the plastic volume change ratio of plastic deformation is given.

  5. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of high power ultrasound on rheological and foaming properties of model ice-cream mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Batur

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research of the high power ultrasound effect on rheological and foaming properties of ice cream model mixtures. Ice cream model mixtures are prepared according to specific recipes, and afterward undergone through different homogenization techniques: mechanical mixing, ultrasound treatment and combination of mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Specific diameter (12.7 mm of ultrasound probe tip has been used for ultrasound treatment that lasted 5 minutes at 100 percent amplitude. Rheological parameters have been determined using rotational rheometer and expressed as flow index, consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that all model mixtures have non-newtonian, dilatant type behavior. The highest viscosities have been observed for model mixtures that were homogenizes with mechanical mixing, and significantly lower values of viscosity have been observed for ultrasound treated ones. Foaming properties are expressed as percentage of increase in foam volume, foam stability index and minimal viscosity. It has been determined that ice cream model mixtures treated only with ultrasound had minimal increase in foam volume, while the highest increase in foam volume has been observed for ice cream mixture that has been treated in combination with mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Also, ice cream mixtures having higher amount of proteins in composition had shown higher foam stability. It has been determined that optimal treatment time is 10 minutes.

  7. Exempt chemical mixtures containing gamma-butyrolactone. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    This rulemaking finalizes a November 12, 2008, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in which DEA proposed that chemical mixtures that are 70 percent or less gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), by weight or volume, be automatically exempt from regulatory controls under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). DEA is seeking through this rulemaking to exempt only those chemical mixtures that do not represent a significant risk of diversion. This regulation makes GBL chemical mixtures, in concentrations greater than 70 percent, subject to List I chemical regulatory requirements of the CSA, except if exempted through an existing categorical exemption. DEA is taking this action because there is a serious threat to the public safety associated with the ease by which GBL is chemically converted to the schedule I controlled substance gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). DEA recognizes that concentration criteria alone cannot identify all mixtures that warrant exemption. As a result, DEA regulations provide for an application process by which manufacturers may obtain exemptions from CSA regulatory controls for those GBL chemical mixtures that are not automatically exempt under the concentration criteria.

  8. Robust estimation of unbalanced mixture models on samples with outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimzianova, Alfiia; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Špiclin, Žiga

    2015-11-01

    Mixture models are often used to compactly represent samples from heterogeneous sources. However, in real world, the samples generally contain an unknown fraction of outliers and the sources generate different or unbalanced numbers of observations. Such unbalanced and contaminated samples may, for instance, be obtained by high density data sensors such as imaging devices. Estimation of unbalanced mixture models from samples with outliers requires robust estimation methods. In this paper, we propose a novel robust mixture estimator incorporating trimming of the outliers based on component-wise confidence level ordering of observations. The proposed method is validated and compared to the state-of-the-art FAST-TLE method on two data sets, one consisting of synthetic samples with a varying fraction of outliers and a varying balance between mixture weights, while the other data set contained structural magnetic resonance images of the brain with tumors of varying volumes. The results on both data sets clearly indicate that the proposed method is capable to robustly estimate unbalanced mixtures over a broad range of outlier fractions. As such, it is applicable to real-world samples, in which the outlier fraction cannot be estimated in advance.

  9. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  10. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(lactic acid PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO, respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  12. Stress Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic-Plastic Rock-Like Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rock-like materials are composites that can be regarded as a mixture composed of elastic, plastic, and viscous components. They exhibit viscoelastic-plastic behavior under a high-strain-rate loading according to element model theory. This paper presents an analytical solution for stress wave propagation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials under a high-strain-rate loading and verifies the solution through an experimental test. A constitutive equation of viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials was first established, and then kinematic and kinetic equations were then solved to derive the analytic solution for stress wave propagation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials. An experimental test using the SHPB (Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar for a concrete specimen was conducted to obtain a stress-strain curve under a high-strain-rate loading. Inverse analysis based on differential evolution was conducted to estimate undetermined variables for constitutive equations. Finally, the relationship between the attenuation factor and the strain rate in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials was investigated. According to the results, the frequency of the stress wave, viscosity coefficient, modulus of elasticity, and density play dominant roles in the attenuation of the stress wave. The attenuation decreases with increasing strain rate, demonstrating strongly strain-dependent attenuation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials.

  13. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  14. Non-equilibrium theory employing enthalpy-based equation of state for binary solid and porous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B.; Menon, S. V. G.

    2017-04-01

    A generalized enthalpy-based equation of state, which includes thermal electron excitations and non-equilibrium thermal energies, is formulated for binary solid and porous mixtures. Our approach gives rise to an extra contribution to mixture volume, in addition to those corresponding to average mixture parameters. This excess term involves the difference of thermal enthalpies of the two components, which depend on their individual temperatures. We propose to use the Hugoniot of the components to compute non-equilibrium temperatures in the mixture. These are then compared with the average temperature obtained from the mixture Hugoniot, thereby giving an estimate of non-equilibrium effects. The Birch-Murnaghan model for the zero-temperature isotherm and a linear thermal model are then used for applying the method to several mixtures, including one porous case. Comparison with experimental data on the pressure-volume Hugoniot and shock speed versus particle speed shows good agreement.

  15. Effects of molecular characteristics of on konjac glucomannan glass transitions of potato amylose, amylopection and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Liang, Qin; Du, Xianfeng

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore further the functions of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in starch-based foods. Experiments were carried out using the mixed amylose/amylopectin/KGM system as a model. High-speed differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) with the support of high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (RI), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and viscosimetry was used to investigate the effects of KGM on glass transition temperatures (T(g) s) of mixtures with different amylose/amylopectin ratios. Hyper-DSC results showed that the T(g) s of amylose, amylopection and their mixtures decreased with increasing concentration of KGM. Based on the molecular characteristics of KGM, HPSEC-MALLS-RI, viscosimetry and XRD results showed that the molar masses of KGM ranged from 1.023 × 10(6) to 1.329 × 10(6) g mol(-1) ; the root mean square (RMS) radii were distributed from 110.5 to 129.6 nm, and M(w) /M(n) was 1.017. KGM was a linear molecule with random-coil conformation in solution and the crystallinity was 0.00%. It is suggested that the addition of KGM has plasticizing effects on the structures of amylose and amylopectin, which can increase free volume and molecular movement of amylose and amylopectin chains, resulting in a decrease in their T(g) s. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  18. Mitochondria, synaptic plasticity, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Laifenfeld, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization of schizophrenia as a disorder of connectivity, i.e., of neuronal?synaptic plasticity, suggests abnormal synaptic modeling and neuronal signaling, possibly as a consequence of flawed interactions with the environment, as at least a secondary mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. Indeed, deficits in episodic memory and malfunction of hippocampal circuitry, as well as anomalies of axonal sprouting and synapse formation, are all suggestive of diminished neuronal plasticity in schizophrenia. Evidence supports a dysfunction of mitochondria in schizophrenia, including mitochondrial hypoplasia, and a dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system, as well as altered mitochondrial-related gene expression. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to alterations in ATP production and cytoplasmatic calcium concentrations, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. All of the latter processes have been well established as leading to altered synaptic strength or plasticity. Moreover, mitochondria have been shown to play a role in plasticity of neuronal polarity, and studies in the visual cortex show an association between mitochondria and synaptogenesis. Finally, mitochondrial gene upregulation has been observed following synaptic and neuronal activity. This review proposes that mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia could cause, or arise from, anomalies in processes of plasticity in this disorder.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  20. Mechanochemical reactions and strengthening in epoxy-cast aluminum iron-oxide mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Louis, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Epoxy-cast Al+Fe2O3 thermite composites are an example of a structural energetic material that can simultaneously release chemical energy while providing structural strength. The structural/mechanical response and chemical reaction behavior are closely interlinked through characteristics of deformation and intermixing of reactants. In this work, the structural and energetic response of composites made from stoichiometric mixtures of nano- and micro-scale aluminum and hematite (Fe2O3) powders dispersed in 47 to 78 vol.% epoxy was investigated by characterizing the mechanical behavior under high-strain rate and shock loading conditions. The main focus of the work was to understand the influence of microstructure on mechanical behavior in epoxy-cast Al+Fe2O3 materials when exposed to high stress, large strain, and high rate loading conditions. The material's Hugoniot at pressures up to approximately 20 GPa for an Al+Fe2O3+78 vol.% epoxy composite and up to approximately 8 GPa for Al+Fe2O3+60 vol.% epoxy composite has been determined. The results reveal an inert pressure-relative volume (P-V) and shock-particle velocity (US-UP) response in the range of the shock-conditions explored, with the Al+Fe2O3+60 vol.% epoxy composite showing a greater shock stiffness. The addition of solid particle inclusions alters the Hugoniot response as compared to pure epoxy behavior. This is attributed to possible induced bulk damage that changes the composite's response as impact stress increases. While the 78 vol.% epoxy composition shows a transition from "undamaged" to "damaged" behavior that approaches pure epoxy response, the 60 vol.% epoxy composition exhibits a gradual toughening behavior. Impact experiments have also been conducted for characterizing the high-strain rate deformation and fracture response obtained from instrumented reverse Taylor tests using high-speed camera and velocity interferometry. The results show that these composite materials exhibit viscoelastic

  1. "Green" nanocomposites from cellulose acetate bioplastic and clay: effect of eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Man; Misra, Manjusri; Drzal, Lawrence T; Mohanty, Amar K

    2004-01-01

    "Green" nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated from cellulose acetate (CA) powder, eco-friendly triethyl citrate (TEC) plasticizer and organically modified clay. The effect of the amount of plasticizer varying from 15 to 40 wt % on the performance of the nanocomposites has been evaluated. The morphologies of these nanocomposites were evaluated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites are correlated with the XRD and TEM observations. Cellulosic plastic-based nanocomposites with 20 wt % TEC plasticizer and 5 wt % organoclay showed better intercalation and an exfoliated structure than the counterpart having 30/40 wt % plasticizers. The tensile strength, modulus and thermal stability of cellulosic plastic reinforced with organoclay showed a decreasing trend with an increase of plasticizer content from 20 to 40 wt %. The nano-reinforcement at the lower volume fractions (phi < or = 0.02) reduced the water vapor permeability of cellulosic plastic by 2 times and the relative permeability better fits with larger platelet aspect ratios (alpha = 150).

  2. Taylor dispersion analysis of mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Hervé; Biron, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Michel

    2007-12-01

    Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA) is a fast and simple method for determining hydrodynamic radii. In the case of sample mixtures, TDA, as the other nonseparative methods, leads to an average diffusion coefficient on the different molecules constituting the mixture. We set in this work the equations giving, on a consistent basis, the average values obtained by TDA with detectors with linear response functions. These equations confronted TDA experiments of sample mixtures containing different proportions of a small molecule and a polymer standard. Very good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. In a second part of this work, on the basis of monomodal or bimodal molar mass distributions of polymers, the different average diffusion coefficients corresponding to TDA were compared to the z-average diffusion coefficient (D(z)) obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments and to the weight average diffusion coefficient (D(w)). This latter value is sometimes considered as the most representative of the sample mixture. From these results, it appears that, for monomodal distribution and relatively low polydispersity (I = 1.15), the average diffusion coefficient generally derived from TDA is very close to Dw. However, for highly polydisperse samples (e.g., bimodal polydisperse distributions), important differences could be obtained (up to 35% between TDA and D(w)). In all the cases, the average diffusion coefficient obtained by TDA for a mass concentration detector was closer to the Dw value than the z-average obtained by DLS.

  3. Gelation in mixtures of polymers and bidisperse colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of varying the volume fraction of large particles (r ) on the linear rheology and microstructure of mixtures of polymers and bidisperse colloids, in which the ratio of the small and large particle diameters was α =0.31 or α =0.45 . Suspensions formulated at a total volume fraction of ϕT=0.15 and a constant concentration of polymer in the free volume c /c*≈0.7 contained solid-like gels for small r and fluids or fluids of clusters at large r . The solid-like rheology and microstructure of these suspensions changed little with r when r was small, and fluidized only when r >0.8 . By contrast, dense suspensions with ϕT=0.40 and α =0.31 contained solid-like gels at all concentrations of large particles and exhibited only modest rheological and microstructural changes upon varying the volume fraction of large particles. These results suggest that the effect of particle-size dispersity on the properties of colloid-polymer mixtures are asymmetric in particle size and are most pronounced near a gelation boundary.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Diethyl ether (VMSD1211, LB3412_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Diethyl ether (VMSD1211, LB3412_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C8H16 Cyclooctane (VMSD1211, LB3565_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C8H16 Cyclooctane (VMSD1211, LB3565_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Oxane (VMSD1212, LB3577_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Oxane (VMSD1212, LB3577_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O Oxolane (VMSD1212, LB3576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O Oxolane (VMSD1212, LB3576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14 Hexane (VMSD1211, LB4339_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14 Hexane (VMSD1211, LB4339_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H7N Aniline (VMSD1211, LB4340_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H7N Aniline (VMSD1211, LB4340_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10 Cyclopentane (VMSD1211, LB3567_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10 Cyclopentane (VMSD1211, LB3567_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6S 2-Thiapropane (VMSD1211, LB3233_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6S 2-Thiapropane (VMSD1211, LB3233_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4574_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4574_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1212, LB3207_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1212, LB3207_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4352_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4352_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10S 3-Thiapentane (VMSD1211, LB3237_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10S 3-Thiapentane (VMSD1211, LB3237_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, John; Hooks, Daniel; Bahr, David

    2010-03-01

    Plastic bonded explosives (PBX), a mixture of hard, anisotropic grains in a compliant matrix, represent an interesting case for understanding composite mechanical response and failure. PBX 9501 (0.95 cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine [HMX], 0.05 polymer binder) is relatively safe formulation of HMX, which is thought to be due to the high compliance of the binder. Crack formation between the crystals and the binder has been observed in this and many other systems and is usually the failure mechanism of PBX materials under mechanical strain. Thus the properties of the crystal-binder interface are important for development of failure models. The interfacial properties of PBX 9501 as well as an inert simulant have been characterized using several methods. Surface energies of several polymer binders and various crystallographic faces of HMX have been determined with a contact angle measurement technique, allowing for thermodynamic work of adhesion at the interface to be calculated. Surface roughness of the crystal faces has been measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). PBX formulation methods are suspected to lead to a diffuse interface, but the nature of this interface has not previously been characterized in detail. Here, the coherence of the interface has been studied using tapping mode AFM for modulus contrast, and these findings are correlated with results from diffraction techniques.

  20. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  1. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  2. Plasticity in glutamatergic NTS neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David D

    2008-12-10

    Changes in the physiological state of an animal or human can result in alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory system in order to maintain homeostasis. Accordingly, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are not static but readily adapt under a variety of circumstances. The same can be said for the brainstem circuits that control these systems. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the central integration site of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor sensory afferent fibers. This central nucleus, and in particular the synapse between the sensory afferent and second-order NTS cell, possesses a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of stimuli, both acute and chronic. This brief review is intended to describe the plasticity observed in the NTS as well as the locus and mechanisms as they are currently understood. The functional consequence of NTS plasticity is also discussed.

  3. Volumetric Properties of Chloroalkanes + Amines Mixtures: Theoretical Analysis Using the ERAS-Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres, R. B.; Hoga, H. E.; Magalhães, J. G.; Volpe, P. L. O.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, experimental data of excess molar volumes of {dichloromethane (DCM), or trichloromethane (TCM) + n-butylamine (n-BA), or +s-butylamine (s-BA), or +t-butylamine (t-BA), or +diethylamine (DEA), or +triethylamine (TEA)} mixtures as a function of composition have been used to test the applicability of the extended real associated solution model (ERAS-Model). The values of the excess molar volume were negative for (DCM + t-BA, or +DEA, or +TEA and TCM + n-BA, or +s-BA, or +DEA, or +TEA) mixtures and present sigmoid curves for (DCM + n-BA, or +s-BA) mixtures over the complete mole-fraction range. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is discussed in terms of cross-association between the components present in the mixtures.

  4. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...... to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined...

  5. Synthesis of aliphatic amidediol and used as a novel mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian She Zhang; Jiu Gao Yu; Ying Wu; Xiao Fei Ma

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,aliphatic amidediol was synthesized and mixed with glycerol used as a plasticizer for preparing thermoplastic starch (AGPTPS).The yield of aliphatic amidediol was 91%.FT-IR expressed that the mixture of aliphatic amidediol and glycerol formed stronger and stable hydrogen bond with starch molecules compared to the native cornstarch.By scanning electron microscope (SEM) native cornstarch granules were proved to transfer to a homogeneous continuous system.After being stored for a period time at room temperature,the mechanical properties of AGPTPS were also studied.As a mixed plasticizer,aliphatic amidediol and glycerol would be practical to extend TPS application scopes.

  6. Excess molar volumes and viscosities for binary mixtures of 3-heptanone + ethyl acetate, 3-heptanone + butyl acetate, 3-heptanone + tributyl phosphate,and methyl isobutyl ketone + tributyl phosphate%3-庚酮+乙酸乙酯、3-庚酮+乙酸丁酯、3-庚酮+TBP、MIBK+ TBP二元体系的过量摩尔体积和黏度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨得岭; 林晓; 曹宏斌; 李以圭; 张懿

    2012-01-01

    Densities and viscosities of four binary mixtures of 3-heptanone + ethyl acetate, 3-heptanone + butyl acetate, 3-heptanone + tributyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone + tributyl phosphate were determined from 293. 15 K to 318. 15 K under atmospheric pressure using Anton Paar DMA5000 vibrating-tube densimeter and Anton Paar AMVn automated micro viscometer. From the experimental data of density and viscosity, the excess molar volumes VE and viscosity deviation △η were calculated and correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The viscosities of the mixtures were correlated by Orrick-Erbar (OE) group-contribution method. And the new group-contribution parameters A and B for (-O)3-P=O group were obtained. The results show that the improved Orrick-Erbar equation is able to predict the viscosities for mixtures from their pure solvents and the deviation is acceptable in engineering applications.%常压下测定了3-庚酮+乙酸乙酯、3-庚酮+乙酸丁酯、3-庚酮+磷酸三丁酯(TBP)、4-甲基-2-戊酮(MI-BK)+磷酸三丁酯4个二元体系在293.15~318.15 K下的密度和黏度值,计算了二元体系的过量摩尔体积VE和过量黏度△η,并用Redlich-Kister方程对VE和△η进行了关联.混合溶剂的黏度数据采用Orrick-Erbar(O-E)基团贡献法进行了关联和预测,增加了O-E方法中的(-O)3-P=O基团贡献值.结果表明,O-E方法可根据现有的纯溶剂的黏度数据预测得到混合溶剂的黏度,平均误差小于15%.

  7. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  8. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  9. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  10. Synergistic Disruption of External Male Sex Organ Development by a Mixture of Four Antiandrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, Martin; Dalgaard, Majken;

    2009-01-01

    are not well described, especially when they exert their actions by differing molecular mechanisms. Objectives: To fill this gap, we investigated the effects of mixtures of a widely used plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two fungicides present in food, vinclozolin and prochloraz......By disrupting the action of androgens during gestation, certain chemicals present in food, consumer products and the environment can induce irreversible demasculinisation and malformations of sex organs among male offspring. However, the consequences of simultaneous exposure to such chemicals...

  11. X-ray scattering as a probe for warm dense mixtures and high-pressure miscibility

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, K; Gregori, G; Gericke, D O

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the abilities of elastic x-ray scattering to yield information on dense matter with multiple ion species and on the microscopic mixing in dense materials. Based on partial structure factors from ab initio simulations, a novel approach for the elastic scattering feature is applied to dense hydrogen-beryllium and hydrogen-helium mixtures. The scattering signal differs significantly between single species, real microscopic mixtures, and two separate fluids in the scattering volume.

  12. Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: donev@courant.nyu.edu; Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Nonaka, Andy; Bell, John B. [Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Garcia, Alejandro L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure, which generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases [Balakrishnan et al., “Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies nonreactive mixtures,” Phys. Rev. E 89 013017 (2014)] and binary liquid mixtures [Donev et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusively mixing fluids,” Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 9(1), 47-105 (2014)]. In this formulation, we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. The formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a “solvent” species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature, and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We extend the semi-implicit staggered-grid finite-volume numerical method developed in our prior work on binary liquid mixtures [Nonaka et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of binary liquid mixtures,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2300 (2015)] and use it to study the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture subjected to a steady concentration gradient. We also numerically study the development of diffusion-driven gravitational instabilities in a ternary mixture and compare our numerical results to recent experimental measurements [Carballido-Landeira et al., “Mixed-mode instability of a

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structural and thermodynamic properties of imidazolium-based ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morales, T; Carrete, J; Cabeza, O; Gallego, L J; Varela, L M

    2011-09-29

    In this work, extensive molecular dynamics simulations of mixtures of alcohols of several chain lengths (methanol and ethanol) with the ionic liquids (ILs) composed of the cation 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and several anions of different hydrophobicity degrees (Cl(-), BF(4)(-), PF(6)(-)) are reported. We analyze the influence of the nature of the anion, the length of the molecular chain of the alcohol, and the alcohol concentration on the thermodynamic and structural properties of the mixtures. Densities, excess molar volumes, total and partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and hydrogen bond degrees are reported and analyzed for mixtures of the ILs with methanol and ethanol. The aggregation process is shown to be highly dependent on the nature of the anion and the size of the alcohol, since alcohol molecules tend to interact predominantly with the anionic part of the IL, especially in mixtures of the halogenated IL with methanol. Particularly, our results suggest that the formation of an apolar network similar to that previously reported in mixtures of ILs with water does not take place in mixtures with alcohol when the chloride anion is present, the alcohol molecules being instead homogeneously distributed in the polar network of IL. Moreover, the alcohol clusters formed in mixtures of [HMIM][PF(6)] with alcohol were found to have a smaller size than in mixtures with water. Additionally, we provide a semiquantitative analysis of the dependence of the hydrogen bonding degree of the mixtures on the alcohol concentration. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Binary Mixtures of p-Xylene with Cyclohexane, n-Heptane, n-Octane,Sulfolane, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone and Acetic Acid at 303.15 K and 323.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure%对二甲苯与环己烷、正庚烷、正辛烷、环丁砜和N-甲基-2-吡咯烷酮和乙酸二元混合物在303.15K和323.15K的 超额体积和黏度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长生; 马沛生; 周清

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data on density and viscosity at 303.15K and 323.15K are presented for the binary mixtures of p-xylene with cyclohexane, n-heptane, n-octane, sulfolane, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and acetic acid.From these data, the excess molar volume and deviations in viscosity have been calculated. The computed quantities have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister Equation to derive coefficients and estimate the standard error values. Results are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

  15. A Study of SiR/EPDM Mixtures for Outdoor Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sykaras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the flashover voltages on samples of silicone rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer (SiR/EPDM mixtures under the influence of a uniform electric field. Five different mixtures of SiR/EPDM were investigated. Various SiR/EPDM mixtures (100% EPDM, 10% SiR + 90% EPDM, 30% SiR + 70% EPDM, 50% SiR + 50% EPDM, 70% SiR + 30% EPDM, 90% SiR + 10% EPDM, 100% SiR were tested for different water droplet arrangements, different water conductivities, different droplet volumes as well as different droplet positioning w.r.t. the electrodes. The 50% SiR + 50% EPDM mixture proved to be the best mixture regarding the flashover voltage.

  16. Health hazards among workers in plastic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Sawsan Farouk; Elshafy, Wessam Sabry

    2013-10-01

    Styrene is a basic building block for manufacturing thousands of products throughout the world. The present study aimed to (1) detect the presence of styrene and/or its metabolites in the workers in one of the Egyptian plastic factories; (2) demonstrate some common health effects of styrene exposure among the same group by some laboratory investigations and compare them with the unexposed healthy individuals; and (3) correlate the duration of styrene exposure and its level in the blood with the severity of the demonstrated health effects. This study was conducted in one of Egyptian plastic factories. The exposed group was 40 male workers, ranging in age from 18 to 33 years (23.20 ± 4.09), working 12 h/day with 1 day off, and working without any protective equipment. A control group of 50 unexposed healthy males matched with the exposed group for age (21-35 yrs (23.40 ± 4.05)), sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking habit is selected. Written individual consent is obtained from all participants followed by (a) a full medical and occupational history and full clinical examination; (b) ventilatory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV₁)%, FEV₁/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and mid-expiratory flow 25-75%; (c) analyses of β₂ microglobulin; blood styrene level; and urinary mandelic acid; and (d) cytogenetic study. The study results showed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and the control groups as regard the blood styrene level, urinary mandelic acid level, β₂ microgloblin in urine, and chromosomal study. The study also showed a statistically significant correlation between the duration of styrene exposure and ventilatory function parameters, also between the duration of styrene exposure and some detectable chromosomal aberrations. Our study recommends the implementation of preemployment and periodic medical examinations and health education programs using

  17. Local fluctuations in solution mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    An extension of the traditional Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions is outlined which provides additional fluctuating quantities that can be used to characterize and probe the behavior of solution mixtures. Particle-energy and energy-energy fluctuations for local regions of any multicomponent solution are expressed in terms of experimentally obtainable quantities, thereby supplementing the usual particle-particle fluctuations provided by the established KB inversion approach. The expressions are then used to analyze experimental data for pure water over a range of temperatures and pressures, a variety of pure liquids, and three binary solution mixtures – methanol and water, benzene and methanol, and aqueous sodium chloride. In addition to providing information on local properties of solutions it is argued that the particle-energy and energy-energy fluctuations can also be used to test and refine solute and solvent force fields for use in computer simulation studies. PMID:21806137

  18. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  19. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter. By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  20. Vascular plasticity in cerebrovascular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars I H; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries and micr...

  1. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the risks and trust a board-certified plastic surgeon to perform your cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. ASPS member surgeons have the training and experience that ... 1300 Chain Bridge Road McLean, VA 22101 (703) 790-5454 Timothy Germain ...

  2. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  3. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  4. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...

  5. For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

  6. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  7. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  8. Atomistic Simulations of Bicelle Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Hao; Kindt, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of long- and short-tail phosphatidylcholine lipids are known to self-assemble into a variety of aggregates combining flat bilayerlike and curved micellelike features, commonly called bicelles. Atomistic simulations of bilayer ribbons and perforated bilayers containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC, di-C14 tails) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC, di-C6 tails) have been carried out to investigate the partitioning of these components between flat and curved microenvironmen...

  9. Atomistic Simulations of Bicelle Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yong; WANG, HAO; Kindt, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of long- and short-tail phosphatidylcholine lipids are known to self-assemble into a variety of aggregates combining flat bilayerlike and curved micellelike features, commonly called bicelles. Atomistic simulations of bilayer ribbons and perforated bilayers containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC, di-C14 tails) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC, di-C6 tails) have been carried out to investigate the partitioning of these components between flat and curved microenvironmen...

  10. Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at 30°C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ali; A K Nain

    2002-04-01

    Densities ρ and ultrasonic speeds of the binary mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) with 1-butanol and tert-butanol, at 30°C, over the entire composition range were measured. From these data isentropic compressibility, s, intermolecular free length f, relative association A, acoustic impedance , molar sound speed m, deviations in isentropic compressibility s, and excess volume E were calculated. The variation of these parameters with composition of the mixture helps us in understanding the nature and extent of interaction between unlike molecules in the mixtures. Further, theoretical values of ultrasonic speed were evaluated using theories and empirical relations. The relative merits of these theories and relations were discussed.

  11. Scattering for mixtures of hard spheres: comparison of total scattering intensities with model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B J; Gopalakrishnan, V; Ramakrishnan, S; Zukoski, C F

    2006-03-01

    The angular dependence of the intensity of x-rays scattered from binary and ternary hard sphere mixtures is investigated and compared to the predictions of two scattering models. Mixture ratio and total volume fraction dependent effects are investigated for size ratios equal to 0.51 and 0.22. Comparisons of model predictions with experimental results indicate the significant impact of the role of particle size distributions in interpreting the angular dependence of the scattering at wave vectors probing density fluctuations intermediate between the sizes of the particles in the mixture.

  12. Low temperature conversion of plastic waste into light hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sajid Hussain; Khan, Zahid Mahmood; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Mahmood, Qaisar; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Khan, Jamil; Farooq, Ather; Rashid, Naim [Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060 (Pakistan); Wu, Donglei, E-mail: wudl@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Advance recycling through pyrolytic technology has the potential of being applied to the management of plastic waste (PW). For this purpose 1 l volume, energy efficient batch reactor was manufactured locally and tested for pyrolysis of waste plastic. The feedstock for reactor was 50 g waste polyethylene. The average yield of the pyrolytic oil, wax, pyrogas and char from pyrolysis of PW were 48.6, 40.7, 10.1 and 0.6%, respectively, at 275 deg. C with non-catalytic process. Using catalyst the average yields of pyrolytic oil, pyrogas, wax and residue (char) of 50 g of PW was 47.98, 35.43, 16.09 and 0.50%, respectively, at operating temperature of 250 deg. C. The designed reactor could work at low temperature in the absence of a catalyst to obtain similar products as for a catalytic process.

  13. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2003-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001) 2245). Cell-model analyses are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically, for both a single parameter...... version and the multiparameter theory, and significant differences between the predictions of the two models are reported. It is shown that modeling fiber elasticity is important when using the present theories. A significant stiffening effect when compared to conventional models is predicted, which...... is a result of a significant decrease in the level of plastic strain. Moreover, it is shown that the relative stiffening effect increases with fiber volume fraction. The higher-order nature of the theories allows for different higher-order boundary conditions at the fiber-matrix interface, and these boundary...

  14. FRACTIONAL TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baosheng WU; Albert MOLINAS; Anping SHU

    2003-01-01

    A new method based on the Transport Capacity Fraction (TCF) concept is proposed to compute the fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures in sand-bed channels. The TCF concept is derived from the understanding that the measurements and predictions of bed-material load are more accurate and reliable than the measurements and predictions of fractional loads. First the bed-material load is computed using an appropriate equation, then the fractional transport rates are determined by distributing the bed-material load into size groups through a transport capacity distribution function. For the computation of bed-material loads, the Aekers and White, Engelund and Hansen, and Yang equations are used in this study. Two new transport capacity distribution functions are developed for flows in sand-bed channels. The new expressions presented in this paper account for the sheltering and exposure effects that exist in mixtures. Comparisons with measured data show that the proposed method can significantly improve the predictions of fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures.

  15. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Health News on: Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  16. Lecture notes on Elasto-plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hededal, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling......Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling...

  17. Phenotypic plasticity with instantaneous but delayed switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, Margarete; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Loeschcke, Volker; Gabriel, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, allowing organisms to better adapt to changing environments. Most empirical and theoretical studies are restricted to irreversible plasticity where the expression of a specific phenotype is mostly determined during development. However, reversible pl

  18. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  19. Developmental plasticity and evolution--quo vadis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moczek, A P

    2015-01-01

    The role of developmental (phenotypic) plasticity in ecology and evolution is receiving a growing appreciation among the biologists, and many plasticity-specific concepts have become well established as part of the mainstream evolutionary...

  20. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)