WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic melt waste

  1. High Efficiency, High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (HEHO-PMWC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative High Efficiency, High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (HEHO-PMWC) is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction...

  2. High Efficiency, High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (HEHO-PMWC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop processes and waste heat recovery techniques to be incorporated into the existing Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (PMWC) to increase...

  3. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  4. Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Flight Demonstrator Payload (PFDP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PMWC Flight Demonstrator Payload is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction to remove nearly 100% of water from trash while...

  5. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  6. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  7. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FIRE RETARDANT PLASTIC PELLETS AND HOT MELT ADHESIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small to medium sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of the...

  9. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  10. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  11. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  12. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  13. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  14. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake, E-mail: jake.amoroso@srs.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle S. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We explored the feasibility of melt processing multiphase titanate-based ceramics. • Melt processing produced phases obtained by alternative processing methods. • Phases incorporated multiple lanthanides and transition metals. • Processing in reducing atmosphere suppressed un-desirable Cs–Mo coupling. • Cr partitions to and stabilizes the hollandite phase, which promotes Cs retention. - Abstract: Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction–oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs–Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  15. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  16. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.; Tang, Ming; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin; Su, Dong; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2014-11-01

    Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction-oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs-Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  17. Environmental evaluation of plastic waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, L.; Grosso, M.; Møller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The management of the plastic fraction is one of the most debated issues in the discussion on integrated municipal solid waste systems. Both material and energy recovery can be performed on such a waste stream, and different separate collection schemes can be implemented. The aim of the paper...... is to contribute to the debate, based on the analysis of different plastic waste recovery routes. Five scenarios were defined and modelled with a life cycle assessment approach using the EASEWASTE model. In the baseline scenario (P0) the plastic is treated as residual waste and routed partly to incineration...... with energy recovery and partly to mechanical biological treatment. A range of potential improvements in plastic management is introduced in the other four scenarios (P1–P4). P1 includes a source separation of clean plastic fractions for material recycling, whereas P2 a source separation of mixed plastic...

  18. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  19. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  20. Plastic waste as a resource. Strategies for reduction and utilization of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual i Camprubí, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Plastic materials have experienced a spectacular rate of growth in recent decades, consequently, production of plastics, and likewise their consumption, has increased markedly since 1950. Moreover, they are lightweight and durable, as well as can be moulded into a variety of products that can be manufactured in many different types of plastic and in a wide range of applications. Inevitably, continually increasing amounts of used plastic are originating daily, resulting in a plastic waste prob...

  1. Melt rheology and its applications in the plastics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dealy, John M

    2013-01-01

    This is the second edition of Melt Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing, although the title has changed to reflect its broadened scope. Advances in the recent years in rheometer technology and polymer science have greatly enhanced the usefulness of rheology in the plastics industry. It is now possible to design polymers having specific molecular structures and to predict the flow properties of melts having those structures. In addition, rheological properties now provide more precise information about molecular structure. This book provides all the information that is needed for the intelligent application of rheology in the development of new polymers, the determination of molecular structure and the correlation of processability with laboratory test data. Theory and equations are limited to what is essential for the use of rheology in the characterization of polymers, the development of new plastics materials and the prediction of plastics processing behavior. The emphasis is on information that wil...

  2. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  3. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of pla

  4. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of

  5. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek S. Damal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bitumen roads. In large cities now a day‟s concrete roads are used because concrete roads are more durable, strengthen and having more life span than bitumen roads. Waste plastics and E-waste (electronic waste both by domestic and industrial sectors can be used in the production of asphalt mix. Waste plastic, mainly used for packing are made up of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. Electronic waste, abbreviated as e-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators; radios, etc are basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end of life. An experimental study is made on the utilization of E-waste particles as fine aggregates in concrete with a percentage replacement ranging from 0 % to 21.5% i.e. (7.5%, 15% and 21.5% on the strength criteria of M30 Concrete. Compressive strength Concrete with and without E- waste plastic as aggregates was observed which exhibits a good strength. The feasibility of utilizing E-waste plastic particles as partial replacement of fine aggregate has been presented. In the present study, compressive strength was investigated for Optimum Cement Content and 7.5% E-plastic content in mix yielded stability and very good in compressive strength of 43 grade cement.

  6. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition.

  7. Pyrolysis of plastics and tyres wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Miguel; Costa, Paula; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The main aim of the work is to characterize the nature of liquids produced by pyrolysing various blends of wastes were several mixtures of tyres and plastics wastes were pyrolysed. The plastics wastes used were polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). The tyre waste also included natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and butadiene rubber (BR).The influence of the following operating conditions as well as different mixture of wastes on nature of the products was investigated; run temperature: 380-450 deg C, run pressure: 0.2-8.0 MPa, reaction time: 10 to 60 minutes, waste composition: several mixtures of plastics and tyres in different quantities. The final objective was to optimize operating condition to maximize the production of liquids and to achieve selectivity in the nature of the liquids obtained. The results obtained showed that the composition of the end products was highly dependent of the components of the blend of wastes used. Several solvents with different H-donor capacity were also added to the reaction mixture to investigate the nature of liquids formed to verify if a higher degree of selectivity could be achieved with regard to the nature of liquid products. Solvents used included 1,2,3,4 - Tetrahydronaphthalene and 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydroquinoline. Liquids yields obtained so far were found to be very promising, reaching values around 70% (v/v), while gas and residual solid amounts were around 10% (v/v) and 20% (v/v).

  8. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  9. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

  10. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Almeida; Maria de Fátima Marques

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolit...

  11. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  12. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  13. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Gonzalez, Lino A.; Broadbelt, Linda; Raviknishan, Vinu

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of waste plastic to energy is a growing problem that is especially acute in space exploration applications. Moreover, utilization of heavy hydrocarbon resources (wastes, waxes, etc.) as fuels and chemicals will be a growing need in the future. Existing technologies require a trade-off between product selectivity and feedstock conversion. The objective of this work was to maintain high plastic-to-fuel conversion without sacrificing the liquid yield. The developed technology accomplishes this goal with a combined understanding of thermodynamics, reaction rates, and mass transport to achieve high feed conversion without sacrificing product selectivity. The innovation requires a reaction vessel, hydrocarbon feed, gas feed, and pressure and temperature control equipment. Depending on the feedstock and desired product distribution, catalyst can be added. The reactor is heated to the desired tempera ture, pressurized to the desired pressure, and subject to a sweep flow at the optimized superficial velocity. Software developed under this project can be used to determine optimal values for these parameters. Product is vaporized, transferred to a receiver, and cooled to a liquid - a form suitable for long-term storage as a fuel or chemical. An important NASA application is the use of solar energy to convert waste plastic into a form that can be utilized during periods of low solar energy flux. Unlike previous work in this field, this innovation uses thermodynamic, mass transport, and reaction parameters to tune product distribution of pyrolysis cracking. Previous work in this field has used some of these variables, but never all in conjunction for process optimization. This method is useful for municipal waste incinerator operators and gas-to-liquids companies.

  14. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  15. Crystallization behavior during melt-processing of ceramic waste forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumurugoti, Priyatham; Sundaram, S. K.; Misture, Scott T.; Marra, James C.; Amoroso, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Multiphase ceramic waste forms based on natural mineral analogs are of great interest for their high chemical durability, radiation resistance, and thermodynamic stability. Melt-processed ceramic waste forms that leverage existing melter technologies will broaden the available disposal options for high-level nuclear waste. This work reports on the crystallization behavior in selected melt-processed ceramics for waste immobilization. The phase assemblage and evolution of hollandite, zirconolite, pyrochlore, and perovskite type structures during melt processing were studied using thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. Samples prepared by melting followed by annealing and quenching were analyzed to determine and measure the progression of the phase assemblage. Samples were melted at 1500 °C and heat-treated at crystallization temperatures of 1285 °C and 1325 °C corresponding to exothermic events identified from differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Results indicate that the selected multiphase composition partially melts at 1500 °C with hollandite coexisting as crystalline phase. Perovskite and zirconolite phases crystallized from the residual melt at temperatures below 1350 °C. Depending on their respective thermal histories, different quenched samples were found to have different phase assemblages including phases such as perovskite, zirconolite and TiO2.

  16. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The amount of plastic waste is growing every year and with that comes an environmental concern regarding this problem. Pyrolysis as a tertiary recycling process is presented as a solution. Pyrolysis can be thermal or catalytical and can be performed under different experimental conditions. These conditions affect the type and amount of product obtained. With the pyrolysis process, products can be obtained with high added value, such as fuel oils and feedstock for new products. Zeolites can be used as catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis and influence the final products obtained.

  17. Flotation separation of waste plastics for recycling-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jian-gang; Liu, You-nian

    2015-07-01

    The sharp increase of plastic wastes results in great social and environmental pressures, and recycling, as an effective way currently available to reduce the negative impacts of plastic wastes, represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Froth flotation is a promising method to solve the key problem of recycling process, namely separation of plastic mixtures. This review surveys recent literature on plastics flotation, focusing on specific features compared to ores flotation, strategies, methods and principles, flotation equipments, and current challenges. In terms of separation methods, plastics flotation is divided into gamma flotation, adsorption of reagents, surface modification and physical regulation.

  18. Triboelectrostatic separation for granular plastic waste recycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The world's plastic consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, generating more and more plastic waste, which makes it a great public concern. Recycling is the best treatment for plastic waste since it cannot only reduce the waste but also reduce the consumption of oil for producing new virgin plastic. Mechanical recycling is recommended for plastic waste to avoid the loss of its virgin value. As a mechanical separation technology, triboelectrostatic separation utilizes the difference between surface properties of different materials to get them oppositely charged, deflected in the electric field and separately collected. It has advantages such as high efficiency, low cost, no concern of water disposal or secondary pollution and a relatively wide processing range of particle size especially suitable for the granular plastic waste. The process of triboelectrostatic separation for plastic waste is reviewed in this paper. Different devices have been developed and proven to be effective for separation of plastic waste. The influence factors are also discussed. It can be concluded that the triboelectrostatic separation of plastic waste is a promising technology. However, more research is required before it can be widely applied in industry.

  19. Characterization of plastic blends made from mixed plastics waste of different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turku, Irina; Kärki, Timo; Rinne, Kimmo; Puurtinen, Ari

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies the recyclability of construction and household plastic waste collected from local landfills. Samples were processed from mixed plastic waste by injection moulding. In addition, blends of pure plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene were processed as a reference set. Reference samples with known plastic ratio were used as the calibration set for quantitative analysis of plastic fractions in recycled blends. The samples were tested for the tensile properties; scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis of the blend surfaces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used for the quantification of plastics contents.

  20. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  1. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap(-1). In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap(-1) a(-1) for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  2. Recycling and Utilization of Waste Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan-chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduced the recovery method, classification and comprehensive utilization process of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP. Among the current methods of utilization, the physical method is most promising. After pre-processing of waste GFRP, the short glass fiber can be used in gypsum block to improve the anti-cracking and operation performance of the material; waste GFRP powder can be used in plastic fiber reinforced manhole covers to increase the mechanical strength, and the products conformed to JC 1009-2006. Based on these studies, we also point out some problems concerning the utilization of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics.

  3. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Granby, Kit; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic......,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile...... flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling....

  4. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  5. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  6. Non-combustible waste melting with plasma torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kil; Moon, Young Pyo; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae

    1999-07-01

    Non-combustible radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are composed of concrete, glass, asbestos, metal, sand, soil, spent filter, etc. The melting tests for concrete, glass, sand, and spent filter were carried out using 60 kW plasma torch system. The surrogate wastes were prepared for the tests and Co and Cs were added to thesurrogates in order to simulate the radioactive waste. Several kinds of surrogate were prepared by mixing them or individual waste, and were melted with plasma torch system to produce glassy waste forms. The characteristics of glassy waste forms were examined for the volume reduction factor (VRF) and the leach rate. The VRFs were estimated through measurement of density for surrogate and glassy waste forms, and were turned out to be 1.2 - 2.4. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was applied to determine the leach resistance for As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se, Co, and Cs, and the leaching index was calculated using the total content in both the waste forms and the leached amount for each element. The TCLP tests resulted that the leach rates for all elements except Se, Co, and Cs were lower than those of the EPA guide line. For Co and Cs, there is no the EPA guide line and the leach rate and index for them were around 10 times higher than those of the other elements. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Waste Plastic Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Vijaya G.S Assistant Professor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is high performance concrete which is highly flowable, non-segregating, spread on its own weight and doesn‟t need any compaction. This paper deals with flow and strength characteristics such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength of Self-compacting concrete with various percentages of waste plastic fibres like 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.1%, 1.20%, 1.3% and 1.4% is added by weight of cement. The mix proportion for M40 grade of concrete was done by using Nan Su method (Cement: GGBS: Fine aggregate: Course aggregate 1: 0.705: 3.34: 2.62. Water powder (W/P ratio 0.36, cement content 280kg/m3 , GGBS 220 kg/m3 was calculated and maintained as constant throughout the experimental work for all eight mixes, only the superplastizers dosage was varied for different percentage of fibres. In this experimental investigation one control mix and eight (8 different mixes were considered. Totally 81 Cube, beam, Cylindrical specimens and square plates were casted, cured and tested as per IS specifications. For determining impact strength drop weight method was used. The results obtained indicate that fresh (workability characteristics satisfy the lower and upper limit as suggested by EFNARC. The tests on hardened properties indicate that the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength was improved proportionally with the addition of waste plastic fibers upto 1.0% by weight of cement and then decreases. The impact strength improved proportionally with addition of fibres upto 1.2% by weight of cement and then decreases.

  8. A comprehensive waste collection cost model applied to post-consumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.; Bing, X.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW) can be collected for recycling via source separation or post-separation. In source separation, households separate plastics from other waste before collection, whereas in post-separation waste is separated at a treatment centre after collection. There are

  9. A comprehensive waste collection cost model applied to post-consumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.; Bing, X.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW) can be collected for recycling via source separation or post-separation. In source separation, households separate plastics from other waste before collection, whereas in post-separation waste is separated at a treatment centre after collection. There are

  10. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  11. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  12. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from waste polyethylene plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chuanwei

    Generation of non-biodegradable wastes, such as plastics, and resulting land as well as water pollution therefrom discarded plastics have been continuously increasing, while landfill space decreases and recycling markets dwindle. Exploration of novel uses of such materials becomes therefore imperative. Here I present an innovative and unique partial conversion of plastic waste to valuable carbon nanomaterials. It is an overall exothermic and scalable process based on feeding waste plastics to a multi-stage, pyrolysis/combustion-synthesis reactor. Plain stainless steel screens are used as substrates as well as low-cost catalyst for both carbon nanomaterials synthesis and pyrolyzates generation. Nano carbon yields of as high as 13.6% of the weight of the polymer precursor were recorded. This demonstration provides a sustainable solution to both plastic waste utilization, and carbon nanomaterials mass production.

  14. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  15. Composite Fibers from Recycled Plastics Using Melt Centrifugal Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Nicole E; Gillan, Margaret; Sweetser, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    New methods are being developed to enable the production of value-added materials from high-volume, low-cost feedstocks arising from domestic recycling streams. In this work, recycled bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, and polypropylene were spun into fibers from the melt using a centrifugal spinning technique. Mono-component fibers and 50/50 blends of each polymer and a 33/33/33 blend of all three polymers were evaluated. Fiber morphology, chemistry, thermal, and mechanical properties were probed. Fiber diameters ranged from ca. 1 to over 12 µm, with polypropylene fibers having the smallest fiber diameters. Mono-component fibers were generally defect-free, while composite fibers containing polypropylene were beady. Fibers made from polyethylene terephthalate had the highest tensile strength, and the addition of polyethylene terephthalate to the other polymers improved the mechanical properties of the blends. Nano- and micro-fibers from both pure and mixed waste streams are expected to have applications in myriad areas such as ultra/micro-filtration, composites, and insulation.

  16. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  18. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  19. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, model, build, and test a novel flash cracking reactor to convert plastic waste, and potentially other unconventional hydrocarbon feedstocks,...

  20. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serbia: A new process for waste rubber and plastic recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Ocic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to describe a new technological process for waste rubber and plastic recycling up to the commercial components in safe environmental friendly way. Researches and all relevant technical-technological data related to this process are checked at constructed pilot plant. The future construction of these units for waste rubber and plastic recycling will allow interested parties to achieve the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency.

  2. Sustainable reverse logistics network design for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic recycling is a legal requirement and can yield environmental benefits. In the Netherlands, there is a complex network of various collection methods, separation centers, sorting centers and reprocessors. The first step of the recycling system, separating plastics from other waste, can occur w

  3. Sustainable reverse logistics network design for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic recycling is a legal requirement and can yield environmental benefits. In the Netherlands, there is a complex network of various collection methods, separation centers, sorting centers and reprocessors. The first step of the recycling system, separating plastics from other waste, can occur

  4. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  5. Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, A.G.; Huang, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry - CHIS 2, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in plastics cracking, a process developed to recycle plastic wastes into useful petrochemical materials. Under thermal cracking conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. By adopting customary fluid cracking catalysts and reforming catalysts, more aromatics and naphthenes in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} range can be produced, which are valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons. More tests are, however, needed to verify the pyrolysis process in a pilot scale particularly for treatment of mixtures of bulk plastics. Plastics cracking is only an elementary conversion technology; its application has to be combined with other technologies such as municipal solid waste collection, classification and pretreatment at the front end, as well as hydrocarbon distillation and purification at the back end. Social, environmental and economic factors are also important in industrial implementation of the technology

  6. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  7. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  8. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-08-30

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Upgrading of recycled plastics obtained from flexible packaging waste by adding nanosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, E.; Claro, M.; Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the growing consumption of polymer products creates large quantities of waste materials resulting in public concern in the environment and people life. The efficient treatment of polymer wastes is still a difficult challenge and the recycling process represents the best way to manage them. Recently, many researchers have tried to develop nanotechnology for polymer recycling. The products prepared through the addition of nanoparticles to post-used plastics could offer the combination of improved properties, low weight, easy of processing and low cost which is not easily and concurrently found by other methods of plastic recycling. In this study materials, obtained by the separation and mechanical recycling of post-consumer packaging films of small size (organic modifier, were melt compounded with the recycled materials in a twin-screw extruder. The morphological, thermal, rheological and mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were extensively discussed.

  10. Melt-processed poly(vinyl alcohol) composites filled with microcrystalline cellulose from waste cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xinxing

    2014-01-30

    Waste cotton fabrics (WCFs), which are generated in a large volume from the textile industry, have caused serious disposal problem. Recycling WCFs into value-added products is one of the vital measures for both environmental and economic benefits. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared by acid hydrolysis of WCFs, and used as reinforcement for melt-processed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with water and formamide as plasticizer. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the melt-processed PVA/MCC composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The results indicated that MCC could establish strong interfacial interaction with PVA through hydrogen bonding. As a result, the crystallization of PVA was confined and its melting temperature was decreased, which was beneficial for the melt-processing of PVA. Compared with the unfilled PVA, the PVA/MCC composites exhibited remarkable improvement in modulus and tensile strength.

  11. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; KUANG Jingan; NI Guohua; LIU Wei; JIANG Yiman

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China.At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h,the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300℃.Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent,I-TEQ),well below 0.5 ng TEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent,TEQ),while those in the melted product(slag)were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ.Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals.These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  12. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-04-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

  13. A new technology proposed to recycle waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Mohammed Molla, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis and environmental degradation by polymer wastes have been imperative to find and propose technologies for recovery of raw materials and energy from non-conventional sources like plastic wastes. A variety of methods and processes connected with global or national policies have been proposed worldwide. A new type of steel reactor is proposed for conversion of waste plastics to fuel like mixture of hydrocarbons. The results of the thermal degradation of waste plastics in the laboratory scale set-up based on this process in the paper. The melting and thermal cracking processes were carried out in a single batch process at the temperature range is 200–420 ºC. The final product consisted of light gas 6.3 % and liquid product 90%. 3.7% solid black products were produced. The light, ‘‘gas” fraction of the hydrocarbons mixture (C1–C4 and rest of liquid fuel made over 90% of the liquid product. It may be used for fuel production refinery or electricity generation.

  14. Recycling of plastic waste by density separation: prospects for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Diego, Isidro

    2009-03-01

    A review of existing industrial processing and results of alternative processing investigations for separating solid mixtures and specifically recycling plastic waste by density separation is presented. Media density separation is shown to be fundamental for separation and/or pre-concentration in the recycling of plastics. The current use of static media processes limits the capacity and size of material that can be treated commercially. Investigations have shown that the hydroscopic properties of plastics can be reduced to improve such separations. This indicates that an alternative processing method is required to increase the commercial recovery of recyclable plastics. Cylindroconical and cylindrical cyclone-type media separators, such as those used for processing coal, are reviewed and suggested as a potential substitute. Both have superior production capacities and are able to process a larger range in particle sizes treated. A summary of results of investigations with cyclone media devices for recycling plastics is presented.

  15. Design and construction of prestressed arch using plastic shoppers waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khan, S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of plastic in the last century, being versitile it has become very popular for diversified uses. The problem appears when these plastics, particularly shoppers are disposed as waste. The current reuse and recycling rates for the plastic shoppers waste are very low. Construction Industry has a great potential for the reuse of shoppers waste. Shoppers waste has been compressed to fabricate compressed shoppers waste (CSW blocks. This study is related to an innovative reuse of CSW-blocks for the construction of prestressed structural arch. This paper is dedicated to the design and construction of structural arch using shoppers waste as a material.

    Desde su desarrollo durante el siglo pasado y debido a su versatilidad, el plástico se ha hecho ubicuo en la sociedad actual. Los problemas surgen cuando este material, sobre todo cuando conforma bienes de consumo, se desecha. Actualmente, los índices de valorización y reciclado de residuos plásticos de origen doméstico son muy bajos. El sector de la construcción tiene una enorme potencial para reutilizar este tipo de residuos, que se pueden comprimir para fabricar bloques. Este artículo presenta un uso innovador de los bloques de residuos plásticos: la construcción de un arco estructural pretesado. Describe el proyecto y la ejecución de un arco estructural construido con estos materiales de desecho.

  16. Melting the Plastic Ceiling: Overcoming Obstacles to Foster Leadership in Women Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda K; Preminger, Aviva; Slezak, Sheri; Phillips, Linda G; Johnson, Debra J

    2016-09-01

    The underrepresentation of women leaders in plastic surgery echoes a phenomenon throughout society. The importance of female leadership is presented, and barriers to gender equality in plastic surgery, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are discussed. Strategies for fostering women in leadership on an individual level and for the specialty of plastic surgery are presented.

  17. Separate collection of plastic waste, better than technical sorting from municipal solid waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Jansen, Michael; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U

    2017-02-01

    The politically preferred solution to fulfil legal recycling demands is often implementing separate collection systems. However, experience shows their limitations, particularly in urban centres with a high population density. In response to the European Union landfill directive, mechanical biological waste treatment plants have been installed all over Europe. This technology makes it possible to retrieve plastic waste from municipal solid waste. Operators of mechanical biological waste treatment plants, both in Germany and the Netherlands, have started to change their mechanical separation processes to additionally produce plastic pre-concentrates. Results from mechanical biological waste treatment and separate collection of post-consumer packaging waste will be presented and compared. They prove that both the yield and the quality of plastic waste provided as feedstock for the production of secondary plastic raw material are largely comparable. An economic assessment shows which conditions for a technical sorting plant are economically attractive in comparison to separate collection systems. It is, however, unlikely that plastic recycling will ever reach cost neutrality.

  18. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  19. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries.

  20. Low temperature conversion of plastic waste into light hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sajid Hussain; Khan, Zahid Mahmood; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Mahmood, Qaisar; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Khan, Jamil; Farooq, Ather; Rashid, Naim [Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060 (Pakistan); Wu, Donglei, E-mail: wudl@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Advance recycling through pyrolytic technology has the potential of being applied to the management of plastic waste (PW). For this purpose 1 l volume, energy efficient batch reactor was manufactured locally and tested for pyrolysis of waste plastic. The feedstock for reactor was 50 g waste polyethylene. The average yield of the pyrolytic oil, wax, pyrogas and char from pyrolysis of PW were 48.6, 40.7, 10.1 and 0.6%, respectively, at 275 deg. C with non-catalytic process. Using catalyst the average yields of pyrolytic oil, pyrogas, wax and residue (char) of 50 g of PW was 47.98, 35.43, 16.09 and 0.50%, respectively, at operating temperature of 250 deg. C. The designed reactor could work at low temperature in the absence of a catalyst to obtain similar products as for a catalytic process.

  1. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  2. Contribution of plastic waste recovery to greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sevigné Itoiz, Eva; Martínez Gasol, Carles; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of post-consumer plastic waste recovery (material or energy) by considering the influence of the plastic waste quality (high or low), the recycled plastic applications (virgin plastic substitution or non-plastic substitution) and the markets of recovered plastic (regional or global). The aim is to quantify the environmental consequences of different alternatives in order to evaluate opportunities and limitations t...

  3. Study of Reactive Melt Processing Behavior of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate in Presence of Isocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Erdmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of externally plasticized cellulose acetate (CA were chemically modified using 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI as crosslinking agent. Crosslinking was performed in the molten state by means of melt mixing in an internal mixer. The viscoelastic properties of the non-crosslinked, externally plasticized CA show typical temperature dependence, similar to conventional thermoplastics. A strong increase in storage modulus is observed with increasing crosslink density indicating that the crosslinked compounds exhibit predominately elastic response. The complex viscosity also increases considerably with increasing crosslink density and does not reach the typical Newtonian plateau at low radial frequencies any more. The viscoelastic properties correlate well with the data recorded online during reactive melt processing in the internal mixer. In comparison to the non-crosslinked CA, the crosslinked compounds show higher glass transition temperature, higher VICAT softening temperatures, improved thermal stability and lower plasticizer evaporation at evaluated temperatures.

  4. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  5. Assortment of GABAergic plasticity in the cortical interneuron melting pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Pablo; Bacci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Cortical structures of the adult mammalian brain are characterized by a spectacular diversity of inhibitory interneurons, which use GABA as neurotransmitter. GABAergic neurotransmission is fundamental for integrating and filtering incoming information and dictating postsynaptic neuronal spike timing, therefore providing a tight temporal code used by each neuron, or ensemble of neurons, to perform sophisticated computational operations. However, the heterogeneity of cortical GABAergic cells is associated to equally diverse properties governing intrinsic excitability as well as strength, dynamic range, spatial extent, anatomical localization, and molecular components of inhibitory synaptic connections that they form with pyramidal neurons. Recent studies showed that similarly to their excitatory (glutamatergic) counterparts, also inhibitory synapses can undergo activity-dependent changes in their strength. Here, some aspects related to plasticity and modulation of adult cortical and hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission will be reviewed, aiming at providing a fresh perspective towards the elucidation of the role played by specific cellular elements of cortical microcircuits during both physiological and pathological operations.

  6. Electrical separation of plastics coming from special waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gente, Vincenzo; La Marca, Floriana; Lucci, Federica; Massacci, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Minimisation of waste to landfilling is recognised as a priority in waste management by European rules. In order to achieve this goal, developing suitable technologies for waste recycling is therefore of great importance. To achieve this aim the technologies utilised for mineral processing can be taken into consideration to develop recycling systems. In particular comminution and separation processes can be adopted to recover valuable materials from composite waste. In this work the possibility of recycling pharmaceutical blister packaging has been investigated. A suitable comminution process has been applied in order to obtain the liberation of the plastic and aluminium components. Experiments of electrical separation have been carried out in order to point out the influence of the process parameters on the selections of the different materials and to set up the optimum operating conditions.

  7. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  8. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  9. Thermoplastic starch plasticized with alginate-glycerol mixtures: Melt-processing evaluation and film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Olivia V; Ninago, Mario D; Lencina, M M Soledad; García, María A; Andreucetti, Noemí A; Ciolino, Andrés E; Villar, Marcelo A

    2015-08-01

    Corn starch melt-processing in the presence of a commonly used plasticizer mixture (water/glycerol) and a non-conventional alternative (alginate/glycerol) was evaluated. All assayed formulations were successfully processed by melt-mixing and injected in circular probes. It was determined that all samples presented a typical viscoelastic behavior, observing a decrease in storage and loss modulus with water and alginate concentration, which facilitated samples processability. Concerning to thermal stability, it was not affected neither for water nor alginate presence. From injected probes, flexible films were obtained by thermo-compression. Films with the highest assayed water content presented a sticky appearance, whereas those containing alginate were non-tacky. Plasticizing action of water and alginate was evidenced by the occurrence of homogeneous fracture surfaces, without the presence of unmelted starch granules. Besides, the shift of glass transition temperature to lower values also corroborated the plasticizing effect of both additives. In conclusion, obtained results demonstrated the well-plasticizing action of sodium alginate on starch matrix, turning this additive into a promissory alternative to replace water during melt-processing of thermoplastic corn-starch.

  10. Enhancing anti-microbial properties of wood-plastic composites produced from timber and plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi Sun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Considering the resource waste and environmental burden for timber and plastic materials ending up at landfills, this study proposed upcycling wood and plastic waste into value-added wood-plastic composites (WPCs), complying with the standard requirements of flexural strength, thickness swelling, water absorption and thermal insulation. Biological deterioration is a major concern of WPCs. Bacterial survival, fungal attack and algal growth of bactericide-treated WPCs were holistically analysed. Melamine resin was adopted for impregnating anti-microbial agents on the surface. All the agents showed excellent bactericidal rate (Escherichia coli), yet poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) and silver had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations. In terms of weight loss and strength reduction due to fungal decay (Coriolus versicolor), PolyDADMAC, silver and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) imparted the highest resistance on the WPCs. Moreover, PolyDADMAC and copper provided the most protection against algal growth (Chlorella vulgaris), and the former presented durable inhibitory effect. This study presents a value-added solution to wood/plastic waste recycling.

  11. The impact of policy interactions on the recycling of plastic packaging waste in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gandenberger, Carsten; Orzanna, Robert; Klingenfuß, Sara; Sartorius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental challenges associated with the strong growth of plastic waste worldwide, the EU Commission recently published a green paper on a European Strategy on Plastic Waste in the Environment (COM (2013), 123 final), which highlights the challenges and opportunities that arise from improving the management of plastic waste in the EU. The European Waste Directive (2008/98/EC) which was transposed into German law through the Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz (KrWG) established the so-c...

  12. Integrated Index in Consideration of Appropriate Plastic Recycling System in Waste Bank Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Firdaus Pambudi Noorhan; Dowaki Kiyoshi; Adhiutama Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Several appropriate technology had been developed to maintain plastic waste in society according to minimize environmental impact. Landfill is no longer appropriate to maintain plastic waste based on the environmental impact that might be occurred for instance. However in developing countries such as Indonesia, although plastic recycling technology have been promoted by maintain waste bank policy for support community willingness to exchange their recyclable waste with certain monetary values...

  13. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  14. Operating room waste reduction in plastic and hand surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark G; Rothkopf, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Operating rooms (ORs), combined with labour and delivery suites, account for approximately 70% of hospital waste. Previous studies have reported that recycling can have a considerable financial impact on a hospital-wide basis; however, its importance in the OR has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To propose a method of decreasing cost through judicious selection of instruments and supplies, and initiation of recycling in plastic and hand surgery. METHODS: The authors identified disposable supplies and instruments that are routinely opened and wasted in common plastic and hand surgery procedures, and calculated the savings that can result from eliminating extraneous items. A cost analysis was performed, which compared the expense of OR waste versus single-stream recycling and the benefit of recycling HIPAA documents and blue wrap. RESULTS: Fifteen total items were removed from disposable plastic packs and seven total items from hand packs. A total of US$17,381.05 could be saved per year from these changes alone. Since initiating single-stream recycling, the authors’ institution has saved, on average, US$3,487 per month at the three campuses. After extrapolating at the current savings rate, one would expect to save a minimum of US$41,844 per year. DISCUSSION: OR waste reduction is an effective method of decreasing cost in the surgical setting. By revising the contents of current disposable packs and instrument sets designated for plastic and hand surgery, hospitals can reduce the amount of opened and unused material. CONCLUSIONS: Significant financial savings and environmental benefit can result from this judicious supply and instrument selection, as well as implementation of recycling. PMID:26665137

  15. Application of Carrier and Plasticizer to Improve the Dissolution and Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Baicalein by Hot Melt Extrusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yilan; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yi; Ke, Xue; Hu, Danrong; Han, Miaomiao

    2014-01-01

    ...) to prepare solid dispersions using hot melt extrusion (HME). Proper carriers and plasticizers were selected by calculating the Hansen solubility parameters, evaluating melting processing condition, and measuring the solubility of obtained melts...

  16. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg(-1)waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefore the plastic use is much higher for different purposes. It leads to more waste of plastic. In Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation, the population and industrial units are less. Therefore plastic waste is less generated. Theaters are generating less plastic waste in metropolitan region. The Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC and municipal corporations in Thane district will continuously generate more plastic waste in future. The Tobit regression model shows that plastic waste is positively co-related and statistically significant with pollution and industry in region. Therefore the comprehensive policies are required to reduce plastic waste. This is because plastic waste is affecting on the health of human being. It also affects negatively on soil, air and water. The entire food supply chain gets affected due to plastic waste. The water logging is common due to plastic waste in region. It chock ups the drainage system and it becomes the ground for mosquitoes. It further leads to dengue, malaria and other diseases in region. Municipal corporations must collect plastic in separate bins and process it. The plastic and e-waste can be utilized for road construction in region. All the policies will certainly help to reduce the plastic waste and maintain the clean environment in region.

  18. Understanding External Plasticization of Melt Extruded PHBV-Wheat Straw Fibers Biodegradable Composites for Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Lucrezia; Berthet, Marie-Alix; Gontard, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to get further knowledge on the external plasticization mechanisms of melt extruded polyhydroxyl-3-butyrate-co-3-valerate (PHBV) when combined with wheat straw fibers (WSF). Different types of biodegradable substances, all authorized for food contact according to the European regulation, i.e., acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), glycerol triacetate (GTA) and (PEG) at different molecular weights, were tested at different percentages (5, 10 and 20 wt %). Thermal and mec...

  19. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  20. Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Heat Melt Waste Compaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, a Heat Melt Compaction System is under...

  1. Performance of sand-lime products made with plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowek Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the studies on the sand-lime (silicate masonry units modified with recycled plastics in various forms: regranulate, regrind and powder. The following materials were examined: high impact polystyrene (HIPS and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. The results of the functional properties tests, such as compressive strength, softening behavior, bulk density and water absorption are presented in the article. The microstructure of the products was analyzed using SEM and XRD methods.Obtained results show that the properties of modified product largely depend on the type, form and amount of used polymer. The highest compressive strength was achieved with 15% of HIPS regranulate in the product (by weight. ABS does not improve the strength of the sample, however, it does block the capillary action in the sand-lime product. The lowest softening coefficient was obtained in the sample modified with HIPS regranulate. The examined polymers contributed to decrease in bulk density of the samples as well as lowered their water absorption. The samples with pulverized polymer have the worst properties. All the results are compared with those of the traditional sand-lime bricks and sand-lime product modified with other additives. The analysis indicate that silicate masonry units with post-production and post-consumption plastic waste can possess interesting functional properties what brings a new potential possibility to dispose of still growing number of plastic waste.

  2. Forecasting waste compositions: A case study on plastic waste of electronic display housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Jef R; Vanegas, Paul; Kellens, Karel; Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid succession of technological developments, the architecture and material composition of many products used in daily life have drastically changed over the last decades. As a result, well-adjusted recycling technologies need to be developed and installed to cope with these evolutions. This is essential to guarantee continued access to materials and to reduce the ecological impact of our material consumption. However, limited information is currently available on the material composition of arising waste streams and even less on how these waste streams will evolve. Therefore, this paper presents a methodology to forecast trends in the material composition of waste streams. To demonstrate the applicability and value of the proposed methodology, it is applied to forecast the evolution of plastic housing waste from flat panel display (FPD) TVs, FPD monitors, cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and CRT monitors. The results of the presented forecasts indicate that a wide variety of plastic types and additives, such as flame retardants, are found in housings of similar products. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed methodology allows the identification of trends in the evolution of the material composition of waste streams. In addition, it is demonstrated that the recycling sector will need to adapt its processes to deal with the increasing complexity of plastics of end-of-life electronic displays while respecting relevant directives.

  3. Recycling and recovery of post-consumer plastic solid waste in a European context

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil Raf; Baeyens Jan; Brems Anke

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. The USA, Europe and Japan generate annually about 50 million tons of post-consumer plastic waste, previously landfilled, generally considered as a non-sustainable and environmentally questionable option. Landfill sites and their capacity are, moreover, decreasing rapidly, and legislation is stringent. Several European Directives and US legislation concern plastic wastes and the required management. They a...

  4. Application of fluidization to separate packaging waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Teresa; Ferreira, Célia; Portela, Antía; Santos, João Tiago

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the experimental work described in this paper is the study of the separation of PS (polystyrene) from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) from drop-off points using a fluidized bed separator. This is a low-cost process commonly used in the hydro-classification of mineral ores. Firstly, experimental tests were carried out with artificial granulated samples with different grain sizes, types and sources of plastic ("separability tests"). The particle settling velocities were determined under different operating conditions. Then, based on the results, the laboratory tests continued with real mixtures of waste plastics ("separation tests") and the efficiency of the process was evaluated. From a PET-rich mixture, a concentrate of PS with a 75% grade in PS was produced while the underflow was quite clear from PS (grade less than 0.5% in PS).

  5. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator.

  6. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  7. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  8. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%, and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%, and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  9. Technologies for recycling of plastic wastes; Tecnologias para el reciclado de residuos plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Garcia, E.; Larraurim, E.

    1996-12-01

    The present article presents the last technologies to recycle the plastic wastes. the work is developed by Gaiker Center under the umbrella of Brite Euram project. The activities include the minimization, classification, and separation of wastes. (Author)

  10. Local melting to design strong and plastically deformable bulk metallic glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yue-Sheng; Han, Xiao-Liang; Song, Kai-Kai; Tian, Yu-Hao; Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Wang, Li; Sun, Bao-An; Wang, Gang; Kaban, Ivan; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Recently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties. Through adjusting local melting process parameters (i.e. input powers, local melting positions, and distances between the electrode and amorphous plate), the size, volume fraction, and distribution of B2 crystals were well tailored and the corresponding formation mechanism was clearly clarified. The resultant BMG composites exhibit large compressive plasticity and high strength together with obvious work-hardening ability. This compelling approach could be of great significance for the steady development of metastable CuZr-based alloys with excellent mechanical properties.

  11. Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, W.K.Hiromi; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars-André

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental ...

  12. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  13. Investigation of Performance Analysis and Emission Characteristics of Waste Plastic Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, M.; Ramasubramanian, S.; Pugazhenthi, R.; Sivaganesan

    2017-03-01

    Today the world is confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and stringent emission norms, because of the environmental awareness. The disposal and degradation of waste plastic is a major issue and scarcities of fuel were major focus area of the researchers. In this virtue the waste plastic fuel extraction makes more attention to the researchers. In this research work focused to find the performance of the waste plastic fuel and compared to diesel. The waste plastic fuel extract from thermal cracking method this process the polymer chains were breakdown into useful lower molecular weight compounds and it becomes plastic pyrolysis it can be utilized as a fuel. The properties of the waste plastic fuel is obtained by various testing process and which is analyze and compare with the fossil fuel diesel. It is found that almost it has similar properties to the diesel and almost all properties of the pyrolysis is closer to that of diesel. The characteristics of the pyrolysis were tested in the engine test bed. The pyrolysis / waste plastic fuel can be directly used in diesel engines over the entire load spectrum smoothly without any major modification. The performance of the waste plastic fuel / pyrolysis is evidenced that it is one of the best alternative fuel as well as the waste plastic can be converted into a useful fuel

  14. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  15. Interaction study between nuclear waste-glass melt and ceramic melter bellow liner materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pranesh

    2011-04-01

    Identification of proper materials for plant scale vitrification furnaces, engaged in immobilization of high level nuclear waste has always been a great challenge. Fast degradation of pour spout materials very often cause problem towards smooth pouring of waste-glass melt in canister and damages bellow kept in between. The present experimental study describes the various reaction products that form due to interaction between waste-glass melt and potential bellow liner materials such as copper, stainless steel and nickel based Superalloys (Alloy 690, 625). The results indicate that copper based material has lesser tendency to form adherent glassy layer.

  16. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students‟ Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic andPlastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri AVAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students‟ attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills domains. After the factor analysis it was found that they have 3, 4 and 5 factors accordingly. After the reliability analysis the alpha values for cognitive, affective and psychomotor scales are .854, .871 and .826 respectively. As a result, it is found that the scale can be used to define cognitive, affective and psychomotor attitudes.

  17. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  18. The Use of Waste Plastic as a Partial Substitution Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Aschuri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, Indonesia faces serious problems managing solid waste such as plastic. Annually, Indonesia produces approximately 5.4 million tons of waste plastic, accounting for 14% of the country’s total solid waste production. Using waste plastic as a partial substitution aggregate in asphalt concrete pavement would be one of solutions for reducing environmental problems from the high volume of waste plastic. Previous studies show that it may be possible to use waste plastic in road pavement to improve the engineering performance of road pavement and increase its service life. This study investigates the performance of asphalt concrete mixtures containing varying amounts of waste plastic as a partial aggregate substitution as compared to that of conventional mixtures. The waste plastic used in this study was chopped into small pieces of approximately passing sieve number 30 and retained sieve number 40, which would replace (by weight a portion of the mineral aggregates. All mixtures were prepared using 5.82% optimum bitumen content. The performance of asphalt concrete characteristics was studied using the Marshall test, The Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test, The Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM test, and the Cantabro Loss (CL test in terms of strength, stiffness modulus, and durability characteristics. In general, laboratory results showed that asphalt concrete mixtures containing waste plastic have higher performance than conventional asphalt concrete mixtures.

  19. Lab-scale thermal analysis of electronic waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong, E-mail: jhong@ustc.edu.cn; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • We provided the experimental evidence that WEEE can be recovered by pyrolysis method. • We explored the thermochemical behaviors of WEEE using online TG–FTIR–MS technology. • The intramolecular oxygen atoms play a pivotal role in the formation of PBDD/Fs. - Abstract: In this work, we experimentally revealed the thermochemical decomposition pathway of Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) containing electronic waste plastics using an online thermogravimetric–fourier transform infrared–mass spectroscopy (TG–FTIR–MS) system, a high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass (HRGC–MS) spectroscopy, and a fixed-bed reactor. We found the distribution and species of produced bromides can be easily controlled by adjusting pyrolytic temperature, which is particularly crucial to their recycle. From the analysis of the liquid and solid phase obtained from the fixed-bed reactor, we proposed that the ·Br radicals formed during the pyrolysis process may be captured by organic species derived from the depolymerization of plastics to form brominated compounds or by the inorganic species in the plastics, and that these species remained in the char residue after pyrolysis. Our work for the first time demonstrates intramolecular oxygen atoms play a pivotal role in the formation of PBDD/Fs that pyrolysis of oxygen-free BFRs is PBDD/Fs-free, whereas pyrolysis of oxygen-containing BFRs is PBDD/Fs-reduced.

  20. Lab-scale thermal analysis of electronic waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-06-05

    In this work, we experimentally revealed the thermochemical decomposition pathway of Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) containing electronic waste plastics using an online thermogravimetric-fourier transform infrared-mass spectroscopy (TG-FTIR-MS) system, a high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass (HRGC-MS) spectroscopy, and a fixed-bed reactor. We found the distribution and species of produced bromides can be easily controlled by adjusting pyrolytic temperature, which is particularly crucial to their recycle. From the analysis of the liquid and solid phase obtained from the fixed-bed reactor, we proposed that the Br radicals formed during the pyrolysis process may be captured by organic species derived from the depolymerization of plastics to form brominated compounds or by the inorganic species in the plastics, and that these species remained in the char residue after pyrolysis. Our work for the first time demonstrates intramolecular oxygen atoms play a pivotal role in the formation of PBDD/Fs that pyrolysis of oxygen-free BFRs is PBDD/Fs-free, whereas pyrolysis of oxygen-containing BFRs is PBDD/Fs-reduced.

  1. Quality restoration of waste polyolefin plastic material through the dissolution-reprecipitation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Jasim Arkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the restoration of waste plastic polymers based on LDPE, HDPE or PP through dissolution/reprecipitation. Experimental conditions of the recycling process, including type of solvent/non-solvent, original polymer concentration and dissolution temperature were optimized. Results revealed that by using the different prepared solvents/non-solvents at various ratios and temperatures, the polymer recovery was always greater than 94%. The FTIR spectra and the thermal properties (melting point and crystallinity of the polymers before and after recycling were measured using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Mechanical properties of the waste polymer before and after recycling were also measured. Besides small occasional deviations, the properties did not change. The tensile strength at maximum load was 7.1, 18.8, and 7.4 MPa for the recycled LDPE, HDPE and PP, respectively and 7.78, 18.54 and 7.86 MPa for the virgin polymer. For the waste, the strength was 6.2, 15.58 and 6.76 MPa.

  2. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; S. Schreurs; G. Reggers; R. Carleer; J. Yperman [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Lab of Applied Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The Global Warming, the Kyoto Protocol and the emission of greenhouse gasses such as CO{sub 2} are the topics of environmental pleadings. The world's energy supply is limited due to the depletion of fossil fuels, which are still the most important energy sources consumed. The development of new and renewable energies is the key to change. The flash pyrolysis of biomass is a promising route for the production of solid, liquid and gaseous products. A high liquid production requires very low vapour residence time to minimise secondary reactions. Flash co-pyrolytic techniques, at low temperature, provide an alternative way to dispose and convert waste (like plastics) and biomass into high value feedstock. The specific benefits of this method potentially include: the reduction of the volume of the waste, the recovery of chemicals and the replacement of fossil fuels. Co-pyrolysing of PLA (although a biologically degradable polymer, polylactic acid), with biomass (such as willow) may be an alternative waste treatment option. This research indicates that during the flash co-pyrolysis of PLA and willow (even when contaminated with high amounts of heavy metals) a synergy is attained, resulting in a higher yield of bio-oil with a lower water content. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Application Prospect of Waste Plastics%废塑料利用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠敏

    2012-01-01

    详细介绍了废旧塑料的处理和再生利用技术.并指出了废弃塑料再生利用的市场前景。%To introduce the processing and recycling technology of waste plastics. To point out the recycling market prospect of waste plastics.

  4. Managing plastic waste in urban Kenya: niche innovations in production and recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    The problems with plastic waste in Kenyan cities are increasing to alarming levels. Especially disposable packaging made of very light plastic materials continues to burden the environment as well as compromise management capacities for waste by city authorities. In light of this, major cities of

  5. Managing plastic waste in urban Kenya: niche innovations in production and recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    The problems with plastic waste in Kenyan cities are increasing to alarming levels. Especially disposable packaging made of very light plastic materials continues to burden the environment as well as compromise management capacities for waste by city authorities. In light of this, major cities of Ke

  6. Improving the circular economy via hydrothermal processing of highdensity waste plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Conti, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies....... This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical...... processing of high-density plastics is a prospective technology for increasing the circularity of the plastic economy....

  7. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  8. The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

    2001-12-01

    Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented.

  9. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebo Tawiah Quartey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  10. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana. PMID:26308016

  11. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-08-20

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  12. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  13. Study on melting conditions of radioactive miscellaneous solid waste. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Isobe, Motoyasu; Otake, Atsushi; Wakui, Takuji; Nakashima, Mikio [Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hirabayashi, Takakuni [Radiation Application Develpment Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Improvement of fluidity of molten slag is one of the most important factors for plasma melting treatment of low level radioactive miscellaneous wastes generated from nuclear facilities. In general, it is considered that elevating molten slag temperature of addition of flux is of certain use in improvement of fluidity of molten slag. However, these ways are not necessarily suitable from the viewpoints of refractory erosion or reduction of waste volume. In this report, we suggested that fluidity of molten slag could be improved by controlling chemical compositions of molten slag. On the Basic of the investigation using phase diagram and viscosity data, FeO was selected as a key component for improving fluidity: Viscosity and melting point of molten slag decreased with increasing relative concentration of FeO in molten slag. Accordingly, we concluded that it is important to adjust basicity of molten slag for melting treatment of low-level radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes. (author)

  14. Contribution of plastic waste recovery to greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigné-Itoiz, Eva; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of post-consumer plastic waste recovery (material or energy) by considering the influence of the plastic waste quality (high or low), the recycled plastic applications (virgin plastic substitution or non-plastic substitution) and the markets of recovered plastic (regional or global). The aim is to quantify the environmental consequences of different alternatives in order to evaluate opportunities and limitations to select the best and most feasible plastic waste recovery option to decrease the GHG emissions. The methodologies of material flow analysis (MFA) for a time period of thirteen years and consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) have been integrated. The study focuses on Spain as a representative country for Europe. The results show that to improve resource efficiency and avoid more GHG emissions, the options for plastic waste management are dependent on the quality of the recovered plastic. The results also show that there is an increasing trend of exporting plastic waste for recycling, mainly to China, that reduces the GHG benefits from recycling, suggesting that a new focus should be introduced to take into account the split between local recycling and exporting.

  15. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvall, Erik, E-mail: erik.stenvall@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Tostar, Sandra [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Boldizar, Antal [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R.StJ. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Möller, Kenneth [Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP, 50115 Borås (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  16. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-08-17

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  19. Plastic Solid Waste Assessment in the State of Kuwait and Proposed Methods of Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Salem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper assessment of Solid Plastic Waste (SPW in Kuwait will provide a greater understanding to the industry of plastic manufacturing and manufacturers as well as direct the strategic future plans proposed into execution. This research show the results obtained after a years survey and study of plastic solid waste in the state of Kuwait and the surrounding region in order to create a database that can be used in future plans and research projects. Major manufacturers in the area were asked to complete a questionnaire to create a complete database. Recycling methods were studied and tested in order to evaluate the best solutions and schemes available to overcome the increasing rate of municipal plastic waste. From the current study it, Kuwait ranked in second behind Qatar in plastic waste but land filling rates in Kuwait are almost double than any other oil dependant country in the west Asia region.

  20. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; de Keizer, Marlies; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2014-04-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of other waste, although plastic is different than other waste in terms of volume to weight ratio. This paper aims for redesigning the collection routes and compares the collection options of plastic waste using eco-efficiency as performance indicator. Eco-efficiency concerns the trade-off between environmental impacts, social issues and costs. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Collection alternatives are compared by a scenario study approach. Real distances between locations are calculated with MapPoint. The scenario study is conducted based on real case data of the Dutch municipality Wageningen. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency and collection points, etc. Results show that the current collection routes can be improved in terms of eco-efficiency performance by using our method. The source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner. The model also shows to be an efficient decision support tool to investigate the impacts of future changes such as alternative vehicle type and different response rates.

  1. Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Achieving zero waste of municipal incinerator fly ash by melting in electric arc furnaces while steelmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chuang, Tsun-Nan; Huang, Chien-Wen

    2017-02-25

    The main objective of this work was to promote zero waste of municipal incinerator fly ash (MIFA) by full-scale melting in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) of steel mini mills around the world. MIFA, generally, is considered as a hazardous waste. Like in many countries, MIFA in Taiwan is first solidified/stabilized and then landfilled. Due to the scarcity of landfill space, the cost of landfilling increases markedly year by year in Taiwan. This paper presents satisfactory results of treating several hundred tons of MIFA in a full-scale steel mini mill using the approach of "melting MIFA while EAF steelmaking", which is somewhat similar to "molten salt oxidation" process. It was found that this practice yielded many advantages such as (1) about 18wt% of quicklime requirement in EAF steelmaking can be substituted by the lime materials contained in MIFA; (2) MIFA would totally end up as a material in fractions of recyclable EAF dust, oxidized slag and reduced slag; (3) no waste is needed for landfilling; and (4) a capital cost saving through the employment of existing EAFs in steel mini mills instead of building new melting plants for the treatment of MIFA. Thus, it is technically feasible to achieve zero waste of MIFA by the practice of this innovative melting technology.

  3. Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Groot, J.J.; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Jansen, M.; Luijsterburg, B.

    2013-01-01

    We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts,

  4. Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Groot, J.J.; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Jansen, M.; Luijsterburg, B.

    2013-01-01

    We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts,

  5. High-level waste vitrification by spray calcination/in-can melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Bonner, W.F. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    Federal regulations require that high-level liquid waste (HLLW) be converted to a solid for custody in a Federal repository. The Spray Solidification/In-Can Melting process has been developed and is being demonstrated for commercial application. The bases used are similar to those of the NFS plant and to anticipated regulations for waste canister receipt at a Federal repository. The reference NFS flowsheet combines plant HA Column Wastes, Low-Level Wastes, and various HLLW process recycle streams to produce a borosilicate glass. After the canister is filled and sealed, the lid weld will be inspected and decontaminated. Equipment and instrumentation for feed supply to the calciner, calcination, melting, welding, weld inspection, canister decontamination, and in-cell canister storage are being designed and demonstrated. Preliminary facility layouts, equipment design data, and instrumentation needs are provided for major process equipment systems. Additional demonstration work is being performed to verify and complete the plant scale equipment design, including full-scale nonradioactive equipment testing, nonradioactive facility mockup for equipment remote operation and maintenance demonstration, and pilot plant production of waste glass from commercial fuel HLLW. The technology for spray calcination and in-can melting is ready for commercial application. Required additional work is described. A preliminary evaluation is made of materials that may be released from the process from normal and abnormal operations in the facility. 34 figures, 20 tables. (DLC)

  6. Review Paper on Application of Waste Plastic in Modifying Bitumen Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AdityaBhardwaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation and population is increasing day by day leading to the increase in the amount of waste plastic. Plastic is a non-biodegradable substance i.e. it is not decomposed by bacteria easily. So, dumping it causes soil pollution which leads to decrease in the fertility of soil. Another way of getting rid of plastic is by burning it, which also produces a lot of harmful gases and leads to increase in air pollution. Soil and air pollution both are harmful for the environment. Waste plastic can be used in bitumen as a modifier. In this paper we will discuss the variation of the properties of bitumen on addition of waste plastic at different percentage.

  7. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... problems in Benin due both to the non-biodegradability of such by-products .... waste plastic bags inclusion process into the construction of buildings, .... (mass MD)and heated to fuse in an appropriate metallic container.

  8. Disposal of Waste Plastics With Traditional Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; YU Guang-wei; LIAO Hong-qiang; QIAN Kai; ZHAO Pen; HE Ya-bin

    2006-01-01

    A new technology for treating waste plastics (WP) by traditional coking process was introduced. With a thermo-balance and a 10 g atmospheric fixed bed reactor, the thermo-gravimetric behavior and product were studied during co-coking of WP with blended coal. And then, using a coke-oven with capacity of 200 kg, the characteristics of products were assessed. The results showed that there is an overlapping temperature range (200-550 ℃) of decomposition between WP and blended coal, and the pyrolysis synergism index η and synergism strength β proposed could evaluate the synergism between them. 1% of added WP results in the maximum synergism in all series experiments. The increase of added WP decreases the synergism. Tar yield in co-coking is increased with the decrease of water yield for synergism. Moreover, it was also found that the quality indexes of coke, such as M10, M40, CRI and CSR, are degraded with the increase of WP until 4%, though the quality of tar and gas is optimized for WP addition.

  9. Integrated Index in Consideration of Appropriate Plastic Recycling System in Waste Bank Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Pambudi Noorhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several appropriate technology had been developed to maintain plastic waste in society according to minimize environmental impact. Landfill is no longer appropriate to maintain plastic waste based on the environmental impact that might be occurred for instance. However in developing countries such as Indonesia, although plastic recycling technology have been promoted by maintain waste bank policy for support community willingness to exchange their recyclable waste with certain monetary values, there is no guarantee that community will fully accept plastic recycling technology. This research aims to assess the performance of plastic recycling in environmental and social aspects as its integrated index. From that assessment, appropriate strategies in plastic recycling will be delivered in this research. Environmental aspects will be assessed by using life cycle assessment (LCA through MiLCA software and selected by using data envelopment analysis (DEA. Social aspects will be analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative methodology such as observation, interview, secondary data, and questionnaires. Simulation and modelling will also developed by using agent-based modelling (ABM to describe social dynamic of community in supporting waste bank policy. The appropriate system of plastic recycling will be promoted as expected results for this research.

  10. Recycling and recovery of post-consumer plastic solid waste in a European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewil Raf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. The USA, Europe and Japan generate annually about 50 million tons of post-consumer plastic waste, previously landfilled, generally considered as a non-sustainable and environmentally questionable option. Landfill sites and their capacity are, moreover, decreasing rapidly, and legislation is stringent. Several European Directives and US legislation concern plastic wastes and the required management. They are briefly discussed in this paper. New processes have emerged, i.e., advanced mechanical recycling of plastic waste as virgin or second grade plastic feedstock, and thermal treatments to recycle the waste as virgin monomer, as synthetic fuel gas, or as heat source (incineration with energy recovery. These processes avoid land filling, where the non-biodegradable plastics remain a lasting environmental burden. The paper reviews these alternative options through mostly thermal processing (pyrolysis, gasification and waste-to-energy. Additional research is, however, still needed to confirm the potential on pilot and commercial scale. [Acknowledgments. The research was partly funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities RC1101 (PR China and partly funded by Project KP/09/005 (SCORES4CHEM Knowledge Platform of the Industrial Research Council of the KU Leuven (Belgium.

  11. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  12. Post Separation of Plastic Waste: Better for the Environment and Lower Collection Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Union (EU) advocates a plastic waste recycling rate of more than 55% through home separation by households. Even for the Netherlands, which has already invested heavily in plastic recycling policies, there is still a challenge to meet this target. We show that post

  13. Post Separation of Plastic Waste: Better for the Environment and Lower Collection Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Union (EU) advocates a plastic waste recycling rate of more than 55% through home separation by households. Even for the Netherlands, which has already invested heavily in plastic recycling policies, there is still a challenge to meet this target. We show that post separatio

  14. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  15. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  16. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  17. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings...

  18. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  19. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere.

  20. Effects of Waste Plastic on the Physical and Rheological Properties of Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Asyiqin Ahmad, Nurul; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Yaacob, Haryati; Rosli Hainin, Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Plastic disposal is one of the major problems for developing countries like Malaysia, at the same time Malaysia needs a large network of roads for its smooth economic and social development. The limited source of bitumen needs a deep thinking to ensure fast road construction. Therefore, the use of plastic waste in road construction not only can help to protect environment but also able to help the road construction industry. The aims of this research are to study the effects of waste plastic on rheological properties of bitumen. Modified bitumen was prepared by using blending techniques. Bitumen was heated and plastic waste was slowly added. Rheological properties of bitumen were performance by penetration, softening point, viscosity and direct shear rheometer test. The results showed that when content of plastic waste increase, the penetration value, softening point and viscosity of bitumen also increase. Generally, plastic waste improves the performance of bitumen when it was added into bitumen. It can be said that the usage helps to improve the performance of the road pavement which also reduces the rutting effect.

  1. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  2. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...... criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings...... the dominating resin types in plastic packaging. The suggested washing procedure caused a decrease of 70% of the ash content of the plastic material. The analysed metals and nutrients were reduced by up to 24%...

  3. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  4. A review on thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Antelava, A; Constantinou, A; Manos, G; Dutta, A

    2017-04-03

    Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. Hence, a sustainable and an efficient plastic waste treatment is essential to avoid such issues. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical plastic waste treatment technique which can solve such pollution problems, as well as, recover valuable energy and products such as oil and gas. Pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW) has gained importance due to having better advantages towards environmental pollution and reduction of carbon footprint of plastic products by minimizing the emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide compared to combustion and gasification. This paper presents the existing techniques of pyrolysis, the parameters which affect the products yield and selectivity and identify major research gaps in this technology. The influence of different catalysts on the process as well as review and comparative assessment of pyrolysis with other thermal and catalytic plastic treatment methods, is also presented.

  5. Study on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Plastic Waste as an Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaivignesh, B.; Sofi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Disposal of large quantity of plastic causes land, water and air pollution etc.., so a study is conducted to recycle the plastic in concrete. This work investigates about the replacement of natural aggregate with non-biodegradable plastic aggregate made up of mixed plastic waste in concrete. Several tests are conducted such as compressive strength of cube, split tensile strength of cylinder, flexural strength test of prism to identify the properties and behavior of concrete using plastic aggregate. Replacement of fine aggregate weight by 10%, 15%, 20% with Plastic fine (PF) aggregate and for each replacement of fine aggregate 15%, 20%, 25% of coarse aggregate replacement also conducted with Plastic Coarse(PC) aggregate. In literatures reported that the addition of plastic aggregate in concrete causes the reduction of strength in concrete due to poor bonding between concrete and plastic aggregate, so addition of 0.3% of steel fiber by weight of cement in concrete is done to improve the concrete strength. Totally 60 cubes, 60 cylinders and 40 prisms are casted to identify the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Casted specimens are tested at 7 and 28 days. The identified results from concrete using plastic aggregate are compared with conventional concrete. Result shows that reduction in mechanical properties of plastic aggregate added concrete. This reduction in strength is mainly due to poor bond strength between cement and plastic aggregate.

  6. Physical metallurgy of laser surface melted plastic mould steels: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaço, R.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of laser surface melting to improve the surface characteristics of plastic mould steels, using a typical plastic mould steel (DIN X43Cr12 as a case study. After laser surface melting the microstructure of this steel is formed by fine dendrites of austenite partially transformed into martensite. Although the equilibrium solidification phase is 8- ferrite, the formation of primary austenite is kinetically favored and this phase tends to predominate at the high solidification speeds used in laser processing. It was observed that the volume fraction of retained austenite depends critically on the laser processing parameters, so that the microstructure can change from almost completely martensitic to almost completely austenitic by changing the laser processing parameters. Laser melted tool steels show remarkable secondary hardening after tempering at suitable temperatures. In DIN X42Cr13 the secondary hardening peak temperature after LSM (600°C is 100°C higher than after conventional heat treatment (500°C, due to the presence of large amounts of retained austenite. It was observed that this phase only destabilizes above 600°C, due to the precipitation of M7C3 and stress relieving. After destabilization, retained austenite transforms into martensite during cooling. Secondary hardening is due to the transformation of retained austenite into martensite and to the precipitation of M7C3 and M23C6 carbides.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es ilustrar el potencial de la fusión superficial mediante láser para la mejora de las características estructurales de los moldes de acero para plásticos, centrándolo en el caso concreto del acero DIN X42Cr13. Tras el tratamiento de fusión superficial mediante láser, la microestructura del material está formada por dendritas finas de austenita parcialmente transformadas en

  7. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  8. Morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene/polypropylene plastics during pyrolysis and representative morphological signal characterizing pyrolysis stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Chen, D; Yuan, G; Ma, X; Dai, X

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the morphological characteristics of waste polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) plastics during their pyrolysis process were investigated, and based on their basic image changing patterns representative morphological signals describing the pyrolysis stages were obtained. PE and PP granules and films were used as typical plastics for testing, and influence of impurities was also investigated. During pyrolysis experiments, photographs of the testing samples were taken sequentially with a high-speed infrared camera, and the quantitative parameters that describe the morphological characteristics of these photographs were explored using the "Image Pro Plus (v6.3)" digital image processing software. The experimental results showed that plastics pyrolysis involved four stages: melting, two stages of decomposition which are characterized with bubble formation caused by volatile evaporating, and ash deposition; and each stage was characterized with its own phase changing behaviors and morphological features. Two stages of decomposition are the key step of pyrolysis since they took up half or more of the reaction time; melting step consumed another half of reaction time in experiments when raw materials were heated up from ambient temperatures; and coke-like deposition appeared as a result of decomposition completion. Two morphological signals defined from digital image processing, namely, pixel area of the interested reaction region and bubble ratio (BR) caused by volatile evaporating were found to change regularly with pyrolysis stages. In particular, for all experimental scenarios with plastics films and granules, the BR curves always exhibited a slowly drop as melting started and then a sharp increase followed by a deep decrease corresponding to the first stage of intense decomposition, afterwards a second increase - drop section corresponding to the second stage of decomposition appeared. As ash deposition happened, the BR dropped to zero or very low

  9. From waste plastics to industrial raw materials: A life cycle assessment of mechanical plastic recycling practice based on a real-world case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Guo, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wujie; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical recycling of waste plastics is an environmental solution to the problem of waste plastic disposal, and has already become a common practice in industry. However, limited information can be found on either the industralised plastic recycling or the recycled materials, despite the use of recycled plastics has already extended to automobile production. This study investigates the life cycle environmental impacts of mechanical plastic recycling practice of a plastic recycling company in China. Waste plastics from various sources, such as agricultural wastes, plastic product manufacturers, collected solid plastic wastes and parts dismantled from waste electric and electronic equipments, are processed in three routes with products end up in different markets. The results of life cycle assessments show that the extrusion process has the largest environmental impacts, followed by the use of fillers and additives. Compared to production of virgin plastics and composites, the mechanical recycling is proved to be a superior alternative in most environmental aspects. Substituting virgin plastic composites with recycled plastic composites has achieved the highest environmental benefits, as virgin composite production has an impact almost 4 times higher that of the recycled composite production in each ReCiPe endpoint damage factor. Sensitivity analysis shows that the coverage of collecting network contribute affect little to overall environmental impact, and centralisation plays an important role in reducing overall environmental impacts. Among the fillers and additives, impact modifiers account for the most significant contributions to the environmental impacts of recycled composites. This study provides necessary information about the existing industrialised plastic recycling practice, and recommendations are given. Research implications are presented with the purpose to achieve higher substitution rate and lower environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  10. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  11. FY16 Annual Accomplishments - Waste Form Development and Performance: Evaluation Of Ceramic Waste Forms - Comparison Of Hot Isostatic Pressed And Melt Processed Fabrication Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dandeneau, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    FY16 efforts were focused on direct comparison of multi-phase ceramic waste forms produced via melt processing and HIP methods. Based on promising waste form compositions previously devised at SRNL, simulant material was prepared at SRNL and a portion was sent to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) for HIP treatments, while the remainder of the material was melt processed at SRNL. The microstructure, phase formation, elemental speciation, and leach behavior, and radiation stability of the fabricated ceramics was performed. In addition, melt-processed ceramics designed with different fractions of hollandite, zirconolite, perovskite, and pyrochlore phases were investigated. for performance and properties.

  12. Treatment and plastic wastes management. New Ways; Tratamiento y gestion de residuos plasticos agricolas. Nuevas iniciativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. J.

    2001-07-01

    The continuous improvement of the intensive agriculture in the south of Spain have increased the amount of plastic waste. The solution the authorities proposed and developed has been the mechanical recycling. Since 1992 two facilities have been installed in two zones of high waste generation. These are managed by EGMASA and have achieved a granule quality recognized by the recycled materials market, being used mainly in pipes and bags fabrication. A new application to produce an agglomerate for decking products has been developed and a new facility was constructed in one of the former plants. The new installation is producing 70 ton/day of LDPE form greenhouse plastic waste and post.consumer plastic of selective recollection. (Author)

  13. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  14. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  17. The synthesis of nanostructured SiC from waste plastics and silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhicheng; Xu, Liqiang; Pang, Qiaolian; Xing, Zheng; Ma, Xiaojian; Qian, Yitai

    2009-09-01

    Waste plastics constitute a growing environmental problem. Therefore, the treatment of waste plastics should be considered. Here we synthesize 3C-SiC nanomaterials coexisting with amorphous graphite particles utilizing waste plastics and Si powder at 350-500 °C in a stainless steel autoclave. 3C-SiC could be finally obtained after refluxing with aqueous HClO4 (70 wt%) at 180 °C. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate that the product is 3C-SiC with the calculated lattice constant a = 4.36 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the SiC samples presented two morphologies: hexagonal platelets prepared by the waste detergent bottles or beverage bottles and nanowires prepared by waste plastic bags respectively. The corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indicates that either the entire hexagonal platelet or the nanowire is single crystalline. High-resolution TEM shows the planar surfaces of the SiC platelet correspond to {111} planes; the lateral surfaces are {110} planes and the preferential growth direction of the nanowires is along [111]. The output of SiC was ~39% based on the amount of Si powder.

  18. Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Strayer, Richard F.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Ruby, Anna Maria; Wheeler, Ray; Fisher, John

    2013-01-01

    One of the technologies being tested at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) for the Advance Exploration Systems program and as part of the logistics and repurposing project is heat melt compaction (HMC) of solid waste. Reduces volume, removes water and renders a biologically stable and safe product. The HMC compacts and reduces the trash volume as much as 90o/o greater than the current manual compaction used by the crew.The project has three primary goals or tasks. 1. Microbiological analysis of HMC hardware surfaces before and after operation. 2. Microbiological and physical characterizations of heat melt tiles made from trash at different processing times and temperatures. 3. Long term storage and stability of HMC trash tiles or "Do the bugs grow back?"

  19. Microbial Characterization Space Solid Wastes Treated with a Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    The on going purpose of the project efforts was to characterize and determine the fate of microorganisms in space-generated solid wastes before and after processing by candidate solid waste processing. For FY 11, the candidate technology that was assessed was the Heat Melt Compactor (HMC). The scope included five HMC. product disks produced at ARC from either simulated space-generated trash or from actual space trash, Volume F compartment wet waste, returned on STS 130. This project used conventional microbiological methods to detect and enumerate microorganisms in heat melt compaction (HMC) product disks as well as surface swab samples of the HMC hardware before and after operation. In addition, biological indicators were added to the STS trash prior to compaction in order to determine if these spore-forming bacteria could survive the HMC processing conditions, i.e., high temperature (160 C) over a long duration (3 hrs). To ensure that surface dwelling microbes did not contaminate HMC product disk interiors, the disk surfaces were sanitized with 70% alcohol. Microbiological assays were run before and after sanitization and found that sanitization greatly reduced the number of identified isolates but did not totally eliminate them. To characterize the interior of the disks, ten 1.25 cm diameter core samples were aseptically obtained for each disk. These were run through the microbial characterization analyses. Low counts of bacteria, on the order of 5 to 50 per core, were found, indicating that the HMC operating conditions might not be sufficient for waste sterilization. However, the direct counts were 6 to 8 orders of magnitude greater, indicating that the vast majority of microbes present in the wastes were dead or non-cultivable. An additional indication that the HMC was sterilizing the wastes was the results from the added commercial spore test strips to the wastes prior to HMC operation. Nearly all could be recovered from the HMC disks post-operation and all

  20. Recycling and disposal of plastics waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nurse, RH

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available wastes, the National Programme also includes research relating to ecosystems, their structure, functioning and exploitation and disturbance by man. It includes research relating to environmental problems in inland waters, terrestrial ecosystems, the sea...

  1. Influence of uncoated and coated plastic waste coarse aggregates to concrete compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Heru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic waste as coarse aggregates in concrete is part of efforts to reduce environmental pollution. In one hand the use of plastic as aggregates can provide lighter weight of the concrete than concrete using natural aggregates, but on the other hand bond between plastic coarse aggregates and hard matrix give low concrete compressive strength. Improvement of the bond between plastic coarse aggregate and hard matrix through a sand coating to plastic coarse aggregate whole surface is studied. Sand used to coat the plastic aggregates are Merapi volcanic sand which are taken in Magelang. Three mixtures of polypropylene (PP coarse plastic aggregates, Cimangkok river sand as fine aggregates, water and Portland Cement Composite with a water-cement ratio of 0.28, 0.3 and 0.35 are conducted. Compression test are performed on concrete cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 10 cm and a height of 20 cm. The results in general show that concrete specimens using plastic aggregates coated with sand have higher compressive strength compared to those of concrete specimens using plastic aggregates without sand coating. The bond improvement is indirectly indicated by the betterment of concrete compressive strength.

  2. Effect of Die Head Temperature at Compounding Stage on the Degradation of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Plastic Film Waste Blends after Accelerated Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Salem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated weathering test was performed on blends of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE and plastic film waste constituting the following percentages of polyolefin polymers (wt.%: LLDPE (46%, low density polyethylene (LDPE, 51%, high density polyethylene (HDPE, 1%, and polypropylene (PP, 2%. Compounded blends were evaluated for their mechanical and physical (optical properties. The impact of photodegradation on the formulated blends was studied, and loss of mechanical integrity was apparent with respect to both the exposure duration to weathering and waste content. The effect of processing conditions, namely, the die head temperature (DHT of the blown-film assembly used, was investigated in this work. It was witnessed that surpassing the melting point of the blends constituting polymers did not always result in a synergistic behaviour between polymers. This was suspected to be due to the loss of amorphous region that polyolefin polymers get subjected to with UV exposure under weathering conditions and the effect of the plastic waste constituents. The total change in colour (ΔE did not change with respect to DHT or waste content due to rapid change degradation on the material’s surface. Haze (% and light transmission (% decreased with the increase in waste content which was attributed to lack of miscibility between constituting polymers.

  3. SUMMARY OF 2010 DOE EM INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM STUDIES OF WASTE GLASS MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2011-01-19

    A collaborative study has been established under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management International Program between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) in St. Petersburg, Russia, to investigate potential improvements in melt rate via chemical additions to the glass frit. Researchers at KRI suggested a methodology for selecting frit additives based on empirical coefficients for optimization of glass melting available in the Russian literature. Using these coefficients, KRI identified B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO, and MnO as frit additives that were likely to improve melt rate without having adverse effects on crystallization of the glass or its chemical durability. The results of the melt rate testing in the SMK melter showed that the slurry feed rate (used as a gauge of melt rate) could be significantly increased when MnO or CuO were added to Frit 550 with the SMR-2 sludge. The feed rates increased by about 27% when MnO was added to the frit and by about 26% when CuO was added to the frit, as compared to earlier results for Frit 550 alone. The impact of adding additional B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the frit was minor when added with CuO. The additional B{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed a more significant, 39% improvement in melt rate when added with MnO. The additional B{sub 2}O{sub 3} also reduced the viscosity of the glasses during pouring. Samples of the glasses from the melt rate testing characterized at SRNL showed that there were no significant impacts on crystallization of the glasses. All of the glasses had very good chemical durability. Chemical composition measurements showed that the frit additives were present in concentrations below the targeted values in some of the glasses. Therefore, it is possible that higher concentrations of these additives may further improve melt rate, although the impacts of higher concentrations of these components on crystallization and durability would need to

  4. Tc Reductant Chemistry and Crucible Melting Studies with Simulated Hanford Low-Activity Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B PETER.; Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Yeager, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Darnell, Lori P.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Snow, Lanee A.; Steele, Marilyn J.

    2005-03-30

    The FY 2003 risk assessment (RA) of bulk vitrification (BV) waste packages used 0.3 wt% of the technetium (Tc) inventory as a leachable salt and found it sufficient to create a significant peak in the groundwater concentration in a 100-meter down-gradient well. Although this peak met regulatory limits, considering uncertainty in the actual Tc salt fraction, peak concentrations could exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) under some scenarios so reducing the leachable salt inventory is desirable. The main objective of this study was to reduce the mobile Tc species available within a BV disposal package by reducing the oxidation state of the Tc in the waste feed and/or during melting because Tc in its reduced form of Tc(IV) has a much lower volatility than Tc(VII). Reduced Tc volatility has a secondary benefit of increasing the Tc retention in glass.

  5. Rheological behaviour of coal modified by waste plastics and lubricating oils

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi Espina, Sonia; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, María Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Castro, Miguel; Steel, Karen; Snape, Colin E.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the interactions between a coking coal and two types of wastes: plastics from municipal wastes (single and mixed) and lubricating-oils coming from the iron and steel sector. For this purpose, Gieseler plastometry, rheometry and in situ high-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy can be combined to discern the most suitable wastes for using as secondary raw materials in metallurgical coke production. It was found that there is a relationship between the Gieseler fl...

  6. The valorization of the plastic waste to the rheological characteristics of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherba, Mohammed; Kriker, Abdelouahed; Kebaili, Nabil

    2017-02-01

    The valorization of materials used at the end of the cycle currently constitutes one of the major challenges for the state for the safeguarding of the environment. Indeed, plastic waste from their obstruction and weak biodegradability often constitutes a threat for health, nature and the environment. The present study treats a mining method and valorization of these wastes in the road, where this waste is incorporated in the pure bitumen of asphalt concretes using the Dry process. The vital objective of this work is to see their impact on the mechanical behavior of these concretes using the Marshall Test and NAT.

  7. Ammonia modification for flotation separation of polycarbonate and polystyrene waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Lin, Qing-quan; Zhang, Ling-ling; Huang, Luo-luo; Zhao, Jun-yao

    2016-05-01

    A promising method, ammonia modification, was developed for flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) and polystyrene (PS) waste plastics. Ammonia modification has little effect on flotation behavior of PS, while it changes significantly that of PC. The PC recovery in the floated product drops from 100% to 3.17% when modification time is 13min and then rises to 100% after longer modification. The mechanism of ammonia modification was studied by contact angle, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Contact angle of PC indicates the decline of PC recovery in the floated product is ascribed to an increase in surface wettability. FT-IR and XPS spectra suggest that ammonia modification causes chemical reactions occurred on PC surface. Flotation behavior of ammonia-modified PC and PS was investigated with respect to flotation time, frother concentration and particle sizes. Flotation separation of PC and PS waste plastics was conducted based on the flotation behavior of single plastic. PC and PS mixtures with different particle sizes are separated efficiently, implying that the technology possesses superior applicability to particle sizes of plastics. The purity of PS and PC is up to 99.53% and 98.21%, respectively, and the recovery of PS and PC is larger than 92.06%. A reliable, cheap and effective process is proposed for separation of PC and PS waste plastics.

  8. Comprehensive utilization of waste plastics%废旧塑料的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴自强; 许士洪; 刘志宏

    2001-01-01

    Plastic materials are used widely in many fields of national economy because of its excellent properties.These waste plastics not only pollute the environment but also waste seriously the resources.This paper reviews briefly the importance and the progress of the comprehensive utilization of waste plastics in some fields,such as direct utilization,utilization after its modification,thermal decomposition and coal liquefaction combined with it(co-liquefacation).It is pointed out that the co-liquefaction is the most promising way to utilize the waste plastics,and it will become a hot point in further research work.%综合利用废旧塑料,解决“白色污染”,已成为全球的研究热点。本文从废旧塑料的直接利用、改性利用、热分解、与煤共液化等几个方面综述了废旧塑料的综合利用途径,其中废旧塑料与煤共液化处理技术很有发展前途,将成为今后研究的新热点。

  9. Energy and raw material saving through recycling of plastics materials extracted from urban waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaux, J.

    The study is divided into 3 parts: Technical feasibility study, economic feasibility study, study of a factory handling 2,400 tons/year of plastics waste, and technico-economic feasibility study and market research, with an analysis of energy savings.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Koningsbruggen, van M.P.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant buil

  11. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  12. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A process for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) removal in plastic was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic became bromine-free with the structure maintained after this treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BFRs transferred into alcohol solvent were easily debrominated by metallic copper. - Abstract: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E and E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90 Degree-Sign C, 2 h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  13. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zannikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. The smoke levels are between the 3rd and 4th grades of the smoke number scale. Measuring the carbon monoxide emission, it was observed that the burning of the plastic in the mixture with biomass increases the carbon monoxide emissions from 10% to 30% as compared to carbon monoxide emission from sawdust biomass emissions which was used as a reference.

  14. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  15. Microbial Characterization of Solid-Wastes Treated with Heat Melt Compaction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The research purpose of the project was to determine the fate of microorganisms in space-generated solid wastes after processing by a Heat Melt Compactor (HMC), which is a candidate solid waste treatment technology. Five HMC product disks were generated at Ames Research Center (ARC), Waste Management Systems element. The feed for two was simulated space-generated trash and feed for three was Volume F compartment wet waste returned on STS 130. Conventional microbiological methods were used to detect and enumerate microorganisms in HMC disks and in surface swab samples of HMC hardware before and after operation. Also, biological indicator test strips were added to the STS trash prior to compaction to test if HMC processing conditions, 150 C for approx 3 hr and dehydration, were sufficient to eliminate the test bacteria on the strips. During sample acquisition at KSC, the HMC disk surfaces were sanitized with 70% alcohol to prevent contamination of disk interiors. Results from microbiological assays indicated that numbers of microbes were greatly reduced but not eliminated by the 70% alcohol. Ten 1.25 cm diameter cores were aseptically cut from each disk to sample the disk interior. The core material was run through the microbial characterization analyses after dispersal in sterile diluent. Low counts of viable bacteria (5 to 50 per core) were found but total direct counts were 6 to 8 orders of magnitude greater. These results indicate that the HMC operating conditions might not be sufficient for complete waste sterilization, but the vast majority of microbes present in the wastes were dead or non-cultivable after HMC treatment. The results obtained from analyses of the commercial spore test strips that had been added fo the wastes prior to HMC operation further indicated that the HMC was sterilizing the wastes. Nearly all strips were recovered from the HMC disks and all of these were negative for spore growth when run through the manufacturer's protocol. The 10(exp 6

  16. Estimation of packaged water consumption and associated plastic waste production from household budget surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Hill, Allan G.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Wright, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Packaged water consumption is growing in low- and middle-income countries, but the magnitude of this phenomenon and its environmental consequences remain unclear. This study aims to quantify both the volumes of packaged water consumed relative to household water requirements and associated plastic waste generated for three West African case study countries. Data from household expenditure surveys for Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia were used to estimate the volumes of packaged water consumed and thereby quantify plastic waste generated in households with and without solid waste disposal facilities. In Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively, 11.3 (95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4), 10.1 (7.5-12.5), and 0.38 (0.31-0.45) Ml day-1 of sachet water were consumed. This generated over 28 000 tonnes yr-1 of plastic waste, of which 20%, 63% and 57% was among households lacking formal waste disposal facilities in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. Reported packaged water consumption provided sufficient water to meet daily household drinking-water requirements for 8.4%, less than 1% and 1.6% of households in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. These findings quantify packaged water’s contribution to household water needs in our study countries, particularly Ghana, but indicate significant subsequent environmental repercussions.

  17. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Zannikos, F.; Kalligeros, S.; Anastopoulos, G.; Lois, E.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. T...

  18. adaptation of plastic waste to energy development in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    specific months were primarily used as a case study to portray the fact that all measures put in place by ... people. Nigeria seems to have been in energy deficit for a long time and successive .... Aluminium (%) .... process involves core use of Simpson's rule for the ... possible way to inject sanity into waste management.

  19. Ultrasound imaging for quantitative measurement of immersed plastic waste particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanaee, S.A.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging techniques are proposed for measuring the shape and thickness of immersed waste particles (10-20 mm size) using a linear sensor array from a fixed position. For these purposes both the front and back surface of a particle needs to be reconstructed. Raw ultrasound pulse-echo and pl

  20. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  1. 废旧聚苯乙烯塑料再生再利用技术现状%Research on Techniques of Waste Polystyrene Plastics Recycling and Reusing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亮; 徐海萍; 谢华清; 李志杰

    2014-01-01

    主要介绍了废旧聚苯乙烯塑料的回收再生、再利用技术现状,涵盖了在涂料、胶黏剂、化工产品、建筑材料等领域的再生应用,重点讨论了熔融法再生和用于生产仿木建材的关键技术。通过分析和比较不同的再生再利用工艺技术,期望对未来废旧聚苯乙烯塑料资源化的发展方向有一定的指导意义。%The recycling and reusing techniques of waste polystyrene plastic, including the polystyrene foamed plastics, were intro-duced in this paper. It included the current situation of making coating, adhesive, chemistry products, building materials and pyrolytic technique, and mainly discussed the key techniques of melt extrusion and making wood-like plastics. Especially, the performance of different techniques of recycling and reusing process were also analyzed and compared. And the future development direction of waste polystyrene plastics recycling had been looked to.

  2. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set density of lightweight brick ameliorates with M3824 additive and CM3 cement mortar for significant impact. Under conditions of technology and economic, the results of this study as reference for market-oriented marketing and commercialization of production.

  3. A pyrolysis study for the thermal and kinetic characteristics of an agricultural waste with two different plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepelioğullar, Özge; Pütün, Ayşe E

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermochemical conversion of plastic wastes (PET and PVC) together with an agricultural waste (hazelnut shell) was investigated. In order to determine the thermal and kinetic behaviours, pyrolysis experiments were carried out from room temperature to 800 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C min(-1) in the presence of a N2 atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer. With the obtained thermogravimetric data, an appropriate temperature was specified for the pyrolysis of biomass-plastic wastes in a fixed-bed reactor. At the second step, pyrolysis experiments were carried out at the same conditions with the thermogravimetric analyzer, except the final temperature which was up to 500 °C in this case. After pyrolysis experiments, pyrolysis yields were calculated and characterization studies for bio-oil were investigated. Experimental results showed that co-pyrolysis has an important role in the determination of the pyrolysis mechanism and the process conditions while designing/implementing a thermochemical conversion method where biomass-plastic materials were preferred as raw materials. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  5. Task 3 - Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, Robert O.; Aulich, Ted R.

    1997-12-31

    Over the last 50 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has produced a wide variety of radioactive wastes from activities associated with nuclear defense and nuclear power generation. These wastes include low-level radioactive solid wastes, mixed wastes, and transuranic (TRU) wastes. A portion of these wastes consists of high- organic-content materials, such as resins, plastics, and other polymers; synthetic and natural rubbers; cellulosic-based materials; and oils, organic solvents, and chlorinated organic solvents. Many of these wastes contain hazardous and/or pyrophoric materials in addition to radioactive species. Physical forms of the waste include ion-exchange resins used to remove radioactive elements from nuclear reactor cooling water, lab equipment and tools (e.g., measurement and containment vessels, hoses, wrappings, equipment coverings and components, and countertops), oil products (e.g., vacuum pump and lubrication oils), bags and other storage containers (for liquids, solids, and gases), solvents, gloves, lab coats and anti-contamination clothing, and other items. Major polymer and chemical groups found in high-organic-content radioactive wastes include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), Teflon(TM), polystyrene (PS), nylon, latex, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), vinyl, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate, nitriles, Tygon(R), butyl, and Tyvec(R).

  6. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  7. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  8. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  9. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  10. Prospect of Technology of Recycling Waste Plastics%废旧塑料回收利用技术展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莲枝; 郭健; 靳新慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduced progress technologies of recycling common waste plastics, and put forward ex- isting problems of waste plastics and cross-linking agent in chemical modification of waste plastics.%介绍了常见的废旧塑料回收利用和回收方式的技术进展,提出在废旧塑料的化学改性中存在的问题及交联剂的选择。

  11. Numerical Analysis of Mold Deformation Including Plastic Melt Flow During Injection Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon Tae; Lee, Bong-Kee [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, a numerical analysis of an injection molding process was conducted for predicting the mold deformation considering non-Newtonian flow, heat transfer, and structural behavior. The accurate prediction of mold deformation during the filling stage is important to successfully design and manufacture a precision injection mold. While the local mold deformation can be caused by various factors, a pressure induced by the polymer melt is considered to be one of the most significant ones. In this regard, the numerical simulation considering both the melt filling and the mold deformation was carried out. A mold core for a 2D axisymmetric center-gated disk was used for the demonstration of the present study. The flow behavior inside the mold cavity and temperature distribution were analyzed along with the core displacement. Also, a Taguchi method was employed to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters including flow velocity, mold core temperature, and melt temperature.

  12. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  13. The criteria weight determination of factors impacting the melt flow index of degradable plastics using Lambda-Max method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Rosma Mohd; Saadon, Nurul Adzlyana; Mohamad, Daud

    2013-09-01

    Three common methods of determining criteria weights using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are extent analysis, logarithmic least square method (LLSM) and Lambda-Max. Lambda-Max criteria weights determination method uses pair wise comparison of criteria considered. Studies have shown that Lambda-Max is a preferred criteria weight determination method since it involves lesser computation with consistent results of precise criteria weights generated. In this paper the criteria weights of four factors impacting the Melt Flow Index of degradable plastics are calculated using Lambda-Max method. The input factors (criteria) are the percentages by mass of polyethylene, oil palm biomass, palm olein and starch used in the formulation of degradable plastics. The criteria weights are calculated using Lambda-Max based on input given by four experts. The finding indicates the feasibility of using Lambda-Max method in criteria weight determination for determining the impact of four factors in the formulation of degradable plastics as reflected by the consistency control index value calculated.

  14. Solid-shape energy fuels from recyclable municipal solid waste and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, Jeongin

    Diversion of waste streams, such as plastics, wood and paper, from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest across the country, especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling MSW (municipal solid waste) is to burn the high energy content components in standard coal boilers. This research seeks to reform wastes into briquette that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, moisture resistance, and retain high fuel value. Household waste with high paper and fibers content was used as the base material for this study. It was combined with recyclable plastics such as PE, PP, PET and PS for enhanced binding and energy efficiency. Fuel pellets were processed using a compression molding technique. The resulting moisture absorption, proximate analysis from burning, and mechanical properties were investigated after sample production and then compared with reference data for commercial coals and biomass briquettes. The effects of moisture content, compression pressure and processing temperature were studied to identify the optimal processing conditions with water uptake tests for the durability of samples under humid conditions and burning tests to examine the composition of samples. Lastly, mechanical testing revealed the structural stability of solid fuels. The properties of fuel briquettes produced from waste and recycled plastics improved with higher processing temperature but without charring the material. Optimization of moisture content and removal of air bubbles increased the density, stability and mechanical strength. The sample composition was found to be more similar to biomass fuels than coals because the majority of the starting material was paper-based solid waste. According to the proximate analysis results, the waste fuels can be expected to have

  15. Study on the hydrocyclonic separation of waste plastics with different density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H; Fu, S; Tan, W; He, J; Wu, K

    2015-11-01

    The recycling of waste plastics is an important aspect in the recycling of solid waste. Based on the difference in density, PET and PVC particles was separated with help of the centrifugal sedimentation and shearing dispersion in a hydrocyclone. Through tests and CFD simulation, the relationship between the separating efficiency and pressure drop and split ratio has been investigated. Test results show that the Newton efficiency can reach above 80%, i.e. the purity of PVC could reach 93.2% while the purity of PET could reach 94.5%.

  16. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2012-06-30

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E&E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90°C, 2h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  17. Property-Composition-Temperature Modeling of Waste Glass Melt Data Subject to a Randomization Restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.

    2008-10-01

    Properties such as viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass melts are functions of melt temperature as well as glass composition. When measuring such a property for several glasses, the property is typically measured at several temperatures for one glass, then at several temperatures for the next glass, and so on. This data-collection process involves a restriction on randomization, which is referred to as split-plot experiment. The split-plot data structure must be accounted for in developing property-composition-temperature models and the corresponding uncertainty equations for model predictions. Instead of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods, generalized least squares (GLS) regression methods using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation must be used. This article describes the methodology for developing property-composition-temperature models and corresponding prediction uncertainty equations using the GLS/REML regression approach. Viscosity data collected on 197 simulated nuclear waste glasses are used to illustrate the GLS/REML methods for developing a viscosity-composition-temperature model and corresponding equations for model prediction uncertainties. The correct results using GLS/REML regression are compared to the incorrect results obtained using OLS regression.

  18. Effects of Waste Plastic Oil Blends on a Multi Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar Kareddula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing fossil fuels are utilizing at their critical rate, leads to depletion of their reserves in a dramatic way. Generating alternative energy sources in a pragmatic way are necessitated, which demands the researchers to utilize the inherent energy of carbon based products as an energy source to the automobile sector. As a part of it, my research is focused on transforming and using the waste plastics as an alternative fuel in multi cylinder spark ignition engine. This paper aims to present the experimental investigations of performance and emission characteristics in an existing Maruti 800 petrol engine running with the blends of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (PPO with gasoline. From the results, it is noticed that hydrocarbon emissions are substantially reduced and oxides of nitrogen emissions are increased and petrol engine can operate with PPO blends up to 20% without any engine modifications.

  19. FY16 Annual Accomplishments - Waste Form Development and Performance: Evaluation Of Ceramic Waste Forms - Comparison Of Hot Isostatic Pressed And Melt Processed Fabrication Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dandeneau, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    FY16 efforts were focused on direct comparison of multi-phase ceramic waste forms produced via melt processing and HIP methods. Based on promising waste form compositions previously devised at SRNL[13], simulant material was prepared at SRNL and a portion was sent to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) for HIP treatments, while the remainder of the material was melt processed at SRNL. The microstructure, phase formation, elemental speciation, and leach behavior, and radiation stability of the fabricated ceramics was performed. In addition, melt-processed ceramics designed with different fractions of hollandite, zirconolite, perovskite, and pyrochlore phases were investigated. for performance and properties. Table 1 lists the samples studied.

  20. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills.

  1. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Ioan CURTU; Mariana-Domnica STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels), only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for...

  2. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  3. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  4. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  5. An experimental study on thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste using a continuous pyrolyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxilio, Anthony R; Choo, Wei-Lit; Kohli, Isha; Chakravartula Srivatsa, Srikanth; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2017-09-01

    A bench scale, two-stage, thermo-catalytic reactor equipped with a continuous feeding system was used to pyrolyse pure and waste plastics. Experiments using five zeolitic and clay-based catalysts of different forms (pellet and powders) and different plastic feedstocks - virgin HDPE, HDPE w1aste and mixed plastic waste (MPW) were compared to the control experiments - pyrolysis without catalyst. Results indicated that the two pelletized catalysts were the most promising for the conditions employed. Of these two, one with higher acidity and surface area was highly selective for the gasoline fraction (C5-C11) giving 80% from the total medium distillate conversion using virgin HDPE as feedstock. It also produced the least amount of olefins (17% for virgin HDPE, 4% for HDPE waste and 2% for MPW) and coke (pelletized catalyst exhibited high selectivity for the diesel fraction (C12-C25) giving 63% from the total medium distillate conversion using virgin HDPE as feedstock. The amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface depended mainly on the mesopore volume, with less coke deposited as the mesopore volume increased. The variation in catalyst selectivity with acidity strength due to Lewis sites on the catalyst surface controls selectivity towards carbon chain length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  7. Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance Analysis in a CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cleetus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves the synthesis of a petroleum-based fuel by the catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics. Catalytic pyrolysis involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating them in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In the present study different oil samples are produced using different catalysts under different reaction conditions from waste plastics. The synthesized oil samples are subjected to a parametric study based on the oil yield, selectivity of the oil, fuel properties, and reaction temperature. Depending on the results from the above study, an optimization of the catalyst and reaction conditions was done. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the selected optimized sample was done to find out its chemical composition. Finally, performance analysis of the selected oil sample was carried out on a compression ignition (CI engine. Polythene bags are selected as the source of waste plastics. The catalysts used for the study include silica, alumina, Y zeolite, barium carbonate, zeolite, and their combinations. The pyrolysis reaction was carried at polymer to catalyst ratio of 10 : 1. The reaction temperature ranges between 400°C and 550°C. The inert atmosphere for the pyrolysis was provided by using nitrogen as a carrier gas.

  8. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  9. Application of dissolved air flotation on separation of waste plastics ABS and PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Bai, Yang; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Li

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to separate waste plastics acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) by dissolved air flotation in a self-designed dissolved air flotation apparatus. The effects of wetting agents, frother, conditioning time and flotation time on flotation behavior of waste plastics ABS (w-ABS) and PS (w-PS) were investigated and the optimized separation conditions were obtained. The results showed that when using 25 mgL(-1) tannic acid, 5 mgL(-1) terpineol, 15 min conditioning time and 15 min flotation time, mixtures of w-ABS and w-PS were separated successfully by dissolved air flotation in two stages, the results revealed that the purity and recovery rate of w-PS in the floated products were 90.12% and 97.45%, respectively, and the purity and recovery rate of w-ABS in the depressed products were 97.24% and 89.38%, respectively. Based on the studies of wetting mechanism of plastic flotation, it is found that the electrostatic force and hydrophobic attraction cannot be the main factor of the interaction between wetting agent molecules and plastic particles, which can be completed through water molecules as a mesophase, and a hydrogen bonding adsorption model with hydration shell as a mesophase was proposed.

  10. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view.

  11. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION OF RDF WASTE AND MELTING OF FLY ASH OBTAINED FROM THE INCINERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Lázár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to describe innovative solutions of thermal processing of selected components of municipal waste (so-called RDF waste using low-ionized depended plasma arc generated by a progressive and promising technology, which is plasma reactor. Its application can transform hazardous waste into inert waste while significantly reducing the volume of waste. Results given in this paper indicate experimentally achieved outputs with thermal disposal of RDF waste and ash from municipal waste

  12. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  13. An Experimental Investigation on Utilization of Waste Plastic as a Modifier in Rigid Pavements for Improving Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Chandu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The percent study investigates the effective use of waste plastic as a modifier for cement concrete roads. Civilization produces waste products disposals issue of the waste products is a challenge. Solid waste management is the thrust area. The various waste materials, plastic waste and principle solid waste are of great concern these leads to disposal crisis and environmental pollution. On the other side, road traffic is increasing. The load bearing capacity of the roads are to be increased. Our present work is helping to take care of both these aspects. Plastic waste consists of carry bags cups and disposals. Plastic waste which is cleaned is cut into a size such that it passes through 2.3mm sieve using shredding machine. The aggregates mix is heated and the plastic is coated over aggregates and this coated stones can be used for road constructing. By this process a road of 1km length 3.375m width of single lane can consumes 10,00000 carry bags and road strength is increased and found no pot holes. Commonly soil, aggregates, sand, cement can be used in road construction. Natural materials being exhaustible in nature, its quantity is declining gradually. If our material can be utilized in highway construction, the pollution and disposal problems may be partly reduced. The use of the innovative technology will not only strengthen the road construction but also increase the road life as well as will help to improve the environment. In my research work I have done a thorough study on the methodology of using plastic waste coat over aggregates and presented various tests performed on aggregates.

  14. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form

  15. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production.

  16. Application of electrostatic separation to the recycling of plastic wastes: separation of PVC, PET, and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Yu, Hyo-Shin; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Jai-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Plastics are widely used in everyday life as a useful material, and thus their consumption is growing at a rate of about 5% per year in Korea. However, the constant generation of plastic wastes and their disposal generates environmental problems along with economic loss. In particular, mixed waste plastics are difficult to recycle because of their inferior characteristics. A laboratory-scale triboelectrostatic separator unit has been designed and assembled for this study. On the basis of the control of electrostatic charge, the separation of three kinds of mixed plastics, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), in a range of similar gravities has been performed through a two-stage separation process. Polypropylene (PP) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) were found to be the most effective materials for a tribo-charger in the separation of PVC, PET, and ABS. The charge-to-mass ratio (nC/g) of plastics increased with increasing air velocity in the tribo charger. In the first stage, using the PP cyclone charger, the separation efficiency of particles considerably depended on the air velocity (10 m/s), the relative humidity ( 20 kV), and the splitter position (+2 cm from the center) in the triboelelctrostatic separator unit. At this time, a PVC grade of 99.40% and a recovery of 98.10% have successfully been achieved. In the second stage, using the HIPS cyclone charger, a PET grade of 97.80% and a recovery of 95.12% could be obtained under conditions of 10 m/s, over 25 kV, a central splitter position, and less than 40% relative humidity. In order to obtain 99.9% PVC grade and 99.3% PET grade, their recoveries should be sacrificed by 20.9% and 27%, respectively, with moving the splitter from the center to a (+)6 cm position.

  17. An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Olle; Söderholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  18. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  19. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  20. Determination of heavy metals and halogens in plastics from electric and electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Emmanouil; Janz, Alexander; Bilitewski, Bernd; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-10-01

    The presence of hazardous substances and preparations in small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE) found in the residual household waste stream of the city of Dresden, Germany has been investigated. The content of sWEEE plastics in heavy metals and halogens is determined using handheld X-ray fluorescence analysis (HXRF), elemental analysis by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Mean value of results for heavy metals in samples (n=51) by AAS are 17.4 mg/kg for Pb, 5.7 mg/kg for Cd, 8.4 mg/kg for Cr. The mass fraction of an additive as shown by HXRF (n=161) can vary over a wide range. Precise deductions as regards sWEEE plastics content in hazardous substances and preparations cannot be made. Additional research would be expedient regarding the influence of hazardous substances to recycling processes, in particular regarding the contamination of clean fractions in the exit streams of a WEEE treatment plant. Suitable standards for calibrating HXRF for use on EEE plastics or complex electr(on)ic components do not exist and should be developed.

  1. Energy Payback Time of a Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of both plastic consumption and prosumer 3-D printing are driving an interest in producing 3-D printer filaments from waste plastic. This study quantifies the embodied energy of a vertical DC solar photovoltaic (PV powered recyclebot based on life cycle energy analysis and compares it to horizontal AC recyclebots, conventional recycling, and the production of a virgin 3-D printer filament. The energy payback time (EPBT is calculated using the embodied energy of the materials making up the recyclebot itself and is found to be about five days for the extrusion of a poly lactic acid (PLA filament or 2.5 days for the extrusion of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS filament. A mono-crystalline silicon solar PV system is about 2.6 years alone. However, this can be reduced by over 96% if the solar PV system powers the recyclebot to produce a PLA filament from waste plastic (EPBT is only 0.10 year or about a month. Likewise, if an ABS filament is produced from a recyclebot powered by the solar PV system, the energy saved is 90.6–99.9 MJ/kg and 26.33–29.43 kg of the ABS filament needs to be produced in about half a month for the system to pay for itself. The results clearly show that the solar PV system powered recyclebot is already an excellent way to save energy for sustainable development.

  2. Damage-plasticity model of the host rock in a nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomáš; Kruis, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes damage-plasticity model for the modelling of the host rock environment of a nuclear waste repository. Radioactive Waste Repository Authority in Czech Republic assumes the repository to be in a granite rock mass which exhibit anisotropic behaviour where the strength in tension is lower than in compression. In order to describe this phenomenon, the damage-plasticity model is formulated with the help of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion which can be set to capture the compression behaviour while the tensile stress states is described with the help of scalar isotropic damage model. The concept of damage-plasticity model was implemented in the SIFEL finite element code and consequently, the code was used for the simulation of the Äspö Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) which was performed in order to determine yielding strength under various conditions in similar granite rocks as in Czech Republic. The results from the performed analysis are presented and discussed in the paper.

  3. Nanobarium Titanate As Supplement To Accelerate Plastic Waste Biodegradation By Indigenous Bacterial Consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapri, Anil; Zaidi, M. G. H.; Goel, Reeta

    2009-06-01

    Plastic waste biodegradation studies have seen several developmental phases from the discovery of potential microbial cultures, inclusion of photo-oxidizable additives into the polymer chain, to the creation of starch-embedded biodegradable plastics. The present study deals with the supplementation of nanobarium titanate (NBT) in the minimal broth in order to alter the growth-profiles of the Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) degrading consortia. The pro-bacterial influence of the nanoparticles could be seen by substantial changes such as shortening of the lag phase and elongation of the exponential as well as stationary growth phases, respectively, which eventually increase the biodegradation efficiency. In-vitro biodegradation studies revealed better dissolution of LDPE in the presence of NBT as compared to control. Significant shifting in λ-max values was observed in the treated samples through UV-Vis spectroscopy, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) further confirmed the breakage and formation of bonds in the polymer backbone. Therefore, this study suggests the implementation of NBT as nutritional additive for plastic waste management through bacterial growth acceleration.

  4. Polystyrene (PS waste plastic conversion into aviation/kerosene category of fuel by using fractional column distillation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman, Mohammed Molla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depleting fuel reserves are matters of great concern around the global. Solid waste plastic is currently receiving renewed interest for fuel generation. Waste plastic to fuel is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in the world because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. A post-commercial PS polymer waste was thermal degradation and fractional distillation without catalysts using a steel reactor operating thermally at ambient pressure under fume hood without vacuum system. Two types of temperature profile was used for this experiment such as PS waste plastic liquefaction purposed temperature used 100-400 ºC and fractional column distillation temperature was used 180-305 ºC for collection kerosene or aviation grade fuel. Produced fuel was analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer and fuel hydrocarbon range showed into GC/MS analysis is C6 to C16.

  5. Utilization possibilities of hydrocarbon fractions obtained by waste plastic pyrolysis: energetic utilization and applications in polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett; Angyal, Andras [University of Pannonia, MOL Department of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing (Hungary)], email: mnorbert@almos.uni-pannon.hu, email: borsodinikolett@almos.uni-pannon.hu, email: angyala@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the rising concerns about the environment, energy-saving measures are urgently needed. Each year about 300M tons of plastic wastes are produced world-wide and governments are now focusing on recycling and reusing these products to save significant amounts of energy. The aim of this paper was to analyze the products which can be obtained from waste plastic and determine their possible uses. Pyrolysis of commercial waste plastics was done in a reactor at 500-600 degree celsius and the products were then analyzed using several methods. Results showed that the pyrolysis produces gases, naphtha, middle distillates and heavy oils. The properties of these products were also determined and it was found that they have the potential to be used in fuel-like and additive producing applications. This study highlighted that pyrolysis of waste polymers can yield useful products.

  6. Exhaust Gas Pollution and Control of Import Waste Plastics Recycling Industry%进口废塑料再生加工行业废气污染及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 赵艳

    2015-01-01

    With large quantities of China’s import waste plastics, exhaust gas could be produced in the recycling process of waste plastics. Without effective treatment, the production will bring great harm to the environment. Typical regeneration of waste plastics process and the production process were analyzed. The main sources and types of waste gas were identified. Effective treatments and countermeasures of organic waste gas, dust and odor pollution produced in the process of hot-melt granulation, crushing were presented.%我国进口废塑料数量大,废塑料再生加工生产过程中伴随着工艺废气的产生,若不进行处理将对环境带来较大的危害。通过分析典型的废塑料再生加工工艺及产污环节,识别主要工艺废气来源及种类,提出了有效处理热熔造粒、破碎等加工过程产生的有机废气、粉尘及恶臭等废气污染物的防治对策与措施。

  7. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  9. Separation of plastic waste via the hydraulic separator Multidune under different geometric configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Floriana; Moroni, Monica; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The recovery of high-quality plastic materials is becoming an increasingly challenging issue for the recycling sector. Technologies for plastic recycling have to guarantee high-quality secondary raw material, complying with specific standards, for use in industrial applications. The variability in waste plastics does not always correspond to evident differences in physical characteristics, making traditional methodologies ineffective for plastic separation. The Multidune separator is a hydraulic channel allowing the sorting of solid particles on the basis of differential transport mechanisms by generating particular fluid dynamic conditions due to its geometric configuration and operational settings. In this paper, the fluid dynamic conditions were investigated by an image analysis technique, allowing the reconstruction of velocity fields generated inside the Multidune, considering two different geometric configurations of the device, Configuration A and Configuration B. Furthermore, tests on mono- and bi-material samples were completed with varying operational conditions under both configurations. In both series of experiments, the bi-material samples were composed of differing proportions (85% vs. 15%) to simulate real conditions in an industrial plant for the purifying of a useful fraction from a contaminating fraction. The separation results were evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of the useful fraction.

  10. The knowledge, awareness, attitude and motivational analysis of plastic waste and household perspective in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Rahman, Ataur; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward plastic waste and to distinguish the key drivers that encourage the households in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to participate in "No plastic campaign," This study used the logistic regression model to explain the factors that may affect the willingness to participate (WTP) of households in the campaign. In this study, it is found that 35 % of households are willing to participate in the campaign. The results of the study also indicate that people who are more informed and more convinced of their knowledge have a more positive attitude toward recycling than their counterparts do. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the level and classification of importance of motivating factors for plastic recycling, using the modified average and coefficient of variation of the models. From the analysis, the factor "helps reduce landfill use" is found as the most important factor and the factor of "raising money for charity" is found as the least important factor that motivates households to participate in recycling. The determinations of the study suggest some strategies that could hold implications for government and households to boost them to participate in the campaign "No Plastic Bag."

  11. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  12. Surface studies on aluminized and thermally oxidized superalloy 690 substrates interacted with simulated nuclear waste and sodium borosilicate melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufali, C.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Sengupta, P.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.

    2014-04-01

    Aluminized and thermally oxidized Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates with Al2O3 layer on top have been exposed in nitrate based environment (simulated high level nuclear liquid waste) at 373 K for 216 hours and sodium borosilicate melt at 1248 K for 192 hours. The surfaces of exposed samples have been characterized by using Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Elemental X-ray mapping on coated specimen that exposed in simulated nuclear waste solution revealed that the surface is enriched with Ni, Cr and Al. X-ray mapping on surface of the specimen that interacted with sodium borosilicate melt indicated that the surface is composed of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr.

  13. Surface studies on aluminized and thermally oxidized superalloy 690 substrates interacted with simulated nuclear waste and sodium borosilicate melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusufali, C., E-mail: yusuf@barc.gov.in; Sengupta, P.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kshirsagar, R. J. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Aluminized and thermally oxidized Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on top have been exposed in nitrate based environment (simulated high level nuclear liquid waste) at 373 K for 216 hours and sodium borosilicate melt at 1248 K for 192 hours. The surfaces of exposed samples have been characterized by using Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Elemental X-ray mapping on coated specimen that exposed in simulated nuclear waste solution revealed that the surface is enriched with Ni, Cr and Al. X-ray mapping on surface of the specimen that interacted with sodium borosilicate melt indicated that the surface is composed of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr.

  14. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn

  15. Temperature and time influence on the waste plastics pyrolysis in the fixed bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papuga Saša V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis as a technique of chemical recycling of plastic materials is causing an increasing level of interest as an environmentally and economically acceptable option for the processing of waste materials. Studies of these processes are carried out under different experimental conditions, in different types of reactors and with different raw materials, which makes the comparison of different processes and the direct application of process parameters quite complex. This paper presents the results of investigation of the influence of temperature in the range of 450°C to 525°C, on the yield of the process of pyrolysis of waste plastics mixture, composed of 45% polypropylene, 35% low density polyethylene and 25% high density polyethylene. Also, this paper presents results of the investigation of the effect of the reaction, atintervals of 30-90 [min], on the yield of pyrolysis of the mentioned waste plastics mixture. Research was conducted in a fixed bed pilot reactor, which was developed for this purpose. The results of the research show that at a temperature of 500°C, complete conversion of raw materials was achieved, for a period of 45 [min], with a maximum yield of the pyrolysis oil of 32.80%, yield of the gaseous products of 65.75% and the solid remains of 1.46%. Afurther increase of temperature increases the yield of gaseous products, at the expense of reducing the yield of pyrolysis oil. Obtained pyrolysis oil has a high calorific value of 45.96 [MJ/kg], and in this regard has potential applications as an alternative fuel.

  16. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail.

  17. MWCNTs synthesized from waste polypropylene plastics and its application in super-capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neeraj; Shinde, Sachin; Vishwakarma, Ritesh; Kadam, Siddhi; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2013-06-01

    The Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized at 800 °C by single stage chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from the carbonaceous source of waste polypropylene plastic (WPP) in the presence of a Ni catalyst. The fabrication of capacitor cell is very simple and does not require any binders. The electrochemical performances of the carbon nanotubes electrode were investigated by use of the cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge for its application in super capacitors. The specific capacitance of 59 F/g of the electrode was achieved with scan rate of 5 mV/s in the solution of 1N KOH.

  18. Reuse and Recovery of Waste Plastic%废弃塑料的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖寒

    2012-01-01

    The present situation of the reuse and recovery of waste plastics were reviewed, including the reuse and recovery of waste PP, PE, PVC, PS and PET. It is in order to realize the protection of human health and reduce the pollution of the environment and resources recycling purpose.%论述了目前废弃塑料回收利用方面的发展现状,介绍了聚丙烯、聚乙烯、聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯、聚氯乙烯、聚苯乙烯等废弃塑料的回收利用方法,以实现保护人类健康和减少环境污染和资源循环使用的目的。

  19. Measurement of the Specific Heat of Plastic Waste/Fly Ash Composite Material Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, J.; Honda, T.

    2009-06-01

    Plastic waste/fly ash composite, which is made mostly from plastic waste and fly ash, is one of the materials developed for the purpose of recycling. Currently, the composite is used for cable troughs shielding underground lines. However, there exists little information concerning the thermophysical properties of the composite. Thermophysical properties and the structure of the composite must be determined to estimate the heat transfer in the composite and create the different proportions of the composite material. This article deals with measurements of the specific heat of the plastic waste/fly ash composite and its components using a differential scanning calorimeter. The composite sample, which ranged from 10 mg to 19 mg in mass, was cut from a cable trough. The standard reference material is synthetic sapphire disks of 19.6 mg and 29.6 mg in mass. The specific heat of the plastic waste/fly ash composite increases from 1.25 kJ · kg-1 · K-1 to 1.59 kJ · kg-1 · K-1 at temperatures from 305 K to 360 K. The uncertainty for the specific heat data of the composite is estimated to be about 4 %. In addition, the specific heat value depends heavily on the content of the plastic waste.

  20. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Results: Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103–9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU/m3, while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103–2.9×105 CFU/m3. The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6–7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Conclusions: Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1:1–9

  1. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2017-02-28

    In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different types of cultivation media. Isolated fungi were classified to genera or species by using a light microscopy. Overall, the highest concentrations of airborne fungi were recorded in summer (9.1×103-9.0×105 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3), while the lowest ones in winter (2.7×103-2.9×105 CFU/m3). The concentration increased from the beginning of the work shift and reached a plateau after 6-7 h of the sorting. The most frequently isolated airborne fungi were those of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The turnover of fungal species between seasons was relatively high as well as changes in the number of detected species, but potentially toxigenic and allergenic fungi were detected in both facilities during all seasons. Generally, high concentrations of airborne fungi were detected in the working environment of plastic waste sorting facilities, which raises the question of health risk taken by the employees. Based on our results, the use of protective equipment by employees is recommended and preventive measures should be introduced into the working environment of waste sorting facilities to reduce health risk for employees. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-9.

  2. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  4. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  5. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  6. Production of steam cracking feedstocks by mild cracking of plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angyal, Andras; Miskolczi, Norbert; Bartha, Laszlo; Tungler, Antal; Nagy, Lajos; Vida, Laszlo; Nagy, Gabor

    2010-11-15

    In this work the utility of new possible petrochemical feedstocks obtained by plastic waste cracking has been studied. The cracking process of polyethylene (PE), polyethylene-polypropylene (PEPP) and polyethylene-polystyrene (PEPS) has been carried out in a pilot scale tubular reactor. In this process mild reaction parameters has been applied, with the temperature of 530 C and the residence time of 15 min. The produced hydrocarbon fractions as light- and middle distillates were tested by using a laboratory steam cracking unit. It was concluded that the products of the mild cracking of plastic wastes could be applied as petrochemical feedstocks. Based on the analytical data it was determined that these liquid products contained in significant concentration (25-50 wt.%) of olefin hydrocarbons. Moreover the cracking of polystyrene containing raw material resulted in liquid products with significant amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons too. The steam cracking experiments proved that the products obtained by PE and PEPP cracking resulted in similar or better ethylene and propylene yields than the reference samples, however the aromatic content of PEPS products reduced the ethylene and propylene yields. (author)

  7. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTIC INTO GASOLINE-RANGE PRODUCTS OVER MESOPOROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Norberto Beltramini

    2006-01-01

    In the last 20 years, it has become apparent that waste produced from plastics was becoming an environmental problem because of their low biodegradability. Though several methods have been proposed for recycling waste plastics, it is generally accepted that material recovery is not a long-term solution to the present problem, and that energy or chemical recovery is a more attractive alternative, including cracking into the monomer constituents, combustion to produce energy, and thermal or catalytic conversion to produce useful intermediate chemicals.This paper is a contribution in the area of the last option for energy recovery. There have been a number of publications reporting the use of molecular sieves and amorphous silica-alumina catalysts for the cracking of polymers into a range of hydrocarbons. The research work reported here demonstrates the ability of mesoporous catalysts in cracking polyethylene into gasoline range products.It was found that for mesoporous MCM-41 catalysts, its cracking activity increases with its crystallinity, displaying higher activity with smaller pore diameters. The hydrocarbon product distribution strongly indicates a carbenium ion cracking mechanism. The product distribution was also compared with those obtained from thermal cracking tests.

  8. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  9. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  10. Conversion of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polypropylene (PP) Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel Using Thermal Cracking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    In every sector of the world today energy is essential. Energy has many forms such as electricity, transportation fuel and so on. A large amount of energy is produced from crude oil, which is used to produce petroleum and petroleum to produce daily usable plastics. The solution to the above mentioned problems can be solved through the utilization of the new develop technology. This new developed technology will remove these hazardous waste plastics from the environment and convert them into e...

  11. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. SRNL CRP progress report [Development of Melt Processed Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Marra, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-10-02

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multiphase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing.

  14. Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, S M; Lettieri, P; Baeyens, J

    2009-10-01

    Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently

  15. A study on synthesis of energy fuel from waste plastic and assessment of its potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Viswanath K; Vijayabalan, P

    2016-05-01

    The demand for plastic is ever increasing and has produced a huge amount of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste plastic. This paper assesses the potential of using Waste Plastic Oil (WPO), synthesized using pyrolysis of waste plastic, as an alternative for diesel fuel. In this research work, the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with WPO and its blends with diesel are studied. In addition to neat plastic oil, three blends (PO25, PO50 and PO75) were prepared on a volumetric basis and the engine was able to run on neat plastic oil. Brake thermal efficiency of blends was lower compared to diesel, but PO25 showed similar performance to that of diesel. The emissions were reduced considerably while using blends when compared to neat plastic oil. The smoke and NOX were reduced by 22% and 17.8% respectively for PO25 than that of plastic oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. STUDY ON THE RECYCLING SYSTEM OF WASTE PLASTICS AND MIXED PAPER FROM A LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Minoru; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Xudong; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Osako, Masahiro; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Naohisa

    Plastics and mixed paper in municipal solid waste are valuable resources with high calorific value. However, the recycling cost to utilize them tends to be expensive. In addition, recycling system has to be consistent with the reduce of wastes on which should be put higher-priority to lower carbon emission and save resources in the long term. In this paper, we proposed a recycling system (smart recycling system) which consists of a local center an d existing facilities in arterial industries. In the local center, collected waste plastics and mixed paper from household are processed on the same line into a form suitable for transportation and handling in a facility of arterial in dustry which can utilize those wastes effectively. At the same time, a part of plastics with high quality is processed into a recycled resin in the center. It was suggested that, by utilizing existing facilities in arterial industries which have enough and flexible capacity to accept those wastes, the system can be a robust system even if the amount of wastes generation fluctuates widely. The effect of CO2 reduction and cost by installing the system were calculated and it was estimated that 3.5 million ton of additional annual CO2 reduction could be brought in Tokyo and surrounding three prefectures without co nsiderable increase in cost.

  17. Application of carrier and plasticizer to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble baicalein by hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilan; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yi; Ke, Xue; Hu, Danrong; Han, Miaomiao

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a suitable formulation for baicalein (a poorly water-soluble drug exhibiting high melting point) to prepare solid dispersions using hot melt extrusion (HME). Proper carriers and plasticizers were selected by calculating the Hansen solubility parameters, evaluating melting processing condition, and measuring the solubility of obtained melts. The characteristic of solid dispersions prepared by HME was evaluated. The dissolution performance of the extrudates was compared to the pure drug and the physical mixtures. Physicochemical properties of the extrudates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative bioavailability after oral administration in beagle dogs was assessed. As a result, Kollidon VA64 and Eudragit EPO were selected as two carriers; Cremophor RH was used as the plasticizer. The dissolution of all the extrudates was significantly improved. DSC and PXRD results suggested that baicalein in the extrudates was amorphous. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the interaction between drug and polymers. After oral administration, the relative bioavailability of solid dispersions with VA64 and EPO was comparative, about 2.4- and 2.9-fold greater compared to the pure drug, respectively.

  18. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  19. Brominated flame retardant emissions from the open burning of five plastic wastes and implications for environmental exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Lu, Shao-You; Mo, Ting; Zeng, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Based on the most widely used plastics in China, five plastic wastes were selected for investigation of brominated flame retardant (BFR) emission behaviors during open burning. Considerable variations were observed in the emission factors (EF) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) from the combustion of different plastic wastes. Distribution of BFR output mass showed that ΣPBDE was emitted mainly by the airborne particle (51%), followed by residual ash (44%) and the gas phase (5.1%); these values for ΣHBCD were 62%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. A lack of mass balance after the burning of the plastic wastes for some congeners (output/input mass ratios>1) suggested that formation and survival exceeded PBDE decomposition during the burns. However, that was not the case for HBCD. A comparison with literature data showed that the open burning of plastic waste is major source of PBDE compared to regulated combustion activities. Even for state-of-the-art waste incinerators equipped with sophisticated complex air pollution control technologies, BFRs are released on a small scale to the environment. According to our estimate, ΣPBDE release to the air and land from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants in China in 2015 were 105 kg/year and 7124 kg/year. These data for ΣHBCD were 25.5 and 71.7 kg/year, respectively. Considering the fact that a growing number of cities in China are switching to incineration as the preferred method for MSW treatment, our estimate is especially important. This study provides the first data on the environmental exposure of BFRs emitted from MSW incineration in China.

  20. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  1. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  2. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh.

  3. Sulfur Distribution during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignite, Wheat Straw and Plastic Waste in Sub-Critical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baofeng; Huang Yaru; Zhang Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and transformation of sulfur in products during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water were investigated in an autoclave. The inlfuence of blending ratio, temperature, initial nitrogen pressure, residence time and additives on sulfur distribution was studied systematically. The results showed that most of sulfur existed as organic sulfur and transferred into the residue, and only a small part of sulfur transferred into oil and gas during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste in sub-critical water. The results also showed that lower temperature (less than 300℃) was favorable for obtaining oil with low sulfur content. It can be also seen from the results that the best condition to obtain the oil with low sulfur content should be implemented at a lignite/wheat straw/plastic waste blending ratio of 5:4:1, an initial nitrogen pressure of 3 MPa and a residence time of 30 minutes. Fur-thermore, the results indicated that adding tourmaline during hydrothermal liquefaction of lignite, wheat straw and plastic waste was beneifcial to production of oil with low sulfur content.

  4. Task 3 - pyrolysis of plastic waste. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report briefly describes progress in the development of a thermal decomposition process for volume reduction of spent ion-exchange resin. During the reporting period, two series of tests were performed. The mixed waste plastics test investigated the effectiveness of the process in concentrating radionuclide surrogates in a solids residual while yielding a surrogate-free condensate product. Preliminary results indicated the occurrence of solids carryover. The ion-exchange resin tests resulted in a cesium concentration in the unfiltered condensate of about 4 to 20 micrograms/gram, indicating that fine particulate material was passing through the reactor cyclone. Future work includes the evaluation of an auger reactor in place of the fluidized bed reactor to address the problem of reactor carryover. 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Kinetic studies for catalytic cracking of heavy oil from waste plastics over REY zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songip, A.R.; Masuda, T.; Kuwahara, H.; Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    A kinetic model was developed to represent the catalytic cracking of heavy oil from waste plastics by rare-earth metal exchanged Y-type (REY) zeolite to produce gasoline. The influences of reaction conditions on the product distributions were previously reported. On the basis of these results, a reaction pathway was proposed and a set of differential equations was developed. The kinetic parameters were determined by nonlinear least-squares regression of the experimental data. These parameters were found to be proportional to the amount of strong acid sites of the used catalysts. The calculated values of the product distribution were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Preparation and performance of rare earth Zr catalyst for reforming waste plastics cracking product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴中; 曾光明; 陈晓青; 陈志勇; 鄢钢

    2003-01-01

    The rare earth Zr catalyst, whose carrier was Al2O3, was prepared by co-precipitation with Zr(NO3)2,Al(NO3 )3, and(NH2)2CO as the raw materials. The obtained catalyst was used to reform the waste plastic crackingproduct. As the Zr content in the catalyst increases, the yields of gasoline, gas, and the rate of carbon deposition in-crease, but the yields of diesel and heavy oil decrease. The optimum Zr content of the catalyst is 5%. At 290 ℃,with this most suitable catalyst, the yield of liquid fuel oil is the highest, about 86.10%, and research octance num-ber(RON) of the gasoline is 92.15.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Lead Borate and Related Glasses in Multicomponent Systems for Low Melting Vitrification of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Sakida, S.; Benino, Y.; Nanba, T.

    2011-03-01

    Glasses based on lead oxide have excellent properties in general such as low melting point, high chemical durability and high stability of glassy form, which are suitable for the preservation of volatile nuclear wastes in a permanent vitrified form. In order to confirm the long-term performance of lead borate based glasses it is necessary to establish dissolution and diffusion processes based on a reliable model of the glass structure. In the present study molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of lead borate based glasses was carried out introducing a dummy negative point charge to reproduce asymmetric PbOn units. Parameters for the dummy charge were optimized based on the comparison between calculated radial distribution function and experimental one. Asymmetric coordination around Pb, for example trigonal bipyramid, was successfully reproduced in the MD simulated binary and ternary glass models. The simple model using the dummy charge was confirmed to be valid for further simulations of multicomponent glasses containing nuclear wastes and heavy elements.

  8. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  9. Bromine in plastic consumer products - Evidence for the widespread recycling of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg(-1) and 2.6 to 28,500μgg(-1). Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e.g. a fan heater, boiler thermostat and smoke detector, and various rechargers, light bulb collars and printed circuit boards), and usually in association with Sb, a component of antimony oxide flame retardant synergists, and Pb, a heavy metal additive and contaminant. Amongst the non-electronic samples, Br concentrations were highest in items of jewellery, a coffee stirrer, a child's puzzle, a picture frame, and various clothes hangers, Christmas decorations and thermos cup lids, and were often associated with the presence of Sb and Pb. These observations, coupled with the presence of Br at concentrations below those required for flame-retardancy in a wider range of electronic and non-electronic items, are consistent with the widespread recycling of electronic plastic waste. That most Br-contaminated items were black suggests the current and recent demand for black plastics in particular is met, at least partially, through this route. Given many Br-contaminated items would evade the attention of the end-user and recycler, their disposal by conventional municipal means affords a course of BFR entry into the environment and, for food-contact items, a means of exposure to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Obtaining Multiple Metals Through Electron Beam Melting of Refractory Metal Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutova, Katia; Vassileva, Vania

    Investigations and results on the refining of tungsten scrap applying electron beam melting (EBM) in vacuum are presented and discussed. In this work EB melting experiments were performed in single or double-melt operations with different power inputs and refining times for tungsten purification and recovery of multiple metals (including refractory and other metals such as Mo, Nb, Cu, Zn, etc.), which are alloyed elements or impurities with high concentrations in the initial materials. Evaluations for extraction of some valuable metals, generated in the condensate at their removal from the liquid metal during the refining process are provided. Efficient technological regimes for e-beam melting and refining that enable the simultaneous production of pure metal ingots and condensates that can be used directly or can be used for subsequent extraction of expensive and valuable metals are presented.

  11. Thermo-Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics from End of Life Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of waste plastics is widely used recycling method. Owing to the end-of-life vehicles regulations, 95% of passenger cars and vehicles must reused/recovered after the dismantling. Pyrolysis of waste polyethylene and polypropylene obtained from end-of-life vehicles was investigated in a continuously stirred batch reactor using 500 and 600°C temperatures. To ensure the pyrolysis reactions the tested catalysts (5% of ZSM-5, HZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 were added directly to the mixtures of raw materials. Products of pyrolysis were separated into gases, pyrolysis oil and heavy oil, which was further analyzed by gas-chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and other standardized methods. Based on the results it was concluded, that the catalysts significantly increase the yields of volatile products, and modify their composition. Especially the alkane/alkene ratio, the methane concentration and the concentration of branched hydrocarbon could be affected by the applied catalysts. Ni-ZSM-5 catalyst had the highest activity in methane production, while HZSM-5 catalyst proved effective in isomerization reactions. Using H-ZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5, and Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst notably decreased average molecular weight of pyrolysis oils and significantly higher aromatic content was observed.

  12. Characterisation of recycled mixed plastic solid wastes: Coupon and full-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Rohan Muni; Manalo, Allan C; Karunasena, Warna; Lau, Kin-Tak

    2016-02-01

    In Australia, the plastic solid waste (PSW) comprises 16% by weight of municipal solid waste but only about one-fourth are recycled. One of the best options to increase the recycling rate of mixed PSW is to convert them into products suitable for construction. However, a comprehensive understanding on the mechanical behaviour of mixed PSW under different loading conditions is important for their widespread use as a construction material. This study focuses on investigating the mechanical behaviour of recycled mixed PSW containing HDPE, LDPE and PP using coupon and full-scale specimens. From coupon test, the strength values were found to be 14.8, 19.8, 20, 5.6MPa in tension, compression, flexure and shear respectively, while the modulus of elasticity are 0.91, 1.03, 0.72GPa in tension, compression and flexure respectively. The coefficient of variance of the measured properties for coupon and fullscale specimens was less than 10% indicating that consistent material properties can be obtained for mixed PSW. More importantly, the strength properties of mixed PSW are comparable to softwood structural timber. The flexural behaviour of full-scale specimens was also predicted using fibre model analysis and finite element modelling. Comparison showed that using coupon specimen's properties, the flexural behaviour of the full-scale specimens can be predicted reliably which can eliminate the costly and time consuming arrangements for full-scale experimental tests.

  13. Upcycling : converting waste plastics into paramagnetic, conducting, solid, pure carbon microspheres.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, V.

    2010-06-15

    The recent tremendous increase in the volume of waste plastics (WP) will have a harmful environmental impact on the health of living beings. Hundreds of years are required to degrade WP in atmospheric conditions. Hence, in coming years, in addition to traditional recycling services, innovative 'upcycling' processes are necessary. This article presents an environmentally benign, solvent-free autogenic process that converts various WP [low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), or their mixtures] into carbon microspheres (CMSs), an industrially significant, value-added product. The thermal dissociation of these individual or mixed WP in a closed reactor under autogenic pressure (1000 psi) produced dry, pure powder of CMSs. In this paper, the optimization of process parameters such as the effect of mixing of WP with other materials, and the role of reaction temperature and time are reported. Employing advanced analytical techniques, the atomic structure, composition, and morphology of as-obtained CMSs were analyzed. The room-temperature paramagnetism in CMSs prepared from waste LDPE, HDPE, and PS was further studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The conducting and paramagnetic nature of CMSs holds promise for their potential applications in toners, printers, paints, batteries, lubricants, and tires.

  14. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A; Torres, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm(3) reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 °C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO(2) generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step.

  15. Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilias, D S; Roupakias, C; Megalokonomos, P; Lappas, A A; Antonakou, Epsilon V

    2007-11-19

    The recycling of either model polymers or waste products based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) is examined using the dissolution/reprecipitation method, as well as pyrolysis. In the first technique, different solvents/non-solvents were examined at different weight percent amounts and temperatures using as raw material both model polymers and commercial products (packaging film, bags, pipes, food-retail outlets). The recovery of polymer in every case was greater than 90%. FT-IR spectra and tensile mechanical properties of the samples before and after recycling were measured. Furthermore, catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor with an FCC catalyst using again model polymers and waste products as raw materials. Analysis of the derived gases and oils showed that pyrolysis gave a mainly aliphatic composition consisting of a series of hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), with a great potential to be recycled back into the petrochemical industry as a feedstock for the production of new plastics or refined fuels.

  16. 二醋酸纤维素与增塑剂熔融体系的制备与表征%Preparation and characterization of plasticizing melting system consisting of cellulose diacetate and plasticizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晋浦; 朱庆松; 李晓俊; 肖长发

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose diacetate(CDA) has high melting temperature, and is an important derivative of cellulose. In order to significantly reduce the melt processing temperature of CDA, the systems of CDA/1⁃ethyl⁃3⁃methylimidazolium acetate ( [ EMIM] Ac) , CDA/dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) and CDA/[ EMIM] Ac/ DMSO were prepared in HAAKE rheocord. The curves of temperature⁃time and torque⁃time in the process of three systems were analyzed, respectively. The structures and performances of the systems were investigated by XRD, TGA and rheometer, respectively. The results show that, ionic liquid [ EMIM] Ac is so effective as a plasticizer for CDA that the plasticizing melting system of CDA/[ EMIM] Ac is a homogeneous one. The plasticizing effect of DMSO to CDA is weak. CDA can neither dissolve nor melt in DMSO, and it can scatter in the plasticizing system of CDA/DMSO in the swollen state. Replacing of part of [ EMIM] Ac with DMSO can not only reduce costs, but also promote plasticizing effect of [ EMIM ] Ac. The melt processing stability of the plasticizing melting systems of CDA/[ EMIM] Ac and CDA/[ EMIM] Ac/DMSO is good because their thermal decomposition temperature is well above their melt flow temperature, although their thermal decomposition temperature are lower than that of raw CDA.%为大幅降低二醋酸纤维素( CDA)的熔融温度,利用哈克转矩流变仪分别制备了CDA/1⁃乙基⁃3⁃甲基咪唑醋酸盐([ EMIM] Ac)、CDA/二甲基亚砜( DMSO)和CDA/[ EMIM] Ac/DMSO 3种体系,分析了这3种体系制备过程中温度及转矩与时间的关系,并利用X射线衍射仪、热重分析和流变仪等研究了这3种体系的结构与性能。研究结果表明:离子液体[ EMIM] Ac对CDA具有良好的增塑作用,CDA/[ EMIM] Ac体系可形成均一相态;DMSO对CDA增塑作用较弱,CDA在DMSO中既不能溶解也不能熔融,其以溶胀态分散在CDA/DMSO体系中;以DMSO代替部分[ EMIM] Ac,不

  17. Case study: Is the 'catch-all-plastics bin' useful in unlocking the hidden resource potential in the residual waste collection system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzinger, Lukas; Schopf, Kerstin; Pomberger, Roland; Punesch, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Austria's performance in the collection of separated waste is adequate. However, the residual waste still contains substantial amounts of recyclable materials - for example, plastics, paper and board, glass and composite packaging. Plastics (lightweight packaging and similar non-packaging materials) are detected at an average mass content of 13% in residual waste. Despite this huge potential, only 3% of the total amount of residual waste (1,687,000 t y(-1)) is recycled. This implies that most of the recyclable materials contained in the residual waste are destined for thermal recovery and are lost for recycling. This pilot project, commissioned by the Land of Lower Austria, applied a holistic approach, unique in Europe, to the Lower Austrian waste management system. It aims to transfer excess quantities of plastic packaging and non-packaging recyclables from the residual waste system to the separately collected waste system by introducing a so-called 'catch-all-plastics bin'. A quantity flow model was constructed and the results showed a realistic increase in the amount of plastics collected of 33.9 wt%. This equals a calculated excess quantity of 19,638 t y(-1). The increased plastics collection resulted in a positive impact on the climate footprint (CO2 equivalent) in line with the targets of EU Directive 94/62/EG (Circular Economy Package) and its Amendments. The new collection system involves only moderate additional costs.

  18. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.

  19. Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) to manufacture reproduction composites (RC), with the aim of co-recycling these two waste resources. The composites were prepared in a twin-crew extruder and investigated by means of mechanical testing, in situ flexural observation, thermogravimatric analysis, and dimensional stability evaluation. The results showed that the presence of nonmetal particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and the physical performance of the RC. A loading of 30 wt% nonmetal particles could achieve a flexural strength of 72.6 MPa, a flexural modulus of 3.57 GPa, and an impact strength of 15.5 kJ/m2. Moreover, it was found that the application of maleic anhydride-grafted ABS as compatilizer could effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the ABS plastic and the nonmetal particles. This research provides a novel method to reuse waste ABS and WPCB nonmetals for manufacturing high value-added product, which represents a promising way for waste recycling and resolving the environmental problem.

  20. Study on Conversion of Municipal Plastic Wastes into Liquid Fuel Compounds, Analysis of Crdi Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Kumar, R. Ravi; Kumarappa, S.; Antony, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The rate of economic evolution is untenable unless we save or stops misusing the fossil fuels like coal, crude oil or fossil fuels. So we are in need of start count on the alternate or renewable energy sources. In this experimental analysis an attempt has been made to investigate the conversion of municipal plastic wastes like milk covers and water bottles are selected as feed stocks to get oil using pyrolysis method, the performance analysis on CRDI diesel engine and to assess emission characteristics like HC, CO, NOX and smoke by using blends of Diesel-Plastic liquid fuels. The plastic fuel is done with the pH test using pH meter after the purification process and brought to the normal by adding KOH and NaOH. Blends of 0 to 100% plastic liquid fuel-diesel mixture have been tested for performance and emission aspect as well. The experimental results shows the efficiently convert weight of municipal waste plastics into 65% of useful liquid hydrocarbon fuels without emitting much pollutants.

  1. Separation of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastics by froth flotation combined with ammonia pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, Qun; Fu, Jian-Gang; Liu, You-Nian

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastics combined with ammonia pretreatment. The PC and ABS plastics show similar hydrophobicity, and ammonia treatment changes selectively floatability of PC plastic while ABS is insensitive to ammonia treatment. The contact angle measurement indicates the dropping of flotation recovery of PC is ascribed to a decline of contact angle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates reactions occur on PC surface, which makes PC surface more hydrophilic. Separation of PC and ABS waste plastics was conducted based on the flotation behavior of single plastic. At different temperatures, PC and ABS mixtures were separated efficiently through froth flotation with ammonia pretreatment for different time (13 min at 23 °C, 18 min at 18 °C and 30 min at 23 °C). For both PC and ABS, the purity and recovery is more than 95.31% and 95.35%, respectively; the purity of PC and ABS is up to 99.72% and 99.23%, respectively. PC and ABS mixtures with different particle sizes were separated effectively, implying that ammonia treatment possesses superior applicability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of microfibrous and nano-/microfibrous scaffolds: melt and hybrid electrospinning and surface modification of poly(L-lactic acid) with plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Il; Park, Ko Eun; Lee, Seung Jin; Park, Won Ho

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) fibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning from a PLA melt containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a plasticizer to obtain thinner fibers. The effects of PEG on the melt electrospinning of PLA were examined in terms of the melt viscosity and fiber diameter. Among the parameters, the content of PEG had a more significant effect on the average fiber diameter and its distribution than those of the spinning temperature. Furthermore, nano-/microfibrous silk fibroin (SF)/PLA and PLA/PLA composite scaffolds were fabricated by hybrid electrospinning, which involved a combination of solution electrospinning and melt electrospinning. The SF/PLA (20/80) scaffolds consisted of a randomly oriented structure of PLA microfibers (average fiber diameter = 8.9 µm) and SF nanofibers (average fiber diameter = 820 nm). The PLA nano-/microfiber (20/80) scaffolds were found to have similar pore parameters to the PLA microfiber scaffolds. The PLA scaffolds were treated with plasma in the presence of either oxygen or ammonia gas to modify the surface of the fibers. This approach of controlling the surface properties and diameter of fibers could be useful in the design and tailoring of novel scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  3. Fabrication of Microfibrous and Nano-/Microfibrous Scaffolds: Melt and Hybrid Electrospinning and Surface Modification of Poly(L-lactic acid with Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Il Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid (PLA fibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning from a PLA melt containing poly(ethylene glycol (PEG as a plasticizer to obtain thinner fibers. The effects of PEG on the melt electrospinning of PLA were examined in terms of the melt viscosity and fiber diameter. Among the parameters, the content of PEG had a more significant effect on the average fiber diameter and its distribution than those of the spinning temperature. Furthermore, nano-/microfibrous silk fibroin (SF/PLA and PLA/PLA composite scaffolds were fabricated by hybrid electrospinning, which involved a combination of solution electrospinning and melt electrospinning. The SF/PLA (20/80 scaffolds consisted of a randomly oriented structure of PLA microfibers (average fiber diameter = 8.9 µm and SF nanofibers (average fiber diameter = 820 nm. The PLA nano-/microfiber (20/80 scaffolds were found to have similar pore parameters to the PLA microfiber scaffolds. The PLA scaffolds were treated with plasma in the presence of either oxygen or ammonia gas to modify the surface of the fibers. This approach of controlling the surface properties and diameter of fibers could be useful in the design and tailoring of novel scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  4. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  5. Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Heat Melt Waste Compaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several solid waste management systems currently under development result in the production of gas-phase organic contaminants which, due to the periodic and...

  6. Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Väänänen, Virpi; Järventaus, Hilkka; Suhonen, Satu; Nygren, Jonas; Hämeilä, Mervi; Valtonen, Jarkko; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Norppa, Hannu

    2008-05-31

    As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our

  7. A New Life for Cross-Linked Plastic Waste as Aggregates and Binder Modifier for Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. B. Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year, millions of tons of plastic waste, with potential to be reused, are wasted in landfills. Based on a literature review and in a local market analysis, cross-linked polyethylene (PEX waste arose as the material with the greatest potential to be tested for incorporation in asphalt mixtures due to the difficulty in its recycling and the lack of solutions for its reuse. Thus, in the present work, mixtures produced with and without PEX were tested in order to compare their performance, aiming at understanding if this waste could successfully be used as an alternative material for this type of application. Thus, water sensitivity, rutting resistance, stiffness modulus and fatigue cracking resistance tests were carried out on asphalt mixtures with up to 5% PEX. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the incorporation of PEX in asphalt mixtures is a viable solution for paving works, especially when high service temperatures are expected. It also decreases the density of the mixture, which can be attractive to lighten structures. Thus, this technology contributes to give new life to cross-linked polyethylene plastic waste.

  8. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  9. Study of the co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradela, Filipe; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal); Lapa, Nuno [UNL-FCT, GDEH-UBiA, Caparica (Portugal)

    2009-02-15

    This work aimed to study the recovery of two types of waste by the process of pyrolysis. The obtained results show that the adding of a plastic mix improves the overall efficiency of the slow pyrolysis of pine. Therefore, it was possible to achieve higher liquid yields and less solid product than in the classic slow pyrolysis carbonization of biomass. The obtained liquids showed heating values similar to that of heating fuel oil. The gas products had energetic contents superior to that of producer gas, and the obtained solid fractions showed heating values higher than some coals. There were also identified some typical products of fast biomass pyrolysis used as raw material in several industries. The effects of experimental conditions in product yield and composition were also studied. The parameters that showed higher influence were (with its increase): reaction time on gas product composition (increase of the alkane content) and on liquid composition (increase in aromatics content); reaction temperature on product yield (decrease of liquid yield with increase of solids and gases) and on gas product composition (increase in alkane content); initial pressure on liquid composition (increase in the aromatics content) and mainly the pine content of the initial mixture on products yield (increase of gas and solid yield with a decrease in liquids) and on the gas product composition (favouring CO and CO{sub 2} formation). (orig.)

  10. Study of combustion and emission characteristics of fuel derived from waste plastics by various waste to energy (W-t-E) conversion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of plastic wastes by means of producing energy can be treated as a good investment in the waste management and recycling sectors. In this article, conversion of plastics into liquid fuel by two thermo-chemical processes, pyrolysis and gasification, are reviewed. The study showed that the catalytic pyrolysis of homogenous waste plastics produces better quality and higher quantity of liquefied fuel than that of non-catalytic pyrolysis process at a lower operating temperature. The syngas produced from gasification process, which occurs at higher temperature than the pyrolysis process, can be converted into diesel by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction process. Conducive bed material like Olivine in the gasification conversion process can remarkably reduce the production of tar. The waste plastics pyrolysis oil showed brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of about 27.75%, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.292 kg/kWh, unburned hydrocarbon emission (uHC) of 91 ppm and NOx emission of 904 ppm in comparison with the diesel for BTE of 28%, BSFC of 0.276 kg/kWh, uHC of 57 ppm and NOx of 855 ppm. Dissolution of Polystyrene (PS) into biodiesel also showed the potential of producing alternative transport fuel. It has been found from the literature that at higher engine speed, increased EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) quantity based biodiesel blends reduces CO, CO2, NOx and smoke emission. EPS-biodiesel fuel blend increases the brake thermal efficiency by 7.8%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) by 7.2% and reduces brake power (Pb) by 3.2%. More study using PS and EPS with other thermoplastics is needed to produce liquid fuel by dissolving them into biodiesel and to assess their suitability as a transport fuel. Furthermore, investigation to find out most suitable W-t-E process for effective recycling of the waste plastics as fuel for internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce environmental pollution and generate revenue which will be addressed in this article.

  11. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  12. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C.

  13. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The performance of Inconel 693 electrodes for processing an iron phosphate glass melt containing 26 wt.% of a simulated low activity waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Jen-Hsien; Newkirk, Joseph W. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis-James Hall 401 W. 16th St., Rolla, MO 65409-0330 (United States); Kim, Cheol-Woon [MO-SCI Corporation, 4040 HyPoint North, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Brow, Richard K., E-mail: brow@mst.edu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis-James Hall 401 W. 16th St., Rolla, MO 65409-0330 (United States); Schlesinger, Mark E.; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis-James Hall 401 W. 16th St., Rolla, MO 65409-0330 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Iron phosphate glass is a candidate fixation medium for storing radioactive waste. The Department of Energy supported a program to assess the viability of using Fe-phosphate glass for vitrifying low activity waste in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM). In this study, Inconel 693 electrodes were tested in a research-scale joule-heated melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. After a 10-day test at 1030 °C that yielded 124 kg of glass, the electrodes exhibited a dimensional loss rate of ∼1.6 mm/year, which is comparable to that of Inconel 690 electrodes used in a JHM for processing borosilicate melts. Microstructural changes occurred within the outermost 700 μm of the electrodes and are consistent with an earlier study of Inconel coupons in Fe-phosphate melts. The results indicate that Inconel 693 should have an acceptable corrosion resistance as the electrode for JHM processing of iron phosphate melts.

  15. Global Reverse Supply Chain Redesign for Household Plastic Waste under the Emission Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Chabaane, A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing global resource scarcity, waste becomes a resource that can be managed globally. A reverse supply chain network for waste recycling needs to process all the waste with minimum costs and environmental impact. As re-processing of waste is one of the major sources of pollution in the

  16. Global Reverse Supply Chain Redesign for Household Plastic Waste under the Emission Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Chabaane, A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing global resource scarcity, waste becomes a resource that can be managed globally. A reverse supply chain network for waste recycling needs to process all the waste with minimum costs and environmental impact. As re-processing of waste is one of the major sources of pollution in the re

  17. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy (NIRIS) and image rank analysis for remote identification of plastics in mixed waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, D; Van Den Broek, W; Melssen, W; Buydens, L; Feldhoff, R; Huth-Fehre, T; Kantimm, T; Winter, F; Cammann, K

    1996-03-01

    An infrared camera with focal plane InSb array detector has been applied to the characterization of macroscopic samples of household waste over distances up to two meters. Per waste sample (singelized), a sequence of images was taken at six optical wavelength ranges in the near infrared region (1100 nm - 2500 nm). The obtained three-dimensional data stack served as individual fingerprint per sample. An abstract factor rotation of this stack of six images into a spectroscopical meaningful intermediate six-element vector by Multivariate Image Rank Analysis (MIRA) finally provided a decision limit for the discrimination of plastics and nonplastics. A correct classification of better than 80% has been reached. The experimental NIRIS set-up has been automated so far to allow an on-line identification of a real world waste sample within a few seconds.

  18. Conversion of waste plastics to single-cell protein by means of pyrolysis followed by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlhigesan, J.; Brown, B.S.

    Waste plastics (e.g. polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene) have been converted to single-cell protein using pyrolysis followed by fermentation. Conversion efficiencies of plastics to pyrolysate were 75-90% for polyethylene, 10-56% for polystyrene and 40-50% for polypropylene. Unpyrolyzed residues were formed with polystyrene (6-14%) and polypropylene (14-30%), but not with polyethylene. Polyvinyl chloride produced hydrogen chloride fumes, together with 33-39% unpyrolyzed residue, no fermentable pyrolysis products being formed. Polyethylene pyrolysate was fermented by the yeast, Candida tropicalis. Batch fermentation was carried out at 31 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.5 on polyethylene pyrolysate in shaken flasks (100 cubic centimetre culture) and in an aerated fermenter (500 cubic centimetre culture). Maximum growth rate was 0.168/hour, cell yield was 0.47 plus or minus 0.02 g g/1 pyrolysate used (n equals 3) and doubling time was 4-5 hours, after 72 hours growth on 1.0 g pyrolysate 100 centimetres-3 culture. Continuous culture (dilution rate 0.10/hour) gave a dry cell yield of 0.39 g/g pyrolysate utilized. Utilization of pyrolysate was 49.0% in batch culture and 33.0% in continuous culture. The efficiency of conversion to polyethylene to biomass was 34-42% in batch culture. Emulsification and pristane-solubilization were studied as a means of dispersing waxy pyrolysates in culture media. Pristane did not support growth whereas the emulsifier (lecithin, Tween 85 and sodium glycocholate (1:2:2 by weight)) could support up to 27% of the growth observed on polyethylene pyrolysate. Crude protein content of cells cultured on polyethylene pyrolysate was 46.7 plus or minus 2.4% (n equals 3) for batch culture cells, and 43.8 plus or minus 0.3% (n equals 4) for continuous culture cells. The true protein content of Candida cells was about 17%. The protein had a favourable nutritional quality as judged by in-vitro chemical tests.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Lead Borate and Related Glasses in Multicomponent Systems for Low Melting Vitrification of Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S; Benino, Y; Nanba, T [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakida, S, E-mail: benino@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Environmental Management Center, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Glasses based on lead oxide have excellent properties in general such as low melting point, high chemical durability and high stability of glassy form, which are suitable for the preservation of volatile nuclear wastes in a permanent vitrified form. In order to confirm the long-term performance of lead borate based glasses it is necessary to establish dissolution and diffusion processes based on a reliable model of the glass structure. In the present study molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of lead borate based glasses was carried out introducing a dummy negative point charge to reproduce asymmetric PbO{sub n} units. Parameters for the dummy charge were optimized based on the comparison between calculated radial distribution function and experimental one. Asymmetric coordination around Pb, for example trigonal bipyramid, was successfully reproduced in the MD simulated binary and ternary glass models. The simple model using the dummy charge was confirmed to be valid for further simulations of multicomponent glasses containing nuclear wastes and heavy elements.

  20. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  1. A Perspective on the Prowaste Concept: Efficient Utilization of Plastic Waste through Product Design and Process Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Greco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to present an innovative technology for the reinforcement of beams for urban furniture, produced by in-mold extrusion of plastics from solid urban waste. This material, which is usually referred to as “recycled plastic lumber”, is characterized by very poor mechanical properties, which results in high deflections under flexural loads, particularly under creep conditions. The Prowaste project, founded by the EACI (European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation in the framework of the Eco-Innovation measure, was finalized to develop an innovative technology for selective reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber. Selective reinforcement was carried out by the addition of pultruded glass rods in specific positions with respect to the cross section of the beam, which allowed optimizing the reinforcing efficiency. The reinforcement of the plastic lumber beams with pultruded rods was tested at industrial scale plant, at Solteco SL (Alfaro, Spain. The beams obtained, characterized by low cost and weight, were commercialized by the Spanish company. The present paper presents the most relevant results of the Prowaste project. Initially, an evaluation of the different materials candidates for the reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber is presented. Plastic lumber beams produced in the industrial plant were characterized in terms of flexural properties. The results obtained are interpreted by means of beam theory, which allows for extrapolation of the characteristic features of beams produced by different reinforcing elements. Finally, a theoretical comparison with other approaches which can be used for the reinforcement of plastic lumber is presented, highlighting that, among others, the Prowaste concept maximizes the stiffening efficiency, allowing to significantly reduce the weight of the components.

  2. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  3. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs.

  5. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  7. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Jansen, M.

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was

  8. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Jansen, M.

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was

  9. Pyrolysis-catalysis of waste plastic using a nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst for high-value carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Nahil, Mohamad A; Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2017-02-03

    A stainless-steel mesh loaded with nickel catalyst was produced and used for the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste high-density polyethylene with the aim of producing high-value carbon products, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The catalysis temperature and plastic-to-catalyst ratio were investigated to determine the influence on the formation of different types of carbon deposited on the nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst. Increasing temperature from 700 to 900°C resulted in an increase in the carbon deposited on the nickel-loaded stainless-steel mesh catalyst from 32.5 to 38.0 wt%. The increase in sample-to-catalyst ratio reduced the amount of carbon deposited on the mesh catalyst in terms of g carbon g(-1) plastic. The carbons were found to be largely composed of filamentous carbons, with negligible disordered (amorphous) carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the filamentous carbons revealed them to be composed of a large proportion (estimated at ∼40%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The optimum process conditions for CNT production, in terms of yield and graphitic nature, determined by Raman spectroscopy, was catalysis temperature of 800°C and plastic-to-catalyst ratio of 1:2, where a mass of 334 mg of filamentous/MWCNTs g(-1) plastic was produced.

  10. Polímeros biodegradáveis - uma solução parcial para diminuir a quantidade dos resíduos plásticos Biodegradable polymers - a partial way for decreasing the amount of plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Martins Franchetti

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The large use of plastics has generated a waste deposit problem. Today plastic wastes represent 20% in volume of the total waste in the municipal landfills. To solve the disposal problem of plastics methods have been employed such as incineration, recycling, landfill disposal, biodegradation and the use of biodegradable polymers. Incineration of plastic wastes provokes pollution due to the production of poisonous gases. Recycling is important to reduce final costs of plastic materials, but is not enough in face of the amount of discarded plastic. In landfills plastic wastes remain undegraded for a long time, causing space and pollution problems. Biodegradation is a feasible method to treat some plastics, but intensive research is necessary to find conditions for the action of microorganisms. All of these methods are important and the practical application of each one depends on the type and amount of the plastic wastes and the environmental conditions. Therefore, a great deal of research has focused on developing biodegradable plastics and its application because it is an important way for minimizing the effect of the large volume of plastic waste discarded in the world.

  11. How to prepare a road map for the management of plastic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorland, Jens; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Skovgaard, Mette

    This paper presents the results of Plastic Zero with the hope to inspire further action to enhance plastic resource-efficiency. It is meant as a source of inspiration on how to make a road map in a similar project. The process has given us various experiences and this guideline on how to make...

  12. How to prepare a road map for the management of plastic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorland, Jens; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Skovgaard, Mette

    This paper presents the results of Plastic Zero with the hope to inspire further action to enhance plastic resource-efficiency. It is meant as a source of inspiration on how to make a road map in a similar project. The process has given us various experiences and this guideline on how to make...

  13. Learning about the Types of Plastic Wastes: Effectiveness of Inquiry Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheng, Nga-Yee Irene; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Zhan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impacts of the inquiry learning strategies employed in a "Plastic Education Project" on primary students' knowledge, beliefs and intended behaviour in Hong Kong. Student questionnaires and a test on plastic types were adopted for data collection. Results reveal that the inquiry learning strategies…

  14. Efficient conversion of polyamides to ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids: a new method for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akio; Ikeda, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shuzo; Kato, Kazunari; Akinari, Yugo; Sugimoto, Tsunemi; Kashiwagi, Kohichi; Kaiso, Kouji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    An efficient transformation of polyamides to ω-hydroxy alkanoic acids was achieved. Treatment of nylon-12 with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid gave methyl ω-hydroxydodecanoate in 85% yield and the alcohol/alkene selectivity in the product was enhanced to up to 9.5:1. The use of (18)O-enriched acetic acid for the reaction successfully introduced an (18)O atom at the alcoholic OH group in the product. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for the chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  15. UTILIZING WASTE PLASTIC POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AS ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATES TO PRODUCE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM H. ALFAHDAWI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, there is an increasing need for the fabrication of mortar and concrete that can be characterised as sustainable and environmentally friendly. Ideally, this concrete should be inexpensive, lightweight, and outstanding in terms of its physical and mechanical specifications. Plastic materials have increasingly been used in the fabrication of different types of concrete admixtures and mortar constituents. These plastic materials take the form of fillers or shredded fibres derived from polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of plastic materials presents the following benefits: (i enhanced mixture quality and (ii a reduction in the amount of accumulated single-use plastic materials that negatively impact the environment. This work reviews several previous studies on the utilisation and preparations of plastic materials and their effects on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Other topics, including hardened concrete, fresh concrete, application, and thermo-physical characteristics, are also elaborated.

  16. Investigation of the usage of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW), contaminated with phenol and formaldehyde, in manufacturing of ceramic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizinievič, Olga; Balkevičius, Valdas; Pranckevičienė, Jolanta; Kizinievič, Viktor

    2014-08-01

    Large amounts of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW) are created during the production of mineral wool. CMWW is technogenic aluminum silicate raw material, formed from the particles of undefibred melt (60-70%) and mineral wool fibers (30-40%). 0.3-0.6% of organic binder with phenol and formaldehyde in its composition exists in this material. Objective of the research is to investigate the possibility to use CMWW as an additive for the production of ceramic products, by neutralising phenol and formaldehyde existing in CMWW. Formation masses were prepared by incorporating 10%, 20% and 30% of CMWW additive and burned at various temperatures. It was identified that the amount of 10-30% of CMWW additive influences the following physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic body: lowers drying and firing shrinkage, density, increases compressive strength and water absorption. Investigations carried out show that CMWW waste can be used for the production of ceramic products of various purposes.

  17. Development of a new approach based on midwave infrared spectroscopy for post-consumer black plastic waste sorting in the recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Puckrin, Eldon; Adamowski, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Waste sorting is key to the process of waste recycling. Exact identification of plastic resin and wood products using Near Infrared (NIR, 1-1.7µm) sensing is currently in use. Yet, dark targets characterized by low reflectance, such as black plastics, are hard to identify by this method. Following the recent success of Midwave Infrared (MWIR, 3-12µm) measurements to identify coloured plastic polymers, the aim of this study was to assess whether this technique is applicable to sorting black plastic polymers and wood products. We performed infrared reflectance contact measurements of 234 plastic samples and 29 samples of wood and paper products. Plastic samples included black, coloured and transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Polypropylene (PP), Polylactic acid (PLA) and Polystyrene (PS). The spectral signatures of the black and coloured plastic samples were compared with clear plastic samples and signatures documented in the literature to identify the polymer spectral features in the presence of coloured material. This information was used to determine the spectral bands that best suit the sorting of black plastic polymers. The main NIR-MWIR absorption features of wood, cardboard and paper were identified as well according to the spectral measurements. Good agreement was found between our measurements and the absorption features documented in the literature. The new approach using MWIR spectral features appears to be useful for black plastics as it overcomes some of the limitations in the NIR region to identify them. The main limitation of this technique for industrial applications is the trade-off between the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor operating in standoff mode and the speed at which waste is moved under the sensor. This limitation can be resolved by reducing the system's spectral resolution to 16cm(-1), which allows for faster spectra acquisition while maintaining a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio

  18. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  19. Finding an Optimum Period of Oxidative Heat Treatment on SS 316 Catalyst for Nanocarbon Production from LDPE Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praswasti P.D.K. Wulan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic waste accumulation has become a major health and environmental problems in many parts of the world. Many efforts have been taken to reduce the accumulation, one of which is to convert it into a more useful products, such as CNT. CNT have been used for several products to enhance its properties. In this work, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE plastic waste was used as a feed to produce CNT with the help of wired mesh stainless steel type 316 serving as the catalyst. The stainless steel was pretreated by applying heat under oxidative environment at 800oC. The time of the pretreatment was varied from 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 minutes to determine the relationship between the period of the pretreatment and the produced CNT quality. The collected nanocarbons were characterized by using XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, and TGA. It was discovered that CNT was formed from the pretreated catalyst. The best result was obtained from the 10 minutes pretreatment shown by formation of buckling and continuous growth CNT having an evenly spread carbon with a mean CNT diameter of 7.70 nm, carbon percentage up to 93.3%, and oxidation temperature up to 530oC.

  20. Engine performance and emission characteristics of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene and its blends with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)], Email: tanz@uwaterloo.ca

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes an experiment to determine the possibility of transforming waste plastics into a potential source of diesel fuel. Experiments were done on the use of various blends of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene (WPE) with diesel fuel (D) at different volumetric ratios and the results were reviewed. WPE was thermally degraded with catalysis of sodium aluminum silicate at optimum conditions (414-480 degree celsius range and 1 h reaction time) and the collected oil was fractionated at various temperatures. The properties of the fuel blends at different volumetric ratios were measured in this study. It was shown that these blends can be used as fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. With respect to engine performance and exhaust emission, it was found that using a 5% WPE-D (WPE5) blend instead of diesel fuel reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, the results of experiment showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rose.

  1. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome.

  2. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefor...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

  4. 高炉喷吹废塑料的先进技术%Establishment of Advanced Recycling Technology for Waste Plastics in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2012-01-01

    废塑料循环利用技术对于全球环境保护和社会发展都是一个非常重要的课题。JFE制钢公司为了将废塑料作为高炉的还原剂,通过热模燃烧实验;研究了废塑料的燃烧气化率。经过研究,为了改善粗粒废塑料的燃烧性,开发了同时喷吹煤粉或/和天然气的技术,为了提高废塑料的燃烧和气化率及炉内透气性,JFE开发出将废塑料与碳酸钙(CaC03)复合造粒技术。另外,JFE还研究了废塑料精细粉碎技术。此技术已经应用在实际生产中。%The establishment of technology for recycling waste plastics is a highly important issue for global environmental conservation and the society. JFE Steel has pursued the effective use of waste plastics as a reducing agent for injection into blast furnaces, and conducted hot model experiments to study the combustion and gasification behaviour of waste plastics. On the basis of this basic investigation, advanced technologies that can further improve the combustion and gasification efficiency of waste plastics even with low strength has been developed; i.e. in order to improve combustibility of fine waste plastics, technology for simultaneous injection of such plastics with pulverized coal and/or natural gas has been developed. For improved the strength of plastics, technology for combined agglomeration of waste plastics with CaC03 has been developed. In addition, technology for fine crushing of waste plastics has been studied on the basis of new ideas, and this technology has been applied in actual plant operation. These technologies have been successfully applied in actual blast furnaces, contributing to lowering the reducing agent rate.

  5. Recycling of plastic wastes from electric and electronic sector new developments; Reciclado de residuos plasticos del sector electrico y electronico. Nuevos desarrollos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Larrauri, E.; Cacho, I.

    1999-07-01

    Automated technologies for the identification and sorting of plastic wastes have been developed to get an adequate and cost-effective recycling. When dealing with plastics from end-of-live electric and electronic equipment not only the polymeric matrix but also fillers and/or flame retardant additives and/or pigments, need to be taken in account. At present, several specific projects are being carried out by GAIKER in order to solve the technological challenge of recycling plastics from the electric and electronic sector. (Author)

  6. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC, based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    janis kajaks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.% and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.% on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by adding a wood fiber, flexural properties and microhardness of the composites significantly were enhanced. However, impact strength, water resistance, and fluidity of polymer melts decreased with increase in fiber content. The virgin HDPE-based composites as well as recycled HDPE-based composites, reinforced with fibers from coniferous wood, showed good mechanical properties. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that WPCs based on virgin HDPE, as well as on recycled HDPE, can be used to manufacture value-added panels. Optimal content of wood fibres were 50-60 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7283

  7. Solid-Phase Photocatalytic Degradation of Waste Plastics%固相光催化降解废弃塑料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昌军; 彭天右; 邓克俭; 昝菱

    2011-01-01

    White pollution has become a global environmental issue in recent years. Composite plastics embedding photocatalysts into ploymer matrix has excellent photocatalytic degradation activity. It could be degraded effectively in ambient air under sunlight exposure. So it is an eco-friendly disposal of polymer wastes, and provides a promising way to solve white pollution. In this paper, the latest research progress in solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of waste plastics is reviewed. The solid-phase photocatalytic activity of TiO2, ZnO, α-FeOOH and H3PW12O40, as well as the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of various composite plastics are introduced.Many new methods have been used to enhance the solid-phase photocatalytic degradation activity of composite plastics and the utilization efficiency of sunlight. For example, surface modifying photocatalyst by branched macromolecule is used to improve the dispersion of photocatalyst in polymer matrix, modifying photocatalyst by metal ion doping or dye sensitization is used to broaden the region of photoresponse and enhance the visible light activity of photocatalyst. At last, the potential application prospects for photodegradable composite plastics in the field of waste plastic treatment is discussed.%"白色污染"已成为目前普遍关注的一个全球性环保课题.将光催化剂掺入到塑料中制备出环境友好的可光降解复合塑料,利用其光催化活性可以使废弃塑料在太阳光的照射下发生有效降解,是解决"白色污染"问题的有效途径之一.本文综述了近年来固相光催化降解废弃塑料的研究进展,介绍了光催化剂TiO、ZnO、а-FeOOH和HPWO加对废弃塑料的固相光催化降解效率及各种复合塑料的光催化降解机理,阐述了对光催化剂进行表面改性可以改善其在聚合物中的分散性,以及对光催化剂进行修饰可以提高其对可见光的吸收,从而提高复合塑料的固相光催化降解活性及对

  8. DMS cyclone separation processes for optimization of plastic wastes recycling and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Torno, Susana

    2011-06-01

    It is demonstrated that substantial reductions in plastics presently disposed of in landfills can be achieved by cyclone density media separation (DMS). In comparison with the size fraction of plastics presently processed by industrial density separations (generally 6.4 to 9.5 mm), cyclone DMS methods are demonstrated to effectively process a substantially greater range of particle sizes (from 0.5 up to 120 mm). The purities of plastic products and recoveries obtained with a single stage separation using a cylindrical cyclone are shown to attain virtually 100% purity and recoveries >99% for high-density fractions and >98% purity and recoveries were obtained for low-density products. Four alternative schemas of multi-stage separations are presented and analyzed as proposed methods to obtain total low- and high-density plastics fraction recoveries while maintaining near 100% purities. The results of preliminary tests of two of these show that the potential for processing product purities and recoveries >99.98% of both density fractions are indicated. A preliminary economic comparison of capital costs of DMS systems suggests cyclone DMS methods to be comparable with other DMS processes even if the high volume capacity for recycling operations of these is not optimized.

  9. Study on Production Method of Electric Detonator Insulation Plastic Head by Reusing of Waste High-pressure Polyethylene%废高压聚乙烯循环利用生产电雷管绝缘塑头的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树彬; 陈良友

    2013-01-01

    The production method of electric detonator insulation plastic head by reusing of detonating tube via crushing, digestion, rinse and drying was studied. Through adding liquid additive X in waste high-pressure polyethylene, replacing small discharge duct of injection molding machine, installing micro mixer in the injection molding machine, melting point index of treated plastic reached to 1.85 g / 10 min, tensile strength was12 MPa, melting temperature was 110 ℃, injection temperature was 188 ℃.So the treated plastic can be used to produce safe and reliable electric detonator insulation plastic head.%  研究了废导爆管经粉碎、蒸煮、漂洗、烘干生产电雷管绝缘塑头的方法.采用在废高压聚乙烯中加入液体添加剂X、更换注塑机狭小的下料管、在注塑机上安装微型搅拌机等方法,使废塑料的熔点指数达到1.85 g/10 min,拉伸强度12 MPa,熔化温度110℃,注塑温度188℃,使废塑料安全、可靠的生产电管雷绝缘塑头.

  10. Plastics wastes as secondary fuel in a cement plant; Residuos plasticos como combustible secundario en una cementera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Irasarri, L.; Arnaiz, S.; Cacho, I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of secondary fuel derived from plastics wastes from municipal source has been tested in an industrial cement plant. The recovered materials have been conditioned in order to fulfill the texture, composition and energetic requirements of the cement kiln. The performed long-term trials have shown the stability of the industrial facility during the operation with this alternative fuels. Several controls carried out over gaseous emissions confirmed the absence of differences in the emitted pollutant levels when compared with normal operation. The quality of the obtained clinker, checked using the established standard measurements, was found identical to the one in a clinker prepared using conventional fuels. The LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) tool was applied to evaluate a series of environmental impacts and proved that the energetic valorization alternative is more favourable then the disposal practice. Finally, a positive economical balance reinforced the option of energy recovery previously supported by favourable technical and environmental considerations. (Author) 16 refs.

  11. Occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhen; Liu Ze-chang; Zhou Li-xia [Chemical and Environmental Department of Taishan College, Taian (China)

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product including tar and water from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic (WP) and coal were studied. The effect of temperature, holding time, heating rate and gas flow on chlorine concentration in the liquid product was examined. The result indicates that the addition of WP to coal in co-pyrolysis does not increase the organic chlorine compound in the liquid product. However, the tar yield increases, and the water yield decreases. The chlorine in water mainly exists as inorganic form (NH{sub 4}Cl) and organic amine hydrochloride. There is no obvious C-Cl band in IR spectra of tar is observed. This indicates that the organic chlorine in tar is very little. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis.

  13. An efficient and fast analytical procedure for the bromine determination in waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, R; Cannio, M; Mafredini, T; Pozzi, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was used, in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy, for a fast determination of bromine concentration and then of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) compounds in waste electrical and electronic equipments. Different samples from different recycling industries were characterized to evaluate the sorting performances of treatment companies. This investigation must be considered of prime research interest since the impact of BFRs on the environment and their potential risk on human health is an actual concern. Indeed, the new European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS 2011/65/EU) demands that plastics with BFRs concentration above 0.1%, being potential health hazards, are identified and eliminated from the recycling process. Our results show the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with XRF analysis, as effective tools for the rapid detection of BFRs in plastic materials. In particular, the use of these two techniques in combination can be considered as a promising method suitable for quality control applications in the recycling industry.

  14. Task 3 -- Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O.; Aulich, T.R.

    1997-09-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center is developing a technology for the thermal decomposition of high-organic-content, radionuclide-contaminated mixed wastes and spent (radioactive) ion-exchange resins from the nuclear power industry that will enable the separation and concentration of radionuclides as dry particulate solids and the generation of nonradioactive condensable and noncondensable gas products. Successful application of the technology will enable a significant volume reduction of radioactive waste and the production of an inexpensively disposable nonradioactive organic product. The project objective is to develop and demonstrate the commercial viability of a continuous thermal decomposition process that can fulfill the following requirements: separate radionuclides from radioactive waste streams containing a variety of types and levels of polymers, chlorinated species, and other organics, including rubber, oils, resins, and cellulosic-based materials; concentrate radionuclides in a homogeneous, dry particulate product that can be recovered, handled, and disposed of efficiently and safely; separate and recover any chlorine present (as PVC, chlorinated solvents, or inorganic chlorine) in the contaminated mixed-waste stream; and yield a nonradioactive, low-chlorine-content, condensable organic product that can be economically disposed. Progress is described.

  15. Effect of composition and temperature on the properties of High-Level Waste (HLW) glasses melting above 1200{degrees}C (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Increasing the melting temperature of HLW glass allows an increase of waste loading (thus reducing product volume) and the production of more durable glasses at a faster melting rate. However, HLW glasses that melt at high temperatures differ in composition from glasses formulated for low temperature ({approximately}1150{degree}C). Consequently, the composition of high-temperature glasses falls in a region previously not well tested or understood. This report represents a preliminary study of property/composition relationships of high-temperature Hanford HLW glasses using a one-component-at-a-time change approach. A test matrix has been designed to explore a composition region expected for high-temperature high-waste loading HLW glasses to be produced at Hanford. This matrix was designed by varying several key components (SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, UO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and others) starting from a glass based on a Hanford HLW all-blend waste. Glasses were fabricated and tested for viscosity, glass transition temperature, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, liquidus temperature, and PCT release. The effect of individual components on glass properties was assessed using first- and second- order empirical models. The first-order component effects were compared with those from low-temperature HLW glasses.

  16. Separating and Recycling Plastic, Glass, and Gallium from Waste Solar Cell Modules by Nitrogen Pyrolysis and Vacuum Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-09-06

    Many countries have gained benefits through the solar cells industry due to its high efficiency and nonpolluting power generation associated with solar energy. Accordingly, the market of solar cell modules is expanding rapidly in recent decade. However, how to environmentally friendly and effectively recycle waste solar cell modules is seldom concerned. Based on nitrogen pyrolysis and vacuum decomposition, this work can successfully recycle useful organic components, glass, and gallium from solar cell modules. The results were summarized as follows: (i) nitrogen pyrolysis process can effectively decompose plastic. Organic conversion rate approached 100% in the condition of 773 K, 30 min, and 0.5 L/min N2 flow rate. But, it should be noted that pyrolysis temperature should not exceed 773 K, and harmful products would be increased with the increasing of temperature, such as benzene and its derivatives by GC-MS measurement; (ii) separation principle, products analysis, and optimization of vacuum decomposition were discussed. Gallium can be well recycled under temperature of 1123 K, system pressure of 1 Pa and reaction time of 40 min. This technology is quite significant in accordance with the "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Principle" for solid waste, and provides an opportunity for sustainable development of photovoltaic industry.

  17. Possibilities and limits of pyrolysis for recycling plastic rich waste streams rejected from phones recycling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, B M; de Marco, I; Adrados, A; López-Urionabarrenechea, A; Solar, J; Gastelu, N

    2016-11-01

    The possibilities and limits of pyrolysis as a means of recycling plastic rich fractions derived from discarded phones have been studied. Two plastic rich samples (⩾80wt% plastics) derived from landline and mobile phones provided by a Spanish recycling company, have been pyrolysed under N2 in a 3.5dm(3) reactor at 500°C for 30min. The landline and mobile phones yielded 58 and 54.5wt% liquids, 16.7 and 12.6wt% gases and 28.3 and 32.4wt% solids respectively. The liquids were a complex mixture of organic products containing valuable chemicals (toluene, styrene, ethyl-benzene, etc.) and with high HHVs (34-38MJkg(-1)). The solids were composed of metals (mainly Cu, Zn, and Al) and char (≈50wt%). The gases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons and some CO, CO2 and H2. The halogens (Cl, Br) of the original samples were mainly distributed between the gases and solids. The metals and char can be easily separated and the formers may be recycled, but the uses of the char will be restricted due to its Cl/Br content. The gases may provide the energy requirements of the processing plant, but HBr and HCl must be firstly eliminated. The liquids could have a potential use as energy or chemicals source, but the practical implementation of these applications will be no exempt of great problems that may become insurmountable (difficulty of economically recovering pure chemicals, contamination by volatile metals, etc.).

  18. Wood plastic composites from agro-waste materials: Analysis of mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Amir; Ashori, Alireza

    2010-04-01

    This article presents the application of agro-waste materials (i.e., corn stalk, reed stalk, and oilseed stalk) in order to evaluate and compare their suitability as reinforcement for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. The effects of fiber loading and CaCO(3) content on the mechanical properties were also studied. Overall trend shows that with addition of agro-waste materials, tensile and flexural properties of the composites are significantly enhanced. Oilseed fibers showed superior mechanical properties due to their high aspect ratio and chemical characteristics. The order of increment in the mechanical properties of the composites is oilseed stalk >corn stalk>reed stalk at all fiber loadings. The tensile and flexural properties of the composite significantly decreased with increasing CaCO(3) content, due to the reduction of interface bond between the fiber and matrix. It can be concluded from this study that the used agro-waste materials are attractive reinforcements from the standpoint of their mechanical properties.

  19. Reactions during melting of low-activity waste glasses and their effects on the retention of rhenium as a surrogate for technetium-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tongan; Kim, Dong-Sang; Tucker, Abigail E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-10-01

    Volatile loss of radioactive 99Tc to offgas is a concern with processing the low-activity waste (LAW) at Hanford site. We investigated the partitioning and incorporation of Re (a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc) into the glass melt during crucible melting of two simulated LAW feeds that resulted in a large difference in 99mTc/Re retention in glass from the small-scale melter tests. Each feed was prepared from a simulated liquid LAW and chemical and mineral additives (boric acid, silica sand, etc.). The as-mixed slurry feeds were dried at 105°C and heated to 600–1100°C at 5 K/min. The dried feeds and heat treated samples were leached with deionized water for 10 min at room temperature followed by 24-h leaching at 80°C. Chemical compositions of the resulting solutions and insoluble solids were analyzed. Volume expansion measurement and X-ray diffraction were performed on dried feeds and heat treated samples to characterize the progress of feed-to-glass conversion reactions. It was found that the incorporation of Re into glass melt virtually completed during the major feed-to-glass conversion reactions were going on at ≤ 700°C. The present results suggest that the different composition of the salt phase is responsible for the large difference in Re incorporation into glass melt during early stages of glass melting at ≤ 700°C. Additional studies with modified and simplified feeds are underway to understand the details on how the different salt composition affects the Re incorporation.

  20. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in workers exposed to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a waste plastic recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Li; Chen, Xi; Rao, Kai Min; Lu, Shao You; Ma, Sheng Tao; Jiang, Pu; Zheng, Dan; Xu, Shun Qing; Zheng, Hong Yan; Wang, Jian Shu; Yu, Zhi Qiang; Zhang, Rong; Tao, Yong; Yuan, Jing

    2011-07-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in industrial and diverse consumer products. Animal studies indicate DEHP caused developmental, reproductive, and hepatic toxicities. However, human studies of the potential effects of DEHP are limited. The exposed site with a history of over 20 years of waste plastic recycling was located in Hunan Province, China. The reference site without known DEHP pollution source was about 50 km far away from the exposed site. In this study, 181 workers working in plastic waste recycling and 160 gender-age matched farmers were recruited. DEHP concentrations in water and cultivated soil samples, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei frequency in human capillary blood lymphocytes were analyzed. Mean levels of DEHP were greater in environment at the recycling site than at reference site (industry wastewater for the exposed: 42.43 μg/l; well water: 14.20 vs. 0.79 μg/l, pond water: 135.68 vs. 0.37 μg/l, cultivated soil: 13.07 vs. 0.81 mg/kg, p waste plastic recycling was an independent risk factor for the increased urinary 8-OHdG levels in the male workers (p < 0.01). The occupational DEHP exposure might contribute to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the male workers.

  1. Study of dioxins formation in the basic oxygen furnace during organic waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S. N.; Volynkina, E. P.; Protopopov, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Incineration is one of the most common methods used for organic waste utilization. However, there is a danger of the secondary generation of such supertoxicants as dioxins and furans. The results of the investigations of experimental and comparative converter meltings with the use of paper and plastic wastes under conditions of JSC “EVRAZ ZSMK” show the absence of influence of wastes on the concentration and isomeric profile of dioxins and furans in the converter gases.

  2. Waste Plastics Recycling and Reuse Technology Situation and Development Trend in China%我国废旧塑料的资源再利用现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 张承龙

    2014-01-01

    通过对当前我国废旧塑料资源再利用现状的研究,分析和对比了不同废旧塑料资源再利用方法的工艺和特点,并且对废旧塑料处理的发展趋势做出了预测。%Through the study of the current status of waste plastic recycling, the processes and characteristics of different methods of recycling waste plastics are analyzed and compared, and the development trend of waste plastics processing is forecast.

  3. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  4. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gökhan Polat; Burak Birol; Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

    2014-01-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degrada-tion periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated;the high C and H contents of plas-tics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the re-duction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60%PET and 40%coke.

  5. Application of plastic trash sorting technology in separating waste plastic mulch films from impurities%塑料垃圾分选技术在废旧地膜与杂质分离中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫; 牛长河; 乔园园; 张海春; 王学农

    2016-01-01

    Plastic film mulching technique has been using widely in China because of it’s notable features such as raising temperature,inhibiting weed growth,promoting crop maturity and increasing production. A large number of used plastic mulch films which have not be recycled and accumulated in the soil year after year and results serious waste plastic mulch film pollution. Recycled waste plastic mulch films twined each other with other impurities and makes the mulch film utilization becomes difficult. Some recycled waste plastic mulch films has been stacked or burned on field ridge freely which leads secondary pollution.Thus, the waste plastic mulch film pollution problems should be cracked from it’s beginning.Agricultural waste plastic mulch film and impurities separation technology is key links during mechanized mulch films recycling and reusing. Waste plastic mulch film as a valuable renewable resource and be important part of plastic production which comes from waste plastic mulch film by separation process. Effective recycling and reusing of waste plastic mulch film can improve economic benefits and even what’s more is that it can decrease the secondary pollution probability which caused by improper waste plastic mulch film handling. Some documents shows that the thickness of plastic mulch film used in foreign countries is generally above 0.12mm which keep the tensile strength of plastic mulch film be good enough and promote the rolling recycling machine development.Waste plastic mulch film is clean and complete which recycled by rolling recycling machine and it can be reused directly.At present, there is no relevant report about technology and equipment for waste plastic mulch film separation at abroad.The thickness of the plastic mulch film used generally in China between 0.004-0.008mm which leads the tensile strength not good enough after harvesting season and can not be recycled by rolling way. The only way which can recycling waste plastic mulch film by

  6. Evaluation of engine performance, emissions, of a twin cylinder diesel engine fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends with a fraction of methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tarun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the methanol and waste plastic oil as an alternative fuel has been carried out. This report deals with the exhaust emission of waste plastic fuel on twin cylinder diesel engine. The objectives of this report are to analyse the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using waste plastic oil compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the experiment which is to analyse the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of diesel engine due to usage of the both fuels. Detail studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Data that are required for the analysis is observed from the experiments. Calculations and analysis have been done after all the required data needed for the thesis is obtained. The experiment used diesel engine with no load which means no load exerted on it. A four stroke Twin cylinder diesel engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, mechanical efficiency, brake power, volumetric efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency and emissions at full load with the fuel of fraction methanol in bio-diesel. In this study, the diesel engine was tested using methanol blended with bio-diesel at certain mixing ratios of (WPO: Diesel 20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 methanol to bio-diesel respectively. By the end of the report, the successful of the project have been started which is Kirloskar engine is able to run with waste plastic oil (WPO but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by waste plastic oil and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using blended fuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of blended fuel and diesel fuel are also compared.   Keywords

  7. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood

    2016-01-01

    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  8. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    Background. On the basis of an increased focus on emissions of greenhouse gases in general, Waste Norway wanted to prepare a climate accounting for waste management in Norway. Oestfoldforskning was engaged to undertake the project. The aim of the project has been to develop a model for the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions from different waste types of waste glass containers, metal containers, paper, cardboard, plastic, wet organic waste, wood waste and residual waste. The model is based on life cycle methodology and is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions per kg of waste for the various waste management options and waste types, as well as to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management for including waste types and quantities of 2006. There is an emphasis on developing a model so that municipalities / waste companies or regions can develop their own climate accounting for waste management in their region, based on site-specific conditions associated with types and amounts of waste, transport distances, type of treatment, exploitation and use of waste generated energy etc. The model can also be used as the basis for the preparation of useful documentation as the basis for information about waste systems utility in general, and as a basis for strategic reviews for Waste Norway and the waste sector in particular. Conclusions: The main conclusions from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. The results of the study clearly shows that to consider only one environmental indicator is too narrow approach to form the basis for decision making for selection of waste management solutions. 2. Net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management varies greatly, both between the different types of waste and treatment methods which are reviewed. The main results of the ranking of management methods in relation to the net greenhouse effect associated with the waste types and treatment methods are as follows: Recycling of materials

  9. Progress in the catalysts for cracking of waste plastics%废塑料裂解催化剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳辉; 吴高胜; 刘春燕; 朱志荣

    2014-01-01

    废塑料造成的环境污染日趋严重,处理回收废塑料已成为全球关注的问题。催化裂解作为一种新的塑料回收方法,具有高效、环保、无二次污染和产物油品质高等特点。综述了国内外废塑料裂解制油催化剂如分子筛、氧化物、黏土和过渡金属负载型双功能催化剂的研究进展。分子筛类、黏土类和无定形氧化铝-二氧化硅催化剂属酸性催化剂,其裂解废塑料机理为碳正离子机理;碱金属氧化物催化剂裂解废塑料机理为碳负离子机理;过渡金属负载型催化剂具有双功能,其中,金属活性位起加氢-脱氢作用,载体酸性位起异构化作用;而粉煤灰催化剂可同时实现废塑料与粉煤灰两种废弃物的综合回收利用。今后应注意在催化机理指导下,进一步提高催化剂性能,并研究对复杂废塑料混合物的催化裂解效果。%Because environmental pollution caused by waste plastics is getting worse,treatment and recov-ery of waste plastics has become a global concern. As a novel recovery method of plastics,catalytic crack-ing of waste plastics possessed the advantages of high efficiency,environment-friendliness and getting high quality fuel oil without secondary pollution. The progress in various catalysts for catalytic cracking of waste plastics such as molecular sieves,oxides,clay and transition metal supported bi-functional catalysts was reviewed in this paper. The catalytic degradation mechanisms of acidic catalysts such as molecular sieves, clay and amorphous Al2 O3-SiO2 followed carbocation mechanism,whereas alkali metal oxides catalysts for degrading waste plastic followed carbanion mechanism. Transition metal supported catalysts possessed the dual function,in which metal catalytic active sites played a role in hydrogenation-dehydrogenation,while acidic sites of the supports performed an isomerization function. Fly ash catalysts could recycle waste plas-tics and

  10. Fuels by Waste Plastics Using Activated Carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and Their Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material was pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor at 530-540°C using different catalysts, such as activated carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and their mixtures. Products were investigated by gas-chromatography, EDXRFS and standardized methods. Catalysts significantly affected the yields of volatiles; e.g. HZSM-5 catalyst increased especially the yield of gaseous hydrocarbons, while MCM-41 catalyst was responsible for increasing the pyrolysis oil yield. Synergistic effects were found using mixtures of different catalysts. Furthermore the catalysts modified the main carbon frame of the products. Pyrolysis oil obtained over HZSM-5 catalyst contained large amounts of aromatics, while MCM-41 catalyst mainly isomerized the carbon frame. Regarding contaminants it was concluded, that the sulphur content could be significantly decreased by activated carbon, however it had only a slight effect to the other properties of the products.

  11. The features of ceramic materials structure formation when using hard-melting wastes of thermal power stations in charge stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnikova, Nelli; Yuriev, Ivan; Lutsenko, Alexander; Litvinova, Viktoriya

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of aluminum silicate waste generated by thermal power station of the city of Seversk, Tomsk region, Russia. The chemical compositions of aluminum silicate waste are detected and the efficient mixture compositions with the addition of aluminum silicate waste are suggested herein. Ceramic brick structure formation is studied in this paper using X-ray phase and SEM analyses. It is identified that the formed vitreous phase facilitates such strengthening structural modifications as sintering out of pores and shrinkage of unmelted aluminum silicate particles with the following formation of a monolithic product.

  12. 废塑料制品对土壤环境的影响及防治%On Soil Environment and Prevention of Waste Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周辉

    2016-01-01

    With The Wide Application Of Plastic Products,Plastic Products Are Widely Used In All Walks Of Life,It Is Very Widespread Use In The Agricultural Industry,The Plastic Is Made Into A Plastic Film On The Growth Of Crops Have Been Very Positive,But From The Perspective Of Soil Management,Production And Use Of Plastic Products For The Local Soil Have Great Destructive Force,The Environmental Impact Is Great,This Paper Explores The Waste Plastic Products For Soil Environmental Impacts And Proposed Several Measures To Prevent The Point.%随着塑料制品的广泛应用,塑料制品在各行各业都有广泛的应用,在农业方面使用更是十分的广泛,塑料被制作成塑料薄膜对农作物的生长有非常积极的意义,但是从土壤管理的角度出发,塑料制品的制作以及使用对于当地的土壤有极大的破坏性,对于环境的影响也是极大,为此,本文探究了废塑料制品对土壤环境的影响并提出了防治的措施。

  13. 我国废塑料回收和进口现状浅析%Discussion on recycling and import of waste plastic in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守仁

    2012-01-01

    Waste plastic is one of the main recyclable resources in China, with a large amount and variety from recycling and import. This paper demonstrated the kinds, quantity and location of waste plastics from recycling and import, as well as the recycling sources and methods.%废塑料是我国四大再生资源品种之一.废塑料国内回收和进口数量大、种类多。对我国废塑料国内产生和进口的种类、数量和地域,以及国内废塑料的回收渠道和方式进行了阐述。

  14. Recycling of Waste Slag from Melting RE Hydrogen Storage Alloy by Selective Oxidation and Melting Separation%选择性氧化-渣金熔分法回收稀土储氢合金冶炼废渣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜银举; 马小可; 杨吉春; 罗果萍; 刘晓东; 宋绍开

    2012-01-01

    对于AB5型稀土储氢合金冶炼废渣粉,采用H2/H2O选择性氧化-渣金熔分法回收Ni-Co合金和稀土氧化物渣.废渣粉在900℃温度下,H2/H2O气氛中进行选择性氧化处理,使其中RE、Al、Mn等活性金属元素转化为氧化态,而相对惰性的元素Ni、Co为单质态.选择性氧化处理后的物料中配加SiO2、Al2O3等造渣剂,在1550℃温度下渣金熔分,得到Ni-Co合金和REO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO熔渣.回收的Ni-Co合金纯度高,可作为基础原料用于熔炼AB5型稀土储氢合金;稀土氧化物熔渣可提取稀土氧化物,具有再利用价值.%Recycling Ni -Co alloy and slag containing rare earth oxide from waste slag powders of melting AB5 type RE hydrogen storage alloy was researched by the method of selective oxidation and melting separation. Active elements such as RE, Al, Mn, ect. were transformed into oxide state,meanwhile inert elements such as Ni and Co had been existing as simple substance in the process of selective oxidation in atmosphere of H2/H2O at 900℃. By adding with slag agents such as SiO2 and Al2O3, powders treated by selective oxidation were melted at 1 550℃. Ni - Co alloy and slag containing rare earth oxide were obtained by the process of melting separation . The high - purity Ni - Co alloy can be used as basic material of AB5 type alloy and the slag can be used for recycling rare earth oxide.

  15. 废旧酚醛塑料回收和再利用方法研究%Study on Recycling Method of Waste Phenolic Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 吴仲伟; 潘绍波; 陈从升; 李辉

    2013-01-01

    介绍目前废旧塑料回收再利用技术的主要方法和不足之处,提出基于机械物理法的热固性塑料回收再利用方法,确定热固性塑料回收再利用的工艺流程。通过对热固性酚醛塑料回收再生试验,验证了机械物理法回收再生的可行性,最后对再生试样进行力学性能测试。结果表明,回收再生酚醛/聚丙烯共混料的拉伸强度与弯曲强度分别达到6 MPa和13 MPa以上,能满足回收再利用的要求。%Main methods and shortcomings about recycling technology of waste plastics were introduced,and the recycling mechanism of the waste thermosetting plastics based on mechanical and physical method was presented. Accordingly,the recycling process of waste thermosetting plastics was determined. By means of recycling and regeneration experiment on thermosetting phenolic plastics,the feasibility of recycling and regeneration based on mechanical and physical method was verified.At last,the mechanical properties of regeneration specimens were tested. The results show that tensile strength and bending strength of recycling phenolic/polypropylene plastics can reach 6 MPa and 13 MPa respectively,and it meets the recycling requirements.

  16. Recovery of carbon fibres and production of high quality fuel gas from the chemical recycling of carbon fibre reinforced plastic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirir, E; Onwudili, JA; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin fraction of carbon fibre reinforced plastic waste to recover carbon fibre, followed by hydrothermal gasification of the liquid residual product to produce fuel gas was investigated using batch reactors. The depolymerisation reactions were carried out in ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol/water mixtures at near-critical conditions of the two solvents. With ethylene glycol alone the highest resin removal of 92.1% was achieved at 400 °C. The additi...

  17. The Synergy between Scuba Diving and Household Behaviour: Testing Plastic and Food Waste "The use of natural habitats for tourism education"

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Mota, Luís Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The activity of scuba diving is used for studying behaviours of U.S. visitors to a popular tourist destination in Mexico. The impact created by human activity can produce marine debris and therefore affect the marine environment. The subpopulation of 181 divers was tested for their current household practices regarding discarding plastic and food waste, providing quantitative statistics for divers’ referential behaviour. Prior to partaking in scuba diving, certified, trainee, and “one-day-exp...

  18. RECYCLING BLENDS OF WASTE PLASTICS AND BIOMASS AS REDUCING AGENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METALLIC IRON FROM IRON OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES RANSFORD DANKWAH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies on the production of metallic iron from iron oxide using blends of palm nut shells (Elaes Guineanses and waste plastics as reducing agent have been performed through experiments conducted in a horizontal tube furnace. Composite pellets were formed from mixtures of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials consisting of chars of palm nut shells (PNS, high density polyethylene (HDPE and two blends of PNS with HDPE. Two sources of iron oxide were utilised in this investigation; reagent grade iron oxide (96.89 % Fe2O3 and EAF slag (47.1 % FeO. The iron oxide-carbonaceous material composites were heated rapidly at 1500°C in a continuous stream of argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared (IR gas analyser and a gas chromatographic (GC analyser. Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its carbon and oxygen contents using a LECO carbon/sulphur and oxygen/nitrogen analysers, respectively. The extent of reduction (after ten and fifteen minutes for reagent grade iron oxide and EAF slag, respectively and the level of carburisation were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results indicate that carburised metallic iron can be produced effectively from iron oxide using PNS, HDPE and blends of these carbonaceous materials as reductants. The extent of reduction improved significantly when PNS was blended with HDPE.

  19. Single Phase Melt Processed Powellite (Ba,Ca) MoO{sub 4} For The Immobilization Of Mo-Rich Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fox, Kevin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Reppert, Jason [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crum, Jarrod [Paci fic Northwest National Laboratory , Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-09-17

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO{sub 4} crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In-situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 X 10{sup 13} Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m{sup 2}).

  20. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nicholas; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Young, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of disposable plastic bags is a major environmental problem across the globe. In recent years, numerous jurisdictions have sought to curb disposable bag use by implementing a levy or fee at the point of purchase. These levies are typically small and symbolic (around $0.05 per bag), but serve as a highly-visible and continuous reminder to consumers. As such, they are consistent with nudging policies that seek to encourage broad changes in behaviour through small, non-coercive measures that influence people's thinking about an issue. While existing empirical evidence suggests that nudges are highly effective in reducing disposable bag use, we argue that many of these studies are flawed because they lack adequate temporal and geographic controls. We use longitudinal data from four waves of a major Canadian survey to analyze the effect of a disposable bag levy in the City of Toronto. Controlling for demographics and changes in social norms over time, we find that the levy increased the use of reusable shopping bags by 3.4 percentage points. Moreover, we find that the impact of the policy was highly variable across behavioural and demographic groups. The levy was highly effective in encouraging people who already used reusable bags to use them more frequently, while having no effect on infrequent users. We also find that the effects are limited to households with high socio-economic status (as measured by income, educational attainment, and housing situation). This suggests important limitations for nudging policy more generally, as people with lower socio-economic status appear to have been unaffected by this behavioural prompt.

  1. Investigation on an innovative technology for wet separation of plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica; La Marca, Floriana; Fulco, Simone; Pinzi, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an original device for the separation of plastic polymers from mixtures. Due to the combination of a characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, this device allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the apparatus, using two geometric arrangements, nine hydraulic configurations and three selections of polymers at three stages of a material life cycle. Tests with samples composed of a single typology of polymer have been used to understand the interaction between the particles and the carrying fluid within the apparatus in different hydraulic configurations and geometric arrangements. Multi-material tests are essential to simulate the real conditions in an industrial recycling plant. The separation results have been evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of a useful material. Under the proper hydraulic configurations, the experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) from a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polycarbonate (PC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 99.5% and 95.1%) and a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 97.9% and 100.0%). It is further demonstrated that almost pure concentrates of PVC and PC can be produced from a mixture of 85% PVC and 15% PC (PVC grade and recovery equal to 99.9% and 99.7%) and a mixture of 85% PC and 15% PVC (PC grade and recovery equal to 99.0% and 99.5%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  3. Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Leitner, Thomas; Spruzina, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Shredder residues produced in plants processing waste electric and electronic equipment are excluded from material recycling due to a variety of polymeric materials and the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFR), which might contain banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers or toxic polybrominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). Herein we present a technological approach to transfer a significant portion of the shredder residue into recycled polymers. The technological approach consists of a density-based enrichment of styrenics, which are subjected to a solvolysis process (CreaSolv process) in a second stage. This stage allows the elimination of non-target polymers and extraction of BFR and PBDD/F. Pilot processing of 11.5 and 50 kg shredder residues indicated a material yield of about 50% in the density stage and 70-80% in the CreaSolv process, and an effective removal of BFR additives. The recycled products were proved to comply with threshold values defined by the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and the German Chemikalienverbotsverordnung. Mechanical material properties exhibited high tensile and flexural modules as well as slight impact strength, which qualify the products for applications in new electronic equipment.

  4. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  5. Effects of Temperature Rise Rate on Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes%升温速率对废塑料热解过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石耀华; 马晓波; 陈德珍; 周恭明

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, pyrolysis experiments of plastic wastes, i.e. polyethylene ( PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride(PVC) and their mixtures, were made at temperature rise rates of lO℃/min,20℃/min and 30℃/min in nitrogen atmosphere in which the temperature was from 20℃ to 700℃.Effects of pyrolysis process of waste plastics at different temperature rise rate were analyzed, and kinetics investigations were carried out by Coast - Redfern integration method. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters of these three kinds of plastic wastes and their mixtures were obtained. The results show that temperature rise rate has an influence on pyrolysis rate, pyrolysis temperature range, activation energy and pre -exponential factor. The greater temperature rise rate, the faster pyrolysis reacts, the greater activation energy required, the more energy consumption on pyrolysis process. Therefore, in the pyrolysis process of waste plastics, temperature rise rate, pyrolysis materials, pyrolysis temperature and other conditions should be considered integrally. This research can provide theoretical and experimental data for the design of pyrolysis technology of plastic wastes.%选取废旧塑料聚乙烯(polyethylene,PE)、聚丙烯(polypropylene,PP)、聚氯乙烯(polyvi-nyl chloride,PVC)及其混合物,在氮气气氛下进行热解实验,实验温度从室温到700℃,升温速率分别为10℃/min、20℃/min和30℃/min.讨论了不同升温速率对废塑料热解过程的影响,并采用Coast-Redfem法进行了热解动力学分析,得到了三种废塑料及其混合物的热解特性及反应动力学、参数.研究结果表明,升温速率对热解速率,热解温度段,活化能,频率因子都有影响.升温速率越快,热解反应越快,所需的活化能也越大,热解过程对能量的消耗越多.因此,在废塑料热解过程中,要综合考虑升温速率,热解原料,热解温度等条件.本文可为废塑料热解工艺的研究提供理论依据和参考数据.

  6. Contributions to the DGMK technical meeting `Energy and products from wastes and renewable resources`. Manuscripts; Beitraege zur DGMK-Fachbereichstagung ``Energetische und stoffliche Nutzung von Abfaellen und nachwachsenden Rohstoffen``. Autorenmanuskripte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Described are several methods of energetic use of wastes (mainly plastic wastes) and biomass, as well as the recycling of plastic wastes. Processes described here are: NOELL conversion process, Thermoselect, PyroMelt process, Siemens carbonization combustion process, as well as several methods of gasification, pyrolysis, combustion, co-combustion. (SR) [Deutsch] In diesem Tagungsband werden verschiedene Moeglichkeiten der Energiegewinnung aus Abfaellen (hauptsaechlich Kunststoffen) und Biomasse, sowie das Recycling von Kunststoffabfaellen dargestellt. Es wir d auf folgende Verfahren eingegangen: NOELL-Konversionsverfahren, Thermoselect, PyroMelt-Verfahren, Siemens Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren, sowie verschiedene Methoden der Vergasung, Pyrolyse, Verbrennung, Mitverbrennung. (SR)

  7. An Assessment of the Compressive Strength of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste Filled Concrete for Potential Applications in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Pappu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Efforts were made to recycle Glass reinforced plastic (GRP waste powder in concrete products and assess its compressive strength to comply with British Standards for use in construction applications. More than 90 GRP waste-filled concrete specimens were

  8. 直接还原-渣金熔分法回收稀土储氢合金冶炼废渣%Recycling of Waste Slag from Melting RE Hydrogen Storage Alloy by Direct Reduction and Melting Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜银举; 罗果萍; 马小可; 杨吉春; 刘晓东; 宋绍开

    2012-01-01

    Recycling Fe-Ni-Co alloy and slag containing rare earth oxide from waste slag powders of AB5 type RE hydrogen storage alloy was researched by the method of direct reduction and melting separation. Mixture was obtained by waste slag pow-ders and iron concentrate powders at different ratios. In the direct reduction of mixed powders , iron oxide were reduced to simple substance state and active elements such as RE, Al, Mn ect were transformed into oxide state, meanwhile inert ele-ments such as Ni, Co had been existing as simple substance. After the process of direct reduction, sponge iron containing Ni and Co was obtained, from which Fe-Ni-Co alloy and slag containing rare earth oxide were melted and separated. As recovery rates of Ni and Co were more than 99% , Fe-Ni-Co alloy can be used as raw material of special alloy steel. While, as the con-tent of rare earth oxide in slag reached 48. 27% , the slag has high value to recycle rare earth oxide.%对于AB5型稀土储氢合金冶炼废渣粉,采用直接还原-渣金熔分法回收Fe-Ni-Co合金和稀土氧化物渣.将废渣粉以一定比例配加到铁精矿粉中,在反应罐直接还原过程中,物料中氧化铁还原为单质态,Ni、Co保持单质态,RE、Al、Mn等活性金属元素转化为氧化态,得到的含Ni、Co的海绵铁渣金熔分,其中单质态的元素形成Fe-Ni-Co合金,稀土氧化物与铁精矿中的脉石形成REO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO2渣.Ni和Co的回收率达到99%以上.Fe-Ni-Co合金可作为冶炼特种钢的原料;渣中稀土氧化物含量达48.27%,具有很高的再利用价值.

  9. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  10. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  11. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuju Cai, Wenqiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  12. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  13. Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Hilal E; Dijkmans, Thomas; Djokic, Marko R; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2014-09-12

    The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC×GC-NCD and GC×GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4wt%) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6wt%). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80% of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5wt%) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.

  14. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  15. 废旧塑料改性沥青混合料动态模量研究%Research on dynamic modulus of waste plastic modified asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 谢来斌; 李彦伟; 何勇海; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    Waste plastic is reused in pavement engineering in this research. The purpose of the study is to probe the possibility of using waste plastic in asphalt mixture as a kind of modifier so as to find a way to solve the problem of the waste plastic disposal. High Density Polyethylene plastic bags obtained from supermarket were shredded into pieces and were added into asphalt mixture at three percentages of 2%, 5% and 8%. The corresponding control samples were also made and tested. Three different temperatures were used (4°C, 21. 3°C and 39. 2°C) and the frequencies ranged from 0. 1 Hz to 25 Hz in this dynamic modulus test. When compared with the test results of the control samples, almost all the dynamic modulus of the plastic modified samples( except 4 results) are greater than those of the control samples. No regular pattern is shown in the test results of the phase angle. Modified asphalt mixture with 2% plastic is of the greatest dynamic modulus and phase angle.%针对目前大量废旧塑料处置问题,尝试将其用于改性沥青混合料,以探索其在道路工程中使用的可能性.采用超市废旧高密度聚乙烯购物塑料袋,将其切碎后按照2%.5%和8%的掺量制作沥青混合料试件,采用三种试验温度在六种加载频率下进行动态模量试验,与未掺加塑料混合料的相应指标进行对比.试验结果显示在各个试验温度和加载频率下,掺加塑料屑的混合料动态模量普遍提高.掺加塑料与否对相位角指标的影响未呈现一定规律.在各个试验温度和加载频率下,2%塑料掺量混合料均具有较高的动态模量和相位角.

  16. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  17. 废塑料在炼焦配煤中的应用研究%Study on application of waste plastics in coking coal blending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海桥; 崔洁; 阎定兵; 陈战州

    2015-01-01

    介绍了宁钢应用塑料型煤技术,在满足焦炭质量要求的前提下,扩大了炼焦煤中添加废塑料的比例,而且在限定废塑料添加比例的条件下稳定了焦炭质量,为科学、合理、经济地治理"白色污染"提供了理论依据和工业经验.%This paper introduces the practice of Ningbo Steel in applying plastic coal briquette tech-nology. On condition of matching the coke quality requirement,the ratio of blended waste plastic in coking coal is increased,and the coke quality is stabilized on condition of limiting the blending ratio of waste plastic. The study provides theoretical basis and industrial reference in scientific,reasonable and economical control of "white pollution".

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II.

  20. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  1. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  2. PLASTIC WASTE CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS OVER MODIFIED-RESIDUAL CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK – GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The plastic waste utilization can be addressed toward different valuable products. A promising technology for the utilization is by converting it to fuels. Simultaneous modeling and optimization representing effect of reactor temperature, catalyst calcinations temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio toward performance of liquid fuel production was studied over modified catalyst waste. The optimization was performed to find optimal operating conditions (reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio that maximize the liquid fuel product. A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA method was used for the modeling and optimization, respectively. The variable interaction between the reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, as well as plastic/catalyst ratio is presented in surface plots. From the GC-MS characterization, the liquid fuels product was mainly composed of C4 to C13 hydrocarbons.KONVERSI LIMBAH PLASTIK MENJADI BAHAN BAKAR CAIR DENGAN METODE PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS BEKAS YANG TERMODIFIKASI: PEMODELAN DAN OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN GABUNGAN METODE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK DAN GENETIC ALGORITHM. Pemanfaatan limbah plastik dapat dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk yang lebih bernilai tinggi. Salah satu teknologi yang menjanjikan adalah dengan mengkonversikannya menjadi bahan bakar. Permodelan, simulasi dan optimisasi simultan yang menggambarkan efek dari suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis terhadap kinerja produksi bahan bakar cair telah dipelajari menggunakan katalis bekas termodifikasi Optimisasi ini ditujukan untuk mencari kondisi operasi optimum (suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis yang memaksimalkan produk bahan bakar cair. Metode Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA telah digunakan untuk permodelan dan optimisasi simultan tersebut. Inetraksi antar variabel

  3. 农业废弃物纤维/废旧塑料制备复合板材的研制%Development of agricultural waste fiber/waste plastic composite sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晗

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural waste fiber/waste plastic composite sheet was prepared by use of pretreatment of wood flour, rice bran and straw with recycle plastic (mainly HDPE). The affects of different processing methods on mechanical properties of composite sheet were investigated. The results showed that mechanical peeling treatment of agricultural waste can improve the mechanical properties of composite sheet; wood flour improves the tensile properties of the composite sheet,and the contribution effect of straw on the impact strength of composite sheet is obvious.%利用木粉、稻糠、秸秆等农业废弃物天然纤维与废旧塑料(主体为HDPE)制备复合板材,研究了不同机械处理方法对复合板材力学性能的影响.结果表明,机械剥离处理的农业废弃物能有效提高复合板材的力学性能;木粉对复合板材拉伸性能的提高作用明显,而秸秆对复合板材的冲击强度贡献明显.

  4. Material recycling of post-consumer polyolefin bulk plastics: Influences on waste sorting and treatment processes in consideration of product qualities achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeisinger, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Material recycling of post-consumer bulk plastics made up of polyolefins is well developed. In this article, it is examined which effects on waste sorting and treatment processes influence the qualities of polyolefin-recyclats. It is shown that the properties and their changes during the product life-cycle of a polyolefin are defined by its way of polymerisation, its nature as a thermoplast, additives, other compound and composite materials, but also by the mechanical treatments during the production, its use where contact to foreign materials is possible and the waste sorting and treatment processes. Because of the sum of the effects influencing the quality of polyolefin-recyclats, conclusions are drawn for the material recycling of polyolefins to reach high qualities of their recyclats. Also, legal requirements like the EU regulation 1907/2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions on chemicals are considered.

  5. Problems and technologies of reduction control of dioxins. Part 3. Reduction of dioxins emission using direct melting incineration furnace for municipal and industrial solid wastes; Haikibutsu chokusetsu yoyuro ni yoru daiokishin rui haishutsu yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M.; Uchida, M. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Dioxins are deadly toxic substances which are generated accidentally from various kinds of generation sources. City waste incinerators are deemed to be the greatest generation sources of dioxins, and it becomes a serious social problem now. In such a situation, gasification and melting technology of wastes are paid attention as the waste incinerating and treating technology suitable for the reduction of dioxins emission. In this paper, reduction of dioxin emission using a high oxygen concentration type direct melting furnace is introduced as one of the above-mentioned technologies. High oxygen concentration type direct melting furnace is a vertical shaft furnace wherein high concentration oxygen gas separated and refined from the atmosphere by an oxygen producing apparatus such as a pressure swing absorption tower is introduced from the bottom of the furnace. Wastes supplied into the furnace is dried to move the moisture therein in a drying area, and then decomposed into thermal decomposed gas, carbon-rich char, and ash in a thermal decomposition area. The removal rate of dioxins contained in exhaust gas is about 95%. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  6. INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2009-11-05

    Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

  7. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez , Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  8. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 1150{degrees}C volume 2: Chapters 12-16 and appendices A-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  9. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115{degrees}C volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g} ), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  10. 废旧线路板中塑料的回收及利用%Recycling and Reusing of Plastic in Waste Printed Circuit Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启胜

    2012-01-01

    总结了废旧线路板中塑料的回收处置方法和废旧线路板中塑料的回收利用现状.重点介绍了废旧线路板中塑料的物理回收法、热解回收法和溶液回收法,在综合比较废旧线路板中塑料回收利用的各种方法的基础上展望了废旧线路板中塑料回收利用的发展趋势.%The recycling technology and comprehensive application-situation of plastic in waste printed circuit board were summarized, and the physical recovery method, pyrolysis recovery method and solution recovery method were mainly introduced. On the basis of comprehensive comparing of the recycling methods, the recyling trends of plastic in waste printed circuit board was prospected.

  11. Direct probe atmospheric pressure photoionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening of flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Brandsma, S H; de Boer, J; Leonards, P E G

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we develop fast screening methods for flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste based on direct probe (DP) atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a high-resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. DP-APPI is reported for the first time in this study, and DP-APCI that has been scarcely exploited is optimized for comparison. DP-APPI was more selective than DP-APCI and also more sensitive for the most hydrophobic compounds. No sample treatment was necessary, and only a minimal amount of sample (few milligrams) was used for analysis that was performed within a few minutes. Both methods were applied to the analysis of plastic products, electronic waste, and car interiors. Polybrominated diphenylethers, new brominated flame retardants, and organophosphorus flame retardants were present in most of the samples. The combination of DP with HR mass spectra and data processing based on mass accuracy and isotopic patterns allowed the unambiguous identification of chemicals at low levels of about 0.025 % (w/w). Under untargeted screening, resorcinol bis(biphenylphosphate) and bisphenol A bis(bisphenylphosphate) were identified in many of the consumer products of which literature data are still very limited.

  12. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC), based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    OpenAIRE

    janis kajaks

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.%) and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.%) on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE)) were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm) coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by addin...

  13. The effect of glycerol from biodiesel production waste as a plasticizer on physical character edible film of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyid, Fajar Abdul; Triastuti, Rr. Juni; Andriyono, Sapto

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan edible film is a thin layer of clear packaging made from chitosan edible and biodegradable. Edible chitosan films are stiffer and less elastic, so it should be added plasticizer glycerol. One source of glycerol is inexpensive and easily obtained is crude glycerol from biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer on the physical characteristics of chitosan edible film and determine the best concentration of crude glycerol plasticizer. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The Edible film using the g chitosan and some plasticizers concentration of crude glycerol (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 mL) and a control treatment that used 0.4 mL of pure glycerol was made. The results showed that the use of crude glycerol plasticizer had effect to the physical character of chitosan edible film. Increasing concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer exhibits the lowers value of the thickness and tensile strength, however, can increase the value of percent elongation. The best concentration of this research is the treatment of B (0.2 ml crude glycerol) which resulted in 0.55 mm thickness, the tensile strength of 95.38 kgf/cm2 and a percent elongation of 2.13%.

  14. 废塑料基复合材料粉体法综合回收技术%Comprehensive Recovery Technology of Waste Plastic Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2014-01-01

    The relevant technologies for recycling waste plastic matrix composites at home and abroad were introduced. According to the characteristics of waste plastic matrix composites, mechanical crushing, dissociation (large breaking, breaking, crushing dissociation), high-voltage electrostatic separation methods were used for recycling composite materials. The purity of recovered metal (such as aluminum) was more than 99%,metal (aluminum) recovery was more than 99%,too.The purity of recycled plastic was more than 96%. These data were close to or above the level of similar foreign technology. The recycling process did not use any chemicals and water, did not discharge any pollutants.%介绍了国内外对废塑料基复合材料回收技术的相关现状,根据废塑料基复合材料的特点采用机械粉碎、解离(大型破碎、中碎、粉碎解离)、高压静电分选的方法回收废塑料复合材料,回收金属(铝等)的纯度达99%以上;金属(铝等)回收率达99%以上;回收塑料的纯度达96%以上,接近甚至超过国外同类技术的水平。在回收过程中不使用任何化工原料,不使用水,不排放任何污染物。

  15. 废塑料入炉喷吹的数值模拟研究%Numerical simulation of waste plastic injection in blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董树; 史岩彬; 耿啸

    2016-01-01

    基于高炉喷吹混合燃料的方法,探究废塑料作为燃料在高炉内的作用。以某2536 m3高炉为研究对象,将喷入的煤粉及塑料作为粉相,分析混合燃料的水分、灰分、挥发分和固定碳等化学指标,采用高炉高温区热平衡分析法,计算高炉单一喷吹和混合喷吹条件下的焦比,对高炉内喷吹过程进行模拟研究。计算机模拟结果表明,将煤粉与废塑料混合喷吹降低了高炉焦比,提高了煤的利用率。%Based on the method of blast furnace injection the mixing fuel , the effect of waste plastics as fuel in blast furnace injection was explored .The 2536 m3 blast furnace as an example , considering the pulverized coals and plastics as powder phase , moisture, ash, volatile and fixed carbon etc .The high temperature zone of blast furnace heat balance analysis method was used to calculate the coke ratio of single injection and mixing injection , and the process of blast furnace injection was studied .Com-puter simulation results show that the mixture injection of pulverized coal and waste plastic reduce coke ratio and improve the utilization rate of coal .

  16. 榆树市农田废膜捡拾机选型及推广对策%Countermeasure Study of Selection and Promotion of Farmland Waste Plastic Film Collecting Machine in Yushu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 蒋福娟; 郭玉红; 王晓峰

    2015-01-01

    地膜覆盖栽培技术可明显提高土地产出能力和农作物产量,但废膜的年积月累却带来了严重的环境污染和土地损伤。推广废膜捡拾机械化技术可有效防治农田“白色污染”。为此,还须政府给予政策扶持,大力推广适用的废膜回收机械,特别是要重视废膜回收的再利用。%Plastic film mulching cultivation technology can significantly improve the capacity of land production and crop yield. However,the accumulation of wasted plastic film brings about serious consequences such as environment pollution and soil damage. Promoting the technology of wasted plastic film picking mechanization can effectively prevent 'White Pollution' in farmland. Therefore,the government should make supporting policies to promote proper wasted plastic film collecting machines, especially attach importance to the recycling of wasted plastic film.

  17. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.

  19. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  20. Potential for Reuse of E-Plastics through Processing by Compression Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mills

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of e-waste, consisting of metal (e-metals and plastic (e-plastics streams from electronic goods, are increasing in the United States and elsewhere. The e-metals waste streams are being recycled to a reasonable degree due to the value of precious metals. E-plastic waste streams currently are not recycled or reused to a significant extent. As a result, most e-plastics are disposed of by landfilling or thermal treatment, or sent overseas for alleged recycling or reuse, any of which could result in unsafe worker exposure and release into the environment. Two of the major barriers to e-plastics’ reuse or recycling are the mixed plastic content and the presence in the e-plastics of flame retardants (FR, of which two classes in particular, the brominated flame retardants (BFR and organo-phosphorus flame retardants (OPFR, have associated health concerns. The major goal of this project is to investigate the possibility of direct reuse of e-plastics in compression molding. Preliminary data generated have identified a molding procedure that yields remanufactured e-plastics having a tensile strength of 29.3 MPa. This moderate strength level is suspected to be due to inclusions of plastic bits that did not melt and internal voids from out-gassing. Handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF was utilized to characterize elemental components in the e-plastics tested for compression molding. Several high “hits” for Br were found that could not be predicted visually. The preliminary XRF data for BFR and OPFR in this work are helpful for environmental and occupational hazard assessments of compression molding activities. Additionally, methods are suggested to characterize the metals, BFR, and OPFR content of the e-plastics using several different additional laboratory analytical techniques to determine the suitability for cost-effective and easy-to-use technologies.

  1. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  2. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human space missions generate trash with a substantial amount of plastic (20% or greater by mass). The trash also contains water trapped in food residue and paper products and other trash items. The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) under development by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) compresses the waste, dries it to recover water and melts the plastic to encapsulate the compressed trash. The resulting waste disk or puck represents an approximately ten-fold reduction in the volume of the initial trash loaded into the HMC. In the current design concept being pursued, the trash is compressed by a piston after it is loaded into the trash chamber. The piston face, the side walls of the waste processing chamber and the end surface in contact with the waste can be heated to evaporate the water and to melt the plastic. Water is recovered by the HMC in two phases. The first is a pre-process compaction without heat or with the heaters initially turned on but before the waste heats up. Tests have shown that during this step some liquid water may be expelled from the chamber. This water is believed to be free water (i.e., not bound with or absorbed in other waste constituents) that is present in the trash. This phase is herein termed Phase A of the water recovery process. During HMC operations, it is desired that liquid water recovery in Phase A be eliminated or minimized so that water-vapor processing equipment (e.g., condensers) downstream of the HMC are not fouled by liquid water and its constituents (i.e., suspended or dissolved matter) exiting the HMC. The primary water recovery process takes place next where the trash is further compacted while the heated surfaces reach their set temperatures for this step. This step will be referred to herein as Phase B of the water recovery process. During this step the waste chamber may be exposed to different selected pressures such as ambient, low pressure (e.g., 0.2 atm), or vacuum. The objective for this step is to remove both bound and

  3. Transfer characteristics of heavy metals under biomass waste and plastics waste co-firing conditions%生物质与塑料类垃圾混烧过程的重金属迁移特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明超; 马晓茜; 曾广博

    2015-01-01

    To study the weight loss rate and transfer behavior of heavy metals (Pb,Cu,Zn)under biomass wastes and plastic wastes co-firing conditions,experiments about seven components (wood,paper,rubber,recycled PE,re-cycled PP,recycled PS and recycled PVC)were conducted on a tube furnace and a atomic absorption spectropho-tometer.The results show that,co-combustion of biomass and plastic wastes causes a decrease in weight loss rate of the samples,especially the paper.When the sample is burned alone,the volatilization rate of Pb can reach over 85%at 900 ℃,that of Cu in four plastic wastes can reach over 85% at 1 000 ℃,and that of Zn rises significantly at high temperatures.Pb can be captured in bottom ash when the paper is co-fired with the plastics except the PVC.Cu can be captured in bottom ash when the wood and paper are co-fired with the PVC and the rubber.Zn can be captured in bottom ash when the wood is co-fired with the plastics except the rubber or the paper with the PS.%为了研究生物质与塑料类垃圾混烧对失重率和重金属 Pb,Cu,Zn 迁移特性的影响,利用管式炉和原子吸收分光光度计对木、纸、橡胶、再生 PE、再生 PP、再生 PS 和再生 PVC 7种组分进行燃烧试验。结果表明:1)生物质与塑料类垃圾混烧会不同程度地降低样品失重率,纸比木降幅更明显;2)单样燃烧时,900℃下 Pb 的挥发率可达85%以上,1000℃下4种塑料中 Cu的挥发率可达85%以上,高温阶段 Zn 的挥发率明显上升;3)纸与除 PVC 外的塑料混烧可以使 Pb 固定在底灰中;4)木、纸分别与 PVC 和橡胶混烧,可以使 Cu 固定在底灰中;5)木与除橡胶外的塑料混烧、纸与 PS 混烧,均可使 Zn 固定在底灰中。

  4. Effect of Specimen Size on the Tensile Strength Behavior of the Plastic Waste Fiber Reinforced Soil – Lime – Rice Husk Ash Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of tensile strength in fiber reinforced soil is an important research topic. A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out split tensile strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of specimen size to the tensile strength behavior. Testing procedure was formulated using extended ASTM C496 standard. The laboratory investigation results showed that split-tensile strength of reinforced specimens increased with increase in size. The limitations of the dataset indicate that specimen size of 70 mm in diameter is the threshold to produce reasonable representative strengths.

  5. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  6. OPTIMATION OF TIME AND CATALYST/FEED RATIO IN CATALYTIC CRACKING OF WASTE PLASTICS FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION USING Cr/NATURAL ZEOLITE CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimation of time and catalyst/feed ratio in catalytic cracking of waste plastics fraction to gasoline fraction using Cr/Natural Zeolite catalyst has been studied.The natural zeolite was calcined by using nitrogen gas at 500 oC for 5 hours. The chromium supported on to the zeolite was prepared by ion exchange methode with Cr(NO33.9H2O solution with chromium/zeolite concentration of 1% (w/w. The zeolite samples were then calcined  with nitrogen gas at 500 oC for 2 hours, oxidyzed with oxygen gas and reduced with hydrogen at 400 oC for 2 hours. The characterization of the zeolite catalyst by means of Si/Al ratio by UV-Vis spectroscopy, acidity with pyridine vapour adsorption and Na, Ca and Cr contents by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS. The catalyst activity test was carried out in the cracking process of waste plastics fraction with boiling point range of 150 - 250 °C (consisted of C12 - C16 hydrocarbons at 450 oC for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min, and catalyst/feed ratio 1/1, 1/2, 1/3, ¼ (w/w. The result of catalyst activity test  showed  that  the maximum number  conversion of gasoline fraction (C5-C11 is 53,27% with relatively low coke formation using 1/3 catalyst/feed ratio and the cracking time of 60 min.. This  catalyst has  Si/Al ratio = 1,21 (w/w , acidity = 0,16 mmol/g and Na content = 0,81%, Ca content = 0,15% and Cr content 0,24%.   Keywords: zeolite, catalytic cracking, gasoline, chromium.

  7. 纸厂废弃塑料焚烧过程中HCl的排放特性%Emission characters of HCl during paper mill plastic waste incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑圣欢; 段钰锋; 陈惠超; 冒咏秋; 张平平

    2013-01-01

    Plastic waste from a paper mill with chlorine incineration was investigated in a small tube furnace. Factors such as temperature, particle size, and detention time in the process of waste plastic incineration were considered. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled with Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze emission characters of HCl. Results show that conversion rate of Cl to HCl increased with the temperature, particle size and detention time; TG-FTIR shows HC1 was generated at about 200 t, reached maximum at about 300 ℃. and declined gradually after 400 ℃. XRD indicates that residual chlorine resided in the ash in the form of inorganic chloride.%在小型管式炉中进行了纸厂含氯废弃塑料焚烧过程中HCl析出特性实验,研究了温度、粒径、停留时间对HCl析出的影响;同时借助热重-傅里叶红外光谱联用技术(TG-FTIR)研究了HCl在焚烧过程中的析出规律.结果发现,燃烧过程中Cl→HCl的转化率随温度、粒径和停留时间的增大而显著增加;TG-FTIR结果表明,HCl在200℃左右开始析出,300℃左右达到最大值,400℃后析出峰逐渐消失.XRD结果可知,残余氯以无机氯盐的形式存在灰样中.

  8. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  9. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  10. A preliminary study on the preparation of wood-plastic composites from urban wastes generated in Merida, Mexico with potential applications as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Estrada, Ricardo H; Martínez-Tapia, Gustavo E; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; González-Chí, Pedro I; Martín-Barrera, Cesar; Duarte-Aranda, Santiago; Guillén-Mallette, Javier; Cupul-Manzano, Carlos V; Martínez-Domínguez, Osvaldo; García-Gómez, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    A preliminary study on the use of wood and plastic wastes generated in Merida, Mexico to assess their potential for the development of building materials is reported. Composites based on recycled, high-density polyethylene (R-HDPE) loaded with wood particles were prepared. The R-HDPE was collected from Merida's Separation Plant, where it was sorted from other residues, either organic or inorganic. Composites based on virgin, high-density polyethylene (V-HDPE) were also prepared to assess the effect of the R-HDPE on the composite's mechanical properties. The wood came from the trims of different varieties of the city's trees that are periodically pruned as part of the cleaning and urbanising programmes implemented by the City Council. A batch of this material was selected at random to incorporate into both the R-HDPE and V-HDPE. Different wood particle sizes were experimented with to obtain extruded composites with contents of 50% and 60% by weight of wood that were characterized under tension and impact. Flat wood-plastic extrudates with reasonable good appearance were also produced at the laboratory level as a first step to find an adequate route to scale-up the process to a pilot level to evaluate the feasibility of producing alternative building materials.

  11. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLASTIC CONTAINERS BY INJECTION MOLDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. ne of the ...

  13. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-07-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  14. Melt Processed Single Phase Hollandite Waste Forms For Nuclear Waste Immobilization: Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Kyle [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Amoroso, Jake [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Conradson, Steven D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-09-23

    Cs is one of the more problematic fission product radionuclides to immobilize due to its high volatility at elevated temperatures, ability to form water soluble compounds, and its mobility in many host materials. The hollandite structure is a promising crystalline host for Cs immobilization and has been traditionally fabricated by solid state sintering methods. This study presents the structure and performance of Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al hollandite fabricated by melt processing. Melt processing is considered advantageous given that melters are currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries. This work details the impact of Cr additions that were demonstrated to i) promote the formation of a Cs containing hollandite phase and ii) maintain the stability of the hollandite phase in reducing conditions anticipated for multiphase waste form processing.

  15. Deactivation of REY zeolite during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from the pyrolysis of waste plastics; REY zeolite shokubai ni yoru hai plastic netsu bunkaiyu no sesshoku bunkai hanno no kassei rekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T.; Mukai, S.; Akiyama, T.; Fujikata, Y.; Hashimoto, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1995-12-10

    A model has been developed to represent the deactivation of REY zeolite caused by coke deposition during catalytic cracking of heavy oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste plastics. Coke deposition not only leads to coverage of the acid sites, which contribute to the reaction, but also leads to a decrease in the intracrystalline diffusivity of the zeolite due to the reduction in effective pore opening, resulting in deactivation of the catalyst. In this work, firstly the amount of strong acid sites and the diffusivity of catalysts with different amounts of coke loading were measured, and empirical equations, which represent the relationships between the amount of coke loading and these two values, were obtained. Finally, a model was developed to calculate the transient change of the catalyst activity and the concentration distributions of the components within the reactor by employing the obtained empirical equations. The calculated results agreed well with experimental results. Using this model, it was found that the deactivation rate of the catalyst was reduced under diffusion control conditions, and large catalyst particles could maintain their activity longer than small catalyst particles. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 废旧塑料在复合材料领域中回用技术的研究进展%Research Advances in the Recycling Technologies of Waste Plastics in Composites Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效林; 王汝敏; 王志彤; 冯冰; 付钰

    2011-01-01

    介绍了国内外废旧塑料现状以及废旧塑料在复合材料领域利用新进展,综述了废旧塑料在植物纤维/废旧塑料复合材料、废纸/废塑料复合材料、木塑复合发泡材料、可生物降解塑料复合材料及其他复合材料领域的再利用技术新进展,并分析了废旧塑料在复合材料领域回收再利用技术的发展趋势,提出应进一步探讨不同种类废旧塑料对复合材料力学性能及植物纤维/废旧塑料界面相容性的影响.%The present research status and category of printing and packaging waste plastic are introduced,and research advances in the recycling technology of different kind of waste plastic in composite material field such as plant fibre/recycled thermoplastic composites, wastepaper/thermoplastic polymer composites, wood-plastic foaming composites, eco-friendly biodegradable composites and other composites are discussed. Development trend of the recycling technology of waste plastic in composite material field is pointed out. And further more, research area such as the effect of different waste plastics on the composites interface compatibility is proposed.

  17. Thermal waste treatment; Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, Bernd [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, Arndt I. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik; Faulstich, Martin (eds.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technologie Biogener Rohstoffe

    2008-07-01

    Within the 13th meeting with the titel 'Thermal waste management' at 11th to 12th March, 2008, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Development of new boundary conditions for thermal waste management (Andreas Jaron); (b) Transnational acquisition-economical activity of municipalities and European Law (Walter Frenz); (c) Waste management and development of capacities in Europe (Holger Alwast, Baerbel Birnstengel); (d) Complete utilization in a waste incinerator - Inventory and climate balance (Horst Fehrenbach); (e) Utilization of refuse-derived fuels in industrial power plants - Experiences and new developments (Ralf Borghardt); (f) Thermal waste treatment at EnBW (Michael Pfoertner); (g) The future of the utilization of refuse-derived fuels in lignite-fired power plants from the view of Vattenfall Europe (Frank Mielke, Sven Kappa, Andreas Sparmann); (h) Developments in the use of secondary fuels in the cement industry (Martin Oerter); (i) Ecological practicability of the use of plastics as a reductant in blast furnaces (Thomas Buergler); (j) Experiences in mono plants (Bernd Neukirchen); (k) Energy efficiency in the waste incinerator Amsterdam - first operational experiences (Joeern Wandschneider); (l) Potential improvements of energy efficiency (Oliver Gohlke); (m) Generation of electricity and heat from waste - significance and potential (Rolf Kaufmann, Dirk Zachaeus); (n) Hybrid regulation in order to optimize the operation of waste incinerators (Dietrich-Georg Ellersiek); (o) Perspectives and obstacles to an energetic waste utilization in Greece (Avraam Karagianidis); (p) Melt processing - Experiences in Japan (Alfons Buekens); (q) Thermal treatment of sewage sludge - a significant way of disposal for the Peeple's Republic of China as a threshold country (Michael Nelles, Tao liu, Ke Wu, Gert Woscheck).

  18. Staged pyrolysis, a process for chemical separation of waste plastics; Gestufte Pyrolyse als Verfahrensprinzip zur chemischen Auftrennung von Kunststoffgemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, A.; Hornung, U.; Schoeneberger, A.; Weichmann, J. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Bockhorn, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that staged pyrolysis of mixed plastics (polystyrene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamide 6) can be carried out in spherical recirculation reactors or in cascades of spherical recirculation reactors at exact temperature levels, and that the times of residue and reaction temperatures of laboratory systems can be calculated from the formal kinetic parameters obtained in nonisothermal and isothermal investigations. (orig) [Deutsch] Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Prinzip der stufenweisen Pyrolyse von Kunststoffgemischen (Polystyrol, Polyethylen, Polyvinylchlorid bzw. Polyamid 6) im Kugelkreislaufreaktor und der Kaskade aus Kugelkreislaufreaktoren unter Einhaltung der exakten Temperaturniveaus realisierbar ist und die Auslegung der Laboranlage hinsichtlich der Verweilzeiten und Temperaturniveaus mit Hilfe der formalkinetischen Parameter aus nicht-isothermen und isothermen Untersuchungen moeglich ist. (orig)

  19. Recycling of Plastic Packaging Wastes%塑料包装废弃物的再生利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺全国; 聂立波

    2011-01-01

    塑料包装在整个包装产业中占有极大比例,其废弃物的处理给国际社会减碳减排发展带来了巨大挑战。结合国内外对塑料包装废弃物的管理现状,分析了塑料包装废弃物的来源、分类和化学组成,阐述了国外塑料包装废弃物的回收分离技术和设备及国内相应研究现状;对塑料包装废弃物的再生利用途径进行深入解析,较全面地阐述了塑料包装废弃物再生利用的原理与研究现状;提出了塑料包装废弃物再生利用的基本策略建议。%The plastic packaging accounts for a very great proportion in the packaging industry,and the plastic packaging wastes(PPW) disposal brings great confrontation and challenge for global carbon emission reduction development.Based on the international practical PPW management,analyzes the source,classification and chemical composition for PPW and expounds the recycling separation technology and apparatus at aboard and the domestic research status;Resolves various PPW disposal approaches and elaborates comprehensively PPW regeneration principles and practices;Presents strategic suggestions on recycling and utilization of PPW.

  20. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  1. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  2. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  3. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  4. 我国塑料废弃物回收和再循环及其标准化的现状%Actuality of Recovery and Recycling of Plastics Waste and Standardization of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 张鼎晟子; 刘力荣; 陈敏剑

    2011-01-01

    This article described the overview of recovery and recycling of plastics waste, and the system of the legislative statute and standardization of China. Additionally discussed the problems of recovery and recycling of plastics waste in China by comparing them with oversea.%介绍了我国塑料废弃物回收和再循环的基本情况以及相关法规和标准化体系,并通过对比国外塑料废弃物回收和再循环的基本情况和标准化体系,探讨了我国塑料废弃物回收和再循环目前存在的问题.

  5. Reaction behaviour of DSD waste plastics in hydrogenating liquefaction with varied times of residue and reaction temperatures; Das Reaktionsverhalten von DSD-Kunststoffabfaellen in der hydrierenden Verfluessigung bei Variation von Verweilzeit und Reaktionstemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgtorf, J.; Meier zu Koecker, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogenation is an established process of waste plastics recycling. At the 1st DGMK Technical Meeting at Velen, the Energy Engineering Institute of Berlin Technical University presented studies on the reaction behaviour of waste plastics collected by the DSD (Duales System Deutschland) during hydrogenating liquefaction. The studies have been finished by now, and some results are presented, with particular regard to times of residue and reaction temperaperatures. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Hydrierung ist ein etabliertes Verfahren der rohstofflichen Verwertung von Kunststoffabfaellen. Die auf der 1. DGMK-Fachtagung in Velen vorgestellten Arbeiten des Instituts fuer Energietechnik der Technischen Universitaet Berlin zum Reaktionsverhalten von Kuststoffabfaellen aus der Sammlung des Dualen Systems Deutschland (DSD) in der hydrierenden Verfluessigung sind inzwischen abgeschlossen. Einige Ergebnisse werden hier unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Parameter Verweilzeit und Reaktionstemperatur dargestellt. (orig)

  6. Application of Plastic-wood Composite Technology in Domestic Waste Resource%塑木再生技术在生活垃圾资源化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦彩嫩; 牛红义

    2011-01-01

    探讨塑木再生技术在生活垃圾中废塑料、纸类、木质类成分资源化应用的可行性,分析其应用中的关键技术,并对广州市应用塑木再生技术回收处理生活垃圾中废塑料、纸类及木质类成分提出建议与对策.%Application feasibility and its key technologies for using plastic --wood composite technology to recycle waste plastic, paper and wood in domestic waste were analyzed. Suggestions and countermeasures of the application of the technology in Guangzhou were put forward.

  7. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  8. Study on preparation and properties of hot melt adhesive for aluminium-plastic composite panel%铝塑复合板用热熔胶的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继虎; 温绍国; 宋诗高; 张士维; 王涛

    2013-01-01

    以过氧化二异丙苯(DCP)为引发剂、马来酸酐(MAH)为接枝改性单体和聚乙烯(PE)为主要原料,采用熔融挤出法制备了铝塑复合板用PE-g-MAH(聚乙烯接枝马来酸酐)基HMA(热熔胶),并着重探讨了DCP和MAH含量对PE-g-MAH的接枝效率和粘接性能等影响.结果表明:在试验范围内,PE-g-MAH的接枝效率(y)与DCP含量(xt)或MAH含量(x2)之间的关系符合y=28.03x1+ 1.49或y=0.73x2+ 10.65的线性关系;当w(DCP)=0.44%、w(MAH)=2%时,PE-g-MAH基HMA的粘接性能相对最好,其剪切强度(6.10 MPa)高于杜邦HMA(4.26 MPa),并且其接枝效率为12.91%.%With dicumyl peroxide(DCP) as initiator,maleic anhydride(MAH) as graft-modified monomer,and polyethylene(PE)as main raw material,a HMA(hot melt adhesive) based on PE-g-MAH(PE grafted by MAH) for aluminium-plastic composite panel was prepared by melt extrusion, and the influences of DCP and MAH contents on grafting rate and bonding properties of PE-g-MAH were emphatically discussed. The results showed that the relationship between the grafting rate(y) and DCP content(x1) or MAH content(x2) could meet linear relationship of y=28.03x1+1.49 or y=0.73x2+10.65 in range of experiments. The HMA based on PE-g-MAH had the relatively best bonding properties because its grafting rate was 12.91%,and its shear strength was 6.10 MPa higher than the shear strength(4.26 MPa) of DuPont MHA when mass fractions of DCP and MAH were 0.44% and 2% respectively.

  9. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  10. Occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic and its emission characteristic during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng; Liu Ze-chang; Zhao Ying; Shi Yu-miao [Chemical and Environmental Engineering College of Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2006-12-15

    The occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic was studied by IR and TG-MS. In addition, the emission characteristic of those solid products during combustion was studied. The results indicates that when co-pyrolysis temperature is below 600{sup o}C, there are some organic as well as inorganic chlorine compounds in coke; when the temperature is above 600{sup o}C, there is only inorganic one in the coke. The emission ratio of chlorine is relative to combustion temperature, the co-pyrolysing temperature as well as the percentage of PVC. The emission ratio of chlorine increases with the rising temperature of combustion. When the combustion temperature is 900{sup o}C, the emission ratio is up to 94%. On the contrary, the emission ratio is lower for the solid product from higher co-pyrolysis temperature as the combustion temperature is the same. The highest chlorine emission ratio from pyrolysis at 400{sup o}C is 99.86%, but that from 1000{sup o}C pyrolysis is 94.35%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  12. Dioxin formation and control in a gasification-melting plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Katsuya; Miyata, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated dioxin formation and removal in a commercial thermal waste treatment plant employing a gasification and melting process that has become widespread in the last decade in Japan. The aim was to clarify the possibility of dioxin formation in a process operation at high temperatures and the applicability of catalytic decomposition of dioxins. Also, the possible use of dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The main test parameter was the influence of changes in the amount and type of municipal solid waste (MSW) supplied to the thermal waste treatment plant which from day to day operation is a relevant parameter also from commercial perspective. Here especially, the plastic content on dioxin release was assessed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) disturbance of combustion by adding plastic waste above the capability of the system resulted in a considerable increase in dioxin content of the flue gas at the inlet of the bag house and (2) bag filter equipment incorporating a catalytic filter effectively reduced the gaseous dioxin content below the standard of 0.1 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/m(3) N, by decomposition and partly adsorption, as was revealed by total dioxin mass balance and an increased levels in the fly ash. Also, the possible use of organohalogen compounds as dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The levels of these surrogates did not exceed values corresponding to 0.1 ng TEQ/m(3) N dioxins established from former tests. This further substantiated that surrogate measurement therefore can well reflect dioxin levels.

  13. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  14. Study on the melting characteristics of slag from the incinerator of hazardous wastes containing fluorine and chlorine%含氟氯类危险废物焚烧灰渣的熔融特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱剑杰; 蒋旭光; 王飞; 张月辉; 沈兴龙

    2011-01-01

    While the hazardous wastes containing fluorine and chlorine were incinerated in the rotary kiln incinerator,the slag was melted because of the low fusion temperature.The molten slag stuck on the inner side of rotary kiln,leading to the instable operation of the incinerator.Analytical reagents (SiO2,Al2O3,CaO,Fe2O3,Al2O3,NaCl,KCl and NaF) were substituted for slag components of this kind of hazardous waste to investigate the melting characteristics.Neural network analysis was used to predict the slag fusion temperatures of hazardous wastes containing fluorine and chlorine.The experimental results showed that SiO2,Al2O3 and CaO increased the slag fusion temperature,and Na2O decreased fusion temperature sharply.Effect of NaF on slag fusion temperature of this kind of hazardous waste was dependent on the content of NaF.Neural network-predicted slag fusion temperatures agreed well with the experimental values.%为了解决低熔点含氟氯类危险废物(简称"危废")在回转窑焚烧炉内燃烧时,灰渣熔化导致窑内结圈的问题,实验采用氧化物分析纯(SiO2、Al2O3、CaO、Fe2O3、Al2O3)和NaCl、KCl、NaF分析纯来模拟危废炉渣组分,研究了危废焚烧炉灰渣的熔融特性,并采用神经网络预测危废灰渣的熔融温度.结果表明,SiO2、Al2O3和CaO能够提高危废炉渣的熔融温度,Na2O会大幅度降低危废炉渣的熔融温度,NaF对危废炉渣熔融温度的影响与NaF的含量有关.神经网络计算结果显示,危废灰渣熔融温度的预测值和实验值吻合较好.

  15. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  16. A partial analysis of using the melting of flame technoogy for the production of a deep shaft to rocks for the deposition of radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bielecki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with serious objectives, which handle to the economical valuation of vertical drilling. Simultaneously, are inter alia, a questions is answered if the LITO-JET method allows, under some economical conditions, a deposition of high radioactive waste into the depth more than 1000 meters and an increasing research is be necessary.

  17. Sustainable sound waste management startegies in Juja, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable sound waste management startegies in Juja, Kenya. ... Integrated solid waste management includes source reduction, source separation, recycling ... waste in Juja consisted of 80% food and other organic wastes, 10% plastics, ...

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-08-19

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10(-7) to 1.2 × 10(-5) (year(-1)) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10(-7) to 7.2 × 10(-6) (year(-1)) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities

  19. Influence of Impurities on Waste Plastics Pyrolysis: Products and Emissions%杂质对废塑料裂解产物及污染物排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 王中慧; 陈德珍; 马晓波; 栾健

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics’ pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.%从垃圾中分选出的废塑料混有大量杂质,杂质对现有废塑料裂解工艺有直接的影响.针对这一问题,对混有厨余、纸、织物和渣土等杂质的废塑料裂解产物和污染物排放进行了研究.同时检测和分析了厨余、纸、织物和沙土等常见杂质所含N、Cl、S元素向裂解油、裂解气中的迁移规律.研究表明,厨余的混入将对裂解油的产物产生严重不利影响,如热值降低至27 MJ/kg, 油品的含水率高达25%以及多环芳烃含量大大提高,因而应在分选过程中除去.厨余、织物和纸张等杂质的混入导致裂解气体中污染物浓度的显著上升.渣土的混入对气体产物有有利影响,对油品无明显不利影响.

  20. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  1. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  2. 烟气余热回收装置在铝熔保炉除尘系统中的应用%Application of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery Unit in Dust Removal System of Aluminum Melting and Holding Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊振国

    2016-01-01

    The paper described the necessity and technical requirements of application of flue gas waste heat recovery unit in dust removal system for aluminum melting and holding furnace;it presented critical technology issues needed to be resolved in dust removal system when using flue gas waste heat recovery unit with specific process scheme;it highlighted comparative analysis of economic and social benefits based on case studies.%文章阐述了在铝熔保炉除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收装置的必要性和技术要求;结合余热回收除尘系统工艺方案的设计,给出了烟气余热回收设备在除尘系统中使用时需要解决的关键技术;通过工程实例对比分析除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收设备的经济和社会环境效益。

  3. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  4. CO-PROCESSING OF WASTE POLYETHYLENE PLASTICS WITH VACUUM RESIDUE IN DELAYED COKING%废聚乙烯塑料与减压渣油混合延迟焦化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀霞; 冯成武; 耿春香; 田秀凤

    2001-01-01

    在实验室将废聚乙烯塑料、减压渣油以及它们的混合物,在反应温度455~495℃、氢气压力0.1~4.0MPa和反应时间2~8h的临氢条件下进行延迟焦化反应。结果表明,由于废聚乙烯焦化的液体产物组成主要为链烷烃和链α-烯烃,占10%的废聚乙烯塑料和减压渣油混合原料的延迟焦化加工过程,可以得到性质较好的焦化柴油馏分。废聚乙烯塑料的加入,还可以减少焦化炉管的生焦,延长装置的运转周期,有望成为回收废塑料减少环境污染的一种途径。%Delayed coking tests of waste polyethylene plastics, Shenglivacuum residue and their mixture of were conducted on a coking unit in the laboratory. The coking conditions were under a hydrogen pressure of 0.1-4.0 Mpa, a reaction temperatur e range of 455-495 ℃ and a reaction time of 2-8 h. Since the liquid product of the waste polyethylene plastics mainly consisted of alkanes and α-alkenes, bet ter quality gas oil could be obtained from processing the vacuum residue blended with 10% waste polyethylene plastics in comparison with processing vacuum resid ue alone. The co-processing could also reduce the coking in the furnace tubes a nd prolong the running cycle. The said method is expected to be a waste plastics -processing route for reducing environmental pollution.

  5. Recycling of waste lead storage battery by vacuum methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deqiang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-07-01

    Waste lead storage battery is the most important recyclable lead material not only in various European and other OECD countries but also in China. Pollution control of lead has become the focus of people's attention in the world. A vacuum process for recycling waste lead storage battery was developed in this work. The experimental results showed that all the valuable materials in waste lead storage battery could be satisfactorily recycled by vacuum technologies. The vacuum melting of lead grids and the vacuum reduction of lead pastes produce the lead bullion with the direct recovery ratio of 96.29% and 98.98%, respectively. The vacuum pyrolysis of plastics can produce pyrolysis oil with yield of more than 93 wt.%. These vacuum recycling technologies offer improvements in metallurgical and environmental performance.

  6. A study of wrecked Dovekies (Alle alle) in the western North Atlantic highlights the importance of using standardized methods to quantify plastic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Valliant, Michelle; Schacter, Carley R; Robbins, Katherine F; Liboiron, Max; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rios, Lorena M; Jones, Ian L

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of plastic ingestion across a range of seabirds is required to assess the prevalence of plastics in marine food webs. We quantified plastic ingestion in beached Dovekies (Alle alle), following a wreck in Newfoundland, Canada. Of 171 birds, 30.4% had ingested plastic (mean 0.81±0.30 SE pieces per bird, mass 0.005±0.002 SE g per bird). Most plastics were fragments of polyethylene and polypropylene. Surprisingly, 37% were burned or melted, indicating a previously unreported source of ingested plastics (incinerated waste). We found no relationship between plastic ingestion and age, sex or body condition. By comparing our results with a similar nearby study, we illustrate the need for researchers to adopt standardized methods for plastic ingestion studies. We underline the importance of using histological techniques to reliably identify gastric pathologies, and advise caution when inferring population level trends in plastic ingestion from studies of emaciated, wrecked birds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 新疆阿瓦提县废旧地膜回收利用研究%Research on the Recovery and Utilization of Waste Plastic Mulching Film in Awat County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞

    2014-01-01

    The overuse of plastic mulching film in Awat county caused a gradual process of deter-ioration of the local soil environment, greatly polluted the environmental sanitation in rural areas and hindered the improvement of agricultural machinery's operation quality. After analyzing the related data of plastic mulching film use, and the status of its' recovery and utilization in Awat county, presented the optimizing countermeasures from the following aspects: strengthening the propaganda of the harmfulness of "white pollution", promoting local peasants' ecological civiliza-tion consciousness; developing waste plastic recycling enterprises, broadening the recycling chan-nels; formulating preferential policies to increase the support for waste plastic recycling; controlling and reducing the plastic mulching film residuals from farming techniques; intensifying residual plastic recycling by combining manual and mechanical recycling.%阿瓦提县地膜的过量使用使当地土壤环境逐渐恶化,严重污染了农村环境,并影响了农机作业质量的提高。通过分析2011年阿瓦提县地膜使用相关数据及地膜回收利用情况,提出了阿瓦提县地膜回收利用的优化对策:加大对“白色污染”危害性的宣传,提升广大农民群众的生态文明意识;发展废旧地膜回收利用企业,拓宽回收渠道;制定优惠政策,加大支持力度,促进废旧地膜回收利用;从农艺上防治和减少地膜残留;采取人工和机械回收相结合的措施,加大残留地膜回收力度。

  8. Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

  9. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  10. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  11. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  12. Energy balance analysis on the pyrolysis process of aluminum-plastic package waste%铝塑包装废物热解过程能量平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇; 岳东北; 刘建国; 姚远; 聂永丰

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an efficient way in the separation of the organics and Al in aluminum-plastic packaging waste.The experiment was performed in a fixed bed reactor heated externally to investigate the trend of mass and energy transfer.The results show that:(1) the optimal temperature for the pyrolysis of aluminum-plastic packaging waste is 723~773 K;(2) the energy recycled is much more than that of pyrolysis required;(3) the net energy recycle rate is 62%~63%.%热解是实现铝塑包装废物中有机物和金属铝分离的有效方法。利用外热式固定床反应系统对其进行热解实验,研究热解时物质与能量流向的变化趋势。结果表明:(1)铝塑包装废物最佳热解温度为723~773 K;(2)热解产生的可回收能量远大于反应所需能量,可以实现热解系统的自供热;(3)铝塑包装废物热解的净能源回收效率为62%~63%。

  13. CO{sub 2} reduction potential of the use of plastic wastes as feedstock in various energy conversion processes; CO{sub 2}-Reduktionspotential durch den Einsatz von Plastikabfaellen in verschiedenen Energiewandlungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I.; Obladen, M. [Essen Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Plastic wastes are available in large quantities in Germany (almost 800,000 t per year) and their reutilisation is compulsory under the Recycling Economy Law. This may either be done by raw material recycling or by energy conversion processes. The use of plastic wastes characterised by a high calorific value and low specific CO{sub 2} emissions constitutes a high potential for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions caused by the additional energy input for preparing and pretreating the plastic are in most cases more than compensated for by the favourable H/C ratio. This paper compares altogether six energy conversion processes in terms of their CO{sub 2} balance. Each individual process is compared with and assessed on the basis of a reference scenario, in accordance with the method of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). It transpires that in general none of the three process variants materials recycling, raw material recycling, and energy recovery is superior to any other in terms of the CO{sub 2} balance. With the more favourable processes the use of plastic wastes results in a reduction of up to 10% in CO{sub 2} emissions. [German] Plastikabfaelle sind in Deutschland in einer grossen Menge (knapp 800.000 t pro anno) verfuegbar und muessen gemaess Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz wiederverwertet werden. Dies ist sowohl durch Rohstoffrecycling als auch in Energiewandlungsprozessen moeglich. Durch den Einsatz von Plastikabfall mit einem charakteristisch hohen Brennwert und niedrigen spezifischen CO{sub 2}-Emissionen ergibt sich ein hohes Potential zur Reduzierung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen. Die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen bedingt durch den Mehraufwand an Energie fuer die Aufbereitung und die Vorbehandlung des Plastik werden in der Regel durch den Einsatz des Brennstoffs mit dem guenstigeren H/C-Verhaeltnis ueberkompensiert. Im einzelnen werden sechs Energiewandlungsprozesse dargestellt und unter dem Aspekt der CO{sub 2}-Bilanz miteinander verglichen. Dabei wird gemaess der

  14. 废旧混合塑料识别分离与清洗技术研究进展%Development of identification separation and cleaning technologies for mixed waste plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅民; 刘红莎; 朱艳芳; 胡彪; 汤桂兰

    2013-01-01

      针对废旧混合塑料工业化回收循环利用过程中分类识别和高效清洗两大关键技术难题,本文主要综述了系列可工业用废旧混合塑料分类识别方法;讨论了浮沉分离、浮选分离、电选分离、近红外光谱精准识别技术在废旧塑料识别中的应用;介绍了清洗工艺除污提高分离效果的重要性和清洗剂主要成分——碱性物质、助剂和表面活性剂以及其作用;并提出了将超声波清洗以及浮沉分离、浮选分离、近红外光谱识别分离用于废旧塑料精准识别与分离的集成技术工艺路线。由于国内近红外光谱识别技术与超声波清洗技术相对落后,指出研究此两项技术、设备并将两者结合应用于废旧塑料回收是今后的发展方向。%This review summarized a series of methods of two key technologies of separation identification and efficient cleaning of mixed waste plastics for industrialized recycling and utilization. Applications of sink-float separation,flotation separation,electrostatic separation and near infrared spectra accurate identification technology in waste plastics identification were discussed. This paper also introduced the importance of cleaning process and the main ingredients of plastic cleaner including alkaline compounds,additive agent,surfactant and their effects. The technological process which integrates ultrasonic cleaning technology and sink-float separation , flotation separation , and near-infrared spectra accurate identification technology has advantages to identify and sort waste plastics and has the potentials to solve the problems in ultrasonic cleaning and near-infrared spectra identification. Therefore, the integrated technology could be the prospective focus of future research.

  15. Analysis of the treatment of plastic from electrical and electronic waste in the Republic of Serbia and the testing of the recycling potential of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Aleksandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the quantity of plastic and waste printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of electrical and electronic waste (E-waste in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the recycling of non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards. The aim is to analyze the obtained recycled material and recommendation for possible application of recyclables. The data on the quantities and treatment of plastics and printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of WEEE, were gained through questionnaires sent to the operators who treat this type of waste. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that in 2014 the dismantling of E-waste isolated 1,870.95 t of plastic and 499.85 t of printed circuit boards. In the Republic of Serbia, E-waste recycling is performed exclusively by using mechanical methods. Mechanical methods consist of primary crushing and separation of the materials which have a utility value as secondary raw materials, from the components and materials that have hazardous properties. Respect to that, the recycling of printed circuit boards using some of the metallurgical processes with the aim of extracting copper, precious metals and non-metallic fraction is completely absent, and the circuit boards are exported as a whole. Given the number of printed circuit boards obtained by E-waste dismantling, and the fact that from an economic point of view, hydrometallurgical methods are very suitable technological solutions in the case of a smaller capacity, there is a possibility for establishing the facilities in the Republic of Serbia for the hydrometallurgical treatment that could be used for metals extraction, and non-metallic fractions, which also have their own value. Printed circuit boards granulate obtained after the mechanical pretreatment and the selective removal of metals by hydrometallurgical processes was used for the testing of the recycling potential

  16. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  17. Korean Waste Management Law, Presidential Decree Number 13480, and Prime Minister Order Number 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    pieces of metal, waste construction materials, briquet ashes, eatables, vegetables, waste glass, and waste plastics, etc. 4. Component (7) shall be...construction materials, briquet ashes, eatables, vegetables, waste glass, and waste plastics, etc. 3. Component (8) shall be recorded by separation of liquid...construction materials, briquet ashes, eatables, vegetables, waste glass, and waste plastics, etc. 3. One shall record the business area (8) by the

  18. 废弃塑料的回收物流与再利用研究——以中山市为例%Study on Recovery Logistics and Recycling of Waste Plastics: A Case Study of Zhongshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑平; 何雪君; 王冬良

    2012-01-01

    On the one hand, plastic is convenient to life, on the other hand, it also brings environmental pollution. The biggest problem is the treatment of waste plastics. To achieve sustainable development, we should take the principle of not buried, not bum and without abandoning to avoid secondary pollution. The best method is recycling which not only can solve the pollution problem of abandoned plastic, also can bring new profit growth for enterprise. To reach this purpose, this paper took the analysis on the recycling status of abandoned plastic in Zhongshan as the starting point. After investigation, the paper understood the status and the problems, and made recommendations by referring the abroad success experience.%塑料一方面方便了生活,另一方面也带来了环境污染.最大的问题是废弃塑料的处理,为了可持续发展,应采取不埋、不焚、不丢的原则,避免二次污染.最好的方法是回收再利用,不仅可以解决废弃塑料的污染问题,还为企业带来新的利润增长点,为了达到这一目的,从分析中山市废弃塑料的回收利用现状为切入点,经过调查研究,了解废弃塑料回收物流与再利用的现状,掌握存在的问题,借鉴国外成功经验,提出废弃塑料回收再利用建议.

  19. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD and other wastes; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD nado haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the feasibility of enterprise on power generation by thermal recycle and selling power together with volume reduction, de-harming (de-toxification) and stabilization of the shredder dust. Contents of the study include the investigation of generation amount of car shredder dust (CSD) and its properties, trial design of high efficiency power generation facilities, selection of boiler tube materials, incineration test with a melting kiln test plant, disposal and effective use of melted slag and fly ash, and environmental impact assessment. The capacity of waste disposal in the trial design contains 1,140 ton/day of shredder dust, 60 ton/day of waste plastics, sludge and waste paper, and 130 ton/day of waste oil. Melting kiln with secondary combustion chamber was adopted as the incineration type. The high temperature and high pressure waste heat boiler with an extraction condensing turbine was adopted as the waste heat recovery and power generation type. Stable combustion was confirmed from the results using a test plant. According to the consideration of cost and unit cost results for wholesale power supply, if it is postulated that income for waste disposal is 12,000 yen/ton, power generation costs in excess power selling and wholesales are 6.4 yen/kWh and 9.1 yen/kWh, respectively. 67 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Melt processed single phase hollandite waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization: Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Conradson, Steven D.; Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle, E-mail: kyle.brinkman@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • This work shows Cr additions improve the performance of Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al hollandite • Fe–Hol sample exhibited the least Cs retention whereas the Cr–Hol exhibited the greatest Cs retention. • CAF–Hol and Fe–Hol samples exhibited secondary phases enriched in Cs. • X-ray absorption measurements confirmed the stability of Cr{sup +3} as compared to Fe{sup +3}. -- Abstract: Cs is one of the more problematic fission product radionuclides to immobilize due to its high volatility at elevated temperatures, ability to form water soluble compounds, and its mobility in many host materials. The hollandite structure is a promising crystalline host for Cs immobilization and has been traditionally fabricated by solid state sintering methods. This study presents the structure and performance of Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al hollandite fabricated by melt processing. Melt processing is considered advantageous given that melters are currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries. This work details the impact of Cr additions that were demonstrated to (i) promote the formation of a Cs containing hollandite phase and (ii) maintain the stability of the hollandite phase in reducing conditions anticipated for multiphase waste form processing.

  1. Effect of E-waste Recycling on Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Plasticizers and Their Association with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Tao; Cai, Dan; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-02-21

    In this study, three chlorinated (Cl-mOPs) and five nonchlorinated (NCl-mOPs) organophosphate metabolites were determined in urine samples collected from participants living in an electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area (n = 175) and two reference areas (rural, n = 29 and urban, n = 17) in southern China. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [BCEP, geometric mean (GM): 0.72 ng/mL] was the most abundant Cl-mOP, and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP, 0.55 ng/mL) was the most abundant NCl-mOP. The GM concentrations of mOPs in the e-waste dismantling sites were higher than those in the rural control site. These differences were significant for BCEP (p e-waste dismantling activities contributed to human exposure to OPs. In the e-waste sites, the urinary concentrations of bis(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate (r = 0.484, p e-waste dismantling areas. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the urinary levels of mOPs in China and examine the association between OP exposure and 8-OHdG in humans.

  2. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  3. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  4. Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Fruergaard, Thilde; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to plastic waste recycling were evaluated with respect to three management alternatives: recycling of clean, single-type plastic, recycling of mixed/contaminated plastic, and use of plastic waste as fuel in industrial processes. Source-separated plasti...... to a mixture of different plastic types and/or contamination, the plastic should be used for energy utilization. Recycling of plastic waste for substitution of other materials such as wood provided no savings with respect to global warming....

  5. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today′s industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer′s health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  6. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S. K.; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  7. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  8. XRF Determination of the 8 Elements in the Coating of Waste Plastics%X射线荧光光谱法测定废塑料表面涂层中8种元素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世杰; 张建波; 应海松; 蔡曹盛; 李雪莲

    2016-01-01

    采用 X 射线荧光光谱法测定废塑料表面涂层中8种元素的含量。考察了样品杯、基材以及金属涂层中元素效应对检测结果的影响。P、Si、Fe、Pb、Al、Cu、Cr 和 Ni 的测定范围在0.002%~52.0%之间,检出限在0.0002%~0.0008%之间。采用本方法测定废塑料样品表面涂层中元素含量,结果与 ICP-AES 测定结果一致,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=7)小于1%。%X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was applied to the determination of 8 elements in the coating of waste plastics.The effects of the sample cup and the elements in the matrixes and the coating on the determination results were discussed.The determination ranges of P,Si,Fe,Pb,Al,Cu,Cr and Ni were between 0.002%-52.0%,and the detection limits were in the range of 0.000 2%-0.000 8%.The proposed method was used to determine 8 elements in the coating of waste plastic samples,giving results in agreement with those obtained by ICP-AES,with RSDs (n=7)less than 1%.

  9. XRFS Determinate of metallic coating content of waste plastics%X-射线荧光光谱法测定废塑料表面金属涂层含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世杰; 张建波; 应海松; 李雪莲

    2015-01-01

    本文提出了利用X-荧光仪测定废塑料各种金属涂层中金属元素含量的方法。以稳定性为优化原则选择了仪器针对不同元素的测量条件,研究了实验过程中样品杯、基材以及金属涂层中元素效应对检测结果的影响;方法精密度为0.008%~0.044%之间;将X-荧光检测结果与ICP检测结果进行比对并得出同样的数据,该方法为控制废塑料金属涂层产生的危害和污染提供更为合理的检测手段,并已应用到实际检测当中。%A new method for determining every metal elements in the metallic coating of waste plastics by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was bronght out. The instrument working conditions for different elements were opti-mized according to the stability, the effects of sample cup,base material and matrix elements for the determinated results were discussed;RSDs were in the range of 0.5%~1.5%, The results were given indifferent by XRFS and ICP-OES were compared and gave uniformity results. This method can give more reasonable results for controlling dam-age and contamination by metallic coating of waste plastics. It also has been applied to practical sample analysis.

  10. 垃圾焚烧飞灰电弧炉熔渣微品玻璃的晶化行为%Crystallization Behavior of Glass-ceramics from Arc-melting Slag of Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉桥; 魏国侠; 梁茵; 杨俊兰

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the issue of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, are melting treatment technology was developed in combination with electric arc furnace metallurgical processes. Glass-ceramics was made of arc-meUing slag from waste incineration fly ash and additional glass cullet through crushing, pressing and sintering at temperature between 750 "C and 1050 'C. The crystallization behaviours of the glass-ceramics were examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that main crystalline phase of the glass-ceramics are wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (Ca (Mg, Al) (Si, A1)2O5 ) . and the diffraction peaks become more intensive at higher temperature. It is found that the glass-ceramics sintered at 850 *C has the optimal physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics, and it has density of 2. 62 g/cm3 , bending strength of 54. 96 Mpa, chemical resistance of 2. 7% and 0. 9% in acid and alkali solution respectively. Furthermore, the leaching concentration of heavy metals is very low.%将垃圾焚烧飞灰与适量废玻璃粉混合后用电弧炉熔融处理,产生的水冷熔渣进一步粉碎、压型并在750~1 050℃间热处理制取微晶玻璃,运用同步热分析仪、X射线衍射仪、扫描电镜等测试设备对微晶玻璃的晶化行为及性能进行分析测试.研究表明:微晶玻璃主晶相为硅灰石CaSiO3和少量透辉石Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al)2O6,其衍射峰随处理温度升高呈增加趋势,850℃热处理时所得微晶玻璃具有较佳的微观结构和物理、机械及化学性能,其密度为2.62 g/cm3、抗弯强度达90.44 MPa,耐酸碱性分别为2.7%、0.9%,重金属浸出浓度非常低.

  11. River plastic emissions to the world's oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; van der Zwet, Joost; Damsteeg, Jan-Willem; Slat, Boyan; Andrady, Anthony; Reisser, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Plastics in the marine environment have become a major concern because of their persistence at sea, and adverse consequences to marine life and potentially human health. Implementing mitigation strategies requires an understanding and quantification of marine plastic sources, taking spatial and temporal variability into account. Here we present a global model of plastic inputs from rivers into oceans based on waste management, population density and hydrological information. Our model is calibrated against measurements available in the literature. We estimate that between 1.15 and 2.41 million tonnes of plastic waste currently enters the ocean every year from rivers, with over 74% of emissions occurring between May and October. The top 20 polluting rivers, mostly located in Asia, account for 67% of the global total. The findings of this study provide baseline data for ocean plastic mass balance exercises, and assist in prioritizing future plastic debris monitoring and mitigation strategies.

  12. Extensional Flow Properties of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate: Influence of Plasticizer Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Radusch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elongational flow properties of polymer melts are very important for numerous polymer processing technologies such as blown film extrusion or foam extrusion. Rheotens tests were conducted to investigate the influence of plasticizer content on elongational flow properties of cellulose acetate (CA. Triethyl citrate (TEC was used as plasticizer. Melt strength decreases whereas melt extensibility increases with increasing plasticizer content. Melt strength was further studied as a function of zero shear viscosity. The typical draw resonance of the Rheotens curve shifts to higher drawdown velocity and the amplitude of the draw resonance decreases with increasing TEC content. With respect to foam extrusion, not only are melt strength and melt extensibility important but the elongational behavior at low strain rates and the area under the Rheotens curve are also significant. Therefore, elongational viscosity as well as specific energy input were calculated and investigated with respect to plasticizer content. Preliminary foam extrusion tests of externally plasticized CA using chemical blowing agents confirm the results from rheological characterization.

  13. Impact of price collapse of international crude oil on the import waste plastics industry%浅谈国际原油价格暴跌对进口废塑料行业的影响及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢经; 张国庆; 刘建东

    2015-01-01

    作为资源的重要补充,近年来国内塑料加工行业对进口废塑料的需求市场不断扩大,但作为原油的下游产品,因原油价格波动带来的经营影响和环保风险不容忽视。为有效规避风险,提升行业竞争力,在源头控制、行业转型、通关便利等方面提供可行性建议。%As an important supplement to the resources, in recent years the domestic plastic processing industry demand for imports of waste plastics market continues to expand, but as the downstream product of crude oil, crude oil price fluctuations caused by the effect of management and environmental risk can not be ignored. To evade the risk effectively and enhance the competitiveness of the industry, the feasible suggestions about source control, industry restructure and customs clearance facility were provided.

  14. Marine Debris and Plastic Source Reduction Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plastic food service ware items originate on college and university campuses—in cafeterias, snack rooms, cafés, and eateries with take-out dining options. This Campus Toolkit is a detailed “how to” guide for reducing plastic waste on college campuses.

  15. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-01-01

    Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

  16. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  17. For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

  18. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain use