WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic foam generating

  1. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  2. Plastic Foam Withstands Greater Temperatures And Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A.; Macarthur, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Improved plastic foam suitable for use in foam-core laminated composite parts and in tooling for making fiber/matrix-composite parts. Stronger at high temperatures, more thermally and dimensionally stable, machinable, resistant to chemical degradation, and less expensive. Compatible with variety of matrix resins. Made of polyisocyanurate blown with carbon dioxide and has density of 12 to 15 pounds per cubic feet. Does not contibute to depletion of ozone from atmosphere. Improved foam used in cores of composite panels in such diverse products as aircraft, automobiles, railroad cars, boats, and sporting equipment like surfboards, skis, and skateboards. Also used in thermally stable flotation devices in submersible vehicles. Machined into mandrels upon which filaments wound to make shells.

  3. THIRD-GENERATION FOAM BLOWING AGENTS FOR FOAM INSULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of third-generation blowing agents for foam insulation. (NOTE: the search for third-generation foam blowing agents has led to the realization that, as the number of potential substitutes increases, new concerns, such as their potential to act a...

  4. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced as...

  5. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  6. Foam generator and viscometer apparatus and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Troy D.; Pickell, Mark B.; Volk, Leonard J.

    2004-10-26

    An apparatus and process to generate a liquid-gas-surfactant foam and to measure its viscosity and enable optical and or electronic measurements of physical properties. The process includes the steps of pumping selected and measured liquids and measured gases into a mixing cell. The mixing cell is pressurized to a desired pressure and maintained at a desired pressure. Liquids and gas are mixed in the mixing cell to produce a foam of desired consistency. The temperature of the foam in the mixing cell is controlled. Foam is delivered from the mixing cell through a viscometer under controlled pressure and temperature conditions where the viscous and physical properties of the foam are measured and observed.

  7. 7 CFR 2902.17 - Plastic insulating foam for residential and commercial construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic insulating foam for residential and... BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.17 Plastic insulating foam for residential and commercial construction. (a) Definition. Spray-in-place plastic foam products designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3010 - Adjuvant substances used in the manufacture of foamed plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvant substances used in the manufacture of... substances used in the manufacture of foamed plastics. The following substances may be safely used as adjuvants in the manufacture of foamed plastics intended for use in contact with food, subject to any...

  9. Generation of sclerosant foams by mechanical methods increases the foam temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lulu; Wong, Kaichung; Connor, David; Fakhim, Babak; Behnia, Masud; Parsi, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of agitation on foam temperature. Methods Sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol were used. Prior to foam generation, the sclerosant and all constituent equipment were cooled to 4-25℃ and compared with cooling the sclerosant only. Foam was generated using a modified Tessari method. During foam agitation, the temperature change was measured using a thermocouple for 120 s. Results Pre-cooling all the constituent equipment resulted in a cooler foam in comparison with only cooling the sclerosant. A starting temperature of 4℃ produced average foam temperatures of 12.5 and 13.2℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. It was also found that only cooling the liquid sclerosant provided minimal cooling to the final foam temperature, with the temperature 20 and 20.5℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. Conclusion The foam generation process has a noticeable impact on final foam temperature and needs to be taken into consideration when creating foam.

  10. Mechanisms of nanoclay-enhanced plastic foaming processes: effects of nanoclay intercalation and exfoliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Anson; Wijnands, Stephan F. L.; Kuboki, Takashi; Park, Chul B., E-mail: park@mie.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Microcellular Plastics Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    The foaming behaviors of high-density polypropylene-nanoclay composites with intercalated and exfoliated nanoclay particles blown with carbon dioxide were examined via in situ observation of the foaming processes in a high-temperature/high-pressure view-cell. The intercalated nanoclay particles were 300-600 nm in length and 50-200 nm in thickness, while the exfoliated nanoclay particles were 100-200 nm in length and 1 nm in thickness. Contrary to common belief, it was discovered that intercalated nanoclay yielded higher cell density than exfoliated nanoclay despite its lower particle density. This was attributed to the higher tensile stresses generated around the larger and stiffer intercalated nanoclay particles, which led to increase in supersaturation level for cell nucleation. Also, the coupling agent used to exfoliate nanoclay would increase the affinity between polymer and surface of nanoclay particles. Consequently, the critical work needed for cell nucleation would be increased; pre-existing microvoids, which could act as seeds for cell nucleation, were also less likely to exist. Meanwhile, exfoliated nanoclay had better cell stabilization ability to prevent cell coalescence and cell coarsening. This investigation clarifies the roles of nanoclay in plastic foaming processes and provides guidance for the advancement of polymer nanocomposite foaming technology.

  11. Handbook of plastic foams: types, properties, manufacture, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landrock, Arthur H

    1995-01-01

    ... is an introduction and also covers the subject of foam formation. The chapter includes a discussion of the Montreal Protocol mandating the development of foams with substantially reduced CFC content by 1995. Chapter 2 is a comprehensive discussion of thermosetting foams of all types, with the emphasis on urethane and phenolic foams. The authors, K Ashida and K Iwa...

  12. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  13. Experimental Study of Hysteresis behavior of Foam Generation in Porous Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrobaei, S.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    Foam can be used for gas mobility control in different subsurface applications. The success of foam-injection process depends on foam-generation and propagation rate inside the porous medium. In some cases, foam properties depend on the history of the flow or concentration of the surfactant, i.e., the hysteresis effect. Foam may show hysteresis behavior by exhibiting multiple states at the same injection conditions, where coarse-textured foam is converted into strong foam with fine texture at...

  14. Development of rubidium and niobium containing plastic foams. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botham, R.A.; McClung, C.E.; Schwendeman, J.I.

    1978-01-01

    Rubidium fluoride and niobium metal-containing foam samples (rods and sheets) were prepared using two foam sytems: (1) hydrophilic polyurethanes prepared from W.R. Grace Co.'s Hypol prepolymers and (2) polyimides prepared from Monsanto Company's Skybond polyimide resin. The first system was used only for preparation of rubidium fluoride-containing foams while the second was used for both rubidium fluoride and niobium-containing foams. The niobium metal could readily be incorporated into the polyimide foam during molding, to produce foam sheets of the required dimensions and density. The rubidium fluoride-containing polyimide foams were preferably prepared by first rendering the molded polyimide foam hydrophilic with a postcuring treatment, then absorbing the rubidium fluoride from water solution. Similarly, rubidium fluoride was absorbed into the hydrophilic polyurethanes from water solution. Since the high reactive rubidium metal could not be employed, rubidium fluoride, which is very hygroscopic, was used instead, primarily because of its high rubidium content (approximately 82 weight percent). This was important in view of the low total densities and the high weight percentage rubidium required in the foam samples. In addition, at the later request of LLL, a block of rigid Hypol hydrophilic polyurethane foam (with a density of approximately 0.04 g/cm 3 and cell sizes = or <0.2 mm) was prepared without any metal or metal compounds in it. Two shipments of foam samples, which met or closely approximated the project specifications, were submitted to LLL during the course of this project. Information on these samples is contained in Table 1. A complete description of their preparation is given in the Experimental Results and Discussion Section

  15. A swirl generator case study for OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H; Bosioc, A I; Susan-Resiga, R F; Muntean, S

    2010-01-01

    This work presents numerical results, using OpenFOAM, of the flow in the swirl flow generator test rig developed at Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania. The work shows results computed by solving the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations. The unsteady method couples the rotating and stationary parts using a sliding grid interface based on a GGI formulation. Turbulence is modeled using the standard k-ε model, and block structured wall function ICEM-Hexa meshes are used. The numerical results are validated against experimental LDV results, and against designed velocity profiles. The investigation shows that OpenFOAM gives results that are comparable to the experimental and designed profiles. This case study was presented at the 5th OpenFOAM Workshop, held in Gothenburg, Sweden, as a tutorial on how to treat turbomachinery applications in OpenFOAM.

  16. Separation of uranium by extraction with foamed plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkisch, J.

    1983-07-01

    Polyurethane foams are frequently used for the extraction and separation of inorganic and organic species. The attraction of the materials lies in their favourable hydrodynamic properties obviating the need for the forced-flow conditions associated with conventional chromatographic-type column packing of small particles. The research work described has been directed to providing information on the extraction and separation of uranium (and thorium) by an open-cell polyurethane foam from media containing nitrates and from hydrochloric acid systems. The influence of many different experimental parameters (concentrations, acidity, impregnation of the foam with organic extractants) on the extraction was investigated. Based on the results of these investigations two methods were developed to separate uranium from nitric acid solution and from hydrochloric acid solution, respectively. The first uses calcium or aluminium nitrate salting and foam impregnated with Aliquat 336, the second ascorbic acid addition and TOPO-impregnated foam. The methods separate uranium and thorium from each other and from most other elements and can be used analytically or in the purification of uranium from impure plant products such as yellow cake

  17. Generation of ozone foam and its application for disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragaki, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Tomiya; Nakanishi, Masaru; Muraki, Ryouji; Nieda, Masanori; Yamabe, Chobei

    2015-07-01

    Generated ozone foam was applied to the disinfection of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of disinfection has been confirmed experimentally and new equipment for the disinfection of hands using this ozone foam has been put on the market for the practical use. The ozone foam was produced in the foam generator after mixing the water including surfactant (30 mL/min) and air including ozone (1000 ppm = 2.14 g/m3 ~ 1600 ppm = 3.4 g/m3, 300 mL/min). The liquid-to-gas ratio is 100 L/m3. The concentration of dissolved ozone in the thin liquid films of the bubbles was about 3 mg/L which was measured by the chemical method of the KI absorption and titration of sodium thiosulfate solution. The disinfection test samples were prepared using the PET disk on which Pseudomonas fluorescens of its number of more than 108 were attached. Test sample was inserted into ozone foam set on the glass plate for one to 6 min. The survival rate log (N/N0 decreased with time and its value of about-2.6 (i.e., ~1/400) was obtained at 6 min (2 min × 3 times repeated). It was also confirmed that the ozone foam was useful for the disinfection of hands. For more effective disinfection (in case of taking a long time for foam melting), the ozone foam was broken by force and changed into ozone water by which the survival rate decreased ×4 (i.e., N/N0 = 1/10 000) at 4 ~ 6 min. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  18. Foam generation and sample composition optimization for the FOAM-C experiment of the ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpy, R; Picker, G; Amann, B; Ranebo, H; Vincent-Bonnieu, S; Minster, O; Winter, J; Dettmann, J; Castiglione, L; Höhler, R; Langevin, D

    2011-01-01

    End of 2009 and early 2010 a sealed cell, for foam generation and observation, has been designed and manufactured at Astrium Friedrichshafen facilities. With the use of this cell, different sample compositions of 'wet foams' have been optimized for mixtures of chemicals such as water, dodecanol, pluronic, aethoxisclerol, glycerol, CTAB, SDS, as well as glass beads. This development is performed in the frame of the breadboarding development activities of the Experiment Container FOAM-C for operation in the ISS Fluid Science Laboratory (ISS). The sample cell supports multiple observation methods such as: Diffusing-Wave and Diffuse Transmission Spectrometry, Time Resolved Correlation Spectroscopy and microscope observation, all of these methods are applied in the cell with a relatively small experiment volume 3 . These units, will be on orbit replaceable sets, that will allow multiple sample compositions processing (in the range of >40).

  19. Foam generation and sample composition optimization for the FOAM-C experiment of the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpy, R.; Picker, G.; Amann, B.; Ranebo, H.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Minster, O.; Winter, J.; Dettmann, J.; Castiglione, L.; Höhler, R.; Langevin, D.

    2011-12-01

    End of 2009 and early 2010 a sealed cell, for foam generation and observation, has been designed and manufactured at Astrium Friedrichshafen facilities. With the use of this cell, different sample compositions of "wet foams" have been optimized for mixtures of chemicals such as water, dodecanol, pluronic, aethoxisclerol, glycerol, CTAB, SDS, as well as glass beads. This development is performed in the frame of the breadboarding development activities of the Experiment Container FOAM-C for operation in the ISS Fluid Science Laboratory (ISS). The sample cell supports multiple observation methods such as: Diffusing-Wave and Diffuse Transmission Spectrometry, Time Resolved Correlation Spectroscopy [1] and microscope observation, all of these methods are applied in the cell with a relatively small experiment volume 40).

  20. Experimental Study of Hysteresis behavior of Foam Generation in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.S.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.Y.F.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    Foam can be used for gas mobility control in different subsurface applications. The success of foam-injection process depends on foam-generation and propagation rate inside the porous medium. In some cases, foam properties depend on the history of the flow or concentration of the surfactant,

  1. Experimental Study of Hysteresis behavior of Foam Generation in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrobaei, S; Vincent-Bonnieu, S; Farajzadeh, R

    2017-08-21

    Foam can be used for gas mobility control in different subsurface applications. The success of foam-injection process depends on foam-generation and propagation rate inside the porous medium. In some cases, foam properties depend on the history of the flow or concentration of the surfactant, i.e., the hysteresis effect. Foam may show hysteresis behavior by exhibiting multiple states at the same injection conditions, where coarse-textured foam is converted into strong foam with fine texture at a critical injection velocity or pressure gradient. This study aims to investigate the effects of injection velocity and surfactant concentration on foam generation and hysteresis behavior as a function of foam quality. We find that the transition from coarse-foam to strong-foam (i.e., the minimum pressure gradient for foam generation) is almost independent of flowrate, surfactant concentration, and foam quality. Moreover, the hysteresis behavior in foam generation occurs only at high-quality regimes and when the pressure gradient is below a certain value regardless of the total flow rate and surfactant concentration. We also observe that the rheological behavior of foam is strongly dependent on liquid velocity.

  2. Investigation the foam dynamics capacity of SDS in foam generator by affecting the presence of organic and inorganic contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Bode; Siswarni, M. Z.; Sianipar, Yosef C. H.; Sinaga, Tongam M. A.; Bestari, Imam

    2017-05-01

    The effect of negative charge SDS monomer on its foam capacity with the presence of contaminants was investigated in foam generator. Generally, surfactant with higher concentration has higher foam capacity. The higher concentration will increase the number of monomer then increase the micelles in liquid phase. Increasing the number of monomer with the negative charge is a potential to increase interaction with metal ion with positive charge in solution. The presence of inorganic compound as metal ion with positive charge and organic compound (colloid) as particle of coffee impacting to generate the foam lamella with monomer is evaluated. Foam dynamic capacity of only SDS with variation of CMC, 1 x; 2 x; 3 x have the height 7.5, 8.0 and 8.3 cm respectively with the different range time were investigated. The Height of foam dynamic capacity with the presence of 20 ppm Cd2+ ion contaminant was 8.0, 8.3 and 8.4 cm at the same CMC variation of SDS. The presence of metal ion contaminant within the foam was confirmed by AAS. The black coffee particles and oil as contaminant decreased the foam capacity significantly in comparing to metal ions.

  3. Generation of Microcellular Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Foams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qun; Ren Xian-wen; Chang Yu-ning; Yu Long; Wang Jing-wu

    2004-01-01

    Present now the application of microcellular polymeric materials in biomedical field is growing rapidly, as that of guided tissue regeneration and cell transplantation. As far as guided tissue regeneration is concerned, porous implants are used as size selective membrane to promote the growth of a special tissue in a healing site. Ideally, the implant should be inherently biocompatible,have well-defined cell size and be resorbable with appropriate biodegradation rates.Poly(a-caprolactone) (PCL) is a kind of materials suit for the demands above. PCL is biocompatible and biodegradable aliphatic polyester which is nontoxic for living organisms and bioresorbable after a period of implantation. Because of its unique combination of biocompatibility, permeability and biodegradability, PCL and some of its copolymer with lactides and glycolide have been widely applied in medicine as artificial skin, artificial bone and containers for sustained drug release.Goel and Beckman have reported a new method to generate microcellular poly(methy l methacrylate) foams in which the samples are saturated with CO2 under a series of supercritical (SC)conditions, and then the system is rapidly depressurized to atmospheric pressure at constant temperature. Unlike traditional methods, it reduces glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the mixture to below the experimental temperature rather than directly heat the system above Tg. In this process of nucleation, no phase separation occurs as well as no phase boundary meets, so the cellular structure of the foam can be retained better.In this work, we have generated PCL foams by using supercritical CO2. Because of the low glass transition temperature (Tg = -60 ℃) of PCL far below the ice point, the experimental temperature in our study is much higher than Tg, which is different from the studies by others before. A series of variable factors on the foam structure as saturation temperature, saturation pressure, saturation time and depressurization

  4. Elastic-Plastic Behaviour of Ultrasonic Assisted Compression of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhalim, N. A. D.; Hassan, M. Z.; Daud, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the elastic-plastic behaviour of ultrasonic assisted compression of PVC closed-cell foam. A series of static and ultrasonic compression test of PVC closed-cell foam were conducted at a constant cross head speed of 30 mm/min on dry surface condition. For quasi-static test, specimen was compressed between two rigid platens using universal testing machine. In order to evaluate the specimen behavior under ultrasonic condition, specimen was placed between a specifically design double-slotted block horn and rigid platen. The horn was designed and fabricated prior to the test as a medium to transmit the ultrasonic vibration from the ultrasonic transducer to the working specimen. It was tuned to a frequency of 19.89 kHz in longitudinal mode and provided an average oscillation amplitude at 6 µm on the uppermost surface. Following, the characteristics of stress-strain curves for quasi-static and ultrasonic compression tests were analyzed. It was found that the compressive stress was significantly reduced at the onset of superimposed ultrasonic vibration during plastic deformation.

  5. Elemental concentrations and bioaccessibilities in beached plastic foam litter, with particular reference to lead in polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Lau, Kwan S

    2016-11-15

    Seventy samples of foamed plastic collected from a high-energy, sandy beach in SW England have been characterised by FTIR and XRF. Most samples were polyurethane (PU; n=39) or polystyrene (PS; n=27) that were associated with variable concentrations of Br-Cl, Fe and Zn, indicative of the presence of halogenated flame retardants, iron oxides and Zn-based additives, respectively. Many samples of rigid PU contained Pb, historically used as a catalyst, at concentrations of up to 16,000μgg -1 . A physiological extraction test that simulates the conditions in the gizzard of plastic-ingesting seabirds was applied to selected samples and results revealed that while Br and Zn were not measurably bioaccessible, Pb mobilisation progressed logarithmically over a period of time with maximum accessibilities after 220h of ~10% of total metal. Foamed PU is a source of bioaccessible Pb in the marine environment that has not previously been documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of multishell ICF target plastic-foam cushion materials by thermally induced phase-inversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Moreno, D.K.; Marsters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Homogenous, low-density plastic foams for ICF targets have been prepared by thermally induced phase inversion processes. Uniform, open cell foams have been obtained by the rapid freezing of water solutions of modified cellulose polymers with densities in the range of 5 mg/cm 3 to 0.7 mg/cm 3 and respective average cell sizes of 2 to 40 micrometers. In addition, low-density, microcellular foams have been prepared from the hydrocarbon polymer poly(4-methyl-l-pentene) via a similar phase inversion process using homogenous solutions in organic solvents. These foams have densities from 2 to 5 mg/cm 3 and average cell sizes of 20 micrometers. The physical-chemical aspects of the thermally induced phase inversion process is presented

  7. Infrared signal generation from AC induction field heating of graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando

    2018-02-27

    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam to produce light. An energy conversion device utilizes light energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a light energy consuming function. A device for producing light and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.

  8. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Khanh Huynh; Trinh Vu Duc

    2009-01-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  9. Foam A General Purpose Cellular Monte Carlo Event Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Jadach, Stanislaw

    2003-01-01

    A general purpose, self-adapting, Monte Carlo (MC) event generator (simulator) is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be $n$-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, called ``foam'', is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The choice of the next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyper-plane is driven by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution. As any MC generator, it can also be used for the MC integration. With the typical personal computer CPU, the program is able to perform adaptive integration/simulation at relatively small number of dimensions ($\\leq 16$). With the continu...

  10. Preparation And Characterization Of Silicon Carbide Foam By Using In-Situ Generated Polyurethane Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Saxena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The open cell silicon carbide SiC foam was prepared using highly crosslinked hybrid organic- inorganic polymer resin matrix. As inorganic polymer polycarbosilane was taken and organic resin was taken as a mixture of epoxy resin and diisocyanates. The resultant highly crosslinked hybrid resin matrix on heating and subsequently on pyrolysis yielded open cell silicon carbide foam. The hybrid resin matrix was characterized by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy FT-IR and thermal properties i.e. Thermogravimetric analysis TGA amp Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC were also studied. The morphological studies of silicon carbide ceramic foam were carried out using X-ray Spectroscopy XRD amp Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM.

  11. Encapsulation of low density plastic foam materials for the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX). Control of microstructure and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Keiji; Yang, H.; Iwamoto, A.

    2008-10-01

    Development of foam capsule fabrication for cryogenically cooled fuel targets is overviewed in the present paper. The fabrication development was initiated as a part of the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) Project at the ILE, Osaka University in the way of bilateral collaboration between Osaka University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). A foam cryogenic target was designed where low-density foam shells with a conical light guide will be cooled down to the cryogenic temperature and will be fueled through a narrow pipe. The required diameter and thickness of the capsule are 500 μm and 20 μm, respectively. The material should be low-density plastics foam. We have prepared such capsules using 1) mixtureing a new material of (phloroglucinolcarboxylic acid)/formalin (PF) linear polymer to control kinematic viscosity of the precursor, 2) phase-transfer-catalyzed gelation process to keep density matching of three phases of the emulsion. 3) non-volatile silicone oil as outer oil of emulsion in order to prevent hazard halogenated hydrocarbon and flammable mineral oil. The obtained foam capsule had fine structure of 180 nm (outer surface) to 220 nm (inner surface) and uniform thickness reaching to resolution limit of optical analysis (∼0.5 μm). A small hole was made before the solvent exchange and the drying process to prevent distortion due to volume changes. The density of dried foam was 0.29 g/cm 3 . After attaching the petawatt laser guiding cone and fueling glass tube, poly([2,2]paracyclophane) was coated on the foam surface and supplied for a fueling test of cryogenic hydrogen. Generally, lower density is from larger pore, then precise control of thickness and its encapsulation becomes more difficult. We have clarified the relation between pore size and preparation conditions using several precursor materials, and revealed how to control pore size of low density foams, where the solvent affinity for the polymer chain plays fundamental

  12. Making continuous bubble type polyethylene foam incombustible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako; Hatada, Motoyoshi; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Komai, Kuniaki; Kohara, Choji.

    1989-01-01

    Since continuous bubble type plastic foam has excellent compression characteristics and sound absorption characteristics, it has been widely used as cushion material, sealing material, sound insulating material and so on. However, the most part of plastic foam is taken by air, therefore at the time of fires, it becomes a very dangerous material. At present, the material used mostly as the seat cushions for airliners, railroad coaches, automobiles and others is polyurethane foam, but since it contains C-N couples in its molecules, it is feared to generate cyanic gas according to the condition of combustion. As the plastic foam that does not generate harmful gas at the time of fires, there is continuous bubble type polyethylene which is excellent in its weathering property and chemical resistance. A reactive, phosphorus-containing oligomer has large molecular weight and two or more double couplings in a molecule, therefore, it does not enter the inside of polyethylene, and polymerizes and crosslinks on the surfaces of bubble walls in the foam, accordingly it is expected that the apparent graft polymerization is carried out, and it is very effective for making polyethylene foam incombustible. The method of making graft foam, the properties of graft foam and so on are reported. When the graft polymerization of this oligomer to continuous bubble type polyethylene foam was tried, highly incombustible polyethylene foam was obtained. (K.I.)

  13. Plasticity and damage in aluminum syntactic foams deformed under dynamic and quasi-static conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, Dorian K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); O' Dwyer, John G. [Waterford Institute of Technology (Ireland); Davis, Graham R. [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, George T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dunand, David C. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)]. E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu

    2005-01-25

    Syntactic foams were fabricated by liquid metal infiltration of commercially pure and 7075 aluminum into preforms of hollow ceramic microspheres. The foams exhibited peak strengths during quasi-static compression ranging from -100 to -230 MPa, while dynamic compression loading showed a 10-30% increase in peak strength magnitude, with strain rate sensitivities similar to those of aluminum-matrix composite materials. X-ray tomographic investigation of the post-compression loaded foam microstructures revealed sharp differences in deformation modes, with the unalloyed-Al foam failing initially by matrix deformation, while the alloy-matrix foams failed more abruptly through the formation of sharp crush bands oriented at about 45 deg. to the compression axis. These foams displayed pronounced energy-absorbing capabilities, suggesting their potential use in packaging applications or for impact protection; proper tailoring of matrix and microsphere strengths would result in optimized syntactic foam properties.

  14. An elasto-visco-plastic model for immortal foams or emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénito, S; Bruneau, C-H; Colin, T; Gay, C; Molino, F

    2008-03-01

    A variety of complex fluids consists in soft, round objects (foams, emulsions, assemblies of copolymer micelles or of multilamellar vesicles--also known as onions). Their dense packing induces a slight deviation from their preferred circular or spherical shape. As a frustrated assembly of interacting bodies, such a material evolves from one conformation to another through a succession of discrete, topological events driven by finite external forces. As a result, the material exhibits a finite yield threshold. The individual objects usually evolve spontaneously (colloidal diffusion, object coalescence, molecular diffusion), and the material properties under low or vanishing stress may alter with time, a phenomenon known as aging. We neglect such effects to address the simpler behaviour of (uncommon) immortal fluids: we construct a minimal, fully tensorial, rheological model, equivalent to the (scalar) Bingham model. Importantly, the model consistently describes the ability of such soft materials to deform substantially in the elastic regime (be it compressible or not) before they undergo (incompressible) plastic creep--or viscous flow under even higher stresses.

  15. Next Generation TRD for CREAM Using Gas Straw Tubes and Foam Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A.; Ahn, H.S.; Fedin, O.; Ganel, O.; Han, J.H.; Kim, C.H.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, M.H.; Lutz, L.; Seo, E.S.; Walpole, P.; Wu, J.; Yoo, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Zinn, S.Y.

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to investigate the source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of high energy cosmic-ray nuclei, by directly measuring their energy and charge. Incorporating a transition radiation detector (TRD) provides an energy measurement complementary to the calorimeter, as well as additional track reconstruction capability. The next generation CREAM TRD is designed with 4 mm straw tubes to greatly improve tracking over the previous 20 mm tube design, thereby enhancing charge identification in the silicon charge detector (SCD). Plastic foam provides a weight-efficient radiator that doubles as a mechanical support for the straw layers. This design provides a compact, robust, reliable, low density detector to measure incident nucleus energy for 3 < Z < 30 nuclei in the Lorentz gamma factor range of 102-105. This paper discusses the new TRD design and the low power front end electronics used to achieve the large dynamic range required. Beam test results of a prototype TRD are also reported.

  16. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using “advanced targets”.

  17. Foam generation during G.S. [Girdler sulphide] process and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammirato, Alberto; Rojo, Enrique.

    1989-01-01

    Available literature, from both foreign and local sources, regarding foam generation during Girdler Sulphide (G.S.) process operation, was compiled. Assembly and operation of a loop for hydraulic process conditions simulation, of which further tests are to be expected, is reported. (Author) [es

  18. Combustion modeling including heat loss using flamelet generated manifolds: a validation study in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottino, G.M.; Fancello, A.; Falcone, M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    In numerical combustion applications the Flamelet Generated Manifolds technique (FGM) is being used at an increasingly number of occasions. This technique is an approach to reduce the chemistry efficiently and accurately. In the present work FGM is coupled to an OpenFOAM-based CFD solver. The

  19. Towards numerical simulation of turbulent hydrogen combustion
 based on flamelet generated manifolds in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fancello, A.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an application of the Flamelet-Generated Manifolds (FGM) technique in the OpenFOAM environment. FGM is a chemical reduced method for combustion modeling. This technique treats the combustion process as the solution of a small amount of controlling variables. Regarding laminar

  20. A wave generation toolbox for the open‐source CFD library: OpenFoam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fuhrman, David R.; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The open‐source CFD library OpenFoam® contains a method for solving free surface Newtonian flows using the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations coupled with a volume of fluid method. In this paper, it is demonstrated how this has been extended with a generic wave generation and absorption...... method termed ‘wave relaxation zones’, on which a detailed account is given. The ability to use OpenFoam for the modelling of waves is demonstrated using two benchmark test cases, which show the ability to model wave propagation and wave breaking. Furthermore, the reflection coefficient from outlet...... made freely available through the OpenFoam‐Extend Community....

  1. Combining mechanical foaming and thermally induced phase separation to generate chitosan scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, D P; Tran, P A; Tallon, C; O'Connor, A J

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel foaming methodology consisting of turbulent mixing and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used to generate scaffolds for tissue engineering. Air bubbles were mechanically introduced into a chitosan solution which forms the continuous polymer/liquid phase in the foam created. The air bubbles entrained in the foam act as a template for the macroporous architecture of the final scaffolds. Wet foams were crosslinked via glutaraldehyde and frozen at -20 °C to induce TIPS in order to limit film drainage, bubble coalescence and Ostwald ripening. The effects of production parameters, including mixing speed, surfactant concentration and chitosan concentration, on foaming are explored. Using this method, hydrogel scaffolds were successfully produced with up to 80% porosity, average pore sizes of 120 μm and readily tuneable compressive modulus in the range of 2.6 to 25 kPa relevant to soft tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds supported 3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation and penetration and therefore show significant potential for application in soft tissue engineering.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Wood Plastic Composite Made Up of Durian Husk Fiber and Recycled Polystyrene Foam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koay Seong Chun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene foam is one of the major plastic waste that hardly to recycle. The present research is aims to recycle polystyrene foam as raw material to produce wood plastic composites (WPC. The WPC was produced from recycled polystyrene (rPS and durian husk fiber (DHF using melt compound and compression moulding processes. This paper is focus on effect of fiber content on tensile and thermal properties of rPS/DHF composite. The results found the tensile strength modulus of this WPC increased at higher fiber content, but elongation at break was reduced. However, this composites exhibited an early thermal degradation when subjected to high temperature and this was commonly found among WPC. The thermal degradation of rPS/DHF composites yielded high percentage of char residue due to char formation of DHF. Overall, the rPS/DHF composites with 60 phr fiber content able to achieved strength slight above 16 MPa without any chemical treatment additives. This indicates the rPS/DHF composites can be a potential WPC if further modify with to improve its strength.

  3. Adjusting phenotypes via within- and across-generational plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auge, Gabriela A; Leverett, Lindsay D; Edwards, Brianne R; Donohue, Kathleen

    2017-10-01

    Contents 343 I. 343 II. 343 III. 347 IV. 348 348 References 348 SUMMARY: There is renewed interest in how transgenerational environmental effects, including epigenetic inheritance, contribute to adaptive evolution. The contribution of across-generation plasticity to adaptation, however, needs to be evaluated within the context of within-generation plasticity, which is often proposed to contribute more efficiently to adaptation because of the potentially greater accuracy of progeny than parental cues to predict progeny selective environments. We highlight recent empirical studies of transgenerational plasticity, and find that they do not consistently support predictions based on the higher predictive ability of progeny environmental cues. We discuss these findings within the context of the relative predictive ability of maternal and progeny cues, costs and constraints of plasticity in parental and progeny generations, and the dynamic nature of the adaptive value of within- and across-generation plasticity that varies with the process of adaptation itself. Such contingent and dynamically variable selection could account for the diversity of patterns of within- and across-generation plasticity observed in nature, and can influence the adaptive value of the persistence of environmental effects across generations. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. On the plastic collapse stress of open-cell aluminum foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Onck, P. R.

    Duocel open-cell aluminum foam (20 PPI) was tested with the long axis of the cells oriented longitudinal or transverse to the loading direction, and for both orientations the samples were both annealed and heat treated. Using the extrapolated stiffness at zero per cent strain, the strain-hardening

  5. Polystyrene Foam EOS as a Function of Porosity and Fill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Roberta; Swift, Damian

    2009-06-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam, Differences between air-filled, nitrogen-blown, and CO2-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with plastic products during decomposition. Results differ somewhat from the conventional EOS, which are generated from values for plastic extrapolated to low densities.

  6. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  7. Destabilization, Propagation, and Generation of Surfactant-Stabilized Foam during Crude Oil Displacement in Heterogeneous Model Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Siyang; Zeng, Yongchao; Vavra, Eric D; He, Peng; Puerto, Maura; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani L

    2018-01-23

    Foam flooding in porous media is of increasing interest due to its numerous applications such as enhanced oil recovery, aquifer remediation, and hydraulic fracturing. However, the mechanisms of oil-foam interactions have yet to be fully understood at the pore level. Here, we present three characteristic zones identified in experiments involving the displacement of crude oil from model porous media via surfactant-stabilized foam, and we describe a series of pore-level dynamics in these zones which were not observed in experiments involving paraffin oil. In the displacement front zone, foam coalesces upon initial contact with crude oil, which is known to destabilize the liquid lamellae of the foam. Directly upstream, a transition zone occurs where surface wettability is altered from oil-wet to water-wet. After this transition takes place, a strong foam bank zone exists where foam is generated within the porous media. We visualized each zone using a microfluidic platform, and we discuss the unique physicochemical phenomena that define each zone. In our analysis, we also provide an updated mechanistic understanding of the "smart rheology" of foam which builds upon simple "phase separation" observations in the literature.

  8. Sodium borohydride hydrogen generator using Co–P/Ni foam catalysts for 200 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Taek Hyun; Gang, Byeong Gyu; Kim, Hyuntak; Kwon, Sejin

    2015-01-01

    The response characteristics of electroless-deposited Co–P/Ni foam catalysts for sodium borohydride hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of nickel foam geometry on the properties of the catalysts was evaluated. As the PPI (pores per inch) of the nickel foam increased, the hydrogen generation rate per gram of the deposited catalyst increased due to an increase in surface area. The response characteristics of various catalysts were compared under real operating conditions. When a thin nickel foam with high PPI was used, the response characteristics of the catalyst improved due to an increase in the amount of the deposited catalyst and surface area. Finally, a 200 W PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system using electroless-deposited Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst was investigated. The response time to reach a hydrogen generation rate sufficient for a 200 W PEMFC was 71 s, and the energy density of a 200 W fuel cell system for producing 600 Wh was 252.1 Wh/kg. A fuel cell system using Co–P/Ni foam catalysts can be widely used as a power source for mobile applications due to fast response characteristics and high energy density. - Highlights: • Response characteristics of Co–P/Ni foam catalysts are investigated. • Catalytic activity is improved with increase in PPI (pores per inch) of Ni foam. • Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst has improved response characteristics. • The energy density of a 200 W PEMFC system for producing 600 Wh is 252.1 Wh/kg. • Co–P/Ni foam (110 PPI) catalyst is suitable for fuel cell system.

  9. Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Aluminum Foams Subjected to Compression Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H. M.; Carvalho, C. D.; Peixinho, N. R.

    2017-05-01

    The non-linear behavior of uniform-size cellular foams made of aluminum is investigated when subjected to compressive loads while comparing numerical results obtained in the Finite Element Method software (FEM) ANSYS workbench and ANSYS Mechanical APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). The numerical model is built on AUTODESK INVENTOR, being imported into ANSYS and solved by the Newton-Raphson iterative method. The most similar conditions were used in ANSYS mechanical and ANSYS workbench, as possible. The obtained numerical results and the differences between the two programs are presented and discussed

  10. Structural integrity of power generating speed bumps made of concrete foam composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, B.; Muttaqin, M.; Hastrino, D.; Sebayang, A.; Basuki, W. S.; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper concrete foam composite speed bumps were designed to generate electrical power by utilizing the movements of commuting vehicles on highways, streets, parking gates, and drive-thru station of fast food restaurants. The speed bumps were subjected to loadings generated by vehicles pass over the power generating mechanical system. In this paper, we mainly focus our discussion on the structural integrity of the speed bumps and discuss the electrical power generating speed bumps in another paper. One aspect of structural integrity is its ability to support designed loads without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs. The concrete foam composites were used for the speed bumps; the reinforcement materials are selected from empty fruit bunch of oil palm. In this study, the speed bump materials and structure were subjected to various tests to obtain its physical and mechanical properties. To analyze the structure stability of the speed bumps some models were produced and tested in our speed bump test station. We also conduct a FEM-based computer simulation to analyze stress responses of the speed bump structures. It was found that speed bump type 1 significantly reduced the radial voltage. In addition, the speed bump is equipped with a steel casing is also suitable for use as a component component in generating electrical energy.

  11. Formulation of chemically reactive foams for the dissolution of oxides polluting the secondary circuits of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provens, Helene

    1999-01-01

    The fouling of the Steam Generators (SG) secondary circuits, due to oxides deposits like magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), induces the degradation of the internal SG equipment, the reduction of the plant power, implying to clean these circuits. This operation made in liquid phase generates an important volume of effluents with an expensive cost of treatment. The use of a reactive foam allows the reduction of this volume by ten. Among the reactive tested, oxalic acid is the most efficient to dissolve a magnetite quantity of 10 g.l -1 , at ambient temperature for 24 hours, as imposed by the industrial wishes. The dissolution is not complete in our experimental conditions and is a complex reaction of autocatalytic type, composed of an acid attack, a reductive step, both followed by a slow diffusion. The surfactants generating the foam, which transport the reactive, are adsorbed on the magnetite but this affects weakly the dissolution. Its effectiveness is evaluated varying the experimental conditions. The wetting properties and the stability of the foam induce erosion and undissolved particles transport capacities, during its circulation into the SG. These particles trapped in the inter-bubble liquid films or carried by the piston effect of the foam bed, can be recovered on filters placed out of the SG. To quantify the transport, the influence of different parameters is studied: the more stable the foam is, the more important the transport is. Innocuousness tests showed that oxalic acid was not harmful for constitutive SG materials, either they were isolated or coupled. The cleaning by oxalic acid causes ferrous oxalates precipitation, representing 10 to 15 pc of the total iron quantity depending on the sample. A rinsing out with a foam containing 1 pc oxalic acid and 5 pc hydrogen peroxide allows the dissolution of these precipitates without corrosion problems. (author) [fr

  12. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and secondary belt-conveyor drives. 75.1101 Section 75.1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor... be installed at main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. ...

  13. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge foam to the belt drive, belt takeup, electrical controls, gear reducing unit and the conveyor belt..., electrical controls, gear reducing unit, and the conveyor belt over a distance of 50 feet; and, (2) At... electrical controls, gear reducing unit, and the conveyor belt over a distance of 150 feet. (c) The foam...

  15. Grandparental effects in marine sticklebacks: transgenerational plasticity across multiple generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, L N S; Wegner, K M

    2014-11-01

    Nongenetic inheritance mechanisms such as transgenerational plasticity (TGP) can buffer populations against rapid environmental change such as ocean warming. Yet, little is known about how long these effects persist and whether they are cumulative over generations. Here, we tested for adaptive TGP in response to simulated ocean warming across parental and grandparental generations of marine sticklebacks. Grandparents were acclimated for two months during reproductive conditioning, whereas parents experienced developmental acclimation, allowing us to compare the fitness consequences of short-term vs. prolonged exposure to elevated temperature across multiple generations. We found that reproductive output of F1 adults was primarily determined by maternal developmental temperature, but carry-over effects from grandparental acclimation environments resulted in cumulative negative effects of elevated temperature on hatching success. In very early stages of growth, F2 offspring reached larger sizes in their respective paternal and grandparental environment down the paternal line, suggesting that other factors than just the paternal genome may be transferred between generations. In later growth stages, maternal and maternal granddam environments strongly influenced offspring body size, but in opposing directions, indicating that the mechanism(s) underlying the transfer of environmental information may have differed between acute and developmental acclimation experienced by the two generations. Taken together, our results suggest that the fitness consequences of parental and grandparental TGP are highly context dependent, but will play an important role in mediating some of the impacts of rapid climate change in this system. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Nanostructured pseudocapacitive materials decorated 3D graphene foam electrodes for next generation supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Umakant; Lee, Su Chan; Kulkarni, Sachin; Sohn, Ji Soo; Nam, Min Sik; Han, Suhyun; Jun, Seong Chan

    2015-04-28

    Nowadays, advancement in performance of proficient multifarious electrode materials lies conclusively at the core of research concerning energy storage devices. To accomplish superior capacitance performance the requirements of high capacity, better cyclic stability and good rate capability can be expected from integration of electrochemical double layer capacitor based carbonaceous materials (high power density) and pseudocapacitive based metal hydroxides/oxides or conducting polymers (high energy density). The envisioned three dimensional (3D) graphene foams are predominantly advantageous to extend potential applicability by offering a large active surface area and a highly conductive continuous porous network for fast charge transfer with decoration of nanosized pseudocapacitive materials. In this article, we review the latest methodologies and performance evaluation for several 3D graphene based metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymer electrodes with improved electrochemical properties for next-generation supercapacitors. The most recent research advancements of our and other groups in the field of 3D graphene based electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. To assess the studied materials fully, a careful interpretation and rigorous scrutiny of their electrochemical characteristics is essential. Auspiciously, both nano-structuration as well as confinement of metal hydroxides/oxides and conducting polymers onto a conducting porous 3D graphene matrix play a great role in improving the performance of electrodes mainly due to: (i) active material access over large surface area with fast charge transportation; (ii) synergetic effect of electric double layer and pseudocapacitive based charge storing.

  17. British Association of Plastic Surgeons Program from another generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2010-05-01

    To Compare the Association's Summer Programs of 1971 and 2008. I attended the 1971 meeting of BAPS that was held in London and kept the program. I compared the content of that meeting with the 2008 Provisional Program. A blow-up of that 1971 program will be the highlight of the poster. The 1971 meeting's registration fee was 10 pounds for me as an overseas non-member registering at the desk compared to the current fee of 500 pounds. The meeting was three day long, but only one day was devoted to papers. The first and third days of the meeting were devoted to watching live cranio-facial surgery performed by Tessier at the Hospital for Sick Children. To make the length of these televised sessions more tolerable, a cash bar was available and lunch including beer and squash were served from noon until 4 pm followed by tea from 4 pm to 6 pm Dinner Jackets were required for the 1971 Association dinner compared with dark lounge suits in 2008. In contrast to 2008, the 1971 scientific program consisted of only 13 papers of which all but five were written by single authors. Seven of the papers were published in the British Journal of Plastic Surgery. There were no cosmetic and no breast papers. There were no poster sessions. There were no panel discussions. There were no exhibits. The 1971 meeting was truly from another generation in both its form and content. Copyright (c) 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile synthesis of polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam with catalytic activity comparable to Pt for the poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Li, Kan; Shen, Zhemin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam is facilely prepared through the potentiostatic electrodeposition. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam functions as a hydrogen-evolution cathode in a rotating disk photocatalytic fuel cell, in which hydrogen energy and electric power are generated by consuming organic wastes. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam cathode exhibits stable catalytic activities after thirteen continuous runs. Compared with net or plate structure, the Ni foam with a unique three-dimensional reticulate structure is conducive to the electrodeposition of PPy. Compared with Pt-group electrode, PPy-coated Ni foam shows a satisfactory catalytic performance for the H2 evolution. The combination of PPy and Ni forms a synergistic effect for the rapid trapping and removal of proton from solution and the catalytic reduction of proton to hydrogen. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam could be applied in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical generation of H2. In all, we report a low cost, high efficient and earth abundant PPy-functionalized Ni foam with a satisfactory catalytic activities comparable to Pt for the practical application of poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity.

  19. Analysis of Water Mist Suppression with Foam Additive in Wind Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Wei Chiu[1; Yin-Tsz Lin[1; Yi-Liang Shu[2

    2015-01-01

    The study adopted a 20-foot long container to simulate the situation inside a turbine cabin. Water mist sprays were installed internally and used to perform fire extinguishing tests. Under these different scenarios, several operating factors were adjusted with the results of each adjustment subsequently measured. The operating factors studied included: operating pressures, foam concentrations, cabin opening issues, and obstacles. Each of the factors was compared with the others so as to find out which combinations would be most suitable for a water mist spray system installed inside a wind turbine cabin. The presence of obstructions hinders the direct impact of the mist spray on the fire source and in average an additional 2 to 3 minutes is required to put out the fire. This study found that the effect of the foam-water ratio is linear. Regardless of the scenario, the optimum mixture ratio is 3%. The line graph shows that the most unsuitable aqueous film-forming mixture ratio is 6%. This experiment found that the main fire extinguishing mechanism of water mist spray is the cooling of a large area via water droplets. This system is very effective in bringing down the temperature. The addition of foam in water mist spray, however, impaired the effectiveness of the cooling effect although the fire control mechanism via emulsification markedly reduced the time required to put out the fire. The increase in foam magnification will considerably enhance the fire extinguishing efficiency.

  20. Plasticity to canopy shade in a monocarpic herb: within- and between-generation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Laura F; Etterson, Julie R

    2009-06-01

    Plants exhibit plasticity in response to their current environment and, in some cases, to that of the previous generation (i.e. maternal effects). However, few studies have evaluated both within- and between-generation plasticities and the extent to which they interact to influence fitness, especially in natural environments. The plasticity of adult traits to two generations of natural differences in light was determined for Campanulastrum americanum, a forest-edge herb that expresses annual and biennial life histories. Plasticity was found to an individual's light environment (within generation) and the maternal light environment (between generations). Responses to ambient light for size traits and timing of flowering were probably passive, whereas apparently adaptive responses were found for light acquisition traits. Maternal light influenced the expression of most adult traits but had the strongest effect when plants were germinated in natural environments. The transgenerational effects of light were consistent with adaptive plasticity for several traits. Plastic within-generation changes in flowering time may also result in adaptive between-generation effects by altering the offspring life history schedule. Finally, the results underscore the importance of conducting studies of within- and between-generation plasticity in natural populations, where the environmental context is relevant to that in which the traits evolved.

  1. Is there a digital generation gap for e-learning in plastic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Roger J G; Hamilton, Neil M

    2012-01-01

    Some authors have claimed that those plastic surgeons born between 1965 and 1979 (generation X, or Gen-X) are more technologically able than those born between 1946 and 1964 (Baby Boomers, or BB). Those born after 1980, which comprise generation Y (Gen-Y), might be the most technologically able and most demanding for electronic learning (e-learning) to support their education and training in plastic surgery. These differences might represent a "digital generation gap" and would have practical and financial implications for the development of e-learning. The aim of this study was to survey plastic surgeons on their experience and preferences in e-learning in plastic surgery and to establish whether there was a difference between different generations. Online survey (e-survey) of plastic surgeons within the UK and Ireland was used for this study. In all, 624 plastic surgeons were invited by e-mail to complete an e-survey anonymously for their experience of e-learning in plastic surgery, whether they would like access to e-learning and, if so, whether this should this be provided nationally, locally, or not at all. By stratifying plastic surgeons into three generations (BB, Gen-X, and Gen-Y), the responses between generations were compared using the χ(2)-test for linear trend. A p value learning. These findings refute the claim that there are differences in the experience of e-learning of plastic surgeons by generation. Furthermore, there is no evidence that there are differences in whether there should be access to e-learning and how e-learning should be provided for different generations of plastic surgeons. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Review, mapping and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifania; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Scarascia, Giacomo; Picuno, Pietro; Guarde, Dorleta; Dejean, Cyril

    2013-12-01

    A review of agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe is presented. A detailed geographical mapping of the agricultural plastic use and waste generation in Europe was conducted focusing on areas of high concentration of agricultural plastics. Quantitative data and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation by category, geographical distribution and compositional range, and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste per use and the temporal distribution of the waste generation are presented. Data were collected and cross-checked from a variety of sources, including European, national and regional services and organizations, local agronomists, retailers and farmers, importers and converters. Missing data were estimated indirectly based on the recorded cultivated areas and the characteristics of the agricultural plastics commonly used in the particular regions. The temporal distribution, the composition and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste streams were mapped by category and by application. This study represents the first systematic effort to map and analyse agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

  3. Network reconfiguration and neuronal plasticity in rhythm-generating networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Henner; Garcia, Alfredo J; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2011-12-01

    Neuronal networks are highly plastic and reconfigure in a state-dependent manner. The plasticity at the network level emerges through multiple intrinsic and synaptic membrane properties that imbue neurons and their interactions with numerous nonlinear properties. These properties are continuously regulated by neuromodulators and homeostatic mechanisms that are critical to maintain not only network stability and also adapt networks in a short- and long-term manner to changes in behavioral, developmental, metabolic, and environmental conditions. This review provides concrete examples from neuronal networks in invertebrates and vertebrates, and illustrates that the concepts and rules that govern neuronal networks and behaviors are universal.

  4. Structural applications of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammadreza

    Metal foam is a relatively new and potentially revolutionary material that allows for components to be replaced with elements capable of large energy dissipation, or components to be stiffened with elements which will generate significant supplementary energy dissipation when buckling occurs. Metal foams provide a means to explore reconfiguring steel structures to mitigate cross-section buckling in many cases and dramatically increase energy dissipation in all cases. The microstructure of metal foams consists of solid and void phases. These voids have random shape and size. Therefore, randomness ,which is introduced into metal foams during the manufacturing processes, creating more uncertainty in the behavior of metal foams compared to solid steel. Therefore, studying uncertainty in the performance metrics of structures which have metal foams is more crucial than for conventional structures. Therefore, in this study, structural application of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty is presented. This study applies the Sobol' decomposition of a function of many random variables to different problem in structural mechanics. First, the Sobol' decomposition itself is reviewed and extended to cover the case in which the input random variables have Gaussian distribution. Then two examples are given for a polynomial function of 3 random variables and the collapse load of a two story frame. In the structural example, the Sobol' decomposition is used to decompose the variance of the response, the collapse load, into contributions from the individual input variables. This decomposition reveals the relative importance of the individual member yield stresses in determining the collapse load of the frame. In applying the Sobol' decomposition to this structural problem the following issues are addressed: calculation of the components of the Sobol' decomposition by Monte Carlo simulation; the effect of input distribution on the Sobol' decomposition

  5. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  6. Plastic surgery marketing in a generation of "tweeting".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy W; Gupta, Subhas C

    2011-11-01

    "Social media" describes interactive communication through Web-based technologies. It has become an everyday part of modern life, yet there is a lack of research regarding its impact on plastic surgery practice. The authors evaluate and compare the prevalence of classic marketing methods and social media in plastic surgery. The Web sites of aesthetic surgeons from seven US cities were compared and evaluated for the existence of Facebook, Twitter, or MySpace links and promotions. To find the sites, the authors conducted a Google search for the phrase "plastic surgery" with the name of each city to be studied: Beverly Hills, California; Dallas, Texas; Houston, Texas; Las Vegas, Nevada; Miami, Florida; New York City, New York; and San Francisco, California. The trends of social networking memberships were also studied in each of these cities. In comparison to aesthetic surgeons practicing in other cities, those in Miami, Florida, favored social media the most, with 50% promoting a Facebook page and 46% promoting Twitter. Fifty-six percent of New York City aesthetic surgeons promoted their featured articles in magazines and newspapers, whereas 54% of Beverly Hills aesthetic surgeons promoted their television appearances. An increase in the number of new Facebook memberships among cosmetic providers in the seven cities began in October 2008 and reached a peak in October, November, and December 2009, with subsequent stabilization. The increase in the number of new Twitter memberships began in July 2008 and remained at a steady rate of approximately 15 new memberships every three months. Social media may seem like a new and unique communication tool, but it is important to preserve professionalism and apply traditional Web site-building ethics and principles to these sites. We can expect continued growth in plastic surgeons' utilization of these networks to enhance their practices and possibly to launch direct marketing campaigns.

  7. Trans?generational plasticity in response to immune challenge is constrained by heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Olivia; Landis, Susanne H.

    2017-01-01

    Trans-generational plasticity is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of trans-generational plasticity. For the first tim...

  8. Characterization of long-scale-length plasmas produced from plastic foam targets for laser plasma instability (LPI) research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2017-10-01

    We report on an experimental effort to produce plasmas with long scale lengths for the study of parametric instabilities, such as two plasmon decay (TPD) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), under conditions relevant to fusion plasma. In the current experiment, plasmas are formed from low density (10-100 mg/cc) CH foam targets irradiated by Nike krypton fluoride laser pulses (λ = 248 nm, 1 nsec FWHM) with energies up to 1 kJ. This experiment is conducted with two primary diagnostics: the grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR) to measure electron density and temperature profiles of the coronas, and time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration to examine scattered light features of TPD or SRS. Nike-GIR was recently upgraded with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) to access plasma regions near quarter critical density of 248 nm light (4.5 ×1021 cm-3). The results will be discussed with data obtained from 120 μm scale-length plasmas created on solid CH targets in previous LPI experiments at Nike. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  9. Generation of transportation fuel from solid municipal waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin

    2010-09-15

    Transportation fuels derived from fossil fuels are subjected to the price fluctuations of the global marketplace, and constitute a major expense in the operation of a vehicle. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these fuels contribute to a range of environmental problems, causing poor air quality and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuels created from domestic sources have been proposed as a solution to these problems, and many fuels are being developed based on biomass and other renewable sources. Natural State Research, Inc. developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel which is produced from waste plastic materials.

  10. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  11. Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity within- and across-generations: a challenge for theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew R; Cooley, Frank; Biles, Kelsey; Munch, Stephan B

    2015-01-07

    Much work has shown that the environment can induce non-genetic changes in phenotype that span multiple generations. Theory predicts that predictable environmental variation selects for both increased within- and across-generation responses. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, there are no empirical tests of this prediction. We explored the relationship between within- versus across-generation plasticity by evaluating the influence of predator cues on the life-history traits of Daphnia ambigua. We measured the duration of predator-induced transgenerational effects, determined when transgenerational responses are induced, and quantified the cues that activate transgenerational plasticity. We show that predator exposure during embryonic development causes earlier maturation and increased reproductive output. Such effects are detectable two generations removed from predator exposure and are similar in magnitude in response to exposure to cues emitted by injured conspecifics. Moreover, all experimental contexts and traits yielded a negative correlation between within- versus across-generation responses. That is, responses to predator cues within- and across-generations were opposite in sign and magnitude. Although many models address transgenerational plasticity, none of them explain this apparent negative relationship between within- and across-generation plasticities. Our results highlight the need to refine the theory of transgenerational plasticity. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser imprint reduction with a shaping pulse, oscillatory Richtmyer-Meshkov to Rayleigh-Taylor transition and other coherent effects in plastic-foam targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, N.; Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Mostovych, A.N.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gardner, J.H.; Aglitskiy, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A substantial reduction of the laser imprint with a short, low-energy 'shaping' laser pulse incident upon a foam-plastic sandwich target prior to the main laser pulse has been demonstrated to be possible [Metzler et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 5050 (2002)]. Nonuniformity of this shaping pulse, however, produces standing sonic waves in the target. Laser-imprinted seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth then emerge from the interaction of these waves with the strong shock wave launched by the drive laser pulse. Such coherent interaction between different waves and modes perturbed at the same wavelength is shown to be important in a variety of situations relevant to the inertial confinement fusion studies. As an example, an oscillatory transition from the classical Richtmyer-Meshkov shock-interface instability development to the RT growth exhibiting a characteristic phase reversal in a target of finite thickness is described. Another example refers to the feedout mechanism of seeding the perturbations that come from the nonuniformities of the rear (inner) surface of the laser target. The coherent interaction between the strong shock wave from the main laser pulse and the rippled rarefaction wave produced by a low-intensity foot of the pulse produces observable effects, such as an extra phase reversal compared to the case of no foot. Some of these predictions are shown to be consistent with our new experimental results obtained in the feedout geometry on the Nike laser facility [S. P. Obenschain et al. Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)

  13. Use of pultruded reinforced plastics in energy generation and energy related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.

    Applications of pultrusion-formed fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) in the wind, oil, and coal derived energy industries are reviewed. FRP is noted to be a viable alternative to wood, aluminum, and steel for reasons of availability, price, and weight. Attention is given to the development of FRP wind turbine blades for the DOE 8 kW low cost, high reliability wind turbine program. The blades feature a NACA 23112 profile with a 15 in. chord on the system which was tested at Rocky Flats, CO. Fabricating the blades involved a plus and minus 45 deg roving orientation, a heavy fiber-glass nose piece to assure blade strength, and a separately manufactured foam core. Additional uses for FRP products have been found in the structural members of coal stack scrubbers using a vinyl ester resin in a fire retardant formulation, and as low cost, light weight sucker rods for deep well oil drilling.

  14. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students. PMID:27013852

  15. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.

  16. Investigation of the pressure generated in the mould cavity during polyurethane integral skin foam moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An industrial scale measuring system was set up to investigate the pressure arising in the mould cavity during polyurethane integral skin foaming. The system is able to measure the pressure arising in the mould cavity and the pressure distribution using a piezoresistive pressure sensor. The pressure distribution was measured at 18 points along the mould surface at constant production parameters. Then six production parameters, which affect the pressure, were investigated in detail with the Taguchi method of experimental design. The results of the design were processed by ANOVA (analysis of variance. Three major influencing parameters were estimated by regression analysis. Finally an equation was developed to give a good estimation to the pressure arising in the mould cavity.

  17. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  18. Offspring reaction norms shaped by parental environment: interaction between within- and trans-generational plasticity of inducible defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Luquet, Emilien; Tariel, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Background Within-generational plasticity (WGP) and transgenerational plasticity (TGP) are mechanisms allowing rapid adaptive responses to fluctuating environments without genetic change. These forms of plasticity have often been viewed as independent processes. Recent evidence suggests that WGP is altered by the environmental conditions experienced by previous generations (i.e., TGP). In the context of inducible defenses, one of the most studied cases of plasticity, the WGP x TGP interaction...

  19. Transgenerational plasticity of reproduction depends on rate of warming across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Wong, Marian; Booth, David J; Munday, Philip L

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the impacts of climate change to biological systems requires an understanding of the ability for species to acclimate to the projected environmental change through phenotypic plasticity. Determining the effects of higher temperatures on individual performance is made more complex by the potential for environmental conditions experienced in previous and current generations to independently affect phenotypic responses to high temperatures. We used a model coral reef fish ( Acanthochromis polyacanthus ) to investigate the influence of thermal conditions experienced by two generations on reproductive output and the quality of offspring produced by adults. We found that more gradual warming over two generations, +1.5°C in the first generation and then +3.0°C in the second generation, resulted in greater plasticity of reproductive attributes, compared to fish that experienced the same increase in one generation. Reproduction ceased at the projected future summer temperature (31.5°C) when fish experienced +3.0°C for two generations. Additionally, we found that transgenerational plasticity to +1.5°C induced full restoration of thermally affected reproductive and offspring attributes, which was not possible with developmental plasticity alone. Our results suggest that transgenerational effects differ depending on the absolute thermal change and in which life stage the thermal change is experienced.

  20. Reaching Our Successors: Millennial Generation Medical Students and Plastic Surgery as a Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.

  1. Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity within- and across-generations: a challenge for theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Cooley, Frank; Biles, Kelsey; Munch, Stephan B.

    2015-01-01

    Much work has shown that the environment can induce non-genetic changes in phenotype that span multiple generations. Theory predicts that predictable environmental variation selects for both increased within- and across-generation responses. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, there are no empirical tests of this prediction. We explored the relationship between within- versus across-generation plasticity by evaluating the influence of predator cues on the life-history traits of Daphnia ambigua...

  2. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  3. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm 3 and cell sizes of 30μm or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure

  4. Influence of flow stress choice on the plastic collapse estimation of axially cracked steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkovic, Zdenko; Skozrit, Ivica; Alfirevic, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the choice of flow stress on the plastic collapse estimation of axially cracked steam generator (SG) tubes is considered. The plastic limit and collapse loads of thick-walled tubes with external axial semi-elliptical surface cracks are investigated by three-dimensional non-linear finite element (FE) analyses. The limit pressure solution as a function of the crack depth, length and tube geometry has been developed on the basis of extensive FE limit load analyses employing the elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour and small strain theory. Unlike the existing solutions, the newly developed analytical approximation of the plastic limit pressure for thick-walled tubes is applicable to a wide range of crack dimensions. Further, the plastic collapse analysis with a real strain-hardening material model and a large deformation theory is performed and an analytical approximation for the estimation of the flow stress is proposed. Numerical results show that the flow stress, defined by some failure assessment diagram (FAD) methods, depends not only on the tube material, but also on the crack geometry. It is shown that the plastic collapse pressure results, in the case of deeper cracks obtained by using the flow stress as the average of the yield stress and the ultimate tensile strength, can become unsafe

  5. The role of adaptive trans-generational plasticity in biological invasions of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) that confers greater offspring fitness is likely to be an important mechanism contributing to the spread of some invasive plant species. TGP is predicted for populations found in habitats with predictable spatial or temporal resource heterogeneity, and that have ...

  6. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  7. Ancestral diet leads to dynamic transgenerational plasticity for five generations in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Mikheyev, Alexander; Emborski, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Ancestral exposures can influence phenotypic expression in subsequent generations, which influence diverse biological processes ranging from phenotypic plasticity to obesity. Currently, most transgenerational studies work under the assumption of transgenerational response stability and reproducibility through time and across exposure differences, relying on short-term (i.e. 2-3 generations) single-exposure experiments. Yet, little evidence exists in the literature to validate this assumption,...

  8. Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.

  9. Developmental systems of plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serobyan, Vahan; Sommer, Ralf J

    2017-08-01

    Several decades of research provided detailed insight into how genes control development and evolution, whereas recent studies have expanded this purely genetic perspective by presenting strong evidence for environmental and epigenetic influences. We summarize examples of phenotypic plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in the nematode model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, which indicate that the response of developmental systems to environmental influences is hardwired into the organismś genome. We argue that genetic programs regulating these organismal-environmental interactions are themselves subject to natural selection. Indeed, macro-evolutionary studies of nematode feeding structures indicate evolutionary trajectories in which plasticity followed by genetic assimilation results in extreme diversity highlighting the role of plasticity as major facilitator of phenotypic diversification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability of metallic foams studied under microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wuebben, T; Banhart, J; Odenbach, S

    2003-01-01

    Metal foams are prepared by mixing a metal powder and a gas-releasing blowing agent, by densifying the mix to a dense precursor and finally foaming by melting the powder compact. The foaming process of aluminium foams is monitored in situ by x-ray radioscopy. One observes that foam evolution is accompanied by film rupture processes which lead to foam coalescence. In order to elucidate the importance of oxides for foam stability, lead foams were manufactured from lead powders having two different oxide contents. The two foam types were generated on Earth and under weightlessness during parabolic flights. The measurements show that the main function of oxide particles is to prevent coalescence, while their influence on bulk viscosity of the melt is of secondary importance.

  11. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  12. A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Wave-Generated Foam Patterns in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    generated turbulence in laboratory wave tanks (Ting and Nelson 2011, Ting 2013, Ting and Reimnitz 2015). However, these techniques have yet to be adapted...These turbulent properties are important to categorize because they drive processes like sediment transport, water clarity, and the transport of...bubbles. In a wave tank , Nadaoka et al. (1989) observed that in the wave breaking region two types of eddies develop, namely horizontal eddies and ODEs

  13. The role of adaptive trans-generational plasticity in biological invasions of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, Andrew R; Brown, Cynthia S; Espeland, Erin K; McKay, John K; Meimberg, Harald; Rice, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    High-impact biological invasions often involve establishment and spread in disturbed, high-resource patches followed by establishment and spread in biotically or abiotically stressful areas. Evolutionary change may be required for the second phase of invasion (establishment and spread in stressful areas) to occur. When species have low genetic diversity and short selection history, within-generation phenotypic plasticity is often cited as the mechanism through which spread across multiple hab...

  14. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  15. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  16. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  17. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  18. Foam Microrheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAYNIK, ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG, MICHAEL; REINELT, DOUGLAS A.

    1999-01-01

    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams

  19. Trans-generational plasticity in response to immune challenge is constrained by heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Olivia; Landis, Susanne H

    2017-06-01

    Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring. We fully reciprocally exposed the parental generation of the pipefish Syngnathus typhle to an immune challenge and elevated temperatures simulating a naturally occurring heatwave. Upon mating and male pregnancy, offspring were kept in ambient or elevated temperature regimes combined with a heat-killed bacterial epitope treatment. Differential gene expression (immune genes and DNA- and histone-modification genes) suggests that the combined change of an abiotic and a biotic factor in the parental generation had interactive effects on offspring performance, the temperature effect dominated over the immune challenge impact. The benefits of certain parental environmental conditions on offspring performance did not sum up when abiotic and biotic factors were changed simultaneously supporting that available resources that can be allocated to phenotypic trans-generational effects are limited. Temperature is the master regulator of trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, which potentially implies a conflict in the allocation of resources towards several environmental factors. This asks for a reassessment of TGP as a short-term option to buffer environmental variation in the light of climate change.

  20. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  1. Determination of elastic-plastic properties of Alporas foam at the cell-wall level using microscale-cantilever bending tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doktor, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Zlámal, Petr; Fíla, Tomáš; Jiroušek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2015), s. 203-206 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0824 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : aluminium foam * cantilever bending * micromechanics * optical strain measurement Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2015 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit152/doktor.pdf

  2. Numerical modeling of foam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheddadi, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)

  3. The role of adaptive trans-generational plasticity in biological invasions of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Andrew R; Brown, Cynthia S; Espeland, Erin K; McKay, John K; Meimberg, Harald; Rice, Kevin J

    2010-03-01

    High-impact biological invasions often involve establishment and spread in disturbed, high-resource patches followed by establishment and spread in biotically or abiotically stressful areas. Evolutionary change may be required for the second phase of invasion (establishment and spread in stressful areas) to occur. When species have low genetic diversity and short selection history, within-generation phenotypic plasticity is often cited as the mechanism through which spread across multiple habitat types can occur. We show that trans-generational plasticity (TGP) can result in pre-adapted progeny that exhibit traits associated with increased fitness both in high-resource patches and in stressful conditions. In the invasive sedge, Cyperus esculentus, maternal plants growing in nutrient-poor patches can place disproportional number of propagules into nutrient-rich patches. Using the invasive annual grass, Aegilops triuncialis, we show that maternal response to soil conditions can confer greater stress tolerance in seedlings in the form of greater photosynthetic efficiency. We also show TGP for a phenological shift in a low resource environment that results in greater stress tolerance in progeny. These lines of evidence suggest that the maternal environment can have profound effects on offspring success and that TGP may play a significant role in some plant invasions.

  4. USING BIOPOLYMERS TO STABILIZE THE PROTEIN OXYGEN FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nepovinnyh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cottage cheese whey as an oxygen cocktail foaming base and natural juices as a flavoring ingredient are analyzed. The lifetime of foam generated by the serum proteins is not long: foam falls off rapidly; because from the foam liquid is released (syneresis. The effects of plant polysaccharides on the stabilization of the protein foam oxygen cocktail is studied. It was shown that the use of plant polysaccharides (guar gum, high methoxyl citrus pectin, locust been gum prolong the life of the foam up to 20 times, compared with conventional blowing agents. It was found that oxygen foam properties depend on the molecular weight of guar gum.

  5. Development of high-flexible triboelectric generators using plastic metal as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen-Yeu; Shih, Jian-Fu; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Yang, Chii-Rong

    2017-02-01

    A triboelectric generator is a device that harvests energy through the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this work, two polymer materials (PDMS and PET) were selected as triboelectric layers in conjunction with plastic metal (PM) films as conductive layers to produce an electrode with high flexibility. The PDMS film was fabricated with a microstructural array to enhance friction. The proposed PM material was prepared by mixing gallium-indium liquid metal and a glaze powder with excellent coating ability, extensibility, and conductivity. Results demonstrate the superior characteristics of the PM flexible electrodes, including large bending angle (≥180°), small curvature radius (≤1 mm), and stable conductivity. This PM-based triboelectric generator can achieve average output voltage of 80 V and current of 37.2 μA. The proposed flexible electrode with a PM conductive layer could be expected to make a notable contribution to the development of wearable devices.

  6. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO 2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  7. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  8. Contrasting gene expression programs correspond with predator-induced phenotypic plasticity within and across generations in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Nicole R; Schield, Drew R; Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Walsh, Matthew R; Castoe, Todd A

    2017-10-01

    Research has shown that a change in environmental conditions can alter the expression of traits during development (i.e., "within-generation phenotypic plasticity") as well as induce heritable phenotypic responses that persist for multiple generations (i.e., "transgenerational plasticity", TGP). It has long been assumed that shifts in gene expression are tightly linked to observed trait responses at the phenotypic level. Yet, the manner in which organisms couple within- and TGP at the molecular level is unclear. Here we tested the influence of fish predator chemical cues on patterns of gene expression within- and across generations using a clone of Daphnia ambigua that is known to exhibit strong TGP but weak within-generation plasticity. Daphnia were reared in the presence of predator cues in generation 1, and shifts in gene expression were tracked across two additional asexual experimental generations that lacked exposure to predator cues. Initial exposure to predator cues in generation 1 was linked to ~50 responsive genes, but such shifts were 3-4× larger in later generations. Differentially expressed genes included those involved in reproduction, exoskeleton structure and digestion; major shifts in expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins were also identified. Furthermore, shifts within the first-generation and transgenerational shifts in gene expression were largely distinct in terms of the genes that were differentially expressed. Such results argue that the gene expression programmes involved in within- vs. transgeneration plasticity are fundamentally different. Our study provides new key insights into the plasticity of gene expression and how it relates to phenotypic plasticity in nature. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Use of urethane foam in preparing for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Portable urethane foam generating equipment has been in use for 15 to 20 years for a large number of applications, such as roof systems, tank insulation, and building insulation. Still another industrial application is its use in the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive facilities at Mound Facility. The major problems encountered with urethane foams were with the packaging and stabilization procedures. The operation for spraying the foam on interior surfaces and equipment involved getting the gun inside without opening up the interior to the outside environment. A Gusmer FF proportioner and Model D spray gun was used for this operation. The gun was modified so that the trigger could be remotely located to facilitate its entry through a glovebox gloveport opening. The Model D gun has an air cap to blow foam off the tip of the gun. This cap was used to hold a plastic bag in place around the gun. The plastic bag is then put on a glove port and fastened securely. Urethane spray is applied on all exposed surfaces. This assures that all residual material is fixed for shipment. This simplifies cleaning operations as there is no need to remove the last trace of plutonium and results in a considerable shortening of the time required to prepare the gloveboxes. With the interior foamed, the gloveboxes are moved to the loading and packaging areas. Urethane foams are used to fill in the voids in our final shipping container. Radioactive waste materials are segregated according to the level of radioactive material present. One category is low level or low specific activity (LSA) and the other high level or Transuranic (TRU). Foam is used in TRU packages as packaging material to stabilize the loads and to help cushion against shock in transit on truck or railcar

  11. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  12. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  13. Within and between generation phenotypic plasticity in trichome density of Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeski, L M

    2007-11-01

    Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) frequently produce glandular trichomes, a trait that may resist herbivory. Constitutive production of trichomes is variable both within and among populations of M. guttatus and most of this variation is genetic. This study demonstrates that damage on early leaves can induce increased trichome production on later leaves, a plastic response that is likely adaptive. Moreover, this study shows that this induction can be maternally transmitted, increasing trichome density in progeny before they experience herbivory. This transgenerational response must involve a yet undescribed epigenetic mechanism. These experiments also show genetic variation among plants in the capacity for both within and between plant generation induction. Despite the clear evolutionary importance of variation in constitutive and induced herbivory-resistance traits, few other studies have noted genetic variation in both within a plant species.

  14. H1259 Container Foams: Performance Data on Aged Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Domeier

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the three cushioning foams used in the H1259 weapon storage container were obtained in 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2001 and tested for density, compression set and compressive strength using the same procedures specified for acceptance testing. Foams from six containers, all about 30 years old and located at Pantex, were evaluated. The bottom cushioning foam is a General Plastics polyurethane foam and the two side pads are rebonded polyurethane foams. All the tests were carried out at room temperature. When compared to the original acceptance requirements the foams were generally in-spec for density and compressive strength at 10% strain and were generally out-of-spec for compression set and compressive strength at 50% strain. Significant variability was noted in the performance of each foam sample and even more in the container-to-container foam performance. The container-to-container variability remains the major unknown in predicting the long-term suitability of these containers for continued use. The performance of the critical bottom cushion foams was generally more uniform and closer to the specified performance than that of the rebonded foams. It was judged that all the foams were adequate for continued use as storage container foams (not shipping) under controlled conditions to mitigate temperature extremes or high impact. This archived information is important in evaluations of the continued suitability for weapon storage use of the H1259 containers and other containers using the same foam cushions

  15. Distributed plasticity of locomotor pattern generators in spinal cord injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Renato; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka; Molinari, Marco; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Castellano, Vincenzo; Macellari, Velio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    Recent progress with spinal cord injured (SCI) patients indicates that with training they can recover some locomotor ability. Here we addressed the question of whether locomotor responses developed with training depend on re-activation of the normal motor patterns or whether they depend on learning new motor patterns. To this end we recorded detailed kinematic and EMG data in SCI patients trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support (BWST), and in healthy subjects. We found that all patients could be trained to step with BWST in the laboratory conditions, but they used new coordinative strategies. Patients with more severe lesions used their arms and body to assist the leg movements via the biomechanical coupling of limb and body segments. In all patients, the phase-relationship of the angular motion of the different lower limb segments was very different from the control, as was the pattern of activity of most recorded muscles. Surprisingly, however, the new motor strategies were quite effective in generating foot motion that closely matched the normal in the laboratory conditions. With training, foot motion recovered the shape, the step-by-step reproducibility, and the two-thirds power relationship between curvature and velocity that characterize normal gait. We mapped the recorded patterns of muscle activity onto the approximate rostrocaudal location of motor neuron pools in the human spinal cord. The reconstructed spatiotemporal maps of motor neuron activity in SCI patients were quite different from those of healthy subjects. At the end of training, the locomotor network reorganized at both supralesional and sublesional levels, from the cervical to the sacral cord segments. We conclude that locomotor responses in SCI patients may not be subserved by changes localized to limited regions of the spinal cord, but may depend on a plastic redistribution of activity across most of the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Distributed plasticity underlies

  16. Foam is a decon waste minimization tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The use of foam in decontamination operations offers significant reductions in waste generation. Initial use has confirmed its effectiveness. Issues being resolved at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compatibility of foam generating solutions with decontamination solutions, waste disposal, and operational safety

  17. Foam radiators for transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Gavrilenko, I.; Potekhin, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of foam radiators, potentially useful in the design of a transition radiation detector, the possible particle identification tool in collider experiments, have been tested in the beam. Various characteristics of these radiators are compared, and the conclusion is reached that certain brands of polyethylene foam are best suited for use in the detector. Comparison is made with a 'traditional' radiator, which is a periodic structure of plastic foils. (orig.)

  18. Offspring reaction norms shaped by parental environment: interaction between within- and trans-generational plasticity of inducible defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquet, Emilien; Tariel, Juliette

    2016-10-12

    Within-generational plasticity (WGP) and transgenerational plasticity (TGP) are mechanisms allowing rapid adaptive responses to fluctuating environments without genetic change. These forms of plasticity have often been viewed as independent processes. Recent evidence suggests that WGP is altered by the environmental conditions experienced by previous generations (i.e., TGP). In the context of inducible defenses, one of the most studied cases of plasticity, the WGP x TGP interaction has been poorly investigated. We provide evidence that TGP can alter the reaction norms of inducible defenses in a freshwater snail. The WGP x TGP interaction patterns are trait-specific and lead to decreased slope of reaction norms (behaviour and shell thickness). Offspring from induced parents showed a higher predator avoidance behaviour and a thicker shell than snails from non-induced parents in no predator-cue environment while they reached similar defenses in predator-cue environment. The WGP x TGP interaction further lead to a switch from a plastic towards a constitutive expression of defenses for shell dimensions (flat reaction norm). WGP-alteration by TGP may shape the adaptive responses to environmental change and then has a substantial importance to understand the evolution of plasticity.

  19. DRY MIX FOR OBTAINING FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition of a dry mix has been developed for production of non-autoclaved foam concrete with natural curing. The mix has been created on the basis of Portland cement, UFAPORE foaming agent, mineral additives (RSAM sulfoaluminate additive, MK-85 micro-silica and basalt fiber, plasticizing and accelerating “Citrate-T” additive and   redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder. It has been established that foam concrete with  density of 400–800 kg/m3, durability of 1,1–3,4 MPa, low water absorption (40–50 %, without shrinkable cracks has been formed while adding water of Water/Solid = 0.4–0.6 in the dry mix,  subsequent mechanical swelling and curing of foam mass.Introduction of the accelerating and plasticizing “Citrate-T” additive into composition of the dry mix leads to an increase of rheological properties in expanded foam mass and  time reduction of its drying and curing. An investigation on microstructure of foam-concrete chipping surface carried out with the help of a scanning electron microscope has shown that the introduction of  basalt fiber and redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder into the composition of the dry mix promotes formation of more finely-divided crystalline hydrates. Such approach makes it possible to change purposefully morphology of crystalline hydrates and gives the possibility to operate foam concrete structurization process.

  20. The effect of heat and mass transfer on the cellular plastic insulation and the long-term aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Youchen [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-12-31

    To produce environmental-friendly products, foamed plastic industries are facing the challenge to replace the traditional blowing agents chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) with zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) alternatives. After a series of studies were completed, more understandings and new findings have been achieved with respect to the rigid closed-cell cellular plastic insulations or foamed plastic insulations (FPIs). The mechanism of heat transfer within the FPIs was examined. A new formula for calculating the solid polymer matrix thermal conductivity has been deduced based on the law of energy conservation and Fourier equation of heat conduction. All the parameters involved in this formula can be easily measured. By comparing the simulation results with measurements, the Brokaw equation is recommended for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of a cell-gas mixture. The foamed plastic deformation was also discussed. A new model has been established for predicting the elastic modulus of the foamed plastics. In comparison to the published measurements, it was found that the new model gives fairly good results. A diffusion chamber has been designed and constructed for measuring the gaseous transport properties within the FPIs. To overcome the difficulties of the traditional method, a new measurement procedure and post test data treatment have been suggested. The measurement accuracy is equivalent to the traditional method with an exception of much short time being required. The diffusion coefficients of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} within five n-pentane/CO{sub 2} based polyurethane (PUR) foams have been obtained from the diffusion chamber tests. Measurements showed that the relationship between the gaseous diffusion coefficients within FPIs and temperature follows the Arrhenius type. No identical relationship between diffusion coefficients and foam density was reached. To predict the long-term aging property of CFC-free foamed plastic insulations, a two

  1. Experimental demonstration of laser imprint reduction using underdense foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, B.; Casner, A.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Michel, D. T.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V.; Riazuelo, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orekhov, A.; Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A.; Grech, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the detrimental effect of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the target performance is a critical challenge. In this purpose, the use of targets coated with low density foams is a promising approach to reduce the laser imprint. This article presents results of ablative RT instability growth measurements, performed on the OMEGA laser facility in direct-drive for plastic foils coated with underdense foams. The laser beam smoothing is explained by the parametric instabilities developing in the foam and reducing the laser imprint on the plastic (CH) foil. The initial perturbation pre-imposed by the means of a specific phase plate was shown to be smoothed using different foam characteristics. Numerical simulations of the laser beam smoothing in the foam and of the RT growth are performed with a suite of paraxial electromagnetic and radiation hydrodynamic codes. They confirmed the foam smoothing effect in the experimental conditions.

  2. Experimental demonstration of laser imprint reduction using underdense foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, B.; Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); CELIA, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33400 Talence (France); Olazabal-Loumé, M. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, F-33114 Le Barp (France); CELIA, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33400 Talence (France); Nicolaï, Ph.; Breil, J.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [CELIA, University of Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, F-33400 Talence (France); Michel, D. T.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Riazuelo, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Borisenko, N.; Orekhov, A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Grech, M. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the detrimental effect of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the target performance is a critical challenge. In this purpose, the use of targets coated with low density foams is a promising approach to reduce the laser imprint. This article presents results of ablative RT instability growth measurements, performed on the OMEGA laser facility in direct-drive for plastic foils coated with underdense foams. The laser beam smoothing is explained by the parametric instabilities developing in the foam and reducing the laser imprint on the plastic (CH) foil. The initial perturbation pre-imposed by the means of a specific phase plate was shown to be smoothed using different foam characteristics. Numerical simulations of the laser beam smoothing in the foam and of the RT growth are performed with a suite of paraxial electromagnetic and radiation hydrodynamic codes. They confirmed the foam smoothing effect in the experimental conditions.

  3. Differential effects of developmental thermal plasticity across three generations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): canalization and anticipatory matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Amélie; Loughland, Isabella; Seebacher, Frank

    2017-06-28

    Developmental plasticity can match offspring phenotypes to environmental conditions experienced by parents. Such epigenetic modifications are advantageous when parental conditions anticipate offspring environments. Here we show firstly, that developmental plasticity manifests differently in males and females. Secondly, that under stable conditions, phenotypic responses (metabolism and locomotion) accumulate across several generations. Metabolic scope in males was greater at warmer test temperatures (26-36 °C) in offspring bred at warm temperatures (29-30 °C) compared to those bred at cooler temperatures (22-23 °C), lending support to the predictive adaptive hypothesis. However, this transgenerational matching was not established until the second (F2) generation. For other responses, e.g. swimming performance in females, phenotypes of offspring bred in different thermal environments were different in the first (F1) generation, but became more similar across three generations, implying canalization. Thirdly, when environments changed across generations, the grandparental environment affected offspring phenotypes. In females, the mode of the swimming thermal performance curve shifted to coincide with the grandparental rather than the parental or offspring developmental environments, and this lag in response may represent a cost of plasticity. These findings show that the effects of developmental plasticity differ between traits, and may be modulated by the different life histories of males and females.

  4. Within- and trans-generational plasticity affects the opportunity for selection in barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Erin K; Rice, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    Environments are composed of selective agents, and environments may also modify the efficacy of these agents. Environments affect the rate of maximum evolutionary change by influencing variation in relative fitness (i.e., the opportunity for selection, or I). Within- and transgenerational plastic environmental responses may affect I, speeding or slowing processes of local adaptation. • We determined whether environmental factors affected the opportunity for selection (I) in Aegilops triuncialis (barbed goatgrass) by measuring I as a within- and transgenerational plastic response to two maternal glasshouse environments (serpentine/dry and loam/moist). We also determined whether this species' two most common genetic lineages (determined by DNA microsatellite length polymorphism) varied in response to glasshouse treatments. • Opportunity for selection was less for plants grown in the dry serpentine environment than for plants grown in the moist loam environment. This response varied between genetic lineages. The east lineage exhibited a within-generation response to the dry serpentine environment. For both seed mass and average seed weight in this lineage, the opportunity for selection was lower in dry serpentine than in moist loam. The west lineage had a transgenerational response to the dry serpentine such that the opportunity for selection for seed number and seed mass was lower for plants produced by mothers grown in dry serpentine than for plants produced by mothers in moist loam. • Phenotypic variation in relative fitness is constrained by the dry serpentine environment, which leads to lower evolvability in this environment. Within- and transgenerational effects of the environment may slow local adaptation to serpentine soils.

  5. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  6. U.S. Navy Shipboard-Generated Plastic Waste Pilot Recycling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    ship’s stores or vending machines often makes it way into "plastics only" containers located in work and berthing spaces. During the Escambia MRFsort...from Ships, or MARPOL). This legislation, which bans the disposal of plastics into the ocean, resulted from international and national pressures to halt...plastic by weight from a mixed, municipal waste stream produces a good product using the Er-1 extrusion technology. The Er-1 machine is a batch

  7. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, P.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  8. Structure formation control of foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steshenko, Aleksei; Kudyakov, Aleksander; Konusheva, Viktoriya; Syrkin, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The process of predetermined foam concrete structure formation is considered to be a crucial issue from the point of process control and it is currently understudied thus defining the need for additional research. One of the effective ways of structure formation control in naturally hardening foam concrete is reinforcement with dispersed fibers or introduction of plasticizers. The paper aims at studying the patterns of influence of microreinforcing and plasticizing additives on the structure and performance properties of foam concrete. Preparation of foam concrete mix has been conducted using one-step technology. The structure of modified foam concrete has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The cellular structure of foam concrete samples with the additives is homogeneous; the pores are uniformly distributed over the total volume. It has been revealed that introduction of the Neolas 5.2 plasticizer and microreinforcing fibers in the foam concrete mixture in the amount of 0.4 - 0.1 % by weight of cement leads to reduction of the average pore diameter in the range of 45.3 to 30.2 microns and the standard deviation of the pore average diameter from 23.6 to 9.2 in comparison with the sample without additive. Introduction of modifying additives has stimulated formation of a large number of closed pores. Thus porosity of conditionally closed pores has increased from 16.06 % to 34.48 %, which has lead to increase of frost resistance brand of foam concrete from F15 to F50 and to reduction of its water absorption by weight by 20 %.

  9. AC induction field heating of graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando; Kisner, Roger

    2017-08-22

    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam. An energy conversion device utilizes heat energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a heat energy consuming function. A device for heating a fluid and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.

  10. Faraday instability at foam-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfort, A; Caps, H

    2012-12-01

    A nearly two-dimensional foam is generated inside a Hele-shaw cell and left at rest on its liquid bath. The system is then vertically shaken and, above a well-defined acceleration threshold, surface waves appear at the foam-liquid interface. Those waves are shown to be subharmonic. The acceleration threshold is studied and compared to the common liquid-gas case, emphasizing the energy dissipation inside the foam. An empirical model is proposed for this energy loss, accounting for the foam characteristics such as the bubble size but also the excitation parameter, namely the linear velocity.

  11. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development

  12. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Carol F., E-mail: carol-webb@omrf.org [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ratliff, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle-ratliff@omrf.org [Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Powell, Rebecca, E-mail: rebeccapowell@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R., E-mail: celeste-wirsig@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Lakiza, Olga, E-mail: olga-lakiza@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Obara, Tomoko, E-mail: tomoko-obara@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  13. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  14. Bi-liquid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneville, Odile

    1997-01-01

    Concentrated emulsions have structures similar to foams; for this reason they are also called 'bi-liquid foams'. For oil in water emulsions, they are made of polyhedral oil cells separated by aqueous surfactant films. The limited stability of these Systems is a major nuisance in their applications. In this work, we tried to understand and to control the mechanisms through which bi-liquid foams can loose their stability. In a first stage, we characterized the states of surfactant films in bi-liquid foams submitted to different pressures. We determined their hydration, the surfactant density at interfaces as well as their thicknesses. The bi-liquid foams were made by concentrating hexadecane-in-water emulsions through centrifugation. The initial emulsions contained submicron oil droplets that were completely covered with surfactant. We measured the resistance of the films to dehydration, and we represented it by pressure-film thickness curves or pressure-film hydration curves. We also obtained evidence that the interfacial surfactant density increases when the film thickness is decreased (SDS case). The Newton Black Film state is the most dehydrated metastable state that can be reached. In this state, the films can be described as surfactant bilayers that only contain the hydration water of the surfactant polar heads. Two different processes are involved the destabilization of bi-liquid foams: Ostwald ripening (oil transfer from small cells to large cells) and coalescence (films rupture). The first mechanism can be controlled by choosing oils that are very insoluble in water, avoiding ethoxylated nonionic surfactants of low molecular weight, and making emulsions that are not too fine. The second mechanism is responsible for the catastrophic destabilization of bi-liquid foams made of droplets above one micron or with a low coverage in surfactant. In these cases, destabilization occurs in the early stages of concentration, when the films are still thick. It is caused

  15. Automatic Generation of Connectivity for Large-Scale Neuronal Network Models through Structural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pier, Sandra; Naveau, Mikaël; Butz-Ostendorf, Markus; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of new high performance computation technology in the last decade, the simulation of large scale neural networks which are able to reproduce the behavior and structure of the brain has finally become an achievable target of neuroscience. Due to the number of synaptic connections between neurons and the complexity of biological networks, most contemporary models have manually defined or static connectivity. However, it is expected that modeling the dynamic generation and deletion of the links among neurons, locally and between different regions of the brain, is crucial to unravel important mechanisms associated with learning, memory and healing. Moreover, for many neural circuits that could potentially be modeled, activity data is more readily and reliably available than connectivity data. Thus, a framework that enables networks to wire themselves on the basis of specified activity targets can be of great value in specifying network models where connectivity data is incomplete or has large error margins. To address these issues, in the present work we present an implementation of a model of structural plasticity in the neural network simulator NEST. In this model, synapses consist of two parts, a pre- and a post-synaptic element. Synapses are created and deleted during the execution of the simulation following local homeostatic rules until a mean level of electrical activity is reached in the network. We assess the scalability of the implementation in order to evaluate its potential usage in the self generation of connectivity of large scale networks. We show and discuss the results of simulations on simple two population networks and more complex models of the cortical microcircuit involving 8 populations and 4 layers using the new framework.

  16. Bidirectional plasticity of pontine pneumotaxic postinspiratory drive: implication for a pontomedullary respiratory central pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Song, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The "pneumotaxic center" in the rostral dorsolateral pons as delineated by Lumsden nine decades ago is known to play an important role in promoting the inspiratory off-switch (IOS) for inspiratory-expiratory phase transition as a fail-safe mechanism for preventing apneusis in the absence of vagal input. Traditionally, the pontine pneumotaxic mechanism has been thought to contribute a tonic descending input that lowers the IOS threshold in medullary respiratory central pattern generator (rCPG) circuits, but otherwise does not constitute part of the rCPG. Recent evidence indicates that descending input from the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) within the pneumotaxic center is essential for gating the postinspiratory phase of the three-phase respiratory rhythm to control the IOS in vagotomized animals. A critical question arising is whether such a descending pneumotaxic input from KFN that drives postinspiratory activity is tonic (null hypothesis) or rhythmic with postinspiratory phase modulation (alternative hypothesis). Here, we show that multifarious evidence reported in the literature collectively indicates that the descending pneumotaxic input may exhibit NMDA receptor-dependent short-term plasticity in the form of a biphasic neural differentiator that bidirectionally and phase-selectively modulates postinspiratory phase duration in response to vagal and peripheral chemoreceptor inputs independent of the responses in inspiratory and late-expiratory activities. The phase-selectivity property of the descending pneumotaxic input implicates a population of pontine early-expiratory (postinspiratory/expiratory-decrementing) neurons as the most likely neural correlate of the pneumotaxic mechanism that drives post-I activity, suggesting that the pontine pneumotaxic mechanism may be an integral part of a pontomedullary rCPG that underlies the three-phase respiratory rhythm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A S; O'Day, D H; Kraemer, G W

    1999-05-01

    The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and responses to cues that characterize the other. Among many mammalian species, new mothers are attracted to their infants' odors and some recognize them based on their odors; they also respond to their infants' vocalizations, thermal properties, and touch qualities. Together these cues ensure that the mother will nurse and protect the offspring and provide them with the appropriate physical and stimulus environment in which to develop. The young, in turn, orient to the mother and show a suckling pattern that reflects a sensitivity to the mothers odor, touch, and temperature characteristics. This article explores the sensory, endocrine, and neural mechanisms that underlie this early mother-young relationship, from the perspective of, first, the mother and, then, the young, noting the parallels between them. It emphasizes the importance of learning and plasticity in the formation and maintenance of the mother-young relationship and mediation of these experience effects by the brain and its neurochemistry. Finally, it discusses ways in which the infants' early experiences with their mothers (or the absence of these experiences) may come to influence how they respond to their own infants when they grow up, providing a psychobiological mechanism for the inter-generational transmission of parenting styles and responsiveness.

  18. Generation Y and the Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency Match: A Cross-sectional Study of the 2011 Match Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastic surgery is the most competitive specialty in medicine. We sought to identify factors associated with the successful match of generation Y applicants into integrated plastic surgery residency. Methods: We utilized the most recent data from the Charting Outcomes in the Match published by the National Resident Matching Program in 2011. We had data on US senior or independent applicant status, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) status, attendance of top 40 medical schools, advanced degree status, and number of contiguous ranks within plastic surgery. Our main outcome measure was match status. Results: A total of 81 out of 197 applicants (41.1%) successfully matched into integrated plastic surgery in the 2011 main match. US seniors matched at a significantly higher rate compared to independent applicants (44.0% vs 24.1%, P = 0.044). Matched US seniors were more likely to have AOA membership compared to unmatched US seniors (45.9% vs 27.7%, P = 0.014) and attend a top 40 medical school (52.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.022). There were no differences in terms of advanced degrees between matched and unmatched US seniors. Unmatched US seniors were more likely to have 3 or fewer contiguous ranks of plastic surgery residency programs than matched US seniors (86.2% vs 68.9%, P = 0.007). Conclusions: US senior status, AOA membership, and attendance at a top 40 medical school are predictors of matching into integrated plastic surgery. Program directors need to be aware of the background of the millennial applicants to recruit and maintain top residents. PMID:25289227

  19. Learning to Generate Sequences with Combination of Hebbian and Non-hebbian Plasticity in Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Priyadarshini; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic Plasticity, the foundation for learning and memory formation in the human brain, manifests in various forms. Here, we combine the standard spike timing correlation based Hebbian plasticity with a non-Hebbian synaptic decay mechanism for training a recurrent spiking neural model to generate sequences. We show that inclusion of the adaptive decay of synaptic weights with standard STDP helps learn stable contextual dependencies between temporal sequences, while reducing the strong attractor states that emerge in recurrent models due to feedback loops. Furthermore, we show that the combined learning scheme suppresses the chaotic activity in the recurrent model substantially, thereby enhancing its' ability to generate sequences consistently even in the presence of perturbations.

  20. Foam property tests to evaluate the potential for longwall shield dust control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Beck, T W; Zheng, Y; Klima, S; Driscoll, J

    2018-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine properties of four foam agents for their potential use in longwall mining dust control. Foam has been tried in underground mining in the past for dust control and is currently being reconsidered for use in underground coal longwall operations in order to help those operations comply with the Mine Safety and Health Administration's lower coal mine respirable dust standard of 1.5 mg/m 3 . Foams were generated using two different methods. One method used compressed air and water pressure to generate foam, while the other method used low-pressure air generated by a blower and water pressure using a foam generator developed by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Foam property tests, consisting of a foam expansion ratio test and a water drainage test, were conducted to classify foams. Compressed-air-generated foams tended to have low expansion ratios, from 10 to 19, with high water drainage. Blower-air-generated foams had higher foam expansion ratios, from 30 to 60, with lower water drainage. Foams produced within these ranges of expansion ratios are stable and potentially suitable for dust control. The test results eliminated two foam agents for future testing because they had poor expansion ratios. The remaining two foam agents seem to have properties adequate for dust control. These material property tests can be used to classify foams for their potential use in longwall mining dust control.

  1. Highly Flexible, Fire Resistant HybridSil Foams for Next Generation Fireproofing, Insulation, and Energy Absorption NASA Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil™ nanocomposite technology for the creation of next generation highly flexible, fire...

  2. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  3. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  4. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A

    1996-01-01

    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  5. Hydrogen generation and foaming during tests in the GFPS simulating DWPF operations with Tank 42 sludge and CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    1999-12-08

    This report summarizes the pilot-scale research requested by the salt disposition team to examine the effect of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin with adsorbed noble metals on the maximum hydrogen generation rate produced during the DWPF melter feed preparation processes.

  6. Hydrogen generation and foaming during tests in the GFPS simulating DWPF operations with Tank 42 sludge and CST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the pilot-scale research requested by the salt disposition team to examine the effect of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin with adsorbed noble metals on the maximum hydrogen generation rate produced during the DWPF melter feed preparation processes

  7. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  8. A New Generation of Sub Mm Telescopes, Made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, P.; Baars, J. W. M.; Ulich, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) appears to be the material most suited for the construction of submillimeter telescopes (SMT) not only for ground-based use but also for space applications. The accuracy of the CFRP reflectors needs to be improved beyond value of the 17 micron rms envisaged for the 10 m SMT.

  9. Industrial waste utilization for foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gokul; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Foam concrete is an emerging and useful construction material - basically a cement based slurry with at least 10% of mix volume as foam. The mix usually containing cement, filler (usually sand) and foam, have fresh densities ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1600kg/m3. One of the main drawbacks of foam concrete is the large consumption of fine sand as filler material. Usage of different solid industrial wastes as fillers in foam concrete can reduce the usage of fine river sand significantly and make the work economic and eco-friendly. This paper aims to investigate to what extent industrial wastes such as bottom ash and quarry dust can be utilized for making foam concrete. Foam generated using protein based agent was used for preparing and optimizing (fresh state properties). Investigation to find the influence of design density and air-void characteristics on the foam concrete strength shows higher strength for bottom ash mixes due to finer air void distribution. Setting characteristics of various mix compositions are also studied and adoption of Class C flyash as filler demonstrated capability of faster setting.

  10. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, A.; Boulogne, F.; Cappello, J.; Dressaire, E.; Stone, H. A.

    2015-02-01

    When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus, we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.

  11. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  12. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  13. Carbon foams from coals. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Calvo; Roberto Garcia; Ana Arenillas; Isabel Suarez; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-12-01

    Carbon foams were obtained from a bituminous coal with good plasticity properties by a two-stage thermal process under different pressure and temperature conditions. The first stage was a controlled carbonisation treatment under pressure at 450 and 500{sup o}C. In the second stage the carbonisation product was baked at 1100{sup o}C. The foams produced display a macroporous texture with pressure and temperature determining the mean pore size and the amount of pores. The pressure increase reduces the pore size, while the increasing temperature increases the pore volume. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  15. Plasticity in learning causes immediate and trans-generational changes in allocation of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Davidowitz, Goggy; Papaj, Daniel R

    2013-08-01

    Plasticity in the development and expression of behavior may allow organisms to cope with novel and rapidly changing environments. However, plasticity itself may depend on the developmental experiences of an individual. For instance, individuals reared in complex, enriched environments develop enhanced cognitive abilities as a result of increased synaptic connections and neurogenesis. This suggests that costs associated with behavioral plasticity-in particular, increased investment in "self" at the expense of reproduction-may also be flexible. Using butterflies as a system, this work tests whether allocation of resources changes as a result of experiences in "difficult" environments that require more investment in learning. We contrast allocation of resources among butterflies with experience in environments that vary in the need for learning. Butterflies with experience searching for novel (i.e., red) hosts, or searching in complex non-host environments, allocate more resources (protein and carbohydrate reserves) to their own flight muscle. In addition, butterflies with experience in these more difficult environments allocate more resources per individual offspring (i.e., egg size and/or lipid reserves). This results in a mother's experience having significant effects on the growth of her offspring (i.e., dry mass and wing length). A separate study showed this re-allocation of resources comes at the expense of lifetime fecundity. These results suggest that investment in learning, and associated changes in life history, can be adjusted depending on an individual's current need, and their offspring's future needs, for learning.

  16. Neural Plasticity and Proliferation in the Generation of Antidepressant Effects: Hippocampal Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that changes underlying depression and antidepressant-like effects involve not only alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters as monoamines and their receptors in the brain, but also structural and functional changes far beyond. During the last two decades, emerging theories are providing new explanations about the neurobiology of depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressant strategies based on cellular changes at the CNS level. The neurotrophic/plasticity hypothesis of depression, proposed more than a decade ago, is now supported by multiple basic and clinical studies focused on the role of intracellular-signalling cascades that govern neural proliferation and plasticity. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art of the changes in these signalling pathways which appear to underlie both depressive disorders and antidepressant actions. We will especially focus on the hippocampal cellularity and plasticity modulation by serotonin, trophic factors as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF through intracellular signalling pathways—cAMP, Wnt/β-catenin, and mTOR. Connecting the classic monoaminergic hypothesis with proliferation/neuroplasticity-related evidence is an appealing and comprehensive attempt for improving our knowledge about the neurobiological events leading to depression and associated to antidepressant therapies.

  17. On the relationships between generative encodings, regularity, and learning abilities when evolving plastic artificial neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tonelli

    Full Text Available A major goal of bio-inspired artificial intelligence is to design artificial neural networks with abilities that resemble those of animal nervous systems. It is commonly believed that two keys for evolving nature-like artificial neural networks are (1 the developmental process that links genes to nervous systems, which enables the evolution of large, regular neural networks, and (2 synaptic plasticity, which allows neural networks to change during their lifetime. So far, these two topics have been mainly studied separately. The present paper shows that they are actually deeply connected. Using a simple operant conditioning task and a classic evolutionary algorithm, we compare three ways to encode plastic neural networks: a direct encoding, a developmental encoding inspired by computational neuroscience models, and a developmental encoding inspired by morphogen gradients (similar to HyperNEAT. Our results suggest that using a developmental encoding could improve the learning abilities of evolved, plastic neural networks. Complementary experiments reveal that this result is likely the consequence of the bias of developmental encodings towards regular structures: (1 in our experimental setup, encodings that tend to produce more regular networks yield networks with better general learning abilities; (2 whatever the encoding is, networks that are the more regular are statistically those that have the best learning abilities.

  18. Experimental study on foam coverage on simulated longwall roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W.R.; Zheng, Y.; Klima, S.; Shahan, M.R.; Beck, T.W.

    2018-01-01

    Testing was conducted to determine the ability of foam to maintain roof coverage in a simulated longwall mining environment. Approximately 27 percent of respirable coal mine dust can be attributed to longwall shield movement, and developing controls for this dust source has been difficult. The application of foam is a possible dust control method for this source. Laboratory testing of two foam agents was conducted to determine the ability of the foam to adhere to a simulated longwall face roof surface. Two different foam generation methods were used: compressed air and blower air. Using a new imaging technology, image processing and analysis utilizing ImageJ software produced quantifiable results of foam roof coverage. For compressed air foam in 3.3 m/s (650 fpm) ventilation, 98 percent of agent A was intact while 95 percent of agent B was intact on the roof at three minutes after application. At 30 minutes after application, 94 percent of agent A was intact while only 20 percent of agent B remained. For blower air in 3.3 m/s (650 fpm) ventilation, the results were dependent upon nozzle type. Three different nozzles were tested. At 30 min after application, 74 to 92 percent of foam agent A remained, while 3 to 50 percent of foam agent B remained. Compressed air foam seems to remain intact for longer durations and is easier to apply than blower air foam. However, more water drained from the foam when using compressed air foam, which demonstrates that blower air foam retains more water at the roof surface. Agent A seemed to be the better performer as far as roof application is concerned. This testing demonstrates that roof application of foam is feasible and is able to withstand a typical face ventilation velocity, establishing this technique’s potential for longwall shield dust control. PMID:29563765

  19. Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media Saturated with Nanoparticle-Stabilized Air-Water Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglei Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The foam generated by the mixture of air and water has a much higher viscosity and lower mobility than those of pure water or gas that constitutes the air-water foam. The possibility of using the air-water foam as a flow barrier for the purpose of groundwater and soil remediation is explored in this paper. A nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam was fabricated by vigorously stirring the nano-fluid in pressurized condition. The foam bubble size distribution was analyzed with a microscope. The viscosities of foams generated with the solutions with several nanoparticle concentrations were measured as a function of time. The breakthrough pressure of foam-saturated microfluidic chips and sand columns were obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of a foam-filled sand column was measured after foam breakthrough. The results show that: (1 bubble coalescence and the Ostwald ripening are believed to be the reason of bubble size distribution change; (2 the viscosity of nanoparticle-stabilized foam and the breakthrough pressures decreased with time once the foam was generated; (3 the hydraulic conductivity of the foam-filled sand column was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of a water-saturated sand column even after the foam-breakthrough. Based on the results in this study, the nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam could be injected into contaminated soils to generate vertical barriers for temporary hydraulic conductivity reduction.

  20. Interphase and intergranular stress generation in composites exhibiting plasticity in both phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daymond, Mark R; Hartig, Christian; Mecking, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    The internal stress state of Fe-Cu composites has been measured by in situ deformation studies using neutron diffraction. A range of volume fractions from 17% Fe to 83% Fe (remainder Cu) have been investigated. Both phase specific and grain family specific elastic strains have been determined. The results are compared with predictions from a multiphase elasto-plastic self-consistent model, and are found to be in good agreement. The selection of parameters used in the model to improve agreement between experimental and predicted results is suggested to be due to changing geometrical constraint

  1. INFLUENCE OF THE CEMENT TYPE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL FOAM APPLICABLE IN FOAMED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the influence of the type of Portland cement, as well as the nature and concentration of additives that represent electrolytes and polymers, onto the foam stability. The project is implemented within the framework of the research of foamed ceramic. Detailed explanation of the influence pattern is provided. The research performed by the authors has generated the following findings. Besides the rheological properties of the solution, chemical interaction between the mix components must be taken into account in the course of development of the best foamed ceramic mix composition, as chemical processes produce a substantial influence onto the foam stability. Polymer additives based on liquid carbamyde-formaldehyde and polyacrylamide substantially improve the quality of the foam mineralized by the particles of the cement binder. They also assure the foam stability rate sufficient for the formation of a high-quality foamed material.

  2. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible for...

  3. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  4. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2008-07-01

    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  5. Liquid foam templating - A route to tailor-made polymer foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Sébastien; Quell, Aggeliki; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Drenckhan, Wiebke

    2018-06-01

    Solid foams with pore sizes between a few micrometres and a few millimetres are heavily exploited in a wide range of established and emerging applications. While the optimisation of foam applications requires a fine control over their structural properties (pore size distribution, pore opening, foam density, …), the great complexity of most foaming processes still defies a sound scientific understanding and therefore explicit control and prediction of these parameters. We therefore need to improve our understanding of existing processes and also develop new fabrication routes which we understand and which we can exploit to tailor-make new porous materials. One of these new routes is liquid templating in general and liquid foam templating in particular, to which this review article is dedicated. While all solid foams are generated from an initially liquid(-like) state, the particular notion of liquid foam templating implies the specific condition that the liquid foam has time to find its "equilibrium structure" before it is solidified. In other words, the characteristic time scales of the liquid foam's stability and its solidification are well separated, allowing to build on the vast know-how on liquid foams established over the last 20 years. The dispersed phase of the liquid foam determines the final pore size and pore size distribution, while the continuous phase contains the precursors of the desired porous scaffold. We review here the three key challenges which need to be addressed by this approach: (1) the control of the structure of the liquid template, (2) the matching of the time scales between the stability of the liquid template and solidification, and (3) the preservation of the structure of the template throughout the process. Focusing on the field of polymer foams, this review gives an overview of recent research on the properties of liquid foam templates and summarises a key set of studies in the emerging field of liquid foam templating. It

  6. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ EOR application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Lee, Robert [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Yu, Jianjia [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Li, Liangxiong [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Bustamante, Elizabeth [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Khalil, Munawar [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Mo, Di [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Jia, Bao [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Wang, Sai [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); San, Jingshan [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); An, Cheng [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ -EOR application, in which nanoparticles instead of surfactants are used for stabilizing CO₂ foam to improve the CO₂ sweep efficiency and increase oil recovery. The studies included: (1) investigation of CO₂ foam generation nanoparticles, such as silica nanoparticles, and the effects of particle concentration and surface properties, CO₂/brine ratio, brine salinity, pressure, and temperature on foam generation and foam stability; (2) coreflooding tests to understand the nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for waterflooded residual oil recovery, which include: oil-free coreflooding experiments with nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam to understand the transportation of nanoparticles through the core; measurements of foam stability and CO₂ sweep efficiency under reservoir conditions to investigate temperature and pressure effects on the foam performance and oil recovery as well as the sweep efficiency in different core samples with different rock properties; and (3) long-term coreflooding experiments with the nanoparticle- stabilized CO₂ foam for residual oil recovery. Finally, the technical and economical feasibility of this technology was evaluated.

  7. Generation of the vorticity mode by sound in a Bingham plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelomova, Anna; Wojda, Pawel

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates interaction between acoustic and non-acoustic modes, such as vorticity mode, in some class of a non-newtonian fluid called Bingham plastic. The instantaneous equations describing interaction between different modes are derived. The attention is paid to the nonlinear effects in the field of intense sound. The resulting equations which describe dynamics of both sound and the vorticity mode apply to both periodic and aperiodic sound of any waveform. They use only instantaneous quantities and do not imply averaging over the sound period. The theory is illustrated by an example of acoustic force of vorticity induced in the field of a Gaussian sound beam. Some unusual peculiarities in both sound and the vorticity induced in its field as compared to a newtonian fluid, are discovered.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF CFC AND HCFC SUBSTITUTES FOR BLOWING POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a cooperative effort to identiry chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbon substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. The substantial ongoing effort is identifying third-generation blowing agets for polyurethane foams to repla...

  9. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  10. Stability of minoxidil in Espumil foam base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Minoxidil is a drug used to stimulate hair growth and to slow balding. It is marketed under a number of trade names, including Rogaine, and is available in varying strength dose forms from a number of generic manufacturers. Minoxidil is available in oral and topical forms. In topical form, it can be applied by a metered-spray or rub-on applicator. A hydroalcoholic compounding vehicle can minimize greasiness, itching, burning, and contact dermatitis where low concentrations of ethanol and propylene glycol are present. Espumil Foam Base contains low concentrations of these ingredients and also can form a foam on topical application. Espumil's unique delivery by foam-activating packaging assures simple application to difficult-to-treat areas, and it vanishes quickly after application, keeping it in place and avoiding health skin areas. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of minoxidil in Espumil Foam Base. The studied sample was compounded into a 50-mg/mL solution and stored in a plastic foam-activating bottle at room temperature conditions. Three samples were assayed at each time point out to 90 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The beyond-use-date is at least 90 days, based on data collected when this formulation was stored at room temperature, protected from light.

  11. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  12. Thermosetting Fluoropolymer Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1987-01-01

    New process makes fluoropolymer foams with controllable amounts of inert-gas fillings in foam cells. Thermosetting fluoropolymers do not require foaming additives leaving undesirable residues and do not have to be molded and sintered at temperatures of about 240 to 400 degree C. Consequently, better for use with electronic or other parts sensitive to high temperatures or residues. Uses include coatings, electrical insulation, and structural parts.

  13. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  14. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  15. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  16. Antioxidant-Conjugated Onto Gamma-Generated Chitosan Nanoparticle for Radiation Sterilized Medical Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasaphan, W. [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, mainly gives the course of study in the field of radiation and nuclear science and technology. The research actitivies relevant to the department are about nuclear instrument and analytical technique by nuclear methodology, radiation chemistry and processing technology, and radiation biology and agriculture. My work going on in the department is separated into two main responsibilities, i.e. (i) teaching courses and (ii) research activity. For (i), in the present time, there are 5 courses (i.e., radiation detection technique, radiation health protection, nuclear method of analysis, radioistope tracer techniques in biology and seminar) for bachelor degree and 4 courses (radiation chemistry and processing, radiation detection and dosimetry, nuclear facilities and utilization, research method in applied radiation and isotope) for master degree. In the case of (ii), my research interests head on the radiation chemistry and processing applicable to material and nanomaterial development for industrial applications, e.g. nanofilter and metal absorbent material; for medical applications, e.g. bio-additive for medical material, nanoparticle for drug delivery system, radiosensitizer for radiotherapy; for agricultural applications, e.g. pest controlled compound and plastic. The researches are also attended to biopolymer especially chitin-chiosan including functional polymer. The material for radiation dosimeter based on EPR is furthermore interesting to look for.

  17. Antioxidant-Conjugated Onto Gamma-Generated Chitosan Nanoparticle for Radiation Sterilized Medical Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaphan, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, mainly gives the course of study in the field of radiation and nuclear science and technology. The research actitivies relevant to the department are about nuclear instrument and analytical technique by nuclear methodology, radiation chemistry and processing technology, and radiation biology and agriculture. My work going on in the department is separated into two main responsibilities, i.e. (i) teaching courses and (ii) research activity. For (i), in the present time, there are 5 courses (i.e., radiation detection technique, radiation health protection, nuclear method of analysis, radioistope tracer techniques in biology and seminar) for bachelor degree and 4 courses (radiation chemistry and processing, radiation detection and dosimetry, nuclear facilities and utilization, research method in applied radiation and isotope) for master degree. In the case of (ii), my research interests head on the radiation chemistry and processing applicable to material and nanomaterial development for industrial applications, e.g. nanofilter and metal absorbent material; for medical applications, e.g. bio-additive for medical material, nanoparticle for drug delivery system, radiosensitizer for radiotherapy; for agricultural applications, e.g. pest controlled compound and plastic. The researches are also attended to biopolymer especially chitin-chiosan including functional polymer. The material for radiation dosimeter based on EPR is furthermore interesting to look for

  18. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.

    2015-01-01

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples

  19. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczyński, L., E-mail: lech.raczynski@ncbj.gov.pl [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Moskal, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W. [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kapłon, Ł. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Kochanowski, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2015-06-21

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples.

  20. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2015-06-01

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples.

  1. Evaluation of Canisterized Foams and Evaluation of Radiation Hardened Foams for D&D Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-26

    The introduction of polyurethane foams has previously been examined elsewhere within the DOE complex with regards to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, though its use has been prohibited as a result of excessive heat generation and flammability concerns per the safety basis. Should these foams be found compatible with respect to the facility safety basis requirements, D&D work involving large void containing structures such as gloveboxes could be eased through the fixation of residual contamination after decontamination efforts have concluded. To this end, SRNL embarked on a characterization of commercial epoxy foams to identify the characteristics that would be most important to safety basis requirements. Through SRNL’s efforts, the performance of commercial two-part epoxy foams was evaluated for their foaming characteristics, temperature profiles, loading capability with high-Z (high density) additives, and applicability for shielding gamma emission from isotopes including; Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60. It was found that these foams are capable of encapsulation of a desired volume, though the ideal and experimental expansion coefficients were found to differ. While heat is generated during the reaction, no samples generated heat above 70 °C. Of the down–selected materials, heating was on the order of 40 °C for the flexible foam and 60 °C for the rigid foam. Both were found to return to room temperature after 20 minutes regardless of the volume of foam cast. It was also found that the direct introduction of high-Z additives were capable of attenuating 98% of Am-241 gamma signal, 16% of Cs-137 signal, and 9.5% of Co-60 signal at 1:1 loading capacities of total liquid constituent weight to additive weight. These efforts are currently being reviewed for the ASTM January 2017 subcommittee discussions to address the lack of test methods and standards regarding these materials with respect to D&D environments.

  2. Surface pretreatment of plastics with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet - Influence of generator power and kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritzer, E.; Leister, C.

    2014-01-01

    The industrial use of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the plastics processing industry has increased significantly in recent years. Users of this treatment process have the possibility to influence the target values (e.g. bond strength or surface energy) with the help of kinematic and electrical parameters. Until now, systematic procedures have been used with which the parameters can be adapted to the process or product requirements but only by very time-consuming methods. For this reason, the relationship between influencing values and target values will be examined based on the example of a pretreatment in the bonding process with the help of statistical experimental design. Because of the large number of parameters involved, the analysis is restricted to the kinematic and electrical parameters. In the experimental tests, the following factors are taken as parameters: gap between nozzle and substrate, treatment velocity (kinematic data), voltage and duty cycle (electrical data). The statistical evaluation shows significant relationships between the parameters and surface energy in the case of polypropylene. An increase in the voltage and duty cycle increases the polar proportion of the surface energy, while a larger gap and higher velocity leads to lower energy levels. The bond strength of the overlapping bond is also significantly influenced by the voltage, velocity and gap. The direction of their effects is identical with those of the surface energy. In addition to the kinematic influences of the motion of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet, it is therefore especially important that the parameters for the plasma production are taken into account when designing the pretreatment processes

  3. Porosity and cell size control in alumina foam preparation by thermo-foaming of powder dispersions in molten sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Vijayan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The foaming characteristics of alumina powder dispersions in molten sucrose have been studied as a function of alumina powder to sucrose weight ratio (WA/S and foaming temperature. The increase in foaming temperature significantly decreases the foaming and foam setting time and increases the foam volume due to an increase in the rate of OH condensation as well as a decrease in the viscosity of the dispersion. Nevertheless, the foam collapses beyond a critical foaming temperature, which depends on the WA/S. The sintering shrinkage depends mainly on the WA/S and marginally on the foaming temperature. The porosity (83.4–94.6 vol.% and cell size (0.55–1.6 mm increase with an increase in foaming temperature (120–170 °C and a decrease in WA/S (0.8–1.6. The drastic decrease in compressive strength and modulus beyond a WA/S of 1.2 is due to the pores generated on the cell walls and struts as a result of particle agglomeration. Gibson and Ashby plots show large deviation with respect to the model constants ‘C’ and ‘n’, especially at higher alumina powder to sucrose weight ratios.

  4. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund

    2016-01-01

    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  5. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  6. The effect of nanoparticle aggregation on surfactant foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlYousef, Zuhair A; Almobarky, Mohammed A; Schechter, David S

    2018-02-01

    The combination of nanoparticles (NPs) and surfactant may offer a novel technique of generating stronger foams for gas mobility control. This study evaluates the potential of silica NPs to enhance the foam stability of three nonionic surfactants. Results showed that the concentration of surfactant and NPs is a crucial parameter for foam stability and that there is certain concentrations for strong foam generation. A balance in concentration between the nonionic surfactants and the NPs can enhance the foam stability as a result of forming flocs in solutions. At fixed surfactant concentration, the addition of NPs at low to intermediate concentrations can produce a more stable foam compared to the surfactant. The production of small population of flocs as a result of mixing the surfactant and NPs can enhance the foam stability by providing a barrier between the gas bubbles and delaying the coalescence of bubbles. Moreover, these flocs can increase the solution viscosity and, therefore, slow the drainage rate of thin aqueous film (lamellae). The measurements of foam half-life, bubble size, and mobility tests confirmed this conclusion. However, the addition of more solid particles or surfactant might have a negative impact on foam stability and reduce the maximum capillary pressure of coalescence as a result of forming extensive aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of stability of polidocanol foam for nonsurgical permanent contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian Xin; Lucchesi, Lisa; Gregory, Kenton W

    2015-08-01

    Polidocanol foam (PF), used clinically as a venous sclerosant, has recently been studied as a safe and inexpensive means for permanent contraception. Delivering the sclerosant to the fallopian tubes as a foam rather than a liquid increases the surface areas and thus enhances the desired epithelial disrupting activity of the agent. However, the foam is inherently unstable and degrades with time. Therefore, increasing foam stability and thus duration of the agent exposure time could increase epithelial effect while allowing reduction in agent concentration and potential toxicity. We studied methods to improve foam properties that might improve safety and efficacy of PF for intrauterine application. Several types of microporous filters adapted to a syringe-based foaming device were used to study the effect of pore structures on the formation of PF. The foam drainage time and bubble size were characterized. The addition of benzalkonium chloride (BZK) to polidocanol was also investigated for its effects on foam characteristics. A syringe-based foaming device adapted with an inline filter produced smaller bubble PF with a longer foam drainage time. PF generated with a circular pore filter lasts longer than with a noncircular pore filter. The addition of 0.01% of BZK also improved the stability of PF. The stability of PF is affected by the pore characteristics of the filter used for foam generation and enhanced by the presence of a small amount of BZK. The improved foam, if shown to be efficacious in animal models of contraception, could lead to a safe, simple and inexpensive method alternative to surgical contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoparticle Stabilized Foam in Carbonate and Sandstone Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, J.; Eftekhari, A.A.; Farajzadeh, R.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Foam flooding as a mechanism to enhance oil recovery has been intensively studied and is the subject of multiple research groups. However, limited stability of surfactant-generated foam in presence of oil and low chemical stability of surfactants in the high temperature and high salinity of an oil

  9. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftekhari, A.A.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied by

  10. High-order simulation of foam enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, J.M.; Van Odyck, D.E.A.; Wirnsberger, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    If secondary hydrocarbon recovery methods fail because of the occurrence of gravity override or viscous fingering one can turn to an enhanced oil recovery method like the injection of foam. The generation of foam can be described by a set of partial differential equations with strongly nonlinear

  11. Foam, composition and method of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghali, R.

    1991-09-03

    A ternary foam is disclosed which overcomes the disadvantages of conventional heat-insulating foams which are either dense and heavy, expensive to produce, friable, unstable, or have poor fire resistance. The foam of the invention has, by weight of the reaction product, 10-35% polyurethane, 30-55% polyisocyanurate, and 20-45% polyurea. The foam is a reaction product of 100 parts by weight of an organic polyisocyanate with: 15-25 parts by weight of a polyether polyol having a hydroxyl number of ca 28-35 and a molecular weight of not more than 6,000; 5-25 parts by weight of water; 0-25 parts by weight of a blowing agent; 0-50 parts by weight of a filler-plasticizer fire retardant; an effective amount of a low activation catalyst to initiate water-isocyanate reaction to produce polyurea and polyol-isocyanate reaction to produce polyurethane; and an effective amount of a high activation catalyst to retard the low activation catalyst and promote the formation of polyisocyanurate. The low activity catalyst is present in an amount ranging ca 1.5-9 parts per 100 parts by weight of the polyisocyanate, and the high activation catalyst is present in an amount ranging 0.0008-0.002 parts per 100 parts by weight of the polyisocyanate. Water as a reactant and blowing agent can be substituted by an effective amount of a disubstituted amine such as diethanol amine and an inert blowing agent such as fluorocarbon. The resultant foam has excellent heat insulating propeties, is semi-flexible, has a density of 0.5-0.9 lb/ft{sup 3}, and can be inexpensively produced by existing 2-component foam dispensing equipment. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of plastic strains and crystallographic properties surrounding defects in steam generator tubes by orientation imaging microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehockey, E.M.; Brennenstuhl, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) has become a valuable technique for characterizing grain boundary structure, texture, and grain size distribution, which govern material susceptibility to degenerative effects (e.g. IGSCC). Methods recently developed, by Kinectrics, have extended OIM capabilities toward mapping and quantifying residual plastic strains in materials. OIM is applied in the present work to characterize the distribution of plastic strains, that accumulate in CANDU steam generator tubing during installation and service potentially undermining the performance, reliability, and fitness-for-service of these components. Plastic strain that evolves in response to roller-expansion was characterized in simulated roll joints constructed from Alloy 600 tubing. Results underscore the effect of over-rolling in generating intense gradients with broad variations in strain that extend significant distances through the wall thickness. Of greater relevance is the orientation of these gradients in the transverse direction, relative to the tube axis and potential for the development of abnormal grain growth during post-expansion heat treatments. The magnitude and distribution of strain measured by OIM are remarkably consistent with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) predictions offering compelling evidence as to the reliability of the OIM technique. OIM offers superior resolution than can be practically achieved with FEA having particular relevance in identifying highly localized concentrations of strain surrounding metallurgical defects that can serve as precursors to stress-related degenerative effects (e.g. IGSCC). The spatial distribution of residual plastic strain was also characterized within the context of localized texture, and grain size morphology surrounding (OD) 'pits' and indentations found in ex-service Monel 400 and Alloy 800 SG tubes, respectively. An absence of strain surrounding these surface defects suggests their propensity for promoting more deleterious

  13. Two-temperature hydrodynamics of laser-generated ultrashort shock waves in elasto-plastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilnitsky, Denis K; Migdal, Kirill P; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Inogamov, Nail A; Petrov, Yurii V; Anisimov, Sergey I; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khishchenko, Konstantin V

    2014-01-01

    Shock-wave generation by ultrashort laser pulses opens new doors for study of hidden processes in materials happened at an atomic-scale spatiotemporal scales. The poorly explored mechanism of shock generation is started from a short-living two-temperature (2T) state of solid in a thin surface layer where laser energy is deposited. Such 2T state represents a highly non-equilibrium warm dense matter having cold ions and hot electrons with temperatures of 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the melting point. Here for the first time we present results obtained by our new hybrid hydrodynamics code combining detailed description of 2T states with a model of elasticity together with a wide-range equation of state of solid. New hydro-code has higher accuracy in the 2T stage than molecular dynamics method, because it includes electron related phenomena including thermal conduction, electron-ion collisions and energy transfer, and electron pressure. From the other hand the new code significantly improves our previous version of 2T hydrodynamics model, because now it is capable of reproducing the elastic compression waves, which may have an imprint of supersonic melting like as in MD simulations. With help of the new code we have solved a difficult problem of thermal and dynamic coupling of a molten layer with an uniaxially compressed elastic solid. This approach allows us to describe the recent femtosecond laser experiments.

  14. Impact of foamed matrix components on foamed concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the matrix foam structure by means of foam stabilizing additives is aimed at solving the technology-oriented problems as well as at the further improvement of physical and mechanical properties of cellular-concrete composites. The dry foam mineralization is the mainstream of this research. Adding the concrete densifiers, foam stabilizers and mineral powders reduces the drying shrinkage, which makes the foam concrete products technologically effective.

  15. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2017-01-01

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil.

  16. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  17. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Effect of Cerium(IV)-Surfactant Reaction in Foam Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Beom; Jung, Chong-Hun; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wang-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Using foams allows the decommissioning of complex shaped facilities. The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. The corrosion rate of radioactive nuclides contaminated stainless steel metal is very important factor for the foam decontamination process. The goal of this study is to develop the decontamination process for contaminated stainless steel in medium of nitric acid. Stainless steel needs a strong oxidizing agent such as Ce(IV) ion and the effects of cerium(IV). Surfactant interaction involved in foam decontamination and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. The formulation of foams loaded with strong oxidizing reagents such as Ce(IV) is an important factor. The enhanced decontamination properties of nitric acid with Ce(IV) additive on stainless steel is well known in liquid mediums. stainless steel metal is an important aspect in the foam decontamination process.

  19. Effect of Cerium(IV)-Surfactant Reaction in Foam Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han Beom; Jung, Chong-Hun; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Using foams allows the decommissioning of complex shaped facilities. The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. The corrosion rate of radioactive nuclides contaminated stainless steel metal is very important factor for the foam decontamination process. The goal of this study is to develop the decontamination process for contaminated stainless steel in medium of nitric acid. Stainless steel needs a strong oxidizing agent such as Ce(IV) ion and the effects of cerium(IV). Surfactant interaction involved in foam decontamination and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. The formulation of foams loaded with strong oxidizing reagents such as Ce(IV) is an important factor. The enhanced decontamination properties of nitric acid with Ce(IV) additive on stainless steel is well known in liquid mediums. stainless steel metal is an important aspect in the foam decontamination process

  20. Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CASE JR.,ROGER S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

  1. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berek, H., E-mail: harry.berek@ikgb.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Agricolastraße 17, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Agricolastraße 17, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Losch, K.; Schladitz, K. [Fraunhofer ITWM, Fraunhoferplatz 1, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated.

  2. The correlation of local deformation and stress-assisted local phase transformations in MMC foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berek, H.; Ballaschk, U.; Aneziris, C.G.; Losch, K.; Schladitz, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular structures are of growing interest for industry, and are of particular importance for lightweight applications. In this paper, a special case of metal matrix composite foams (MMCs) is investigated. The investigated foams are composed of austenitic steel exhibiting transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ). Both components exhibit martensitic phase transformation during deformation, thus generating the potential for improved mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and energy absorption capability. The aim of these investigations was to show that stress-assisted phase transformations within the ceramic reinforcement correspond to strong local deformation, and to determine whether they can trigger martensitic phase transformations in the steel matrix. To this end, in situ interrupted compression experiments were performed in an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT). By using a recently developed registration algorithm, local deformation could be calculated and regions of interest could be defined. Corresponding cross sections were prepared and used to analyze the local phase composition by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show a strong correlation between local deformation and phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • In situ compressive deformation on MMC foams was performed in an XCT. • Local deformation fields and their gradient amplitudes were estimated. • Cross sections were manufactured containing defined regions of interest. • Local EBSD phase analysis was performed. • Local deformation and local phase transformation are correlated

  3. Foam capacity and stability of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) on the presence of contaminant coffee and Cd ions in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Chang, C. H.; Kuo, A. T.; Siswarni, M. Z.; Sinaga, T. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the coffee colloidal particle and Cd ion contaminant on the foam capacity and stability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution was investigated. The foam was generated by using a foam generator. The foam capacity of SDS was first evaluated at different concentrations. After the foam capacity reaching a constant value, the foam stability was then measured by flowing to a column. The results showed that the presence the coffee colloidal particles or Cd ions in the solution would decrease the foam capacity and stability of SDS. In addition, the decreased foam capacity and stability was more pronounced in the presence of coffee colloidal particles than Cd ions. The colloidal particles may have stronger interaction with SDS and thus reduce the formation of the foam.

  4. Dynamics of poroelastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Yoel; Sobac, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    Soft poroelastic structures are widespread in biological tissues such as cartilaginous joints in bones, blood-filled placentae or plant organs. Here we investigate the dynamics of open elastic foams immersed in viscous fluids, as model soft poroelastic materials. The experiment consists in slowly compacting blocs of polyurethane solid foam embedded in silicon oil-tanks and studying their relaxation to equilibrium when the confining stress is suddenly released. Measurements of the local fluid pressure and foam velocity field are compared with a simple two-phase flow approach. For small initial compactions, the results show quantitative agreement with the classical diffusion theory of soil consolidation (Terzaghi, Biot). On the other hand, for large initial compactions, the dynamics exhibits long relaxation times and decompaction fronts, which are mainly controlled by the highly non-linear mechanical response of the foam. The analogy between this process and the evaporation of a polymer melt close to the glass transition will be briefly discussed.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  6. The Size Spectrum as Tool for Analyzing Marine Plastic Pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Martí , E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Có zar, A.

    2016-01-01

    to abundance, color (129 tons), polymer type, and category (rigid fragments, films, threads, foam, pellets, and microbeads). Using GPSS database, we show for instance the dependence of plastic composition on the item size, with high diversity of categories

  7. Effect of Grinding Fineness of Fly Ash on the Properties of Geopolymer Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the development of geopolymer foam prepared from ground F class power station fly ash. The effect of the fly ash fineness on the rheology of the geopolymer paste and the foam properties have been investigated. The raw fly ash was ground in a ball mill for various duration, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. Geopolymer paste was prepared from the raw and ground fly ash with NaOH – sodium silicate mixture as alkaline activator. Geopolymer foam production was made using H2O2 as foaming agent. Additionally, the geopolymer material structure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the foam cell structure was monitored using optical microscopy. The rheological behaviour of the geopolymer paste changed due to the grinding of fly ash (from Bingham plastic to Newtonian liquid. Grinding of fly ash has a significant effect on the physical properties as well as on the cell structure of the geopolymer foam.

  8. mdFoam+: Advanced molecular dynamics in OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshaw, S. M.; Borg, M. K.; Ramisetti, S. B.; Zhang, J.; Lockerby, D. A.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces mdFoam+, which is an MPI parallelised molecular dynamics (MD) solver implemented entirely within the OpenFOAM software framework. It is open-source and released under the same GNU General Public License (GPL) as OpenFOAM. The source code is released as a publicly open software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial cases. Since mdFoam+ is designed entirely within the OpenFOAM C++ object-oriented framework, it inherits a number of key features. The code is designed for extensibility and flexibility, so it is aimed first and foremost as an MD research tool, in which new models and test cases can be developed and tested rapidly. Implementing mdFoam+ in OpenFOAM also enables easier development of hybrid methods that couple MD with continuum-based solvers. Setting up MD cases follows the standard OpenFOAM format, as mdFoam+ also relies upon the OpenFOAM dictionary-based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of an MD simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. Results show that mdFoam+ compares well to another well-known MD code (e.g. LAMMPS) in terms of benchmark problems, although it also has additional functionality that does not exist in other open-source MD codes.

  9. Steam foam studies in the presence of residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.A.; Demiral, B.; Castanier, L.M.

    1992-05-01

    The lack of understanding regarding foam flow in porous media necessitates further research. This paper reports on going work at Stanford University aimed at increasing our understanding in the particular area of steam foams. The behavior of steam foam is investigated with a one dimensional (6 ft. {times} 2.15 in.) sandpack under residual oil conditions of approximately 12 percent. The strength of the in-situ generated foam, indicated by pressure drops, is significantly affected by injection procedure, slug size, and steam quality. The surfactant concentration effect is minor in the range studied. In the presence of residual oil the simultaneous injection of steam and surfactant fails to generate foam in the model even though the same procedure generates a strong foam in the absence of oil. Nevertheless when surfactant is injected as a slug ahead of the steam using a surfactant alternating (SAG) procedure, foam is generated. The suggested reason for the success of SAG is the increased phase mixing that results from steam continually having to reestablish a path through a slug of surfactant solution.

  10. Foam flow in a model porous medium: I. The effect of foam coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S A; Getrouw, N; Vincent-Bonnieu, S

    2018-05-09

    Foam structure evolves with time due to gas diffusion between bubbles (coarsening). In a bulk foam, coarsening behaviour is well defined, but there is less understanding of coarsening in confined geometries such as porous media. Previous predictions suggest that coarsening will cause foam lamellae to move to low energy configurations in the pore throats, resulting in greater capillary resistance when restarting flow. Foam coarsening experiments were conducted in both a model-porous-media micromodel and in a sandstone core. In both cases, foam was generated by coinjecting surfactant solution and nitrogen. Once steady state flow had been achieved, the injection was stopped and the system sealed off. In the micromodel, the foam coarsening was recorded using time-lapse photography. In the core flood, the additional driving pressure required to reinitiate flow after coarsening was measured. In the micromodel the bubbles coarsened rapidly to the pore size. At the completion of coarsening the lamellae were located in minimum energy configurations in the pore throats. The wall effect meant that the coarsening did not conform to the unconstricted growth laws. The coreflood tests also showed coarsening to be a rapid process. The additional driving pressure to restart flow reached a maximum after just 2 minutes.

  11. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  12. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment processes usually involve concentration of radionuclides before waste can be immobilized by storing it in stable solid form. Foaming is observed at various stages of waste processing like sludge chemical processing and melter operations. Hence, the objective of this research was to study the mechanisms that produce foaming during nuclear waste treatment, to identify key parameters which aggravate foaming, and to identify effective ways to eliminate or mitigate foaming. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomenon, suspension rheology, and bubble generation and interactions that lead to the formation of foam during waste processing were pursued under this EMSP project. Advanced experimental techniques including a novel capillary force balance in conjunction with the combined differential and common interferometry were developed to characterize particle-particle interactions at the foam lamella surfaces as well as inside the foam lamella. Laboratory tests were conducted using a non-radioactive simulant slurry containing high levels of noble metals and mercury similar to the High-Level Waste. We concluded that foaminess of the simulant sludge was due to the presence of colloidal particles such as aluminum, iron, and manganese. We have established the two major mechanisms of formation and stabilization of foams containing such colloidal particles: (1) structural and depletion forces; and (2) steric stabilization due to the adsorbed particles at the surfaces of the foam lamella. Based on this mechanistic understanding of foam generation and stability, an improved antifoam agent was developed by us, since commercial antifoam agents were found to be ineffective in the aggressive physical and chemical environment present in the sludge processing. The improved antifoamer was subsequently tested in a pilot plant at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and was found to be effective. Also, in the SRTC experiment, the irradiated

  13. The microstructural origin of strain hardening in two-dimensional open-cell metal foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangipudi, K. R.; van Buuren, S. W.; Onck, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at elucidating the microstructural origin of strain hardening in open-cell metal foams. We have developed a multiscale model that allows to study the development of plasticity at two length scales: (i) the development of plastic zones inside individual struts (microscopic scale) and

  14. Applications of Foamed Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sari Kamarul Aini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of foamed concrete is increasing at present due to high demand on foamed concrete structures with good mechanical and physical properties. This paper discusses on the use of basic raw materials, their characteristics, production process, and their application in foamed lightweight concrete with densities between 300 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3. It also discusses the factors that influence the strengths and weaknesses of foamed concrete based on studies that were conducted previously.

  15. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  16. New powder compaction method using a styrene foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinemuchi, Y.; Takata, A.; Ishizaki, K.

    1999-01-01

    In general, metallic and ceramic powder compacts for sintering are shaped by uni-axial pressing or cold isostatic pressing (CIPing). Since metal or rubber is used as dies or moulds, it is difficult to form complicated shapes and flat disks, i.e., the ratio of diameter / thickness more than 50, by using uni-axial or CIPing. Rubber moulding, a moulding method with a rubber bag, can not press powder uniformly into flat disks because rubber deforms significantly. To solve this problem, we developed a new shaping technique to obtain complicated or thin flat shape by using styrene foam, which is cheap and has good machinability. Plastic foams such as styrene and acrylic foam contain many pores, and shrink uniformly by applying external pressure when the pores are collapsed. In this study, shrinking behavior of styrene and acrylic rubber moulds related to CIPing pressure was investigated. The experimental results show that the plastic foams shrink uniformly and the plastic deformation is linearly increased as CIP pressure increases. Copyright (1999) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  17. Foams in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  18. Polystyrene foam products equation of state as a function of porosity and fill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swift, Damian C [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam. Differences between air-filled, Ar-blown, and CO{sub 2}-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with products of polystyrene decomposition. O{sub 2}-blown foams are included in some comparisons, to amplify any consequences of reaction with oxygen in air. He-blown foams are included in some comparisons, to provide an extremum of density. Product pressures are slightly higher for oxygen-containing fill gases than for non-oxygen-containing fill gases. Examination of product species indicates that CO{sub 2} decomposes at high temperatures.

  19. Polystyrene foam products equation of state as a function of porosity and fill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulford, Roberta N.; Swift, Damian C.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam. Differences between air-filled, Ar-blown, and CO 2 -blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with products of polystyrene decomposition. O 2 -blown foams are included in some comparisons, to amplify any consequences of reaction with oxygen in air. He-blown foams are included in some comparisons, to provide an extremum of density. Product pressures are slightly higher for oxygen-containing fill gases than for non-oxygen-containing fill gases. Examination of product species indicates that CO 2 decomposes at high temperatures.

  20. Laser absorption and energy transfer in foams of various pore structures and chemical compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpouch, J.; Kuba, J.; Borisenko, N.G.; Demchenko, N.N.; Gus'kov, S.Y.; Khalenkov, A.M.; Merkul'ev, Y.A.; Rozanov, V.B.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kondrashov, V.N.; Limpouch, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Renner, O.; Nazarov, W.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of sub-nanosecond intense laser pulses with foams containing fine and large pores has been studied experimentally. The foams included: fine-structured TMPTA (trimethylol propane tri-acrylate) foams, fine-structured TAC (cellulose tri-acetate) foams and rougher agar-agar foams. In all cases, an aluminum foil was placed at the rear side of the foam targets. Laser penetration and energy transport in the foam material are measured via streaked side-on X-ray slit images. Shock wave transition through the foam is detected via streaked optical self-emission from foil attached on the foam rear side. The shock transition time increases with the pore size, foam density, and also with the contents of high Z additions in plastic foams. Foil acceleration is observed via 3-frame interferometry. In the case of TAC foam with a 9.1 mg/cm 3 and small pores (D p = 1-3 μm) minor pre-heating of the foil at the target rear is observed at about 0.25 ns after emission from the front side and at the same time small signal appears on optical streak. Laser is absorbed in the surface layer and then thermal waves propagates into the foam with average speed of 3.4*10 7 cm/s. This wave reaches the foil rear side 1.1 ns after X-ray emission onset, earlier than the main optical emission which appears at 2.1 ns. Comparison of experimental results with numerical simulations and an analytical model is underway

  1. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 deg. C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  2. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-08-15

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 degrees C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  3. Size-dependent properties of silica nanoparticles for Pickering stabilization of emulsions and foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ijung, E-mail: ijungkim@utexas.edu [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Worthen, Andrew J.; Johnston, Keith P. [The University of Texas at Austin, McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); DiCarlo, David A.; Huh, Chun [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles are a promising alternative to surfactants to stabilize emulsions or foams in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes due to their effectiveness in very harsh environments found in many of the oilfields around the world. While the size-dependent properties of nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the area of optics or cellular uptake, little is known on the effects of nanoparticle size on emulsion/foam generation, especially for EOR applications. In this study, silica nanoparticles with four different sizes (5, 12, 25, and 80 nm nominal diameter) but with the same surface treatment were employed to test their emulsion or foam generation behavior in high-salinity conditions. The decane-in-brine emulsion generated by sonication or flowing through sandpack showed smaller droplet size and higher apparent viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. Similarly, the CO{sub 2}-in-brine foam generation in sandstone or sandpacks was also significantly affected by the nanoparticle size, exhibiting higher apparent foam viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. In case of foam generation in sandstone cores with 5 nm nanoparticles, a noticeable hysteresis occurred when the flow velocity was initially increased and then decreased, implying a strong foam generation initially; and then the trapping of the generated foam in the rock pores, as the flow velocity decreased. On the other hand, weak foams stabilized with larger nanoparticles indicated a rapid coalescence of bubbles which prevented foam generation. Overall, stable emulsions/foams were achievable by the smaller particles as a result of greater diffusivity and/or higher number concentration, thus allowing more nanoparticles with higher surface area to volume ratio to be adsorbed at the fluid/fluid interfaces of the emulsion/foam dispersion.Graphical abstract.

  4. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  5. Growth of carbon nanofilaments on coal foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Calvo; Ana Arenillas; Roberto Garcia; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nanofilamentous carbon was grown on a carbon foam by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using the decomposition of ethylene/hydrogen mixtures over Ni. The carbon foam was obtained from a coal by a two-stage thermal process, with the first stage taking place at a temperature within the plastic region of the precursor coal. The extent of porosity and the pore size of the foam were mainly influenced by the pressure reached in the reactor during the first stage. In the CVD process, 700{sup o}C was the optimum temperature for obtaining good yields of nanofilaments. A low ethylene/hydrogen ratio (1/4) in the reactive gas gave rise to almost only short and thin carbon nanostructures. A higher proportion of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (4/1, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2}) gave better yields of nanofilaments, with good proportions of higher-length and higher-diameter (up to around 0.5 {mu}m) structures. Among the carbon forms produced, transmission electron microscopy revealed the predominance of fishbone-type nanofibres, with some bamboo-like nanotubes being also observed. 41 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Forming and bending of metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams

  7. The aspects regarding plugging the defective tubes of the steam generator using plastic deformation of the plug wall by conventional or unconventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, Tiberiu

    2006-01-01

    After a brief introduction the advantages and disadvantages of two plugging methods of the defective tubes from steam generator by plastic deformation of the wall of the plug, deformation performed by mechanical rolling (conventional technique) and by electrohydraulic shock (unconventional technique), respectively, are showed. The paper gives the results of the experimental tests to install the plugs at the end of the tube having the same geometry with those of the steam generator, the performance reached in this stage and some conclusions in the end

  8. The effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural FIBER/PP-HMSPP foams: A study of thermal stability and biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate how gamma-radiation affected PP/HMSPP structural foams reinforced with sugarcane bagasse, in terms of thermal properties, biodegradability and infrared spectrum. Polymers are used in various applications and in different industrial areas providing enormous quantities of wastes in environment, contributing with 20 to 30% of total volume of solid residues. Besides, shortage of plastics resins obtained from oil and natural gas is addressing research and development toward alternative materials; environmental concerning in litter reduction is being directed to renewable polymers for manufacturing of polymeric foams. Biodegradable polymers, a new generation of polymers produced from various natural resources, environmentally safe and friendly, can contribute for pollution reduction, at a low cost. High density structural foams are specially used in civil construction, in replacement of metals, woods and concrete, but contribute for environmental pollution, due to components nature. In this study, it was incorporated sugarcane bagasse in PP/HMSPP polymeric matrix blends. Gamma radiation applied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 kGy doses showed effective for biodegradability induction. TGA analyses pointed toward stability around 205 deg C; decomposition of both cellulose and hemicellulose took place at 310 deg C and above, whereas the degradation of reinforced fibers composites took place above 430 deg C. Infrared spectrum of foams were studied using FTIR, showing no sensitivity to the presence of C = C and C =O functional groups. (author)

  9. The effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural FIBER/PP-HMSPP foams: A study of thermal stability and biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: eclcardo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate how gamma-radiation affected PP/HMSPP structural foams reinforced with sugarcane bagasse, in terms of thermal properties, biodegradability and infrared spectrum. Polymers are used in various applications and in different industrial areas providing enormous quantities of wastes in environment, contributing with 20 to 30% of total volume of solid residues. Besides, shortage of plastics resins obtained from oil and natural gas is addressing research and development toward alternative materials; environmental concerning in litter reduction is being directed to renewable polymers for manufacturing of polymeric foams. Biodegradable polymers, a new generation of polymers produced from various natural resources, environmentally safe and friendly, can contribute for pollution reduction, at a low cost. High density structural foams are specially used in civil construction, in replacement of metals, woods and concrete, but contribute for environmental pollution, due to components nature. In this study, it was incorporated sugarcane bagasse in PP/HMSPP polymeric matrix blends. Gamma radiation applied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 kGy doses showed effective for biodegradability induction. TGA analyses pointed toward stability around 205 deg C; decomposition of both cellulose and hemicellulose took place at 310 deg C and above, whereas the degradation of reinforced fibers composites took place above 430 deg C. Infrared spectrum of foams were studied using FTIR, showing no sensitivity to the presence of C = C and C =O functional groups. (author)

  10. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied...... by changing surfactant type and concentration. We find, indeed, that the effect of foam on liquid-phase mobility is not pronounced and can be ignored. Our new experimental results and analyses resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature. Previously, some researchers erroneously applied relative...

  11. Flexible polyurethane foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide for a method of preparing a polyurethane foam, including reacting least one initiator comprising at least two hydroxyl groups with at least one 12-hydroxystearic acid to form at least one polyester polyol, reacting the at least one polyester polyol with at least

  12. Progresses in Polystyrene Biodegradation and Prospects for Solutions to Plastic Waste Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. S.; Brandon, A. M.; Xing, D. F.; Yang, J.; Pang, J. W.; Criddle, C. S.; Ren, N. Q.; Wu, W. M.

    2018-05-01

    Petroleum-based plastic pollution has been a global environmental concern for decades. The obvious contrast between the remarkable durability of the plastics and their short service time leads to the increasing accumulation of plastic wastes in the environment. A cost-effective, sustainable strategy to solve the problem should focus on source control and clean up. Polystyrene (PS) wastes, a recalcitrant plastic polymer, are among the wide spread man-made plastic pollutants. Destruction of PS wastes can be achieved using various abiotic methods such as incineration but such methods release potential air pollution and generation of hazardous by-products. Biodegradation and bioremediation has been proposed for years. Since the 1970’s, the microbial biodegradation of plastics, including PS, has been evaluated with mixed and isolated cultures from different sources such as activated sludge, trash, soil, and manure. To date, PS biodegradation by these microbial cultures is still quite slow. Recently, the larvae of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus) have demonstrated promising PS biodegradation performance. Mealworms have demonstrated the ability to chew and ingest PS foam as food and are capable of degrading and mineralizing PS into CO2 via microbe-dependent activities within the gut in less than the 12-15 hrs gut retention time. These research results have revealed a potential for microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of plastic pollutants.

  13. Deformation and energy absorption properties of powder-metallurgy produced Al foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, N.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Porous Al fabricated via a dissolution and sintering method using raw cane sugar. → Different deformation mode depending on the relative density of the foams. → Enhanced energy absorption by reducing pore size and relative density of the foam. → Pore size uniformity and sintering temperature affect energy absorption. - Abstract: Al-foams with relative densities ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 and mean pore sizes of 0.35, 0.70 and 1.35 mm were manufactured by a powder metallurgy technology, based on raw cane sugar as a space-holder material. Compressive tests were carried out to investigate the deformation and energy absorbing characteristics and mechanisms of the produced Al-foams. The deformation mode of low density Al-foams is dominated by the bending and buckling of cell walls and the formation of macroscopic deformation bands whereas that of high density Al-foams is predominantly attributed to plastic yielding. The energy absorbing capacity of Al-foams rises for increased relative density and compressive strength. The sintering temperature of Al-foams having similar relative densities has a marked influence on both, energy absorbing efficiency and capacity. Pore size has a marginal effect on energy efficiency aside from Al-foams with mean pore size of 0.35 which exhibit enhanced energy absorption as a result of increased friction during deformation at lower strain levels.

  14. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method.

  15. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method

  16. Hyperbolic prisms and foams in Hele-Shaw cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tufaile, A.P.B. [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-03

    The propagation of light in foams creates patterns which are generated due to the reflection and refraction of light. One of these patterns is observed by the formation of multiple mirror images inside liquid bridges in a layer of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. We are presenting the existence of these patterns in foams and their relation with hyperbolic geometry and Sierpinski gaskets using the Poincare disk model. The images obtained from the experiment in foams are compared to the case of hyperbolic optical elements. -- Highlights: → The chaotic scattering of light in foams generating deltoid patterns is based on hyperbolic geometry. → The deltoid patterns are obtained through the Plateau borders in a Hele-Shaw cell. → The Plateau borders act like hyperbolic prism. → Some effects of the refraction and reflection of the light rays were studied using a hyperbolic prism.

  17. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  19. Energy generation by air gasification of two industrial plastic wastes in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Two plastic wastes obtained as co-products from an industrial process were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.38 m and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg, already tested as a good catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes, was used as bed material. The results provide the complete composition of the syngas, including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents as well as the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and entrained fines. The gasification process appears technically feasible, yielding a producer gas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. On the other hand, under the experimental conditions tested, olivine particles show a strongly reduced catalytic activity in all the runs. The differences in the gasification behaviour of the two industrial plastics are explained on the basis of the structure and composition of the wastes, taking also into account the results of a combined material and substance flow analysis. - Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of fluidized bed gasification of two industrial plastic wastes. • Tests under conditions of thermal/chemical steady state at various equivalence ratios. • Complete composition of the producer gas, including tar, particulate and acid/basic gases. • Differences in the gasification behaviour of plastic wastes. • Material, substance, and feedstock energy flow analysis for different gasification tests

  20. Mechanical properties of tannin-based rigid foams undergoing compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celzard, A., E-mail: Alain.Celzard@enstib.uhp-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Zhao, W. [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Pizzi, A. [ENSTIB-LERMAB, Nancy-University, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Fierro, V. [Institut Jean Lamour - UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS - Nancy-Universite - UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces, ENSTIB, 27 rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France)

    2010-06-25

    The mechanical properties of a new class of extremely lightweight tannin-based materials, namely organic foams and their carbonaceous counterparts are detailed. Scaling laws are shown to describe correctly the observed behaviour. Information about the mechanical characteristics of the elementary forces acting within these solids is derived. It is suggested that organic materials present a rather bending-dominated behaviour and are partly plastic. On the contrary, carbon foams obtained by pyrolysis of the former present a fracture-dominated behaviour and are purely brittle. These conclusions are supported by the differences in the exponent describing the change of Young's modulus as a function of relative density, while that describing compressive strength is unchanged. Features of the densification strain also support such conclusions. Carbon foams of very low density may absorb high energy when compressed, making them valuable materials for crash protection.

  1. Morphological comparison of PVA scaffolds obtained by gas foaming and microfluidic foaming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, Cristina; Costantini, Marco; Barbetta, Andrea; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella; Dentini, Mariella

    2013-01-08

    In this article, we have exploited a microfluidic foaming technique for the generation of highly monodisperse gas-in-liquid bubbles as a templating system for scaffolds characterized by an ordered and homogeneous porous texture. An aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution (containing a surfactant) and a gas (argon) are injected simultaneously at constant flow rates in a flow-focusing device (FFD), in which the gas thread breaks up to form monodisperse bubbles. Immediately after its formation, the foam is collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In order to highlight the superior morphological quality of the obtained porous material, a comparison between this scaffold and another one, also constituted of PVA but obtained with a traditional gas foaming technique, was carried out. Such a comparison has been conducted by analyzing electron microscopy and X-ray microtomographic images of the two samples. It turned out that the microfluidic produced scaffold was characterized by much more uniform porous texture than the gas-foaming one as witnessed by narrower pore size, interconnection, and wall thickness distributions. On the other side, scarce pore interconnectivity, relatively low pore volume, and limited production rate represent, by now, the principal disadvantages of microfluidic foaming as scaffold fabrication method, emphasizing the kind of improvement that this technique needs to undergo.

  2. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  3. Correlation of microstructure and compressive properties of amorphous matrix composites reinforced with tungsten continuous fibers or porous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Chang-Young; Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Choongnyun Paul; Lee, Sunghak

    2010-01-01

    Zr-based amorphous alloy matrix composites reinforced with tungsten continuous fibers or porous foams were fabricated without pores or defects by liquid pressing process, and their microstructures and compressive properties were investigated. About 65-70 vol.% of tungsten reinforcements were homogeneously distributed inside the amorphous matrix. The compressive test results indicated that the tungsten-reinforced composites showed considerable plastic strain as the compressive load was sustained by fibers or foams. Particularly in the tungsten porous foam-reinforced composite, the compressive stress continued to increase according to the work hardening after the yielding, thereby leading to the maximum strength of 2764 MPa and the plastic strain of 39.4%. This dramatic increase in strength and ductility was attributed to the simultaneous and homogeneous deformation at tungsten foams and amorphous matrix since tungsten foams did not show anisotropy and tungsten/matrix interfaces were excellent.

  4. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  5. Simple gases to replace non-environmentally friendly polymer foaming agents. A thermodynamic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.; Randzio, Stanislaw L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The PVT-vibrating wire technique and PVT-scanning transitiometry. ► Polymer swelling with measured gas sorption and gas–polymer interaction energies. ► Experimental measurements up to 373 K and 100 MPa. ► Hydrostatic and plasticization effects under high pressure gas and induced T g -shifts. ► Thermodynamic study of the (gas + polymer) systems polystyrene with CO 2 , N 2 , and freons. - Abstract: Foaming constitutes one of the most important industrial activities in polymer engineering to produce efficient thermal insulating materials. In particular, rigid insulating boards are produced worldwide on a large scale using blowing agents which eventually are released in the environment where they adversely impact the natural friendly stratospheric ozone layer. Concomitantly, the chemicals used as blowing agents contribute to the creation of the unfriendly tropospheric ozone layer generating the disastrous green house effect around our planet. The traditional foaming intermediates currently named freons, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) currently used as blowing agents as well as the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) often considered as alternative blowing agents, must be banned from industrial processes and new (friendly) foaming agents have to be suggested and evaluated in terms of both easy engineering and environmental neutrality. Undoubtedly thermodynamics plays a major role in assessing the effective capability of those chemicals. Some CFCs still accepted and other possible simple gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen have been considered. The in-depth thermodynamic investigation has been made possible thanks to new experimental developments to determine gas solubility in polymers and associated swelling as well as the thermodynamic properties of (gas + polymer) systems, including the thermophysical properties of polymers under gas sorption. Pertinent data have been generated for such properties over extended T and p ranges.

  6. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  7. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, J. J.; Hung, Y.-C.; Tan, P. J.; Bourne, N. K.; Withers, P. J.; Reid, S. R.; Millett, J. C. F.; Milne, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation

  8. Novel Foams Based on Freeze-Dried Renewable Vital Wheat Gluten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomfeldt, Thomas O.J.; Olsson, Richard T.; Menon, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A new way of producing rigid or semi-rigid foams from vital wheat gluten using a freeze-drying process is reported. Water/gluten-based mixtures were frozen and freeze-dried. Different foam structures were obtained by varying the mixing process and wheat gluten concentration, or by adding glycerol...... or bacterial cellulose nanofibers. MIP revealed that the foams had mainly an open porosity peaking at 93%. The average pore diameter ranged between 20 and 73 µm; the sample with the highest wheat gluten concentration and no plasticizer had the smallest pores. Immersion tests with limonene revealed...

  9. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  10. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Luong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36 matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.% of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm3 hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres.

  11. Generation of plastic influence functions for J-integral and crack opening displacement of thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Im, Seyoung

    2014-01-01

    Fracture mechanics parameters such as the J-integral and crack opening displacement (COD), are necessary for Leak-Before-Break (LBB) evaluation. The famous two estimation methods, the GE/EPRI and the Reference Stress Method (RSM), have their applicability limit with regard to the ratio of a pipe mean radius to thickness (R m /t). In order to extend their applicability limit to a thin walled pipe, several finite element analyses are performed for the J-integral and COD, and then new plastic influence functions are developed for thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack. With the newly generated plastic influence functions, the GE/EPRI and the RSM give closer results with those obtained from detailed finite element analyses. In addition, C*-integral and COD rate are estimated by using the new plastic influence functions and they are well matched with elastic–creep finite element analysis results under the power-law creep condition. Since the LBB concept can be applied to a piping system in a Korean Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) which is designed to have thin-walled pipes and to operate in high temperature enough to cause creep, this paper can be applied for the LBB assessment of thin-walled pipes with a short through-wall crack in the SFR

  12. Aerosol-foam interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Luscombe, C.DeM.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1990-03-01

    Foam treatment offers the potential to clean gas streams containing radioactive particles. A large decontamination factor has been claimed for the removal of airborne plutonium dust when spraying a commercially available foam on the walls and horizontal surfaces of an alpha-active room. Experiments have been designed and undertaken to reproduce these conditions with a non-radioactive simulant aerosol. Careful measurements of aerosol concentrations with and without foam treatment failed to provide convincing evidence to support the earlier observation. The foam may not have been as well mixed with the aerosol in the present studies. Further work is required to explore more efficient mixing methods, including systems in which the aerosol steam is passed through the foam, rather than merely spraying foam into the path of the aerosol. (author)

  13. Foams structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.

  14. Pourable Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes search for polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation with superior characteristics. Discusses chemistry of current formulations. Tests of formulations, of individual ingredients and or alternative new formulations described. Search revealed commercially available formulations exhibiting increased thermal stability at temperatures up to 600 degree C, pours readily before curing, presents good appearance after curing, and remains securely bonded to aluminum at cryogenic temperatures. Total of 42 different formulations investigated, 10 found to meet requirements.

  15. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  16. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  17. Foam formation in low expansion fire fighting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Lucy Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the foam generation mechanisms involved in producing foam from a low expansion fire fighting branchpipe. The investigation was carried out using scale models of branchpipes, and a high-speed video camera was used to study the formation of the foam. The experiments provided evidence of three possible methods of bubble formation within this type of system: Stage 1 - Mixing within the branchpipe; Stage 2 - Air entrainment and bubble growth during the flight of the jet; Stage 3 - Aeration produced from the collision of the high speed jet onto a surface. Each stage is described in detail and the mechanism which has the greatest effect on the expansion ratio of the foam produced has been determined. The relevance of these findings to the design of branchpipes is discussed. (author)

  18. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  19. Development of foams from linear polypropylene (PP) and high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) polymeric blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth Carvalho Leite

    2009-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Micrographs obtained pointed to closed cells foams, in which the pressure is kept during all cell formation stage, informing that closed cells foams are used in thermal insulation in Civil Construction and in thermal vials. Density analyses accomplished in foams produced in our work showed typical results for high density foams (320 to 800 kg/m3 range), around 500 kg/m3, used for wire and cables and for structural purposes (structural foams), by replacing wood, metals or solid plastics. Structural foams have high density (above 320 kg/m3) and cellular structures are specially composed by holes. (author)

  20. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  1. Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yongle, E-mail: yongle.sun@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xun [Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Upper Brook Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Shao, Zhushan [School of Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Li, Q.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-03-14

    In the correlation between structural parameters and compressive behaviour of cellular materials, previous studies have mostly focused on averaged structural parameters and bulk material properties for different samples. This study focuses on the meso-scale correlation between structure and deformation in a 2D foam sample generated from a computed tomography slice of Alporas™ foam, for which quasi-static compression was simulated using 2D image-based finite element modelling. First, a comprehensive meso-scale structural characterisation of the 2D foam was carried out to determine the size, aspect ratio, orientation and anisotropy of individual cells, as well as the length, straightness, inclination and thickness of individual cell walls. Measurements were then conducted to obtain the axial distributions of local structural parameters averaged laterally to compression axis. Second, the meso-scale deformation was characterised by cell-wall strain, cell area ratio, digital image correlation strain and local compressive engineering strain. According to the results, the through-width sub-regions over an axial length between the average (lower bound) and the maximum (upper bound) of cell size should be used to characterise the meso-scale heterogeneity of the cell structure and deformation. It was found that the first crush band forms in a sub-region where the ratio of cell-wall thickness to cell-wall length is a minimum, in which the collapse deformation is dominated by the plastic bending and buckling of cell walls. Other morphological parameters have secondary effect on the initiation of crush band in the 2D foam. The finding of this study suggests that the measurement of local structural properties is crucial for the identification of the “weakest” region which determines the initiation of collapse and hence the corresponding collapse load of a heterogeneous cellular material.

  2. Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongle; Zhang, Xun; Shao, Zhushan; Li, Q.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the correlation between structural parameters and compressive behaviour of cellular materials, previous studies have mostly focused on averaged structural parameters and bulk material properties for different samples. This study focuses on the meso-scale correlation between structure and deformation in a 2D foam sample generated from a computed tomography slice of Alporas™ foam, for which quasi-static compression was simulated using 2D image-based finite element modelling. First, a comprehensive meso-scale structural characterisation of the 2D foam was carried out to determine the size, aspect ratio, orientation and anisotropy of individual cells, as well as the length, straightness, inclination and thickness of individual cell walls. Measurements were then conducted to obtain the axial distributions of local structural parameters averaged laterally to compression axis. Second, the meso-scale deformation was characterised by cell-wall strain, cell area ratio, digital image correlation strain and local compressive engineering strain. According to the results, the through-width sub-regions over an axial length between the average (lower bound) and the maximum (upper bound) of cell size should be used to characterise the meso-scale heterogeneity of the cell structure and deformation. It was found that the first crush band forms in a sub-region where the ratio of cell-wall thickness to cell-wall length is a minimum, in which the collapse deformation is dominated by the plastic bending and buckling of cell walls. Other morphological parameters have secondary effect on the initiation of crush band in the 2D foam. The finding of this study suggests that the measurement of local structural properties is crucial for the identification of the “weakest” region which determines the initiation of collapse and hence the corresponding collapse load of a heterogeneous cellular material.

  3. Utilization of fly ash and ultrafine GGBS for higher strength foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, R.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Foam concrete is a widely accepted construction material, which is popular for diverse construction applications such as, thermal insulation in buildings, lightweight concrete blocks, ground stabilization, void filling etc. Currently, foam concrete is being used for structural applications with a density above 1800kg/m3. This study focuses on evolving mix proportions for foam concrete with a material density in the range of 1200 kg/m3 to 1600 kg/m3, so as to obtain strength ranges that will be sufficient to adopt it as a structural material. Foam concrete is made lighter by adding pre-formed foam of a particular density to the mortar mix. The foaming agent used in this study is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and in order to densify the foam generated, Sodium hydroxide solution at a normality of one is also added. In this study efforts are made to make it a sustainable construction material by incorporating industrial waste products such as ultrafine GGBS as partial replacement of cement and fly ash for replacement of fine aggregate. The fresh state and hardened state properties of foam concrete at varying proportions of cement, sand, water and additives are evaluated. The proportion of ultrafine GGBS and fly ash in the foam concrete mix are varied aiming at higher compressive strength. Studies on air void-strength relationship of foam concrete are also included in this paper.

  4. Fabrication of Aluminum Tubes Filled with Aluminum Alloy Foam by Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum foam is usually used as the core of composite materials by combining it with dense materials, such as in Al foam core sandwich panels and Al-foam-filled tubes, owing to its low tensile and bending strengths. In this study, all-Al foam-filled tubes consisting of ADC12 Al-Si-Cu die-cast aluminum alloy foam and a dense A1050 commercially pure Al tube with metal bonding were fabricated by friction welding. First, it was found that the ADC12 precursor was firmly bonded throughout the inner wall of the A1050 tube without a gap between the precursor and the tube by friction welding. No deformation of the tube or foaming of the precursor was observed during the friction welding. Next, it was shown that by heat treatment of an ADC12-precursor-bonded A1050 tube, gases generated by the decomposition of the blowing agent expand the softened ADC12 to produce the ADC12 foam interior of the dense A1050 tube. A holding time during the foaming process of approximately tH = 8.5 min with a holding temperature of 948 K was found to be suitable for obtaining a sound ADC12-foam-filled A1050 tube with sufficient foaming, almost uniform pore structures over the entire specimen, and no deformation or reduction in the thickness of the tube.

  5. The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a similar mix ratio (1:2:0.45 and a dry density of 1300 kg/m3 is generated. Taking into consideration, from the total weight of the cementation material, 1% of super- plasticizer (PS-1 is added to the mixes with slag content. Test results revealed that the most favourable (optimum replacement level of un-processed slag in foam concrete is 30%. This represents a commercial advantage as the cement requirement is reduced from 414 Kg/m3 to 290 Kg/m3. On the 28th day, the optimum mix showed higher values than the control mix by 32% for compressive strength, 46.5% for splitting tensile strength and 61% for flexural strength.

  6. Mass transfer measurements in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.G.; Fournel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:This study participates to the elaboration of a method for decontamination of the inside surfaces of steel structures (pipes, tanks,...). The solution which has been chosen is to attack the surface of the structure by a dipping solution. In order to reduce the quantity of product to be recovered and treated at the end of the cleaning process, the active solution will be introduced as a foam. During its free or forced drainage the foam supplies an active liquid film along the structure surfaces. It was important to know if the transfers of the dipping liquid inside the foam and between foam and wall film are sufficient to allow a correct supplying of the active liquid at the wall and a correct dragging of the dipped products. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical model which simulates the various transfers. However such a modeling cannot be performed without a thorough knowledge of the different transfer parameters in the foam and in the film. The following study has been performed on a model foam (foaming water + air) held in a smooth vertical glass pipe and submitted to a forced drainage by the foaming water (water + surfactants). The liquid transfer involves the dispersion of the drainage liquid inside the foam and the transfer between the foam and the liquid film flowing down at the wall. The different transfers has been analyzed by NMR using a PFGSE-NMR sequence, which allows to determine the propagator, i.e., the probability density of the liquid particle displacements during a given time interval Δt, along a selected direction. This study allowed to measure, firstly, the mean liquid and the liquid dispersion in the foam along the vertical and horizontal direction, and secondly, the vertical mean velocity in the parietal liquid film. (authors)

  7. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsa, Dan; Roberts, Richard; Laramee, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design ...

  9. Mechanisms of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Grechko, Andrey V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. Macrophages express a variety of scavenger receptors (SR) that interact with lipoproteins, including SR-A1, CD36, and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). These cells also have several cholesterol transporters, including ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI, that are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Lipids internalized by phagocytosis are transported to late endosomes/lysosomes, where lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) digests cholesteryl esters releasing free cholesterol. Free cholesterol in turn is processed by acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ACAT1), an enzyme that transforms cholesterol to cholesteryl esters. The endoplasmic reticulum serves as a depot for maintaining newly synthesized cholesteryl esters that can be processed by neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), which generates free cholesterol that can exit via cholesterol transporters. In atherosclerosis, pro-inflammatory stimuli upregulate expression of scavenger receptors, especially LOX-1, and downregulate expression of cholesterol transporters. ACAT1 is also increased, while NCEH expression is reduced. This results in deposition of free and esterified cholesterol in macrophages and generation of foam cells. Moreover, other cell types, such as endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), can also become foam cells. In this review, we discuss known pathways of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

  10. Decontamination by foams: A promising treatment for the removal of radioactive dust from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    Foams provide a promising method for the treatment of gas streams containing radioactive aerosol particles. A review of the literature has been undertaken to define and assess the mechanics of aerosol behaviour in contact with foams. Applications are also examined in which foams have been used to treat aerosols. Key issues are identified which require further study. In particular, the efficiency of sub-micron particle removal can be determined using recently developed analysers and the use of the process gas to generate the foam could have a major impact on the design of commercial units. (author)

  11. Decontamination by foams: a promising treatment for the removal of radioactive dust from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    Foams provide a promising method for the treatment of gas streams containing radioactive aerosol particles. They contain a very large surface area of liquid-gas interface in small cells; thus it is possible to achieve rapid capture of airborne particles in the liquid phase, particularly if the aerosol can be incorporated in the foam structure. The foam can be collapsed into a small volume of liquid, immobilising any trapped aerosol in a form that may be treated as liquid waste. A review of the literature has been undertaken to define and assess the mechanics of aerosol behaviour in contact with foams. Applications are also examined in which foams have been used to treat aerosols. Key issues are identified which require further study. In particular, the efficiency of sub-micron particle removal can be determined using recently developed analysers and the use of the process gas to generate the foam could have a major impact on the design of commercial units. (author)

  12. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with tetrahedrally close-packed structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Douglas A. [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0156 (United States); Kraynik, Andrew M. [Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to quasistatic, simple shearing flow is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by using the Surface Evolver to calculate foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3}, where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new structure associated with each stable solution branch results from an avalanche of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization. (c) 2000 Society of Rheology.

  13. Data on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a cementitious mortar containing end-of-waste plastic aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio, Luciano; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Courard, Luc; Michel, Frédéric; Incarnato, Loredana; Scarfato, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Hygro-thermal and durability properties of a lightweight mortar made with foamed plastic waste aggregates ” (Coppola et al., 2018). This article focuses the attention on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a lightweight cementitious mortar containing foamed end-of-waste plastic aggregates, produced via foam extrusion process. Thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability ...

  14. TH-CD-201-04: A Study of Cherenkov Light Generated and Collected in Plastic Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, L [CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Papaconstadopoulos, P [McGill Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Seuntjens, J [McGill Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bouchard, H [CHUM-Hospital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study Cherenkov light emission in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) from a theoretical point of view to identify situations that may arise where the calibration coefficient obtained in one condition is not applicable to another condition. By identifying problematic situations, we hope to provide guidance on how to confidently use PSDs. Methods: Cherenkov light emission in PSD was modelled using basic physical principles. In particular, changes in refractive index as a function of wavelength were accounted for using the Sellmeier empirical equation. Both electron and photon beams were considered. For photons, realistic distributions of secondary charged particles were calculated using Klein-Nishina’s formula. Cherenkov production and collection in PSDs were studied for a range of parameters including beam energy, charged particle momentum distribution, detector orientation and material composition. Finally, experimental validation was made using a commercial plastic scintillation detector. Results: In specific situations, results show that the Cherenkov spectrum coupled in the PSD can deviate from its expected behaviour (i.e. one over the square of the wavelength). In these cases were the model is realistic it is possible to see a peak wavelength instead of a monotonically decreasing function. Consequences of this phenomenon are negligible when the momentum of charged particle is distributed randomly, but in some clinically relevant cases, such as an electron beam at depth close to R50 or for photon beams with minimal scatter component, the value of the calibration coefficient can be altered. Experimental tests with electron beams showed changes in the Cherenkov light ratio, the parameter used in the calibration of PSDs, up to 2–3% depending on the PSD orientation. Conclusion: This work is the first providing a physical explanation for apparent change in PSD calibration coefficient. With this new information at hand, it will be possible to

  15. Supercritical CO2 Foaming of Thermoplastic Materials Derived from Maize: Proof-of-Concept Use in Mammalian Cell Culture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. Conclusions/Significance We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein

  16. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de Los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  17. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds.We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively. Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145 attached to and proliferated on zein foams.We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves. Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  18. Scaling up the Fabrication of Mechanically-Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curtin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and address the main challenges associated with fabricating large samples of carbon foams composed of interwoven networks of carbon nanofibers. Solutions to two difficulties related with the process of fabricating carbon foams, maximum foam size and catalyst cost, were developed. First, a simple physical method was invented to scale-up the constrained formation of fibrous nanostructures process (CoFFiN to fabricate relatively large foams. Specifically, a gas deflector system capable of maintaining conditions supportive of carbon nanofiber foam growth throughout a relatively large mold was developed. ANSYS CFX models were used to simulate the gas flow paths with and without deflectors; the data generated proved to be a very useful tool for the deflector design. Second, a simple method for selectively leaching the Pd catalyst material trapped in the foam during growth was successfully tested. Multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and mechanical testing, were employed to characterize the foams generated in this study. All results confirmed that the larger foam samples preserve the basic characteristics: their interwoven nanofiber microstructure forms a low-density tridimensional solid with viscoelastic behavior. Fiber growth mechanisms are also discussed. Larger samples of mechanically-robust carbon nanofiber foams will enable the use of these materials as strain sensors, shock absorbers, selective absorbents for environmental remediation and electrodes for energy storage devices, among other applications.

  19. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  1. Foam-Delivery of Remedial Amendments for Enhanced Vadose Zone Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, L.; Szecsody, J.E.; Dresel, P.E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Qafoku, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The remediation of metals and radionuclides contamination, such as Cr(VI), Tc-99, and Sr-90 in the U.S. DOE Hanford Site vadose zone is a critical need. Water-based remedial amendments delivery to the deep vadose zone is facing significant technical challenges. Water-based delivery will easily leach out the highly mobile pollutants therefore contaminate the underlying aquifer. Preferential flow of the amendment-laden solution in the vadose zone due to the formation heterogeneity is difficult to overcome, resulting in bypassing of the less permeable zones. Foam has unique transport properties in the vadose zone that enable mitigation on the mobilization of mobile contaminants and enhance the sweeping over heterogeneous systems. Calcium polysulfide (CPS) is a remedial amendment that can be used to reduce and immobilize hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and other redox-sensitive radionuclides/metals in the vadose zone. The delivery of CPS to the vadose zone using foam and the immobilization of Cr(VI) via reduction by the foam-delivered CPS was investigated in this study. Batch tests were conducted to select the foam-generating CPS-surfactant solutions, to determine the solution foamability and the reducing potential of CPS-containing foams, and to study the influence of foam quality, surfactant concentration, and CPS concentration on foam stability. Column experiments were performed to test the foam delivery of CPS to sediments under conditions similar to field vadose zone, to study the foam transport and interaction with sediments, and to determine the extent of Cr(VI) immobilization using this novel delivery approach. CPS-containing foams with high reducing potential were prepared based on the batch tests. Sediment reduction by foam-delivered CPS was observed in the column studies. Significant mobilization of Cr(VI) from sediments occurred when CPS was delivered in aqueous solution. The Cr(VI) mobilization was minimized when CPS was delivered by foams, resulting in

  2. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Johnson, Kyle; Lorenzo, Henry T.

    2016-10-01

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on their molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.

  3. USING OXYGEN-CONSUMING THERMOSET PLASTICS TO GENERATE HYPOXIC CONDITIONS IN MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR POTENTIAL CELL CULTURE APPLICATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sticker, Drago; Rothbauer, Mario; Ehgartner, Josef

    The precise control of the oxygen concentration in a cellular environment allows the study of cells under physiologically relevant conditions. This work reports on a novel method for the generation of reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations in microfluidic chambers for cell- and organ-on-chip app......The precise control of the oxygen concentration in a cellular environment allows the study of cells under physiologically relevant conditions. This work reports on a novel method for the generation of reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations in microfluidic chambers for cell- and organ...

  4. A novel fast-neutron tomography system based on a plastic scintillator array and a compact D–D neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Robert; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Very few experimental imaging studies using a compact neutron generator have been published, and to the knowledge of the authors none have included tomography results using multiple projection angles. Radiography results with a neutron generator, scintillator screen, and camera can be seen in Bogolubov et al. (2005), Cremer et al. (2012), and Li et al. (2014). Comparable results with a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube can be seen in Popov et al. (2011). One study using an array of individual fast neutron detectors in the context of cargo scanning for security purposes is detailed in Eberhardt et al. (2005). In that case, however, the emphasis was on very large objects with a resolution on the order of 1 cm, whereas this study focuses on less massive objects and a finer spatial resolution. In Andersson et al. (2014) three fast neutron counters and a D–T generator were used to perform attenuation measurements of test phantoms. Based on the axisymmetry of the test phantoms, the single-projection information was used to calculate radial attenuation distributions of the object, which was compared with the known geometry. In this paper a fast-neutron tomography system based on an array of individual detectors and a purpose-designed compact D–D neutron generator is presented. Each of the 88 detectors consists of a plastic scintillator read out by two Silicon photomultipliers and a dedicated pulse-processing board. Data acquisition for all channels was handled by four single-board microcontrollers. Details of the individual detector design and testing are elaborated upon. Using the complete array, several fast-neutron images of test phantoms were reconstructed, one of which was compared with results using a Co-60 gamma source. The system was shown to be capable of 2 mm resolution, with exposure times on the order of several hours per reconstructed tomogram. Details about these measurements and the analysis of the reconstructed images are given, along with a

  5. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi, E-mail: paryanto-ds@yahoo.com; Sugiman,; Saputra, Yudhi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mataram, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  6. PUR-PIR foam produced based on poly(hydroxybutyl citrate foamed founded with different factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszkowska Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(hydroxybutyl citrate p(HBC was obtained. The product compound produced in the solution during esterification, was added to rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR. The amount of petrochemical polyol in the foams was decreased in favor of the p(HBC from 0.1 to 0.5 equivalent. The foams were foamed in two ways: with distilled water (W foams and with Solkane 365/227 (S foams. The examination results of both foam series were compared. They showed that the foams foamed with water have higher softening temperature than the foams foamed with solkane. The retention values for both foam series are around 91–95%, and water absorption in the range of 0.7–3.2%. The anisotropy coefficient did not exceed 1.08 (the lowest value being 1.01.

  7. Preparation of Microcellular Epoxy Foams through a Limited-Foaming Process: A Contradiction with the Time-Temperature-Transformation Cure Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chun; Gong, Wei; Ji, Yubi; Qin, Shuhao; He, Li

    2018-01-01

    3D cross-linking networks are generated through chemical reactions between thermosetting epoxy resin and hardener during curing. The curing degree of epoxy material can be increased by increasing curing temperature and/or time. The epoxy material must then be fully cured through a postcuring process to optimize its material characteristics. Here, a limited-foaming method is introduced for the preparation of microcellular epoxy foams (Lim-foams) with improved cell morphology, high thermal expansion coefficient, and good compressive properties. Lim-foams exhibit a lower glass transition temperature (T g ) and curing degree than epoxy foams fabricated through free-foaming process (Fre-foams). Surprisingly, however, the T g of Lim-foams is unaffected by postcuring temperature and time. This phenomenon, which is related to high gas pressure in the bubbles, contradicts that indicated by the time-temperature-transformation cure diagram. High bubble pressure promotes the movement of molecular chains under heating at low temperature and simultaneously suppresses the etherification cross-linking reaction during post-curing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  9. Design of foam-buffered high gain target with Fokker-Planck implosion simulation for thermal insulation and imprint mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Mima, K.; Norimatsu, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishiguchi, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is proposed that a thick foam layer on a plastic capsule of fusion pellet is effective not only for reducing the initial imprint, but also for solving the melting problem of cryogenic deuterium-tritium layer, in a reactor chamber. Investigated are the dependences of gain, thermal insulation for preventing the melting, and imprint mitigation of a foam-buffered target on the foam layer thickness. The imprint mitigation, the Rayleigh-Taylor growth factor and the fusion gain of a foam-buffered target are evaluated by the hydrodynamic implosion code HIMICO [A. Nishiguchi et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 417 (1992)], which includes a Fokker-Planck transport code. As the result, it is found that high gain can be achieved by the foam-buffered target together with thermal insulation and imprint mitigation

  10. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  11. Amorphous microcellular polytetrafluoroethylene foam film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongzheng

    1991-11-01

    We report herein the preparation of novel low-density ultramicrocellular fluorocarbon foams and their application. These fluorocarbon foams are of interest for the biochemistry arena in numerous applications including foodstuff, pharmacy, wine making, beer brewery, fermentation medical laboratory, and other processing factories. All of those require good quality processing programs in which, after eliminating bacterium and virus, compressed air is needed. Ordinarily, compressed air contains bacterium and virus, its size is 0.01 - 2 micrometers fluorocarbon foam films. Having average porous diameter 0.04 - 0.1 micrometers , these are stable to high temperature (280 degree(s)C) and chemical environments, and generally have good engineering and mechanical properties (e.g., low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus, and good dimensional stability). Our new process for preparing low density fluorocarbon foams provides materials with unique properties. As such, they offer the possibility for being superior to earlier materials for a number of the filter applications mentioned.

  12. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  13. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... was increased by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. During the 2nd and 4th period the organic loading rate was maintained constant, but instead of glucose, higher concentration of Na-oleate or gelatine was added in the feeding substrate. The results obtained from the above experiment showed...

  14. Photoactivity of Titanium Dioxide Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 foams have been prepared by a simple mechanical stirring method. Short-chain amphiphilic molecules have been used to stabilize colloidal suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 foams were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The photoassisted oxidation of NO in the gas phase according to ISO 22197-1 has been used to compare the photoactivity of the newly prepared TiO2 foams to that of the original powders. The results showed that the photoactivity is increased up to about 135%. Foam structures seem to be a good means of improving the photoactivity of semiconductor materials and can readily be used for applications such as air purification devices.

  15. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  16. A cement based syntactic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Muthyala, Venkata D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cement based syntactic foam core was proposed and experimentally investigated for composite sandwich structures. This was a multi-phase composite material with microballoon dispersed in a rubber latex toughened cement paste matrix. A trace amount of microfiber was also incorporated to increase the number of mechanisms for energy absorption and a small amount of nanoclay was added to improve the crystal structure of the hydrates. Three groups of cement based syntactic foams with varying cement content were investigated. A fourth group of specimens containing pure cement paste were also prepared as control. Each group contained 24 beam specimens. The total number of beam specimens was 96. The dimension of each beam was 30.5 cm x 5.1 cm x 1.5 cm. Twelve foam specimens from each group were wrapped with plain woven 7715 style glass fabric reinforced epoxy to prepare sandwich beams. Twelve cubic foam specimens, three from each group, with a side length of 5.1 cm, were also prepared. Three types of testing, low velocity impact test and four-point bending test on the beam specimens and compression test on the cubic specimens, were conducted to evaluate the impact energy dissipation, stress-strain behavior, and residual strength. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to examine the energy dissipation mechanisms in the micro-length scale. It was found that the cement based syntactic foam has a higher capacity for dissipating impact energy with an insignificant reduction in strength as compared to the control cement paste core. When compared to a polymer based foam core having similar compositions, it was found that the cement based foam has a comparable energy dissipation capacity. The developed cement based syntactic foam would be a viable alternative for core materials in impact-tolerant composite sandwich structures

  17. Heat Transfer in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Pakeeza

    Heat transfer though open-cell metal foam is experimentally studied for heat exchanger and heat shield applications at high temperatures (˜750°C). Nickel foam sheets with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per linear inch (PPI), have been used to make the heat exchangers and heat shields by using thermal spray coating to deposit an Inconel skin on a foam core. Heat transfer measurements were performed on a test rig capable of generating hot gas up to 1000°C. The heat exchangers were tested by exposing their outer surface to combustion gases at a temperature of 550°C and 750°C while being cooled by air flowing through them at room temperature at velocities up to 5 m/s. The temperature rise of the air, the surface temperature of the heat exchangers and the air temperature inside the heat exchanger were measured. The volumetric heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number were calculated for different velocities. The heat transfer performance of the 40PPI sample brazed with the foil is found to be the most efficient. Pressure drop measurements were also performed for 10 and 40PPI metal foam. Thermographic measurements were done on 40PPI foam heat exchangers using a high temperature infrared camera. A high power electric heater was used to produce hot air at 300°C that passed over the foam heat exchanger while the cooling air was blown through it. Heat shields were made by depositing porous skins on metal foam and it was observed that a small amount of coolant leaking through the pores notably reduces the heat transfer from the hot gases. An analytical model was developed based assuming local thermal non-equilibrium that accounts for the temperature difference between solid and fluid phase. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the predicted values of the model.

  18. Metal foams as gas coolers for exhaust gas recirculation systems subjected to particulate fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooman, K.; Malayeri, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fouling of metal foam heat exchangers as EGR gas coolers is tested. • An optimal design was inferred based on the generated data. • A simple cleaning technique was suggested and evaluated. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results indicating the benefits and challenges associated with the use of metal foams as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers. Fouling of such heat exchangers is a critical issue and, as such, special attention has been paid to address this very issue in the present study where a soot generator has been employed to simulate the engine running condition. Effects of aluminium foam PPI and height as well as gas velocity are investigated. It has been noted that proper design of the foam can lead to significantly higher heat transfer rate and reasonable pressure drop compared to no-foam cases. More interestingly, it is demonstrated that the foams can be cleaned easily without relying on expensive cleaning techniques. Using simple brush-cleaning, the foams can be reused as EGR gas coolers with a performance penalty of only 17% (compared to a new or clean foam).

  19. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  20. A review of aqueous foam in microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazadehsayed, Abdolhamid; Rezaee, Nastaran; Naser, Jamal; Nguyen, Anh V

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in the study of aqueous foams. Having said this, a better understanding of foam physics requires a deeper and profound study of foam elements. This paper reviews the studies in the microscale of aqueous foams. The elements of aqueous foams are interior Plateau borders, exterior Plateau borders, nodes, and films. Furthermore, these elements' contribution to the drainage of foam and hydraulic resistance are studied. The Marangoni phenomena that can happen in aqueous foams are listed as Marangoni recirculation in the transition region, Marangoni-driven flow from Plateau border towards the film in the foam fractionation process, and Marangoni flow caused by exposure of foam containing photosurfactants under UV. Then, the flow analysis of combined elements of foam such as PB-film along with Marangoni flow and PB-node are studied. Next, we contrast the behavior of foams in different conditions. These various conditions can be perturbation in the foam structure caused by injected water droplets or waves or using a non-Newtonian fluid to make the foam. Further review is about the effect of oil droplets and particles on the characteristics of foam such as drainage, stability and interfacial mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phyllotaxis: a framework for foam topological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Sadoc, Jean-François; Charvolin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Phyllotaxis describes the arrangement of florets, scales or leaves in composite flowers or plants (daisy, aster, sunflower, pinecone, pineapple). As a structure, it is a geometrical foam, the most homogeneous and densest covering of a large disk by Voronoi cells (the florets), constructed by a simple algorithm: Points placed regularly on a generative spiral constitute a spiral lattice, and phyllotaxis is the tiling by the Voronoi cells of the spiral lattice. Locally, neighboring cells are organized as three whorls or parastichies, labelled with successive Fibonacci numbers. The structure is encoded as the sequence of the shapes (number of sides) of the successive Voronoi cells on the generative spiral. We show that sequence and organization are independent of the position of the initial point on the generative spiral, that is invariant under disappearance (T2 of the first Voronoi cell or, conversely, under creation of a first cell, that is under growth. This independence shows how a foam is able to respond to a shear stress, notably through grain boundaries that are layers of square cells slightly truncated into heptagons, pentagons and hexagons, meeting at four-corner vertices, critical points of T1 elementary topological transformations.

  2. Conceptual design and optimization of a plastic scintillator array for 2D tomography using a compact D-D fast neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Zboray, Robert; Cortesi, Marco; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2014-04-01

    A conceptual design optimization of a fast neutron tomography system was performed. The system is based on a compact deuterium-deuterium fast neutron generator and an arc-shaped array of individual neutron detectors. The array functions as a position sensitive one-dimensional detector allowing tomographic reconstruction of a two-dimensional cross section of an object up to 10 cm across. Each individual detector is to be optically isolated and consists of a plastic scintillator and a Silicon Photomultiplier for measuring light produced by recoil protons. A deterministic geometry-based model and a series of Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the design geometry parameters affecting the reconstructed image resolution. From this, it is expected that with an array of 100 detectors a reconstructed image resolution of ~1.5mm can be obtained. Other simulations were performed in order to optimize the scintillator depth (length along the neutron path) such that the best ratio of direct to scattered neutron counts is achieved. This resulted in a depth of 6-8 cm and an expected detection efficiency of 33-37%. Based on current operational capabilities of a prototype neutron generator being developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, planned implementation of this detector array design should allow reconstructed tomograms to be obtained with exposure times on the order of a few hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  4. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  5. Thermal assault and polyurethane foam-evaluating protective mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C.L.; Iams, Z.L.

    2004-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foam utilizes a variety of mechanisms to mitigate the thermal assault of a ''regulatory burn''. Polymer specific heat and foam k-factor are of limited usefulness in predicting payload protection. Properly formulated rigid polyurethane foam provides additional safeguards by employing ablative mechanisms which are effective even when the foam has been crushed or fractured as a result of trauma. The dissociative transitions from polymer to gas and char, and the gas transport of heat from inside the package out into the environment are also thermal mitigators. Additionally, the in-situ production of an intumescent, insulative, carbonaceous char, confers thermal protection even when a package's outer steel skin has been breached. In this test program, 19 liter, ''Five gallon'' steel pails are exposed on one end to the flame of an ''Oil Burner'' as described in the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ''Aircraft Materials Fire Test Handbook''. When burning 2 diesel at a nominal rate of 8.39 kg (18.5 pounds)/hr, the burner generates a high emissivity flame that impinges on the pail face with the thermal intensity of a full scale pool-fire environment. Results of these tests, TGA and MDSC analysis on the subject foams are reported, and their relevance to full size packages and pool fires are discussed

  6. The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, Henry S.; Nerheim, Magnus S.; Carroll, Katherine A.; Eriksen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Microorganisms mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic. • North Pacific Gyre (NPG) plastics were examined with scanning-electron microscopy. • Bacillus bacteria and pennate diatoms dominated the NPG plastic fouling community. • Bacterial abundance was patchily distributed but increased on foamed polystyrene. • Diatom abundance increased on rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic density. -- Abstract: Microorganisms likely mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic pollution, including degradation, chemical adsorption, and colonization or ingestion by macroorganisms. We investigated the relationship between plastic-associated microorganism communities and factors such as location, temperature, salinity, plankton abundance, plastic concentration, item size, surface roughness, and polymer type. Small plastic items from the surface of the North Pacific Gyre in 2011 were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacillus bacteria (mean 1664 ± 247 individuals mm −2 ) and pennate diatoms (1097 ± 154 mm −2 ) were most abundant, with coccoid bacteria, centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and radiolarians present. Bacterial abundance was patchy, but increased on foamed polystyrene. Diatom abundance increased on items with rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic concentrations. Morphotype richness increased slightly on larger fragments, and a biogeographic transition occurred between pennate diatom groups. Better characterizing this community will aid in understanding how it interacts with plastic pollution

  7. Safety analysis report for radwaste foam transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Park, S. W.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, K. H.

    1999-08-01

    For the tests and examinations of radwaste foam which generated in domestic nuclear power plants a radioactive material transport cask is needed to transport the radwaste foam from the power plants to KAERI. This cask should be easy to handle in the facilities and safe to maintain the shielding safety of operators. According to the regulations, it should be verified that this cask maintains the thermal and structural integrities under prescribed load conditions by the regulations. The basic structural functions and the integrities of the cask under required load conditions were evaluated. Therefore, it was verified that the cask is suitable to transport radwaste foam from nuclear power plants to KAERI. (author). 11 refs., 10 tabs., 25 figs

  8. Liquid versus foam sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel-Desnos, C; Allaert, F-A

    2009-12-01

    A systematic review to compare efficacy and safety of foam (F) sclerotherapy versus liquid (L) sclerotherapy for primary varicose veins of the lower limbs. Systematic searches of electronic databases were conducted in April 2009 to identify relevant published studies. Database searches were augmented with abstracts from conference proceedings and electronic and hand searching of journals not consistently indexed in the major databases. For treatment of saphenous veins, six trials (four randomized controlled trials) were considered. Despite containing much less sclerosing agent, F was markedly more effective compared with L, the difference being put at between 20% and 50%. Four studies were included in a meta-analysis showing efficacy of F at 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71-82) versus L at 39.5% (95% CI 33-46), chi(2) = 60.9740; P reticular veins and telangiectases, only two comparative trials were found and do not at present provide any conclusive evidence to support the superiority of efficacy of one form over the other. Statistically, the side-effects reported in all the available comparative trials do not differ between F and L forms, even if visual disturbances seem to be more common with F. In the treatment of varices of the lower limbs, F shows much greater efficacy compared to L. Concerning the side effects, no statistical significant differences were found between L and F.

  9. Air contamination in the sclerosing foam for the treatment of varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franciscis, S; Nobile, Cga; Larosa, E; Montemurro, R; Serra, R

    2016-03-01

    Fluids and drugs formulated for intravenous infusion may potentially promote the growth of microorganisms that can cause infections. The aim of this study is to test the sterility of sclerosing foam. Polidocanol was used for the production of the foam. The Tessari method was used in order to generate the foam. The preparation was carried out both in the operating theater and in an outpatient room. A validation test with microorganisms was also performed. The measurements showed no evident growth of microorganisms and in the validation tests the foam appeared to even display bacteriostatic and/or bactericide properties. Sclerosing foam seems to be safe from a microbiological point of view. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Heating of low-density CHO-foam layers by means of soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, O.N., E-mail: o.rosmej@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 164291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V.; Eisenbarth, U. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 164291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vatulin, V.; Zhidkov, N.; Suslov, N.; Kunin, A.; Pinegin, A. [All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira St. 37, Sarov (Russian Federation); Schaefer, D.; Nisius, Th.; Wilhein, Th. [RheinAhrCampus Remagen, Institute for X-optics, Suedallee 2, 53424 Remagen (Germany); Rienecker, T.; Wiechula, J.; Jacoby, J. [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zhao, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Nanchang Road 509, 730000 Lanzhou (China); Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospekt, 65 Moscow (Russian Federation); Orlov, N. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS, Institute for High Energy Density, Izhorskaya. 13, building 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-11

    Interaction of soft X-ray thermal radiation with polymer foam layers has been studied experimentally. Indirectly heated CHO-foams were used to create a plasma target for applications in combined heavy ion beam-laser experiments that are aimed at investigation of the heavy ion energy loss in ionized matter. In this work, we report experimental results on heating of low Z foams by means of the Planckian radiation generated in gold hohlraums. The experimental goal was to study the hohlraum radiation field, duration of the soft X-ray pulse, the conversion efficiency of the laser energy into soft X-rays, measurements of the absorption properties of foam layers and parameters of the foam targets heated by the Plankian radiation.

  11. Heating of low-density CHO-foam layers by means of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, O.N.; Bagnoud, V.; Eisenbarth, U.; Vatulin, V.; Zhidkov, N.; Suslov, N.; Kunin, A.; Pinegin, A.; Schaefer, D.; Nisius, Th.; Wilhein, Th.; Rienecker, T.; Wiechula, J.; Jacoby, J.; Zhao, Y.; Vergunova, G.; Borisenko, N.; Orlov, N.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of soft X-ray thermal radiation with polymer foam layers has been studied experimentally. Indirectly heated CHO-foams were used to create a plasma target for applications in combined heavy ion beam-laser experiments that are aimed at investigation of the heavy ion energy loss in ionized matter. In this work, we report experimental results on heating of low Z foams by means of the Planckian radiation generated in gold hohlraums. The experimental goal was to study the hohlraum radiation field, duration of the soft X-ray pulse, the conversion efficiency of the laser energy into soft X-rays, measurements of the absorption properties of foam layers and parameters of the foam targets heated by the Plankian radiation.

  12. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  13. Modification of plastic by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalager, P.

    1974-01-01

    Very few of the modifications of plastic materials have got industrial status. Nearly all of the succesful industrial irradiations processes are performed with polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene has been used in industries and products such as wire, cables, foams and heat shrinkable products, i.e. films, tubings and molded parts. Also the irradiation of finished products, i.e. improvement on a thermoplastic material into thermosetting material, has been developed in this field. (M.S.)

  14. Stability analysis of uniform equilibrium foam states for EOR processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.; Marchesin, D.; Rossen, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of foam for mobility control is a promising mean to improve sweep efficiency in EOR. Experimental studies discovered that foam exhibits three different states (weak foam, intermediate foam, and strong foam). The intermediate-foam state is found to be unstable in the lab whereas the weak- and

  15. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Empirical Modeling of the Viscosity of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Foam Fracturing Fluid under Different Downhole Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-quality supercritical CO2 (sCO2 foam as a fracturing fluid is considered ideal for fracturing shale gas reservoirs. The apparent viscosity of the fracturing fluid holds an important role and governs the efficiency of the fracturing process. In this study, the viscosity of sCO2 foam and its empirical correlations are presented as a function of temperature, pressure, and shear rate. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of temperature, pressure, and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of sCO2 foam generated by a widely used mixed surfactant system. An advanced high pressure, high temperature (HPHT foam rheometer was used to measure the apparent viscosity of the foam over a wide range of reservoir temperatures (40–120 °C, pressures (1000–2500 psi, and shear rates (10–500 s−1. A well-known power law model was modified to accommodate the individual and combined effect of temperature, pressure, and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the foam. Flow indices of the power law were found to be a function of temperature, pressure, and shear rate. Nonlinear regression was also performed on the foam apparent viscosity data to develop these correlations. The newly developed correlations provide an accurate prediction of the foam’s apparent viscosity under different fracturing conditions. These correlations can be helpful for evaluating foam-fracturing efficiency by incorporating them into a fracturing simulator.

  17. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A graphite foam reinforced by graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Guo, L.F.; Wang, Y.M.; Wang, Y.P.; Yu, M.F.; Lau, K.T.T. [DongHua University, Shanghai (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Graphite foam was obtained after carbonization and graphitization of a pitch foam formed by the pyrolysis of coal tar based mesophase pitch mixed with graphite particles in a high pressure and temperature chamber. The graphite foam possessed high mechanical strength and exceptional thermal conductivity after adding the graphite particles. Experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of modified graphite foam reached 110W/m K, and its compressive strength increased from 3.7 MPa to 12.5 MPa with the addition of 5 wt% graphite particles. Through the microscopic observation, it was also found that fewer micro-cracks were formed in the cell wall of the modified foam as compared with pure graphite foam. The graphitization degree of modified foam reached 84.9% and the ligament of graphite foam exhibited high alignment after carbonization at 1200{sup o}C for 3 h and graphitization at 3000{sup o}C for 10 min.

  19. Some aspects of image processing using foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, A.; Freire, M.V.; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have explored some concepts of chaotic dynamics and wave light transport in foams. Using some experiments, we have obtained the main features of light intensity distribution through foams. We are proposing a model for this phenomenon, based on the combination of two processes: a diffusive process and another one derived from chaotic dynamics. We have presented a short outline of the chaotic dynamics involving light scattering in foams. We also have studied the existence of caustics from scattering of light from foams, with typical patterns observed in the light diffraction in transparent films. The nonlinear geometry of the foam structure was explored in order to create optical elements, such as hyperbolic prisms and filters. - Highlights: • We have obtained the light scattering in foams using experiments. • We model the light transport in foams using a chaotic dynamics and a diffusive process. • An optical filter based on foam is proposed

  20. Dynamic and Thermal Properties of Aluminum Alloy A356/Silicon Carbide Hollow Particle Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy A356 matrix syntactic foams filled with SiC hollow particles (SiCHP are studied in the present work. Two compositions of syntactic foams are studied for quasi-static and high strain rate compression. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis is conducted to study the temperature dependent energy dissipation and damping capabilities of these materials. The thermal characterization includes study of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. A356/SiCHP syntactic foams are not strain rate sensitive as the compressive strength displayed little variation between the tested strain rates of 0.001–2100 s−1. Microscopic analysis of the high strain rate compression tested specimens showed that the fracture is initiated by the failure of hollow particles at the onset of the plastic deformation region. This is followed by plastic deformation of the matrix material and further crushing of particles. The syntactic foams showed decrease in storage modulus with increasing temperature and the trend was nearly linear up to 500 °C. The alloy shows a similar behavior at low temperature but the decrease in storage modulus increases sharply over 375 °C. The loss modulus is very small for the tested materials because of lack of viscoelasticity in metallic materials. The trend in the loss modulus is opposite, where the matrix alloy has lower loss modulus than syntactic foams at low temperature. However, over 250 °C the matrix loss modulus starts to increase rapidly and attains a peak around 460 °C. Syntactic foams have higher damping parameter at low temperatures than the matrix alloy. Incorporation of SiCHP helps in decreasing CTE. Compared to the CTE of the matrix alloy, 23.4 × 10−6 °C−1, syntactic foams showed CTE values as low as 11.67 × 10−6 °C−1.

  1. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan R. Lipsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design of FoamVis, the only existing visualization, exploration and analysis application created to address them. We describe FoamVis’ main features, together with relevant design and implementation notes. Our goal is to provide a global overview and individual feature implementation details that would allow a visualization scientist to extend the FoamVis system with new algorithms and adapt it to new requirements. The result is a detailed presentation of the software that is not provided in previous visualization research papers.

  2. The effect of moisture absorption on the physical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ya-Jen; Hearon, Keith; Maitland, Duncan J; Wilson, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (T g ) and the stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood-contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the T g of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the T g from 67 to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h

  3. Investigation of Energy Absorption in Aluminum Foam Sandwich Panels By Drop Hammer Test: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri Damghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich panel structures with aluminum foam core and metal surfaces have light weight with high performance in dispersing energy. This has led to their widespread use in the absorption of energy. The cell structure of foam core is subjected to plastic deformation in the constant tension level that absorbs a lot of kinetic energy before destruction of the structure. In this research, by making samples of aluminum foam core sandwich panels with aluminum surfaces, experimental tests of low velocity impact by a drop machine are performed for different velocities and weights of projectile on samples of sandwich panels with aluminum foam core with relative density of 18%, 23%, and 27%. The output of device is acceleration‐time diagram which is shown by an accelerometer located on the projectile. From the experimental tests, the effect of weight, velocity and energy of the projectile and density of the foam on the global deformation, and energy decrease rate of projectile have been studied. The results of the experimental testes show that by increasing the density of aluminum foam, the overall impression is reduced and the slop of energy loss of projectile increases. Also by increasing the velocity of the projectile, the energy loss increases.

  4. Functional Performances of CuZnAl Shape Memory Alloy Open-Cell Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Casati, R.; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with cellular structure offer a unique mixture of thermo-physical-mechanical properties. These characteristics can be tuned by changing the pore size and make the shape memory metallic foams very attractive for developing new devices for structural and functional applications. In this work, CuZnAl SMA foams were produced through the liquid infiltration of space holder method. In comparison, a conventional CuZn brass alloy was foamed trough the same method. Functional performances were studied on both bulk and foamed SMA specimens. Calorimetric response shows similar martensitic transformation (MT) below 0 °C. Compressive response of CuZnAl revealed that mechanical behavior is strongly affected by sample morphology and that damping capacity of metallic foam is increased above the MT temperatures. The shape memory effect was detected in the CuZnAl foams. The conventional brass shows a compressive response similar to that of the martensitic CuZnAl, in which plastic deformation accumulation occurs up to the cellular structure densification after few thermal cycles.

  5. Effects of bursting dynamic features on the generation of multi-clustered structure of neural network with symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui; Song, Yongduan; Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Xiumin, E-mail: xmli@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Dependable Service Computing in Cyber Physical Society of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, the generation of multi-clustered structure of self-organized neural network with different neuronal firing patterns, i.e., bursting or spiking, has been investigated. The initially all-to-all-connected spiking neural network or bursting neural network can be self-organized into clustered structure through the symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning for both bursting and spiking neurons. However, the time consumption of this clustering procedure of the burst-based self-organized neural network (BSON) is much shorter than the spike-based self-organized neural network (SSON). Our results show that the BSON network has more obvious small-world properties, i.e., higher clustering coefficient and smaller shortest path length than the SSON network. Also, the results of larger structure entropy and activity entropy of the BSON network demonstrate that this network has higher topological complexity and dynamical diversity, which benefits for enhancing information transmission of neural circuits. Hence, we conclude that the burst firing can significantly enhance the efficiency of clustering procedure and the emergent clustered structure renders the whole network more synchronous and therefore more sensitive to weak input. This result is further confirmed from its improved performance on stochastic resonance. Therefore, we believe that the multi-clustered neural network which self-organized from the bursting dynamics has high efficiency in information processing.

  6. Effects of bursting dynamic features on the generation of multi-clustered structure of neural network with symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; Song, Yongduan; Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Xiumin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the generation of multi-clustered structure of self-organized neural network with different neuronal firing patterns, i.e., bursting or spiking, has been investigated. The initially all-to-all-connected spiking neural network or bursting neural network can be self-organized into clustered structure through the symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning for both bursting and spiking neurons. However, the time consumption of this clustering procedure of the burst-based self-organized neural network (BSON) is much shorter than the spike-based self-organized neural network (SSON). Our results show that the BSON network has more obvious small-world properties, i.e., higher clustering coefficient and smaller shortest path length than the SSON network. Also, the results of larger structure entropy and activity entropy of the BSON network demonstrate that this network has higher topological complexity and dynamical diversity, which benefits for enhancing information transmission of neural circuits. Hence, we conclude that the burst firing can significantly enhance the efficiency of clustering procedure and the emergent clustered structure renders the whole network more synchronous and therefore more sensitive to weak input. This result is further confirmed from its improved performance on stochastic resonance. Therefore, we believe that the multi-clustered neural network which self-organized from the bursting dynamics has high efficiency in information processing

  7. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  8. Influence of the glass particle size on the foaming process and physical characteristics of foam glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared low-density foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass using carbon and MnO2 as the foaming agents. The effect of the glass particle size on the foaming process, the apparent density and the pore morphology is revealed. The results show that the foaming is mainly caused...... by the reduction of manganese. Foam glasses with a density of

  9. Modelling of Churn-Annular foam flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Nennie, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Foam assisted lift is a deliquification method in the oil and gas industry, which aims to prevent or postpone countercurrent gas-liquid flow in maturing gas wells or to assist in removing downhole accumulated liquids. According to Nimwegen, who performed experiments with foam flows, foam

  10. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  11. Pipe Decontamination Involving String-Foam Circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchet, J.P.; Estienne, G.; Fournel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Foam applications number for nuclear decontamination purposes has recently increased. The major advantage of foam decontamination is the reduction of secondary liquid wastes volumes. Among foam applications, we focus on foam circulation in contaminated equipment. Dynamic properties of the system ensures an homogeneous and rapid effect of the foam bed-drifted chemical reagents present in the liquid phase. This paper describes a new approach of foam decontamination for pipes. It is based on an alternated air and foam injections. We called it 'string-foam circulation'. A further reduction of liquid wastes is achieved compared to continuous foam. Secondly, total pressure loss along the pipe is controlled by the total foam length in the pipe. It is thus possible to clean longer pipes keeping the pressure under atmospheric pressure value. This ensures the non dispersion of contamination. This study describes experimental results obtained with a neutral foam as well with an acid foam on a 130 m long loop. Finally, the decontamination of a 44 meters pipe is presented. (authors)

  12. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  13. A novel fast-neutron tomography system based on a plastic scintillator array and a compact D-D neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Very few experimental imaging studies using a compact neutron generator have been published, and to the knowledge of the authors none have included tomography results using multiple projection angles. Radiography results with a neutron generator, scintillator screen, and camera can be seen in Bogolubov et al. (2005), Cremer et al. (2012), and Li et al. (2014). Comparable results with a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube can be seen in Popov et al. (2011). One study using an array of individual fast neutron detectors in the context of cargo scanning for security purposes is detailed in Eberhardt et al. (2005). In that case, however, the emphasis was on very large objects with a resolution on the order of 1cm, whereas this study focuses on less massive objects and a finer spatial resolution. In Andersson et al. (2014) three fast neutron counters and a D-T generator were used to perform attenuation measurements of test phantoms. Based on the axisymmetry of the test phantoms, the single-projection information was used to calculate radial attenuation distributions of the object, which was compared with the known geometry. In this paper a fast-neutron tomography system based on an array of individual detectors and a purpose-designed compact D-D neutron generator is presented. Each of the 88 detectors consists of a plastic scintillator read out by two Silicon photomultipliers and a dedicated pulse-processing board. Data acquisition for all channels was handled by four single-board microcontrollers. Details of the individual detector design and testing are elaborated upon. Using the complete array, several fast-neutron images of test phantoms were reconstructed, one of which was compared with results using a Co-60 gamma source. The system was shown to be capable of 2mm resolution, with exposure times on the order of several hours per reconstructed tomogram. Details about these measurements and the analysis of the reconstructed images are given, along with a discussion

  14. Silicone foam for penetration seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Yoshikazu

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants or general buildings, it is very important to form a fire-resistant seal around cables, cable trays and conduits passing through a wall or a floor. Rockwool, asbestos, glasswool and flame-retarded urethane foam have so far been used for these purposes. However, they were not satisfactory in sealing property, workability and safety. The silicone foam newly developed, ''TOSSEAL'' 300, has cleared these defects. It has now come to be used for fire resistant seal in nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  16. Method of Heating a Foam-Based Catalyst Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Williams, Brian E.; McNeal, Shawn R.

    2009-01-01

    A method of heating a foam-based catalyst bed has been developed using silicon carbide as the catalyst support due to its readily accessible, high surface area that is oxidation-resistant and is electrically conductive. The foam support may be resistively heated by passing an electric current through it. This allows the catalyst bed to be heated directly, requiring less power to reach the desired temperature more quickly. Designed for heterogeneous catalysis, the method can be used by the petrochemical, chemical processing, and power-generating industries, as well as automotive catalytic converters. Catalyst beds must be heated to a light-off temperature before they catalyze the desired reactions. This typically is done by heating the assembly that contains the catalyst bed, which results in much of the power being wasted and/or lost to the surrounding environment. The catalyst bed is heated indirectly, thus requiring excessive power. With the electrically heated catalyst bed, virtually all of the power is used to heat the support, and only a small fraction is lost to the surroundings. Although the light-off temperature of most catalysts is only a few hundred degrees Celsius, the electrically heated foam is able to achieve temperatures of 1,200 C. Lower temperatures are achievable by supplying less electrical power to the foam. Furthermore, because of the foam s open-cell structure, the catalyst can be applied either directly to the foam ligaments or in the form of a catalyst- containing washcoat. This innovation would be very useful for heterogeneous catalysis where elevated temperatures are needed to drive the reaction.

  17. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The

  18. Graphene-modified nickel foam electrode for cathodic degradation of nitrofuranzone: Kinetics, transformation products and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, efficient, and durable electrodes are highly demanded for practical electro­chemical process. In this study, a reduced graphene oxide modified nickel foam electrode (GR‑Ni foam was facilely prepared via one-step cyclic voltammetry electrodeposition of gra­phene oxide suspension onto the Ni foam. The electrochemical degradation of nitrofuran­zone (NFZ, a kind of typical antibiotics was studied on the GR-Ni foam cathode. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectra analysis confirmed that presence of GR loading accelerated the electron transfer from the cathode surface to NFZ. With the applied cathode potential of −1.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, the removal efficiency of NFZ (C0 = 20 mg L−1 at the GR-Ni foam electrode reached up to 99 % within 30 min, showing a higher reaction rate constant (0.1297 min−1 than 0.0870 min−1 at the Pd-Ni foam and 0.0186 min−1 at the Ni foam electrode. It was also found that the pH, dissolved oxygen and NFZ initial concentration have slight effect on NFZ degradation at the GR-Ni foam electrode. The reactions first occurred at nitro groups (-NO2, unsaturated C=N bonds and N-N bonds to generate furan ring-containing products, and then these products were transformed into linear diamine products. The direct reduction by electrons was mainly responsible for NFZ reduction at the GR-Ni foam electrode. Even after 18 cycles, the removal efficiency of NFZ still reached up to 98 % within 1 h. In addition, the cathodic degradation process could eliminate the antibacterial activity of NFZ. The GR-Ni foam electrode would have a great potential in electrochemical process for treating wastewater containing furan antibiotics.

  19. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  20. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  1. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  2. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  3. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  4. Laser Smoothing and Imprint Reduction with a Foam Layer in the Multikilojoule Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depierreux, S.; Michel, D. T.; Riazuelo, G.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.; Wrobel, R.; Alozy, E.; Soullie, G.; Reverdin, C.; Villette, B.; Labaune, C.; Riconda, C.; Stenz, C.; Nicolaie, P.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Grech, M.; Borisenko, N. G.; Nazarov, W.; Hueller, S.

    2009-01-01

    This Letter presents first experimental results of the laser imprint reduction in fusion scale plasmas using a low-density foam layer. The experiments were conducted on the LIL facility at the energy level of 12 kJ with millimeter-size plasmas, reproducing the conditions of the initial interaction phase in the direct-drive scheme. The results include the generation of a supersonic ionization wave in the foam and the reduction of the initial laser fluctuations after propagation through 500 μm of foam with limited levels of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering. The smoothing mechanisms are analyzed and explained.

  5. Dynamics of foam flow in porous media in the presence of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, N.; Osei-Bonsu, K.

    2016-12-01

    Foams demonstrate great potential for fluid displacement in porous media which is important in a number of subsurface operations such as the enhanced oil recovery and soil remediation. The application of foam in these processes is down to its unique ability to reduce gas mobility by increasing its effective viscosity and to divert gas to un-swept low permeability zones in porous media [1-4]. To investigate the fundamental aspects of foam flow in porous media, we have conducted a systematic series of experiment using a well-characterised porous medium manufactured by a high resolution 3D printer. This enabled us to design and control the properties of porous media with high accuracy. The model porous medium was initially saturated with oil. Then the pre-generated foam was injected into the model at well-defined injection rates to displace oil. The dynamics of foam-oil displacement in porous media was recorded using a digital camera controlled by a computer [5]. The recorded images were analysed in MATLAB to determine the dynamics of foam-oil displacement under different boundary conditions. Effects of the type of oil, foam quality and foam flow rate were investigated. Our results reveal that generation of stable foam is delayed in the presence of light oil in the porous medium compared to the heavy oil. Furthermore, higher foam quality appears to be less stable in the presence of oil lowering its recovery efficiency. Pore-scale inspection of foam-oil patterns formed during displacement revealed formation of a more stable front in the case of lower foam quality which affected the oil recovery efficiency. This study extends the physical understanding of governing mechanisms controlling oil displacement by foam in porous media. Grassia, P., E. Mas-Hernandez, N. Shokri, S.J. Cox, G. Mishuris, W.R. Rossen (2014), J. Fluid Mech., 751, 346-405. Grassia, P., C. Torres-Ulloa, S. Berres, E. Mas-Hernandez, N. Shokri (2016), European Physical Journal E, 39 (4), 42. Mas

  6. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  8. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  9. Viscous Control of the Foam Glass Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    The production of foam glass as heat insulating material is an important industrial process because it enables low-cost recycling of glass waste from a variety of chemical compositions. Optimization of the foaming process of new glass waste compositions is time consuming, since many factors affect...... the foaming process such as temperature, particle size, type and concentration of foaming agent. The foaming temperature is one of the key factors, because even small temperature changes can affect the melt viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is important to establish the viscosity range...... in which the foaming process should take place, particularly when the type of recycled cullet is changed or several types of cullet are mixed in one batch. According to recent glass literature, the foaming process should occur at viscosity 103 to 105 Pa s. However, no systematic studies have hitherto been...

  10. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  11. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  12. Influence of foaming agents on solid thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared from CRT panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal transport mechanism of foam glass is still lacking. The contribution of solid- and gas conduction to the total thermal conductivity remains to be reported. In many foam glasses, the solid phase consist of a mix of an amorphous and a crystalline part where foaming...... containing glass and crystalline foaming agents and amorphous samples where the foaming agents are completely dissolved in the glass structure, respectively. Results show that the samples prepared by sintering have a higher thermal conductivity than the samples prepared by melt-quenching. The thermal...... conductivities of the sintered and the melt-quenched samples represent an upper and lower limit of the solid phase thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared with these foaming agents. The content of foaming agents dissolved in the glass structure has a major impact on the solid thermal conductivity of foam...

  13. A kinetic approach to modeling the manufacture of high density strucutral foam: Foaming and polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Noble, David R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Brunini, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, Kyle R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Tinsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We are studying PMDI polyurethane with a fast catalyst, such that filling and polymerization occur simultaneously. The foam is over-packed to tw ice or more of its free rise density to reach the density of interest. Our approach is to co mbine model development closely with experiments to discover new physics, to parameterize models and to validate the models once they have been developed. The model must be able to repres ent the expansion, filling, curing, and final foam properties. PMDI is chemically blown foam, wh ere carbon dioxide is pr oduced via the reaction of water and isocyanate. The isocyanate also re acts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. A new kinetic model is developed and implemented, which follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouple s these two reactions. The model predicts the polymerization reaction via condensation chemis try, where vitrification and glass transition temperature evolution must be included to correctly predict this quantity. The foam gas generation kinetics are determined by tracking the molar concentration of both water and carbon dioxide. Understanding the therma l history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven heating is very important to the results, since the kinetics and ma terial properties are all very sensitive to temperature. The conservation eq uations, including the e quations of motion, an energy balance, and thr ee rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. We assume generalized-Newtonian rheology that is dependent on the cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations are comb ined with a level set method to determine the location of the free surface over time. Results from the model are compared to experimental flow visualization data and post-te st CT data for the density. Seve ral geometries are investigated including a mock encapsulation part, two configur ations of a mock stru ctural part, and a bar geometry to

  14. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  15. Results from MARBLE DT Experiments on the National Ignition Facility: Implosion of Foam-Filled Capsules for Studying Thermonuclear Burn in the Presence of Heterogeneous Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T. J.; Douglas, M. R.; Cardenas, T.; Cooley, J. H.; Gunderson, M. A.; Haines, B. M.; Hamilton, C. E.; Kim, Y.; Lee, M. N.; Oertel, J. A.; Olson, R. E.; Randolph, R. B.; Shah, R. C.; Smidt, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The MARBLE campaign on NIF investigates the effect of heterogeneous mix on thermonuclear burn for comparison to a probability distribution function (PDF) burn model. MARBLE utilizes plastic capsules filled with deuterated plastic foam and tritium gas. The ratio of DT to DD neutron yield is indicative of the degree to which the foam and the gas atomically mix. Platform development experiments have been performed to understand the behavior of the foam and of the gas separately using two types of capsule. The first experiments using deuterated foam and tritium gas have been performed. Results of these experiments, and the implications for our understanding of thermonuclear burn in heterogeneously mixed separated reactant experiments will be discussed. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry S; Nerheim, Magnus S; Carroll, Katherine A; Eriksen, Marcus

    2013-10-15

    Microorganisms likely mediate processes affecting the fate and impacts of marine plastic pollution, including degradation, chemical adsorption, and colonization or ingestion by macroorganisms. We investigated the relationship between plastic-associated microorganism communities and factors such as location, temperature, salinity, plankton abundance, plastic concentration, item size, surface roughness, and polymer type. Small plastic items from the surface of the North Pacific Gyre in 2011 were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Bacillus bacteria (mean 1664 ± 247 individuals mm(-2)) and pennate diatoms (1097 ± 154 mm(-2)) were most abundant, with coccoid bacteria, centric diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and radiolarians present. Bacterial abundance was patchy, but increased on foamed polystyrene. Diatom abundance increased on items with rough surfaces and at sites with high plastic concentrations. Morphotype richness increased slightly on larger fragments, and a biogeographic transition occurred between pennate diatom groups. Better characterizing this community will aid in understanding how it interacts with plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electricity in foams: from one soapy interface to the macroscopic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance, Anne-Laure

    2017-11-01

    Liquid foams (a dispersion of gas bubbles in a soapy solution) destabilize with time due to coarsening, coalescence and gravity driven drainage. We propose here to inhibit (or trigger) the foam destabilization by applying an electric field to the material. This effect is investigated at the different scales of the system: one soapy interface, one liquid film, the macroscopic foam. The generation of an electroosmotic flow near a soapy liquid/gas interface raises many issues. How does the flow affect surfactant repartition? Is there a Marangoni stress at the interface? At the scale of one soap film, how the electric field affects the film stability and deformation? In a macroscopic foam, one can wonder whether the electric field can indeed reverse gravity driven drainage and increase foam lifetime? These different issues are considered by developing new experimental techniques allowing us to probe surfactant repartition at liquid interfaces, soap film thicknesses and liquid foam properties when an electric field is applied. The results will be presented together with a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms arising at each scale of the material, to conclude with the potential use of electricity in liquid foams to control destabilization. Collaborators: Baptiste Blanc, Oriane Bonhomme, Laurent Joly, Christophe Ybert.

  18. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables

  19. Using Education as the Solution to Plastic Pollution. Plastic pollution is now considered one of the largest environmental threats facing humans and animals globally, yet our education system has not even embraced the concept. Teaching the next generation of leaders how to immediately start being the solution is vital to correcting the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J.; Ries, C. A.; Ries, O. N.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution can be found in virtually every body of water on this planet and as the number of people inhabiting this planet continues to spiral out of control, our acceptance and dependency on single use plastics grows exponentially. It is estimated that over 100,000 marine mammals and over 1-million seabirds die each year from ingesting plastic and now with the discovery of micro-beads in many or our day to day products, even the smallest of creatures are no longer safe… nor are we who depend on food from the oceans Current educational programs fail to teach the next generation of leaders how to deal with the issue of plastic pollution and no one is giving them the tools needed for families to start being the solution. The two young founders of One More Generation want to change all of that. They have authored an award winning Plastic and Recycling Awareness Curriculum, which has been written to match the latest National Standards for science, and they even have math, literacy and art infused throughout. The program is currently being evaluated by the US Department of State and has already been introduced in South Africa and thanks to a grant from Global Ocean UK, will soon be launched in their first school in the UK and Australia. The in-depth program is designed to make the students the teacher by providing them with knowledge on the issue that most parents are not even aware of. By doing so, the child is the one driving change in the household, which increases the `buy-in' from the parents, and results in immediate change throughout the community.

  20. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  1. 46 CFR 108.463 - Foam rate: Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam rate: Protein. 108.463 Section 108.463 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.463 Foam rate: Protein. (a) If the outlets of a protein foam extinguishing system are in a space, the foam rate at each outlet must be at...

  2. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  3. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  4. rhoCentralRfFoam: An OpenFOAM solver for high speed chemically active flows - Simulation of planar detonations -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Marcantoni, L. F.; Tamagno, J.; Elaskar, S.

    2017-10-01

    A new solver developed within the framework of OpenFOAM 2.3.0, called rhoCentralRfFoam which can be interpreted like an evolution of rhoCentralFoam, is presented. Its use, performing numerical simulations on initiation and propagation of planar detonation waves in combustible mixtures H2-Air and H2-O2-Ar, is described. Unsteady one dimensional (1D) Euler equations coupled with sources to take into account chemical activity, are numerically solved using the Kurganov, Noelle and Petrova second order scheme in a domain discretized with finite volumes. The computational code can work with any number of species and its corresponding reactions, but here it was tested with 13 chemically active species (one species inert), and 33 elementary reactions. A gaseous igniter which acts like a shock-tube driver, and powerful enough to generate a strong shock capable of triggering exothermic chemical reactions in fuel mixtures, is used to start planar detonations. The following main aspects of planar detonations are here, treated: induction time of combustible mixtures cited above and required mesh resolutions; convergence of overdriven detonations to Chapman-Jouguet states; detonation structure (ZND model); and the use of reflected shocks to determine induction times experimentally. The rhoCentralRfFoam code was verified comparing numerical results and it was validated, through analytical results and experimental data.

  5. A new method to make poly acrylate foam shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yongheng; Luo Xuan; Fang Yu; Ren Hongbo; Zhang Lin; Cui Yi

    2009-01-01

    A triple-orifice droplet generator was designed and developed for the size-controllable continuous fabrication of hollow foam micro-shells. Solutions of an internal water phase, an oil phase (trimethylpropane triacrylate monomer, dibutyl phthalate solvent, and benzoin ethyl ether initiator), and an external water phase were used to prepare micro-shells whose diameters are between 1.5 mm and 4.0 mm successfully. Characterization of the foam shells was carried out using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray radiography. The results show that cell diameters of the shells are not above 1 um. The refractive index of the polymer framework is around 1.50. Furthermore, the shells fabricated through the triple-orifice droplet generator have a high survival probability of 93% and exhibit narrow size distribution. (authors)

  6. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  7. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  8. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of water binder ratio and fly ash on the properties of foamed concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloma, Hanafiah, Urmila, Dea

    2017-11-01

    Foamed concrete is a lightweight concrete composed by cement, water, fine aggregate and evenly distributed foam. Foamed concrete is produced by adding foam to the mixture. The function of foam is to create air voids in the mixture, so the weight of the concrete becomes lighter. The foaming agent is diluted in water then given air pressure by foam generator to produce foam. This research utilizes coal combustion, which is fly ash as cementitious material with a percentage of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of water binder ratio 0.425, 0.450, 0.475, and 0.500 using fly ash on the properties of foamed concrete. Fresh concrete tests include slump flow and setting time test while hardened concrete tests include density and compressive strength. The maximum value of slump flow test result is 59.50 cm on FC-20-0.500 mixture with w/b = 0.500 and 20% of fly ash percentage. The results of the setting time tests indicate the fastest initial and final time are 335 and 720 minutes, respectively on FC-0-0.425 mixture with w/b = 0.425 without fly ash. The lowest density is 978.344 kg/m3 on FC-20-0.500 mixture with w/b = 0.500 and 20% of fly ash percentage. The maximum compressive strength value is 4.510 MPa at 28 days on FC-10-0.450 mixture with w/b = 0.450 and 10% of fly ash percentage.

  10. Application of extrusion-cooking technique for foamed starch-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combrzyński Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed materials are widely used, mainly as a protection objects during transport of various products. Traditionally foams are produced from plastics so they are very difficult for waste management. It is the challenge for many scientific centres to develop a technology for the production of bio-based materials which can be rapidly decomposed. The task for the researcher is to obtain a relatively cheap, easy to use and completely biodegradable materials. The aim of this work was the selection of the main raw materials, functional additives and process parameters to obtain the most effective parameters of extrusion-cooking process for foamed starch-based materials. Properties of the products and processing costs were taken into account. During the study, the extrusion-cooking process was performed under various conditions: temperature, humidity, type of the die, screw rotational speed, various raw materials and additives blends. The best results were obtained for mixtures based on potato starch and with addition the foaming agent Plastron foam PDE and poly(vinyl alcohol PVA.

  11. Torsion Property of the Structure Bonded Aluminum Foam Due to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang G.W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aluminum foam added with foaming agent, is classified into an open-cell type for heat transfer and a closed-cell type for shock absorption. This study investigates the characteristic on the torsion of aluminum foam for a closed-cell type under impact. The fracture characteristics are investigated through the composite of five types of aluminum foam (the thicknesses of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 mm, when applying the torsional moment of impact energy on the junction of a porous structure attached by an adhesive. When applying the impact energy of 100, 200 and 300J, the aluminum foams with thicknesses of 25 mm and 35 mm broke off under all conditions. For the energy over 200J, aluminums thicker than 55 mm continued to be attached. Furthermore, the aluminum specimens with thicknesses of 55 mm and 65 mm that were attached with more than 30% of bonding interface remained, proving that they could maintain bonding interface against impact energy. By comparing the data based on the analysis and test result, an increase in the thickness of specimen leads to the plastic deformation as the stress at the top and bottom of bonding interface moves to the middle by spreading the stress horizontally. Based on this fracture characteristic, this study can provide the data on the destruction and separation of bonding interface and may contribute to the safety design.

  12. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  13. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Aubert, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via eb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.C.L.; Lugao, A. B.; Andrade e Silva, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to these foams, imparts optimum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine; building and insulation; packaging; domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203 degree sign C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGys/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time

  16. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  17. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  18. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  19. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  20. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  1. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses ...

  2. Oxidation of Ce(III) in Foam Decontaminant by Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, I. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. B.; Lee, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant is composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles for the generation and maintenance of foam, and a chemical decontamination agent made of Ce(IV) dissolved in nitric acid. Ce(IV) will be reduced to Ce(III) through the decontamination process. Oxidizing cerium(III) can be reused as a decontamination agent, Ce(IV). Oxidation treatment technology by ozone uses its strong oxidizing power. It can be regarded as an environmentally friendly process, because ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site, and used ozone can decompose immediately. The ozonation treatment of Ce(III) in foam decontaminant containing a surfactant is necessary for the effective regeneration of Ce(III). Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) into Ce(IV) in the nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing surfactant. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing a TBS surfactant. The oxidation conversion rate of Ce(III) was increased with an increase in the flow rate of the gas mixture and ozone injection amount. The oxidation time required for the 100% oxidation conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) at a specific ozone injection amount can be predicted from these experimental data

  3. Oxidation of Ce(III) in Foam Decontaminant by Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, I. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S. [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant is composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles for the generation and maintenance of foam, and a chemical decontamination agent made of Ce(IV) dissolved in nitric acid. Ce(IV) will be reduced to Ce(III) through the decontamination process. Oxidizing cerium(III) can be reused as a decontamination agent, Ce(IV). Oxidation treatment technology by ozone uses its strong oxidizing power. It can be regarded as an environmentally friendly process, because ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site, and used ozone can decompose immediately. The ozonation treatment of Ce(III) in foam decontaminant containing a surfactant is necessary for the effective regeneration of Ce(III). Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) into Ce(IV) in the nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing surfactant. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing a TBS surfactant. The oxidation conversion rate of Ce(III) was increased with an increase in the flow rate of the gas mixture and ozone injection amount. The oxidation time required for the 100% oxidation conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) at a specific ozone injection amount can be predicted from these experimental data.

  4. Sorption of heteropoly acids by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitreinko, S.G.; Goncharova, L.V.; Runov, V.K.; Zakharov, V.N.; Aslanova, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption of oxidized and reduced forms of molybdosilicic, molybdophosphoric and molybdovanadophosphoric acids by polyurethane foam based on ethers and esters is studied. On the basis of sorption dependence on solution pH, polyurethane foam type and spectral characteristics of sorbates the suggestion has been made that in the polyurethane foam phase there are two main types of sorbent-sorbate interaction: electrostatic (ion-ion) and with hydrogen bond formation: and it is impossible to determine the contribution of every interaction

  5. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Amber; Griffiths, David

    2016-01-01

    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2016. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures, and artistic experime...

  6. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Amber; Weatherill, Aidan; Griffiths, David

    2017-01-01

    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2017. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures.

  7. B-Plant canyon fire foam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    A new raw water supply was installed for the B-Plant fire foam system. This document details tests to be performed which will demonstrate that the system can function as designed. The tests include: Verification of the operation of the automatic valves at the cells; Measurement of water flow and pressure downstream of the proportioner; Production of foam, and measurement of foam concentration. Included as an appendix is a copy of the work package resolution (J4 ampersand J4a)

  8. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  9. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Aqueous foam; optical flow sensor; dynamic laser speckle; computer optical mouse. ... Aqueous foams are colloidal systems with high concentration of gas bubbles in a liquid matrix. ... and complex behaviour of the foams. However ...

  10. Effect of foam stirrer design on the catalytic performance of rotating foam stirrer reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Matheus, M.A.; Geers, P.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schaaf, van der J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid–solid mass transfer rate in a rotating foam stirrer reactor and in a slurry reactor is studied using the hydrogenation of styrene as a model reaction. The rotating foam stirrer reactor is a novel type of multi-phase reactor where highly open-celled materials, solid foams, are used as a

  11. Role of foam drainage in producing protein aggregates in foam fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuran; Chang, Yunkang; Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yanji; Chen, Xiang'e; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    It is essential to obtain a clear understanding of the foam-induced protein aggregation to reduce the loss of protein functionality in foam fractionation. The major effort of this work is to explore the roles of foam drainage in protein aggregation in the entire process of foam fractionation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results show that enhancing foam drainage increased the desorption of BSA molecules from the gas-liquid interface and the local concentration of desorbed molecules in foam. Therefore, it intensified the aggregation of BSA in foam fractionation. Simultaneously, it also accelerated the flow of BSA aggregates from rising foam into the residual solution along with the drained liquid. Because enhancing foam drainage increased the relative content of BSA molecules adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, it also intensified the aggregation of BSA during both the defoaming process and the storage of the foamate. Furthermore, enhancing foam drainage more readily resulted in the formation of insoluble BSA aggregates. The results are highly important for a better understanding of foam-induced protein aggregation in foam fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal performance enhancement of erythritol/carbon foam composites via surface modification of carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfeng; Lu, Wu; Luo, Zhengping; Zeng, Yibing

    2017-03-01

    The thermal performance of the erythritol/carbon foam composites, including thermal diffusivity, thermal capacity, thermal conductivity and latent heat, were investigated via surface modification of carbon foam using hydrogen peroxide as oxider. It was found that the surface modification enhanced the wetting ability of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol of the carbon foam surface and promoted the increase of erythritol content in the erythritol/carbon foam composites. The dense interfaces were formed between erythritol and carbon foam, which is due to that the formation of oxygen functional groups C=O and C-OH on the carbon surface increased the surface polarity and reduced the interface resistance of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol. The latent heat of the erythritol/carbon foam composites increased from 202.0 to 217.2 J/g through surface modification of carbon foam. The thermal conductivity of the erythritol/carbon foam composite before and after surface modification further increased from 40.35 to 51.05 W/(m·K). The supercooling degree of erythritol also had a large decrease from 97 to 54 °C. Additionally, the simple and effective surface modification method of carbon foam provided an extendable way to enhance the thermal performances of the composites composed of carbon foams and PCMs.

  13. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  14. New Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miković, A.

    We give a brief and a critical review of the Barret-Crane spin foam models of quantum gravity. Then we describe two new spin foam models which are obtained by direct quantization of General Relativity and do not have some of the drawbacks of the Barret-Crane models. These are the model of spin foam invariants for the embedded spin networks in loop quantum gravity and the spin foam model based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action.

  15. Foam-like structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.A.; Turaev, D.

    2007-01-01

    On the quantum stage space-time had the foam-like structure. When the Universe cools, the foam structure tempers and does not disappear. We show that effects caused by the foamed structure mimic very well the observed Dark Matter phenomena. Moreover, we show that in a foamed space photons undergo a chaotic scattering and together with every discrete source of radiation we should observe a diffuse halo. We show that the distribution of the diffuse halo of radiation around a point-like source repeats exactly the distribution of dark matter around the same source, i.e., the DM halos are sources of the diffuse radiation

  16. Foam-like structure of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, A.A. [Institute for Applied Mathematics and Cybernetics, 10 Ulyanova str., Nizhny Novgorod 603005 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ka98@mail.ru; Turaev, D. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-11-15

    On the quantum stage space-time had the foam-like structure. When the Universe cools, the foam structure tempers and does not disappear. We show that effects caused by the foamed structure mimic very well the observed Dark Matter phenomena. Moreover, we show that in a foamed space photons undergo a chaotic scattering and together with every discrete source of radiation we should observe a diffuse halo. We show that the distribution of the diffuse halo of radiation around a point-like source repeats exactly the distribution of dark matter around the same source, i.e., the DM halos are sources of the diffuse radiation.

  17. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  18. Calculation of the linear heat generation rates which violate the thermomechanical limit of plastic deformation of the fuel cladding in function of the burn up of a BWR fuel rod type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucatero, M.A.; Hernandez L, H.

    2003-01-01

    The linear heat generation rates (LHGR) for a BWR type generic fuel rod, as function of the burnup that violate the thermomechanical limit of circumferential plastic deformation of the can (canning) in nominal operation in stationary state of the fuel rod are calculated. The evaluation of the LHGR in function of the burnt of the fuel, is carried out under the condition that the deformation values of the circumferential plastic deformation of the can exceeds in 0.1 the thermomechanical value operation limit of 1%. The results of the calculations are compared with the generation rates of linear operation heat in function of the burnt for this fuel rod type. The calculations are carried out with the FEMAXI-V and RODBURN codes. The results show that for exhibitions or burnt between 0 and 16,000 M Wd/tU a minimum margin of 160.8 W/cm exists among LHGR (439.6 W/cm) operation peak for the given fuel and maximum LHGR of the fuel (calculated) to reach 1.1% of circumferential plastic deformation of the can, for the peak factor of power of 1.40. For burnt of 20,000 MWd/tU and 60,000 MWd/tU exist a margin of 150.3 and 298.6 W/cm, respectively. (Author)

  19. State-of-the-Art Review on the Characteristics of Surfactants and Foam from Foam Concrete Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sritam Swapnadarshi; Gandhi, Indu Siva Ranjani; Khwairakpam, Selija

    2018-06-01

    Foam concrete finds application in many areas, generally as a function of its relatively lightweight and its beneficial properties in terms of reduction in dead load on structure, excellent thermal insulation and contribution to energy conservation. For production of foam concrete with desired properties, stable and good quality foam is the key requirement. It is to be noted that the selection of surfactant and foam production parameters play a vital role in the properties of foam which in turn affects the properties of foam concrete. However, the literature available on the influence of characteristics of foaming agent and foam on the properties of foam concrete are rather limited. Hence, a more systematic research is needed in this direction. The focus of this work is to provide a review on characteristics of surfactant (foaming agent) and foam for use in foam concrete production.

  20. Selective loss of bi-directional synaptic plasticity in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways accompanies generation of parkinsonism and l-DOPA induced dyskinesia in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Sherri L; Chen, Betty; Lo, Charlotte; Gertler, Tracey S; Warre, Ruth; Surmeier, James D; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Nash, Joanne E

    2014-11-01

    Parkinsonian symptoms arise due to over-activity of the indirect striatal output pathway, and under-activity of the direct striatal output pathway. l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is caused when the opposite circuitry problems are established, with the indirect pathway becoming underactive, and the direct pathway becoming over-active. Here, we define synaptic plasticity abnormalities in these pathways associated with parkinsonism, symptomatic benefits of l-DOPA, and LID. We applied spike-timing dependent plasticity protocols to cortico-striatal synapses in slices from 6-OHDA-lesioned mouse models of parkinsonism and LID, generated in BAC transgenic mice with eGFP targeting the direct or indirect output pathways, with and without l-DOPA present. In naïve mice, bidirectional synaptic plasticity, i.e. LTP and LTD, was induced, resulting in an EPSP amplitude change of approximately 50% in each direction in both striatal output pathways, as shown previously. In parkinsonism and dyskinesia, both pathways exhibited unidirectional plasticity, irrespective of stimulation paradigm. In parkinsonian animals, the indirect pathway only exhibited LTP (LTP protocol: 143.5±14.6%; LTD protocol 177.7±22.3% of baseline), whereas the direct pathway only showed LTD (LTP protocol: 74.3±4.0% and LTD protocol: 63.3±8.7%). A symptomatic dose of l-DOPA restored bidirectional plasticity on both pathways to levels comparable to naïve animals (Indirect pathway: LTP protocol: 124.4±22.0% and LTD protocol: 52.1±18.5% of baseline. Direct pathway: LTP protocol: 140.7±7.3% and LTD protocol: 58.4±6.0% of baseline). In dyskinesia, in the presence of l-DOPA, the indirect pathway exhibited only LTD (LTP protocol: 68.9±21.3% and LTD protocol 52.0±14.2% of baseline), whereas in the direct pathway, only LTP could be induced (LTP protocol: 156.6±13.2% and LTD protocol 166.7±15.8% of baseline). We conclude that normal motor control requires bidirectional plasticity of both striatal outputs

  1. Fully recoverable rigid shape memory foam based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) using a salt leaching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abeer A; Saed, Mohand; Yakacki, Christopher M; Song, Han Byul; Sowan, Nancy; Walston, Joshua J; Shah, Parag K; McBride, Matthew K; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2018-01-07

    This study is the first to employ the use of the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) polymerization to form a tough and stiff, porous material from a well-defined network possessing a high glass transition temperature. The effect of the network linkages formed as a product of the CuAAC reaction, i.e., the triazoles, on the mechanical behavior at high strain was evaluated by comparing the CuAAC foam to an epoxy-amine-based foam, which consisted of monomers with similar backbone structures and mechanical properties (i.e., T g of 115 °C and a rubbery modulus of 1.0 MPa for the CuAAC foam, T g of 125 °C and a rubbery modulus of 1.2 MPa for the epoxy-amine foam). When each foam was compressed uniformly to 80% strain at ambient temperature, the epoxy-amine foam was severely damaged after only reaching 70% strain in the first compression cycle with a toughness of 300 MJ/m 3 . In contrast, the CuAAC foam exhibited pronounced ductile behavior in the glassy state with three times higher toughness of 850 MJ/m 3 after the first cycle of compression to 80% strain. Additionally, when the CuAAC foam was heated above T g after each of five compression cycles to 80% strain at ambient temperature, the foam completely recovered its original shape while exhibiting a gradual decrease in mechanical performance over the multiple compression cycles. The foam demonstrated almost complete shape fixity and recovery ratios even through five successive cycles, indicative of "reversible plasticity", making it highly desirable as a glassy shape memory foams.

  2. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  3. Plastic Materials for Insulating Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Grossman, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the production and use of polymer materials as thermal insulators. Lists several materials that provide varying degrees of insulation. Describes the production of polymer foam and focuses on the major applications of polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, and polyisocyanurate foam. (TW)

  4. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  5. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  6. Measurements of the growth rate of the short wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor instability of foam foil packages driven by a soft x-ray pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willi, O.; Pasley, J.; Iwase, A.; Nazarov, W.; Rose, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability was studied in the short wavelength regime using single mode targets that were driven by hohlraum radiation allowing the Takabe-Morse roll-over due to ablative stabilisation to be investigated. A temporally shaped soft x-ray drive was generated by focusing one of the PHEBUS laser beams into a gold hohlraum with a maximum radiation temperature of about 120 eV. Thin plastic foils with sinusoidal modulations with wavelengths between 12 and 50 μm, and a perturbation amplitude of about 10% of the wavelength, were used. A low density 50 mg/cc tri-acrylate foam 150 μm in length facing the hohlraum was attached to the modulated foam target. The targets were radiographed face-on at an x-ray energy of about 1.3 keV with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm using a Wolter-like x-ray microscope coupled to an x-ray streak camera with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The acceleration was obtained from side-on radiography. 2-D hydrodynamic code simulations have been carried out to compare the experimental results with the simulations. (authors)

  7. Foam Assisted WAG, Snorre Revisit with New Foam Screening Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirov, Pavel; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Khan, Arif

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with simulation model of Foam Assisted Water Alternating Gas (FAWAG) method that had been implemented to two Norwegian Reservoirs. Being studied on number of pilot projects, the method proved successful, but Field Scale simulation was never understood properly. New phenomenological...... of the simulation contributes to more precise planning of the schedule of water and gas injection, prediction of the injection results and evaluation of the method efficiency. The testing of the surfactant properties allows making grounded choice of surfactant to use. The analysis of the history match gives insight...

  8. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  9. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish strong concrete mixtures (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.3…0.4 and ductile ones (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.5…0.7. Strong concrete mixtures are more durable. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the higher the foam concrete strength. However super-plastic substances cannot be mixed by ordinary turbulent mixers. Foam concrete produced using the turbulence cavitation technology needs air-entraining, its intensity being dependent on several factors. One of the main factors is the amount of free water, if it is insufficient, the mixture will not be porous enough. A researcher needs to identify the optimal water-to-cement ratio based on the water consumption rate. Practical production of prefabricated concrete products and structures has proven that the reduction of the water-to-cement ratio improves the strength of the product. The task is to find the water-to-cement ratio for the foam concrete mixture to be plastic enough for air entraining. An increase in the ratio causes loss in the strength. The ratio shall vary within one hundredth points. Super-plasticizers are an alternative solution.

  10. Analysis of Influence of Foaming Mixture Components on Structure and Properties of Foam Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandashova, N. S.; Goltsman, B. M.; Yatsenko, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    It is recommended to use high-quality thermal insulation materials to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the best thermal insulation materials is foam glass - durable, porous material that is resistant to almost any effect of substance. Glass foaming is a complex process depending on the foaming mode and the initial mixture composition. This paper discusses the influence of all components of the mixture - glass powder, foaming agent, enveloping material and water - on the foam glass structure. It was determined that glass powder is the basis of the future material. A foaming agent forms a gas phase in the process of thermal decomposition. This aforementioned gas foams the viscous glass mass. The unreacted residue thus changes a colour of the material. The enveloping agent slows the foaming agent decomposition preventing its premature burning out and, in addition, helps to accelerate the sintering of glass particles. The introduction of water reduces the viscosity of the foaming mixture making it evenly distributed and also promotes the formation of water gas that additionally foams the glass mass. The optimal composition for producing the foam glass with the density of 150 kg/m3 is defined according to the results of the research.

  11. dsmcFoam+: An OpenFOAM based direct simulation Monte Carlo solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Borg, M. K.; Scanlon, T. J.; Longshaw, S. M.; John, B.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    dsmcFoam+ is a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solver for rarefied gas dynamics, implemented within the OpenFOAM software framework, and parallelised with MPI. It is open-source and released under the GNU General Public License in a publicly available software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial DSMC gas flow cases. This release of the code includes many features not found in standard dsmcFoam, such as molecular vibrational and electronic energy modes, chemical reactions, and subsonic pressure boundary conditions. Since dsmcFoam+ is designed entirely within OpenFOAM's C++ object-oriented framework, it benefits from a number of key features: the code emphasises extensibility and flexibility so it is aimed first and foremost as a research tool for DSMC, allowing new models and test cases to be developed and tested rapidly. All DSMC cases are as straightforward as setting up any standard OpenFOAM case, as dsmcFoam+ relies upon the standard OpenFOAM dictionary based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of a DSMC simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. We show that dsmcFoam+ compares well to other well-known DSMC codes and to analytical solutions in terms of benchmark results.

  12. Effects related to spacetime foam in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    It is found that the existence of spacetime foam leads to a situation in which the number of fundamental quantum bosonic fields is a variable quantity. The general aspects of an exact theory that allows for a variable number of fields are discussed, and the simplest observable effects generated by the foam are estimated. It is shown that in the absence of processes related to variations in the topology of space, the concept of an effective field can be reintroduced and standard field theory can be restored. However, in the complete theory the ground state is characterized by a nonvanishing particle number density. From the effective-field standpoint, such particles are 'dark'. It is assumed that they comprise dark matter of the universe. The properties of this dark matter are discussed, and so is the possibility of measuring the quantum fluctuation in the field potentials

  13. Preparation of three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam by two-step foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J.T.; Xuming, Chu; Deping, He

    2008-01-01

    A novel method, named two-step foaming, was investigated to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam used in car industry, spaceflight, packaging and related areas. Calculations of thermal decomposition kinetics of titanium hydride showed that there is a considerable amount of hydrogen releasing when the titanium hydride is heated at a relatively high temperature after heated at a lower temperature. The hydrogen mass to sustain aluminum alloy foam, having a high porosity, was also estimated by calculations. Calculations indicated that as-received titanium hydride without any pre-treatment can be used as foaming agents in two-step foaming. The processes of two-step foaming, including preparing precursors and baking, were also studied by experiments. Results showed that, low titanium hydride dispersion temperature, long titanium hydride dispersion time and low precursors porosity are beneficial to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foams with uniform pores

  14. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  15. A Method to Produce Foam Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a production process of foam glass from a mixture of glass cullet or slag or fly ash with a foaming agent and an oxidizing agent and heating to below 1100 C under low oxygen atmosphere. The invention relates more particularly to a process wherein pure carbon or a ...

  16. Anti-foam System design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Anti-foam System is a sub-system of the 242-A Evaporator facility. The Anti-foam is used within the C-A-1 Vapor-Liquid Separator, to reduce the effect of foaming and reduce fluid bumping while the vapor and liquid are separated within the C-A-1 Vapor-Liquid Separator. Excessive foaming within the vessel may possibly cause the liquid slurry mixture in the evaporator vessel to foul the de-entrainment pads and cause plant shutdown. The Anti-foam System consists of the following primary elements: the Anti-foam Tank and the Metering Pump. The upgrades to Anti-foam System include the following: installation of a new pump, instruments, and valves; and connection of the instruments, pump and agitator associated with the Anti-foam System to the Monitoring and Control System (MCS). The 242-A Evaporator is a waste treatment facility designed to reduce liquid waste volumes currently stored in the Hanford Area double shell Waste Storage Tanks. The evaporator uses evaporative concentration to achieve this volume reduction, returning the concentrated slurry to the double-shell tanks for storage and, at the same time, releasing the process effluent to a retention facilities for eventual treatment and release to the environment

  17. Application of Auxetic Foam in Sports Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Foster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.

  18. Low-density carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.M.; Buckley, S.R.; Giles, C.L. Jr.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Letts, S.A.; Overturf, G.E. III; Price, C.W.; Cook, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents research and development on resorcinol- formaldehyde-based foam materials conducted between 1986 and June 1990, when the effort was discontinued. The foams discussed are resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) foam, carbonized RF (CRF) foam, and two composite foams, a polystyrene/RF (PS/RF) foam and its carbonized derivative (CPR). The RF foams are synthesized by the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in a slightly basic solution. Their structure and density depend strongly on the concentration of the sodium carbonate catalyst. The have an interconnected bead structure similar to that of silica aerogels; bead sizes range from 30 to 130 Angstrom, and cell sizes are less than 0.1 μm. We have achieved densities of 16 to 200 mg/cm 3 . The RF foams can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a vitreous carbon foam (CRF), which has a similar microstructure but much higher mechanical strength. The PS/RF foams are obtained by filling the 2- to 3-μm cells of PS foam (a low-density hydrocarbon foam we have developed) with RF. The resultant foams have the outstanding handling and machinability of the PS foam matrix and the small cell size of RF. Pyrolyzing PS/RF foams causes depolymerization and loss of the PS; the resulting CPR foams have a structure similar to the PS foams in which CRF both replicates and fills the PS cells

  19. Sterilized PP/HMSPP cushion foams for medical and food packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lima, L. Filipe C.P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Bueno, N.R.; Gasparin, Eleosmar

    2009-01-01

    Treatment with gamma radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. Packaging materials may be irradiated either prior or after filling; the irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Cushion foams are used to help protect fragile items during moving transport. Shock, vibration and damage are avoided by the cushioning effect and chances of product damage are reduced. It is easy to use and perforated for easy tearing. Cushion foams are employed to wrap glasses, plates, crockery, lamps, electronics and other breakable items. This paper presents special cushion foams to be used for medical and food packaging applications; so, these foams will be gamma irradiated before getting in contact with these special articles. Foams were previously produced from a 50% blending Polypropylene homopolymer / High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) thereof, that presented following results for properties assessed: melt flow index, 230 deg C - 3.67 g/10 minutes; crystallinity = 47%; melt strength, at 200 deg C = 7.3 cN. This admixture was further fed into the barrel of a single-screw extruder, Rheomex 332 p, equipped with 3:1,33 d screw and 19/33 special screw for foaming, with standard controller and monitored panel, temperature controller (2 channels), melt temperature (2 channels) and melt pressure (4 channels). By using a 175/200/210/220/165/25 (deg C) profile temperature, and after attaining a homogeneous melting, a given amount of physical blowing agent (nitrogen) was injected and mixed with the polymer melt stream to produce the foam. Foamed extrudate was subjected to sterilization radiation doses: 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy and further evaluated as per: appearance (whiteness / yellowness) and temperature dependent oxidative-induction time (TOIT) tests, by comparing

  20. Oxidation behaviour of metallic glass foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, B.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States)], E-mail: bbarnard@utk.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Demetriou, M.D.; Johnson, W.L. [Department of Materials Science, Keck Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the effects of porosity on the oxidation behaviour of bulk-metallic glasses were investigated. Porous Pd- and Fe-based bulk-metallic glass (BMG) foams and Metglas ribbons were studied. Oxidizing experiments were conducted at 70 deg. C, and around 80 deg. C below glass-transition temperatures, (T{sub g}s). Scanning-electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) studies revealed little evidence of oxidation at 70 deg. C. Specimens exhibited greater oxidation at T{sub g} - 80 deg. C. Oxides were copper-based for Pd-based foams, Fe-, Cr-, and Mo-based for Fe-based foams, and Co-based with borosilicates likely for the Metglas. Pd-based foams demonstrated the best oxidation resistance, followed by Metglas ribbons, followed by Fe-based foams.

  1. Improving the Strength of ZTA Foams with Different Strategies: Immersion Infiltration and Recoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high strength and toughness, excellent wear resistance and moderate density makes zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA a favorable ceramic, and the foam version of it may also exhibit excellent properties. Here, ZTA foams were prepared by the polymer sponge replication method. We developed an immersion infiltration approach with simple equipment and operations to fill the hollow struts in as-prepared ZTA foams, and also adopted a multiple recoating method (up to four cycles to strengthen them. The solid load of the slurry imposed a significant influence on the properties of the ZTA foams. Immersion infiltration gave ZTA foams an improvement of 1.5 MPa in compressive strength to 2.6 MPa at 87% porosity, only resulting in a moderate reduction of porosity (2–3%. The Weibull modulus of the infiltrated foams was in the range of 6–9. The recoating method generated an increase in compression strength to 3.3–11.4 MPa with the reduced porosity of 58–83%. The recoating cycle dependency of porosity and compression strength is nearly linear. The immersion infiltration strategy is comparable to the industrially-established recoating method and can be applied to other reticulated porous ceramics (RPCs.

  2. CML/CD36 accelerates atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suining; Li, Lihua; Yan, Jinchuan; Ye, Fei; Shao, Chen; Sun, Zhen; Bao, Zhengyang; Dai, Zhiyin; Zhu, Jie; Jing, Lele; Wang, Zhongqun

    2018-01-01

    Among the various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis causes the highest disability and morbidity. A multitude of macrophage-derived foam cells are retained in atherosclerotic plaques resulting not only from recruitment of monocytes into lesions but also from a reduced rate of macrophage migration from lesions. Nε-carboxymethyl-Lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is responsible for most complications of diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CML/CD36 accelerating atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration. In vivo study and in vitro study were performed. For the in vivo investigation, CML/CD36 accelerated atherosclerotic progression via promoting the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta and inhibited macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta migrating to the para-aorta lymph node of diabetic apoE -/- mice. For the in vitro investigation, CML/CD36 inhibited RAW264.7-derived foam cell migration through NOX-derived ROS, FAK phosphorylation, Arp2/3 complex activation and F-actin polymerization. Thus, we concluded that CML/CD36 inhibited foam cells of plaque migrating to para-aorta lymph nodes, accelerating atherosclerotic progression. The corresponding mechanism may be via free cholesterol, ROS generation, p-FAK, Arp2/3, F-actin polymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Field demonstration of foam injection to confine a chlorinated solvent source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portois, Clément; Essouayed, Elyess; Annable, Michael D; Guiserix, Nathalie; Joubert, Antoine; Atteia, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach using foam to manage hazardous waste was successfully demonstrated under active site conditions. The purpose of the foam was to divert groundwater flow, that would normally enter the source zone area, to reduce dissolved contaminant release to the aquifer. During the demonstration, foam was pre generated and directly injected surrounding the chlorinated solvent source zone. Despite the constraints related to the industrial activities and non-optimal position of the injection points, the applicability and effectiveness of the approach have been highlighted using multiple metrics. A combination of measurements and modelling allowed definition of the foam extent surrounding each injection point, and this appears to be the critical metric to define the success of the foam injection approach. Information on the transport of chlorinated solvents in groundwater showed a decrease of contaminant flux by a factor of 4.4 downstream of the confined area. The effective permeability reduction was maintained over a period of three months. The successful containment provides evidence for consideration of the use of foam to improve traditional flushing techniques, by increasing the targeting of contaminants by remedial agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams: from everyday observations to liquid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, Francois; Cappello, Jean; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    When a liquid-filled container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to slosh, i.e. oscillate. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rim of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily, which suggests that the presence of foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath in a Hele-Shaw cell. We generate a monodisperse 2D liquid foam and track its motion. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is characterized: 2 to 3 layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. For more than 5 layers of bubbles, the original vertical motion of the foam becomes mainly horizontal. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient. This study motivated by everyday observations has promising applications in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquid in cargoes.

  5. The separation of silica nanoparticle by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from decontamination foam waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Soo; Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Decontamination foam has been considered as a potential application for the cleaning of radioactive contaminant in the field of metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and complex components. Moreover, foam decontamination could generate the low secondary waste amount owing to its volume expansion. In order to increase the decontamination efficiency, it is essential to improve the foam stability with low amount of chemical decontamination agent. Yoon et al. reported that the silica nanoparticle containing surfactant increased the foam stability compared to only surfactant solution[3]. Nanoparticle has been used with surfactant, which they adsorb at fluid/fluid interface, to stabilize emulsions or bubbles in foams. Despite of improving foam stability, they still used the surfactant, silica nanoparticle (1 wt%), and viscosifier. In addition, it is difficult to separate silica nanoparticle from decontamination solution. Because nanoparticles differ from classical solid particles due to smaller particle size and their specific properties. Thus, the separation method for nanoparticle should be also developed with high recovery rates. The flocculation of silica nanoparticle added by CTAB could be quickly achieved for only 30 min. The particle size of SiO_2 was larger as CTAB amount increased, and SiO_2 contents in the top solution were decreased after centrifugation

  6. The separation of silica nanoparticle by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from decontamination foam waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Man Soo; Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Decontamination foam has been considered as a potential application for the cleaning of radioactive contaminant in the field of metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and complex components. Moreover, foam decontamination could generate the low secondary waste amount owing to its volume expansion. In order to increase the decontamination efficiency, it is essential to improve the foam stability with low amount of chemical decontamination agent. Yoon et al. reported that the silica nanoparticle containing surfactant increased the foam stability compared to only surfactant solution[3]. Nanoparticle has been used with surfactant, which they adsorb at fluid/fluid interface, to stabilize emulsions or bubbles in foams. Despite of improving foam stability, they still used the surfactant, silica nanoparticle (1 wt%), and viscosifier. In addition, it is difficult to separate silica nanoparticle from decontamination solution. Because nanoparticles differ from classical solid particles due to smaller particle size and their specific properties. Thus, the separation method for nanoparticle should be also developed with high recovery rates. The flocculation of silica nanoparticle added by CTAB could be quickly achieved for only 30 min. The particle size of SiO{sub 2} was larger as CTAB amount increased, and SiO{sub 2} contents in the top solution were decreased after centrifugation.

  7. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Heavy metals, metalloids and other hazardous elements in marine plastic litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2016-10-15

    Plastics, foams and ropes collected from beaches in SW England have been analysed for As, Ba, Br, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Zn by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. High concentrations of Cl in foams that were not PVC-based were attributed to the presence of chlorinated flame retardants. Likewise, high concentrations of Br among both foams and plastics were attributed to the presence of brominated flame retardants. Regarding heavy metals and metalloids, Cd and Pb were of greatest concern from an environmental perspective. Lead was encountered in plastics, foams and ropes and up to concentrations of 17,500μgg(-1) due to its historical use in stabilisers, colourants and catalysts in the plastics industry. Detectable Cd was restricted to plastics, where its concentration often exceeded 1000μgg(-1); its occurrence is attributed to the use of both Cd-based stabilisers and colourants in a variety of products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  10. Partitioning of elastic energy in open-cell foams under finite deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, Rani; Taciroglu, Ertugrul; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with the computational modeling and simulation of solid foams are threefold—namely, the proper representation of an intricate geometry, the capability to accurately describe large deformations, and the extremely arduous numerical detection and enforcement of self-contact during crushing. The focus of this study is to assess and accurately quantify the effects of geometric nonlinearities (i.e. finite deformations, work produced under buckling-type motions) on the predicted mechanical response of open-cell foams of aluminum and polyurethane prior to the onset of plasticity and contact. Beam elements endowed with three-dimensional finite deformation kinematics are used to represent the foam ligaments. Ligament cross-sections are discretized through a fiber-based formulation that provides accurate information regarding the onset of plasticity, given the uniaxial yield stress–strain data for the bulk material. It is shown that the (hyper-) elastic energy partition within ligaments is significantly influenced by kinematic nonlinearities, which frequently cause strong coupling between the axial, bending, shear and torsional deformation modes. This deformation mode-coupling is uniquely obtained as a result of evaluating equilibrium in the deformed configuration, and is undetectable when small deformations are assumed. The relationship between the foam topology and energy partitioning at various stages of moderate deformation is also investigated. Coupled deformation modes are shown to play an important role, especially in perturbed Kelvin structures where over 70% of the energy is stored in coupled axial-shear and axial-bending modes. The results from this study indicate that it may not always be possible to accurately simulate the onset of plasticity (and the response beyond this regime) if finite deformation kinematics are neglected

  11. Polymer microcapsules with "foamed" membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Fleur-Marie; Cot, Didier; Ganachaud, François

    2007-06-05

    This article describes the preparation of capsules displaying craters at their surfaces and independent holes inside their membranes. These poly(methylmethacrylate) capsules of 20 to 200 microm diameter are prepared by a solvent evaporation process and typically contain a dispersant, polyvinyl alcohol, and an excipient, namely, a fatty acid triglyceride (miglyol 812). Spectroscopic methods showed that, depending on the miglyol content, the craters at the surface exhibited sizes of about 1 to 2 microm, whereas the core structure of the membrane changed significantly, typically from "soft-part-of-bread" up to "foamed"-like aspects. Among several spectroscopy techniques, confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed that the capsules retained the miglyol in their core and not in the craters or holes, even after centrifugation and handling. This technique also showed that holes in the membrane are filled with water. A possible analysis of the "foaming" phenomenon based on the surface tensions of different oils, as well as their optimal hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLBO), is added to generalize the concept.

  12. Carbon particle induced foaming of molten sucrose for the preparation of carbon foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimman, R.; Vijayan, Sujith; Prabhakaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An easy method for the preparation of carbon foam from sucrose is presented. • Wood derived activated carbon particles are used to stabilize the molten sucrose foam. • The carbon foams show relatively good mechanical strength. • The carbon foams show excellent CO 2 adsorption and oil absorption properties. • The process could be scaled up for the preparation of large foam bodies. - Abstract: Activated carbon powder was used as a foaming and foam setting agent for the preparation of carbon foams with a hierarchical pore structure from molten sucrose. The rheological measurements revealed the interruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in molten sucrose by the carbon particles. The carbon particles stabilized the bubbles in molten sucrose by adsorbing on the molten sucrose–gas interface. The carbon foams obtained at the activated carbon powder to sucrose weight ratios in the range of 0–0.25 had a compressive strength in the range of 1.35–0.31 MPa. The produced carbon foams adsorb 2.59–3.04 mmol/g of CO 2 at 760 mmHg at 273 K and absorb oil from oil–water mixtures and surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with very good selectivity and recyclability

  13. Foam pad of appropriate thickness can improve diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Leng, Yangming; Zhou, Renhong; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Dongdong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Su-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of foam thickness on postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during foam posturography. Static and foam posturography were performed in 33 patients (UVH group) and 30 healthy subjects (control group) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC) on firm surface and on 1-5 foam pad(s). Sway velocity (SV) of center of pressure, standing time before falling (STBF) and falls reaction were recorded and analyzed. (1) SVs had an increasing tendency in both groups as the foam pads were added under EO and EC conditions. (2) STBFs, only in UVH group with EC, decreased with foam thickness increasing. (3) Significant differences in SV were found between the control and UVH group with EO (except for standing on firm surface, on 1 and 2 foam pad(s)) and with EC (all surface conditions). (4) Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the SV could better reflect the difference in postural stability between the two groups while standing on the 4 foam pads with EC. Our study showed that diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability might be enhanced by using foam pad of right thickness.

  14. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  15. Blast wave protection of aqueous foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britan, Alexander; Ben-Dor, M. Liverts G. [Shock tube Laboratory of Protective Technologies R and D Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-01

    The primary intention of the present study is to present new contribution of shock tube tests to the problem of particle related stabilization and enhanced mitigation action of the wet particulate foams. The experiments reported were designed to examine (i) the reflection of a shock wave from an air/foam face, (ii) the transmission of the shock wave through the air/foam face and (iii) propagation and dispersion of the transmitted shock wave inside the foam column. Because wet aqueous foam of desired specification is difficult to reproduce, handle and quantitatively characterize the fact that experiments on all the above aspects were conducted in a single facility is a potentially important consideration. Moreover vertical position of shock tube simplified the issues since the gradient of the liquid fraction in draining foam coincides with the shock wave propagation. Under these, much simplified test conditions resulted flows could be treated as one-dimensional and the shock wave mitigation depends on three parameters: the intensity of the incident shock wave, s M , the duration of the foam decay, ∆t and on the particle concentration, n.

  16. Tensile and fracture behavior of polymer foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Md. E.; Saha, M.C.; Jeelani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Tensile and mode-I fracture behavior of cross-linked polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rigid polyurethane (PUR) foams are examined. Tension tests are performed using prismatic bar specimens and mode-I fracture tests are performed using single edge notched bend (SENB) specimens under three-point bending. Test specimens are prepared from PVC foams with three densities and two different levels of cross-linking, and PUR foam with one density. Tension and quasi-static fracture tests are performed using a Zwick/Rowell test machine. Dynamic fracture tests are performed using a DYNATUP model 8210 instrumented drop-tower test set up at three different impact energy levels. Various parameters such as specimen size, loading rate, foam density, cross-linking, crack length, cell orientation (flow and rise-direction) and solid polymer material are studied. It is found that foam density and solid polymer material have a significant effect on tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness of polymer foams. Level of polymer cross-linking is also found to have a significant effect on fracture toughness. The presence of cracks in the rise- and flow direction as well as loading rate has minimal effect. Dynamic fracture behavior is found to be different as compared to quasi-static fracture behavior. Dynamic fracture toughness (K d ) increases with impact energy. Examination of fracture surfaces reveals that the fracture occurs in fairly brittle manner for all foam materials

  17. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  18. Mechanical Characterization of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozłowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete shows excellent physical characteristics such as low self weight, relatively high strength and superb thermal and acoustic insulation properties. It allows for minimal consumption of aggregate, and by replacement of a part of cement by fly ash, it contributes to the waste utilization principles. For many years, the application of foamed concrete has been limited to backfill of retaining walls, insulation of foundations and roof tiles sound insulation. However, during the last few years, foamed concrete has become a promising material for structural purposes. A series of tests was carried out to examine mechanical properties of foamed concrete mixes without fly ash and with fly ash content. In addition, the influence of 25 cycles of freezing and thawing on the compressive strength was investigated. The apparent density of hardened foamed concrete is strongly correlated with the foam content in the mix. An increase of the density of foamed concrete results in a decrease of flexural strength. For the same densities, the compressive strength obtained for mixes containing fly ash is approximately 20% lower in comparison to the specimens without fly ash. Specimens subjected to 25 freeze-thaw cycles show approximately 15% lower compressive strengths compared to the untreated specimens.

  19. Microstructure of high-strength foam concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, A.; Middendorf, B.

    2009-01-01

    Foam concretes are divided into two groups: on the one hand the physically foamed concrete is mixed in fast rotating pug mill mixers by using foaming agents. This concrete cures under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand the autoclaved aerated concrete is chemically foamed by adding aluminium powder. Afterwards it is cured in a saturated steam atmosphere. New alternatives for the application of foam concretes arise from the combination of chemical foaming and air curing in manufacturing processes. These foam concretes are new and innovative building materials with interesting properties: low mass density and high strength. Responsible for these properties are the macro-, meso- and microporosity. Macropores are created by adding aluminium powder in different volumes and with different particle size distributions. However, the microstructure of the cement matrix is affected by meso- and micropores. In addition, the matrix of the hardened cement paste can be optimized by the specific use of chemical additives for concrete. The influence of aluminium powder and chemical additives on the properties of the microstructure of the hardened cement matrices were investigated by using petrographic microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  1. Tooling Foam for Structural Composite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom; Smith, Brett H.; Ely, Kevin; MacArthur, Doug

    1998-01-01

    Tooling technology applications for composite structures fabrication have been expanded at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex (PEC). Engineers from NASA/MSFC and Lockheed Martin Corporation have developed a tooling foam for use in composite materials processing and manufacturing that exhibits superior thermal and mechanical properties in comparison with other tooling foam materials. This tooling foam is also compatible with most preimpregnated composite resins such as epoxy, bismaleimide, phenolic and their associated cure cycles. MARCORE tooling foam has excellent processability for applications requiring either integral or removable tooling. It can also be tailored to meet the requirements for composite processing of parts with unlimited cross sectional area. A shelf life of at least six months is easily maintained when components are stored between 50F - 70F. The MARCORE tooling foam system is a two component urethane-modified polyisocyanurate, high density rigid foam with zero ozone depletion potential. This readily machineable, lightweight tooling foam is ideal for composite structures fabrication and is dimensionally stable at temperatures up to 350F and pressures of 100 psi.

  2. Influence of the glass-calcium carbonate mixture's characteristics on the foaming process and the properties of the foam glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    We prepared foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass and CaCO3 as a foaming agent. We investigated the influences of powder preparation, CaCO3 concentration and foaming temperature and time on the density, porosity and homogeneity of the foam glasses. The results show that the decomposition...

  3. Influence of Rubber Powders on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Foamed Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/rubber powders composites with different kinds of rubber powders were foamed by injection molding machine equipped with volume-adjustable cavity. The effect of dispersity of rubber powders and crystallization behavior of composites on the foaming behavior and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of rubber powders can improve the cell structure of foamed PP with fine and uniform cell distribution. And cell density and size of PP/PP-MAH/NBR foams are 7.64×106cell/cm3 and 29.78μm respectively, which are the best among these foams. Combining cell structures with mechanical properties, notch impact strength of PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites increases approximately by 2.2 times while tensile strength is reduced just by 26% compared with those of the pure PP. This indicates that PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites are ideal foamed materials.

  4. Multifunctional foaming agent to prepare aluminum foam with enhanced mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Liu, Ying; Ye, Jinwen; An, Xuguang; Ran, Huaying

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, CuSO4 was used as foaming agent to prepare close cell Aluminum foam(Al foam) at the temperature range of 680 °C ∼ 758 °C for the first time. The results show that CuSO4 has multifunctional such as, foaming, viscosity increasing, reinforcement in Al matrix, it has a wide decomposition temperature range of 641 °C ∼ 816 °C, its sustain-release time is 5.5 min at 758 °C. The compression stress and energy absorption of CuSO4-Al foam is 6.89 Mpa and 4.82 × 106 J m‑3(compression strain 50%), which are 77.12% and 99.17% higher than that of TiH2-Al foam at the same porosity(76% in porosity) due to the reinforcement in Al matrix and uniform pore dispersion.

  5. FOAM3D: A numerical simulator for mechanistic prediciton of foam displacement in multidimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Patzek, T.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Radke, C.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Field application of foam is a technically viable enhanced oil recovery process (EOR) as demonstrated by recent steam-foam field studies. Traditional gas-displacement processes, such as steam drive, are improved substantially by controlling gas mobility and thereby improving volumetric displacement efficiency. For instance, Patzek and Koinis showed major oil-recovery response after about two years of foam injection in two different pilot studies at the Kern River field. They report increased production of 5.5 to 14% of the original oil in place over a five year period. Because reservoir-scale simulation is a vital component of the engineering and economic evaluation of any EOR project, efficient application of foam as a displacement fluid requires a predictive numerical model of foam displacement. A mechanistic model would also expedite scale-up of the process from the laboratory to the field scale. No general, mechanistic, field-scale model for foam displacement is currently in use.

  6. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azham Azmi

    2012-01-01

    This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU) foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test resul...

  7. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  8. Rigid Polyurethane Foam from Glyco lysed Polyethylene Terephthalate Dissolved in Palm-based Polyol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Lily Iliyana Mohd Dawi; Nur Ashikin Abdul Aziz

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the thermal and mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste (of plastic drinking bottles) was conducted. The PET waste was glyco lysed with ethylene glycol prior to blending with palm based-polyol (PKO-p). This blend was then reacted with 2, 4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) at a ratio of 1:1 to form the PU foam. The incorporation of the glyco lysed PET (g-PET) into the PKO-p was studied at 50, 70 and 100 % w/ w loading. PU foam prepared from 100 % w/ w g-PET (without PKO-p) resulted in PU with high glass transition temperature and mechanical strength. This water-blown foam has molded and core densities of 182 kg m -3 and 179 kg m -3 , respectively, with maximum compressive stress and modulus at 396 kPa and 1920 kPa, respectively. An initial enthalpy value of 3164.8 cal g -1 and a glass transition temperature of 65 degree Celsius were observed. (author)

  9. The Temperature Effect on the Compressive Behavior of Closed-Cell Aluminum-Alloy Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Nima; Linul, Emanoil; Marsavina, Liviu

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the mechanical behavior of closed-cell aluminum (Al)-alloy foams was investigated at different temperatures in the range of 25-450 °C. The main mechanical properties of porous Al-alloy foams are affected by the testing temperature, and they decrease with the increase in the temperature during uniaxial compression. From both the constant/serrated character of stress-strain curves and macro/microstructural morphology of deformed cellular structure, it was found that Al foams present a transition temperature from brittle to ductile behavior around 192 °C. Due to the softening of the cellular structure at higher temperatures, linear correlations of the stress amplitude and that of the absorbed energy with the temperature were proposed. Also, it was observed that the presence of inherent defects like micropores in the foam cell walls induced further local stress concentration which weakens the cellular structure's strength and crack propagation and cell-wall plastic deformation are the dominant collapse mechanisms. Finally, an energy absorption study was performed and an optimum temperature was proposed.

  10. Foam droplet separation for nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, Corey A.; Allen, Jonathan O.

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to nanoparticle synthesis was developed whereby foam bubble bursting produced aerosol droplets, an approach patterned after the marine foam aerosol cycle. The droplets were dried to remove solvent, leaving nanometer-sized particles composed of precursor material. Nanoparticles composed of sodium chloride (mean diameter, D-bar p ∼ 100 nm), phosphotungstic acid (D-bar p ∼ 55 nm), and bovine insulin (D p ∼ 5-30 nm) were synthesized. Foam droplet separation can be carried out at ambient temperature and pressure. The 'soft' nature of the process makes it compatible with a wide range of materials

  11. Behaviour of aluminum foam under fire conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grabian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account fire-protection requirements it is advantageous for aluminum foam, after melting at a temperature considerably exceeding the melting point, to have a structure of discontinuous suspension of solid inclusions to liquid metal instead of liquid consistency. Continuity of the suspension depends on the solid phase content. The boundary value of the phase determined by J. Śleziona, above which the suspension becomes discontinuous, is provided by the formula (1. Figure 1 presents the relationship graphically. Boundary values of the vs content resulting from the above relationship is too low, taking into account the data obtained from the technology of suspension composites [4]. Therefore, based on the structure assumed for the suspension shown in Figure 2 these authors proposed another way of determining the contents, the value of which is determined by the relationship (3 [5].For purposes of the experimental study presented in the paper two foams have been molten: a commercially available one, made by aluminum foaming with titanium hydride, and a foam manufactured in the Marine Materials Plant of the Maritime University of Szczecin by blowing the AlSi7 +20% SiC composite with argon. Macrophotographs of foam cross-sections are shown in Figure 3. The foams have been molten in the atmosphere of air at a temperature of 750ºC. The products of melting are presented in Figure 4. It appears that molten aluminum foam may have no liquid consistency, being unable to flow, which is a desired property from the point of view of fire-protection. The above feature of the molten foam results from the fact that it may be a discontinuous suspension of solid particles in a liquid metal. The suspended particles may be solid particles of the composite that served for making the foam or oxide membranes formed on extended metal surface of the bubbles included in the foam. The desired foam ability to form a discontinuous suspension after melting may be

  12. Auxetic foam for snowsport safety devices

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Tom; Duncan, Olly; Foster, Leon; Senior, Terry; Zampieri, Davide; Edeh, Victor; Alderson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are popular snow-sports with inherent risk of injury. There is potential to reduce the prevalence of injuries by improving and implementing snow-sport safety devices with the application of advanced materials. This paper investigates the application of auxetic foam to snow-sport safety devices. Composite pads - consisting of foam covered with a semi-rigid shell - were investigated as a simple model of body armour and a large 70 x 355 x 355 mm auxetic foam sample was fa...

  13. Foam process for application of decontamination agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.; Miller, J.R.; Frazier, R.S.; Walter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results and observations of a study performed by the authors to parametrically evaluate the performance characteristics of a foam process for application of decontamination agents. The initial tests were established to assess foam quality. Subsequent tests determined the ability of the foam as a carrier of chemical systems, and established system operating parameters. The technique was then applied in an actual decontamination task to verify effectiveness of these established parameters and to determine decontamination reduction factors. 4 figures, 5 tables

  14. The Size Spectrum as Tool for Analyzing Marine Plastic Pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Martí, E.

    2016-12-02

    Marine plastic debris spans over six orders of magnitude in lineal size, from microns to meters. The broad range of plastic sizes mainly arises from the continuous photodegradation and fragmentation affecting the plastic objects. Interestingly, this time-dependent process links, to some degree, the size to the age of the debris. The variety of plastic sizes gives the possibility to marine biota to interact and possible take up microplastics through numerous pathways. Physical processes such as sinking and wind-induced transport or the chemical adsorption of contaminants are also closely related to the size and shape of the plastic items. Likewise, available sampling techniques should be considered as partial views of the marine plastic size range. This being so and given that the size is one of the most easily measurable plastic traits, the size spectrum appears as an ideal frame to arrange, integrate, and analyze plastic data of diverse nature. In this work, we examined tens of thousands of plastic items sampled from across the world with the aim of (1) developing and standardizing the size-spectrum tool to study marine plastics, and (2) assembling a global plastic size spectrum (GPSS) database, relating individual size measurements to abundance, color (129 tons), polymer type, and category (rigid fragments, films, threads, foam, pellets, and microbeads). Using GPSS database, we show for instance the dependence of plastic composition on the item size, with high diversity of categories for items larger than 1 cm and a clear dominance (~90%) of hard fragments below, except for the size interval corresponding to microbeads (around 0.5 mm). GPSS database depicts a comprehensive size-based framework for analyzing the marine plastic pollution, enabling the comparison of size-related studies or the testing of hypothesis.

  15. Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2-9 Mbar range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Karasik, M.; Schmitt, A. J.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Cochrane, K. R.

    2018-03-01

    Absolute Hugoniot measurements for empty plastic foams at ˜10% of solid polystyrene density and supporting rad-hydro simulation results are reported. Planar foam slabs, ˜400 μm thick and ˜500 μm wide, some of which were covered with a 10 μm solid plastic ablator, were directly driven by 4 ns long Nike krypton-fluoride 248 nm wavelength laser pulses that produced strong shock waves in the foam. The shock and mass velocities in our experiments were up to 104 km/s and 84 km/s, respectively, and the shock pressures up to ˜9 Mbar. The motion of the shock and ablation fronts was recorded using side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging radiography. The steadiness of the observed shock and ablation fronts within ˜1% has been verified. The Hugoniot data inferred from our velocity measurements agree with the predictions of the SESAME and CALEOS equation-of-state models near the highest pressure ˜9 Mbar and density compression ratio ˜5. In the lower pressure range 2-5 Mbar, a lower shock density compression is observed than that predicted by the models. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  16. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Montross, Scott [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Spaulding, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dalton, Laura [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Crandall, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Moore, Jonathan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Kutchko, Barbara [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-01-23

    ultimately impacting the structural integrity of the wellbore. In this study, atmospheric foamed cements were generated using a neat cement and three foam qualities (volume of entrained gas in the cement) - 10%, 20%, and 30 % gas volume. The samples were immersed in a 0.25 M NaCl brine followed by the injection of supercritical CO2 at 28.9 MPa and 50°C. Petrophysical properties were examined for representative samples using computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CT scanning of representative samples across the range of reacted cements revealed macroscopic changes in structure due to brine/CO2/cement interactions. The high foam quality samples resulted in more CO2-saturated brine infiltrating radially deeper into the cement and thus were more susceptible to alteration. After 56 days of exposure, the 30% foam quality sample had the most reaction resulting in an alteration depth of 8.35 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 34.6 ± 0.2% reacted area and 5.76 ± 0.2% reacted pore space area. The neat sample on the other hand, had a reaction depth of 0.31 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 0.15 ± 0.08% reacted area and 0.57 ± 0.05% reacted pore area. Physical measurements of the exposed samples were consistent with this degree of alteration having 47.02% porosity and the highest permeability of 0.041 mD. These results indicate that the greater surface area provided by the increase of pore space in the higher quality foam coupled with carbonate diffusion reactions enabled greater alteration.

  17. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  18. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  19. Experimental Characterization of Innovative Viscoelastic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Viscardi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trend in the automotive industry has produced over time numerous performance and aesthetic innovations, however, the exponential development related to transportation technologies also introduced new requirements concerning the environmental impact [1]. The awareness of ecological issues has led to a reorganization of the evaluations and the vehicle design, currently aimed at reducing the problems that have emerged in empirical investigations and the parallel increase in environmental solutions. The vehicle renewal process involves targeted technical mutations both to observance of ecology as to the safety and comfort of the driver. New recyclable materials and more resistant have been developed in order to minimize the environmental impact of the vehicle even at the end of the operating life of its components, as well as solutions relating to the reduction of noise pollution generated as a response to the requirements of comfort. Modern research programs on a global scale have set themselves the objective of exploiting the potentiality of innovative technologies in the optimization of vehicles efficiency, the noise reduction and in the consequent reduction of fuel burn. One of the crucial topics in the greening of the new generation automotive sector is therefore the use and development of high vibro-acoustic performance materials. The goal of this research is properly focused on the analysis of viscoelastic materials appointed to increase the damping of the vibrations generated in a vehicle. The use of a viscoelastic material in this context is due to its high property to convert vibrational energy into heat, providing a significant dissipation of the vibrations. Trade-off analyses are performed in order define the stiffness and damping capacity of several viscoelastic foams with different thickness and density.

  20. Area 2. Use Of Engineered Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO2 Foams To Improve Volumetric Sweep Of CO2 EOR Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCarlo, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Huh, Chun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnston, Keith P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The goal of this project was to develop a new CO2 injection enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process using engineered nanoparticles with optimized surface coatings that has better volumetric sweep efficiency and a wider application range than conventional CO2-EOR processes. The main objectives of this project were to (1) identify the characteristics of the optimal nanoparticles that generate extremely stable CO2 foams in situ in reservoir regions without oil; (2) develop a novel method of mobility control using “self-guiding” foams with smart nanoparticles; and (3) extend the applicability of the new method to reservoirs having a wide range of salinity, temperatures, and heterogeneity. Concurrent with our experimental effort to understand the foam generation and transport processes and foam-induced mobility reduction, we also developed mathematical models to explain the underlying processes and mechanisms that govern the fate of nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams in porous media and applied these models to (1) simulate the results of foam generation and transport experiments conducted in beadpack and sandstone core systems, (2) analyze CO2 injection data received from a field operator, and (3) aid with the design of a foam injection pilot test. Our simulator is applicable to near-injection well field-scale foam injection problems and accounts for the effects due to layered heterogeneity in permeability field, foam stabilizing agents effects, oil presence, and shear-thinning on the generation and transport of nanoparticle-stabilized C/W foams. This report presents the details of our experimental and numerical modeling work and outlines the highlights of our findings.

  1. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  2. Feynman propagator for spin foam quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2005-03-25

    We link the notion causality with the orientation of the spin foam 2-complex. We show that all current spin foam models are orientation independent. Using the technology of evolution kernels for quantum fields on Lie groups, we construct a generalized version of spin foam models, introducing an extra proper time variable. We prove that different ranges of integration for this variable lead to different classes of spin foam models: the usual ones, interpreted as the quantum gravity analogue of the Hadamard function of quantum field theory (QFT) or as inner products between quantum gravity states; and a new class of causal models, the quantum gravity analogue of the Feynman propagator in QFT, nontrivial function of the orientation data, and implying a notion of "timeless ordering".

  3. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  4. Grandstand view of phenolic foam insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    Stadium Insulation Ltd, manufacture pipe sections, tank and vessel insulation products in Lowphen, polyisocyanurate, polyurethane foams and expanded polystyrene, though for certain specialist applications, cork is still employed in small quantities. Currently the emphasis is very much on Lowphen, the company's range of pipe sections based on phenolic foam. The company's manufacturing and marketing effort reflects the increasing market trend towards the use of insulating material capable of withstanding higher temperatures, and phenolic foam neatly satisfies the demand since it is capable of use at temperatures up to 140/sup 0/C. Moreover, phenolic foam has the lowest K value at 0.02W/m/sup 0/C of any of the currently available range of insulating materials, and while the product is slightly more expensive than alternatives such as polyisocyanurate and polyurethane, its high performance offsets that premium.

  5. Adhesion aspects of polyurethane foam sandwich panels.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panels, polyurethane foam sandwiched between two sheets of steel, form the walls and roofs in the construction of buildings. ArcelorMittal is a manufacturer of the steel as well as these finished panels. For this project they combined with a supplier of the polyurethane foams, Huntsman Polyurethanes, to joint-fund a research project investigating the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion, as well as the causes of failures in the product which manifests primarily in two different ways...

  6. Measurement of radiant properties of ceramic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornstra, J.; Turecky, M.; Maatman, D.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the measurement of the normal spectral and total emissivity and transmissivity of semi-transparent materials in the temperature range of 600 C to 1200 C. The set-up was used for the measurement of radiation properties of highly porous ceramic foam which is used in low NO x radiant burners. Emissivity and transmissivity data were measured and are presented for coated and uncoated ceramic foam of different thicknesses. (orig.)

  7. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor

  8. Mechanical Characterization of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Kozłowski; Marta Kadela

    2018-01-01

    Foamed concrete shows excellent physical characteristics such as low self weight, relatively high strength and superb thermal and acoustic insulation properties. It allows for minimal consumption of aggregate, and by replacement of a part of cement by fly ash, it contributes to the waste utilization principles. For many years, the application of foamed concrete has been limited to backfill of retaining walls, insulation of foundations and roof tiles sound insulation. However, during the last ...

  9. The OpenFOAM technology primer

    CERN Document Server

    Maric, Tomislav; Mooney, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This book covers two main aspects of working with OpenFOAM: using the applications and developing and extending the library code. In the first part of the book, we chose a few utilities and applications to describe the OpenFOAM work flow. This information should provide a sufficient starting point for the reader, who can investigate his/her interests further by following the provided instructions in a similar way for another solver or application.

  10. Plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru

    1981-01-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)

  11. Comparison of sound absorbing performances of copper foam and iron foam with the same parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. C.; Shen, X. M.; Xu, P. J.; Zhang, X. N.; Bai, P. F.; Peng, K.; Yin, Q.; Wang, D.

    2018-01-01

    Sound absorbing performances of the copper foam and the iron foam with the same parameters were investigated by the AWA6128A detector according to standing wave method. Two modes were investigated, which included the pure metal foam mode and the combination mode with the settled thickness of metal foam. In order to legibly compare the sound absorbing coefficients of the two metal foams, the detected sound frequency points were divided into the low frequency range (100 Hz ~ 1000 Hz), the middle frequency range (1000 Hz ~ 3200 Hz), and the high frequency range (3500 Hz ~ 6000 Hz). Sound absorbing performances of the two metal foams in the two modes were discussed within the three frequency ranges in detail. It would be calculated that the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam in the pure metal foam mode were 12.6%, 22.7%, 34.6%, 43.6%, 51.1%, and 56.2% when the thickness was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm. meanwhile, in the combination mode, the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam with the thickness of 10 mm were 30.6%, 34.8%, 36.3%, and 35.8% when the cavity was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. In addition, those of iron foam in the pure metal foam mode were 13.4%, 20.1%, 34.4%, 43.1%, 49.6%, and 56.1%, and in the combination mode were 25.6%, 30.5%, 34.3%, and 33.4%.

  12. Applications of Polymer Matrix Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Zeltmann, Steven E.; Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Pinisetty, Dinesh

    2013-11-01

    A collection of applications of polymer matrix syntactic foams is presented in this article. Syntactic foams are lightweight porous composites that found their early applications in marine structures due to their naturally buoyant behavior and low moisture absorption. Their light weight has been beneficial in weight sensitive aerospace structures. Syntactic foams have pushed the performance boundaries for composites and have enabled the development of vehicles for traveling to the deepest parts of the ocean and to other planets. The high volume fraction of porosity in syntactic foams also enabled their applications in thermal insulation of pipelines in oil and gas industry. The possibility of tailoring the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams through a combination of material selection, hollow particle volume fraction, and hollow particle wall thickness has helped in rapidly growing these applications. The low coefficient of thermal expansion and dimensional stability at high temperatures are now leading their use in electronic packaging, composite tooling, and thermoforming plug assists. Methods have been developed to tailor the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams independent of each other over a wide range, which is a significant advantage over other traditional particulate and fibrous composites.

  13. Numerical simulation of anisotropic polymeric foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Tita

    Full Text Available This paper shows in detail the modelling of anisotropic polymeric foam under compression and tension loadings, including discussions on isotropic material models and the entire procedure to calibrate the parameters involved. First, specimens of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC foam were investigated through experimental analyses in order to understand the mechanical behavior of this anisotropic material. Then, isotropic material models available in the commercial software AbaqusTM were investigated in order to verify their ability to model anisotropic foams and how the parameters involved can influence the results. Due to anisotropy, it is possible to obtain different values for the same parameter in the calibration process. The obtained set of parameters are used to calibrate the model according to the application of the structure. The models investigated showed minor and major limitations to simulate the mechanical behavior of anisotropic PVC foams under compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Results show that the calibration process and the choice of the material model applied to the polymeric foam can provide good quantitative results and save project time. Results also indicate what kind and order of error one will get if certain choices are made throughout the modelling process. Finally, even though the developed calibration procedure is applied to specific PVC foam, it still outlines a very broad drill to analyze other anisotropic cellular materials.

  14. Foam film permeability: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Krastev, R; Zitha, Pacelli L J

    2008-02-28

    The mass transfer of gas through foam films is a prototype of various industrial and biological processes. The aim of this paper is to give a perspective and critical overview of studies carried out to date on the mass transfer of gas through foam films. Contemporary experimental data are summarized, and a comprehensive overview of the theoretical models used to explain the observed effects is given. A detailed description of the processes that occur when a gas molecule passes through each layer that forms a foam film is shown. The permeability of the film-building surfactant monolayers plays an important role for the whole permeability process. It can be successfully described by the models used to explain the permeability of surfactant monolayers on aqueous sub-phase. For this reason, the present paper briefly discusses the surfactant-induced resistance to mass transfer of gases through gas-liquid interface. One part of the paper discusses the experimental and theoretical aspects of the foam film permeability in a train of foam films in a matrix or a cylinder. This special case is important to explain the gas transfer in porous media or in foams. Finally, this paper will highlight the gaps and challenges and sketch possible directions for future research.

  15. Shrinkage deformation of cement foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Steshenko, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of research of dispersion-reinforced cement foam concrete with chrysotile asbestos fibers. The goal was to study the patterns of influence of chrysotile asbestos fibers on drying shrinkage deformation of cement foam concrete of natural hardening. The chrysotile asbestos fiber contains cylindrical fiber shaped particles with a diameter of 0.55 micron to 8 microns, which are composed of nanostructures of the same form with diameters up to 55 nm and length up to 22 microns. Taking into account the wall thickness, effective reinforcement can be achieved only by microtube foam materials, the so- called carbon nanotubes, the dimensions of which are of power less that the wall pore diameter. The presence of not reinforced foam concrete pores with perforated walls causes a decrease in its strength, decreases the mechanical properties of the investigated material and increases its shrinkage. The microstructure investigation results have shown that introduction of chrysotile asbestos fibers in an amount of 2 % by weight of cement provides the finely porous foam concrete structure with more uniform size closed pores, which are uniformly distributed over the volume. This reduces the shrinkage deformation of foam concrete by 50%.

  16. Models and observations of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Holman, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Optical and acoustical observations and communications are hampered in the nearshore by the presence of bubbles and foam generated by breaking waves. Bubble clouds in the water column provide a highly variable (both spatially and temporally) obstacle to direct acoustic and optical paths. Persistent foam riding on the water surface creates a primary occlusion of optical penetration into the water column. In an effort to better understand and predict the level of bubble and foam content in the surfzone, we have been pursuing the development of a detailed phase resolved model of fluid and gaseous components of the water column, using a Navier-Stokes/VOF formulation extended to include a multiphase description of polydisperse bubble populations. This sort of modeling provides a detailed description of large scale turbulent structures and associated bubble transport mechanisms under breaking wave crests. The modeling technique is too computationally intensive, however, to provide a wider-scale description of large surfzone regions. In order to approach the larger scale problem, we are developing a model for spatial and temporal distribution of foam and bubbles within the framework of a Boussinesq model. The basic numerical framework for the code is described by Shi et al (2010, this conference). Bubble effects are incorporated both in the mass and momentum balances for weakly dispersive, fully nonlinear waves, with spatial and temporal bubble distributions parameterized based on the VOF modeling and measurements and tied to the computed rate of dissipation of energy during breaking. A model of a foam layer on the water surface is specified using a shallow water formulation. Foam mass conservation includes source and sink terms representing outgassing of the water column, direct foam generation due to surface agitation, and erosion due to bubble bursting. The foam layer motion in the plane of the water surface arises due to a balance of drag forces due to wind and water

  17. Auxetic Polyurethane Foam (Fabrication, Properties and Applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, H.I.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Modern technology requires new materials of special properties. For the last two decades there has been a great interest in a class of materials known as auxetic materials. An auxetic material is a material that has a negative Poisson's ratio which means that this material expands laterally when they subjected to a tensile force unlike most of the other traditional materials. This material has superior properties over the traditional material such as high shear modulus and high impact resistance, which makes this material a good candidate for many engineering applications. In the present research work, auxetic flexible polyurethane polymeric foams having different densities were fabricated from conventional flexible polyurethane polymeric foam at different compression ratios. The microstructure of conventional and processed foams was examined by optical microscope to compare between the two structures. The microstructure of processed foam was compared with the one presented in the literature and it has shown the auxetic structure configuration. This is the first time to produce auxetic foam in Egypt. Conventional and auxetic foam samples having cylindrical and square cross-sections were produced from foams having different densities (25 kg/m 3 and 30 kg/m 3 ). The compression ratios used to produce the auxetic samples are (5.56, 6.94 and 9.26). Four mechanical tests were carried out to get the mechanical properties for both conventional and auxetic foams. Two quasi-static mechanical tests t ension and compression a nd two dynamic mechanical tests H ysteresis and resilience w ere carried out to compare between the conventional and auxetic foams. The quasi-static tensile test was carried out at speed was adjusted to be position control rate of 0.2 mm/s. The compression and hysteresis tests were carried out at strain control rate of 0.3 S -1 . The data recorded from the machine were stress and strain. The modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of the test

  18. Reliability of Elasto-Plastic Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delmar, M. V.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for generating safety margins and failure mode equations for elasto-plastic structures where interaction of load effects is taken into account. Structural failure is defined by large nodal displacements or plastic collapse. A branch-and-bound technique is used...

  19. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Network on Copper Foam as High-performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Chi, Qijin

    E lectrochemically generated copper foam (Cuf) could serve as an effective template for fabrication of three - dimensional (3D) reduced graphe n e oxide (rGO) network s. Here we present a facile approach to preparation of 3D rGO network supported by Cuf a s binder - free and current collector - i...

  20. Functional grading of metal foam cores for yield-limited lightweight sandwich beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Yves; Pollien, Arnaud; Mortensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We show that grading the porosity in a bent metal skin/metal foam core sandwich can generate significant weight savings in yield-limited design when, and only when, there is a gradient in the applied moment along the sandwich beam

  1. Foam application from a closed system – a study of machine and foam parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, Jacques T.E.; Groot Wassink, Jan

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to gain a greater insight into the interaction between foam and a moving textile substrate. The effects of changing wet pick–up, fabric velocity, liquid viscosity, foam density and mode of application on penetration have been studied. Application from a closed system makes

  2. TPX foams for inertial fusion laser experiments: foam preparation, machining, characterization, and discussion of density issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, M.; Guillot, L.; Reneaume, B.; Fleury, E.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Jeannot, L.; Geoffray, I.; Faivre, A.; Breton, O.; Andre, J.; Collier, R.; Legaie, O.

    2011-01-01

    Low density foams (in this work, foam density refers to apparent density) are materials of interest for fusion experiments. Low density poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)(commercial name TPX) foams have been produced for 30 years. TPX foams have been shown to have densities as low as 3 mg.cm -3 , which is very close to air density (1.2 mg.cm -3 ). Around this density foams are very light and highly fragile. Their fabrication is thus a real technological challenge. However, shrinking always appears in ranges ranking from 25% to almost 200%. As a result, the apparent density of the final foam never matches the expected value given by the precursor solution concentration. Besides, even if the mold dimensions are precisely known, shrinkage is never linear, and foams have to be machined for precise density measurement. In our work we present a fabrication process for TPX foams and discuss machining and density measuring issues. Particularly, we have found that there are volume and weight limits for a determination of density within the range of 3% uncertainty. This raises the question whether density should rather be determined directly on millimeter-sized targets or should be performed on a bigger scale sample prepared from the same batch. (authors)

  3. From Foam Rubber to Volcanoes: The Physical Chemistry of Foam Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lee D.; McCarlie, V. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The process of foam formation is used for demonstrating the way in which the application of physiochemical principles and knowledge of the physical properties of the materials contributes towards the understanding of a wide range of phenomenon. Solubility of gas and bubble growth should be considered during the development of foamed polymer…

  4. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, Gyula J.; Duvigneau, Joost; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  5. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  6. New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Güner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.

  7. Preparation and characterization of cellulose-based foams via microwave curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Christian; Giuri, Antonella; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Giugliano, Daniela; Madaghiele, Marta; Sannino, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-02-06

    In this work, a mixture of a sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA700) was used for the preparation of a microporous structure by using the combination of two different procedures. First, physical foaming was induced using Pluronic as a blowing agent, followed by a chemical stabilization. This second step was carried out by means of an azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride as the thermoinitiator (TI). This reaction was activated by heating the sample homogeneously using a microwave generator. Finally, the influence of different CMCNa and PEGDA700 ratios on the final properties of the foams was investigated. The viscosity, water absorption capacity, elastic modulus and porous structure were evaluated for each sample. In addition, preliminary biological characterization was carried out with the aim to prove the biocompatibility of the resulting material. The foam, including 20% of PEGDA700 in the mixture, demonstrated higher viscosity and stability before thermo-polymerization. In addition, increased water absorption capacity, mechanical resistance and a more uniform microporous structure were obtained for this sample. In particular, foam with 3% of CMCNa shows a hierarchical structure with open pores of different sizes. This morphology increased the properties of the foams. The full set of samples demonstrated an excellent biocompatibility profile with a good cell proliferation rate of more than 7 days.

  8. Development of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Foams to Improve Performance of Water-less Hydraulic Fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodanovic, Masa [The University of Texas at Austin; Johnston, Keith P. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2017-12-29

    We have successfully created ultra dry carbon-dioxide-in-water and nitrogen-in-water foams (with water content down to 2-5% range), that are remarkably stable at high temperatures (up to 120 deg, C) and pressures (up to 3000psi) and viscous enough (100-200 cP tunable range) to carry proppant. Two generations of these ultra-dry foams have been developed; they are stabilized either with a synergy of surfactants and nanoparticle, or just with viscoelastic surfactants that viscosify the aqueous phase. Not only does this reduce water utilization and disposal, but it minimizes fluid blocking of hydrocarbon production. Further, the most recent development shows successful use of environmentally friendly surfactants at high temperature and pressure. We pay special attention to the role of nanoparticles in stabilization of the foams, specifically for high salinity brines. The preliminary numerical simulation for which shows they open wider fractures with shorter half-length and require less clean-up due to minimal water use. We also tested the stability and sand carrying properties of these foams at high pressure, room temperature conditions in sapphire cell. We performed on a preliminary numerical investigation of applicability for improved oil recovery applications. The applicability was evaluated by running multiphase flow injection simulations in a case-study oil reservoir. The results of this research thus expand the options available to operators for hydraulic fracturing and can simplify the design and field implementation of foamed fracturing fluids.

  9. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam. BKC 44306 PMDI-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rao, Rekha Ranjana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelden, Bion [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Hern, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russick, Edward Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hileman, Michael Bryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Kyle Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, David Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  10. Transient Thermal Response of Lightweight Cementitious Composites Made with Polyurethane Foam Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismi, M.; Poullain, P.; Mounanga, P.

    2012-07-01

    The development of low-cost lightweight aggregate (LWA) mortars and concretes presents many advantages, especially in terms of lightness and thermal insulation performances of structures. Low-cost LWA mainly comes from the recovery of vegetal or plastic wastes. This article focuses on the characterization of the thermal conductivity of innovative lightweight cementitious composites made with fine particles of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam waste. Five mortars were prepared with various mass substitution rates of cement with PU-foam particles. Their thermal conductivity was measured with two transient methods: the heating-film method and the hot-disk method. The incorporation of PU-foam particles causes a reduction of up to 18 % of the mortar density, accompanied by a significant improvement of the thermal insulating performance. The effect of segregation on the thermal properties of LWA mortars due to the differences of density among the cementitious matrix, sand, and LWA has also been quantified. The application of the hot-disk method reveals a gradient of thermal conductivity along the thickness of the specimens, which could be explained by a non-uniform repartition of fine PU-foam particles and mineral aggregates within the mortars. The results show a spatial variation of the thermal conductivity of the LWA mortars, ranging from 9 % to 19 %. However, this variation remains close to or even lower than that observed on a normal weight aggregate mortar. Finally, a self-consistent approach is proposed to estimate the thermal conductivity of PU-foam cement-based composites.

  11. Preconcentration and determination of uranium on to polyurethane foam functionalized with salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Alvaro S.F. de; Ferreira, Elizabeth de M.M.; Cassella, Ricardo J.

    2009-01-01

    Salicylate was covalently linking with a commercial polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N-group generating a stable chelating sorbent (PUFS). The synthesized sorbent was characterized by Infrared Spectrometry (IR) measurement. Good stability towards various solvents was noticed. The pH influence and equilibration shaking time adsorption onto foam functionalized was studied as factors influencing the extraction process of the uranium ion solution. Extraction of uranium was accomplished in 10 minutes. Uranium at ppb level was absorbed as the salicylate complex on powered PUFS at pH about 8.0. Uranium could be achieved in 85 % from a 500 mL uranium solution (0.1 μgmL -1 ) which shows the suitability of salicylate foam for preconcentration analysis. (author)

  12. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause...... severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs. Moreover....... A continuous stirred tank reactor, operating under thermophilic conditions (55 oC) was fed with cattle manure. In order to investigate the effect of organic overloading on foam formation, a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate was performed by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. Biogas...

  13. Graphite Foam Heat Exchangers for Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, J.W.

    2004-06-07

    Improved thermal management is needed to increase the power density of electronic and more effectively cool electronic enclosures that are envisioned in future aircraft, spacecraft and surface ships. Typically, heat exchanger cores must increase in size to more effectively dissipate increased heat loads, this would be impossible in many cases, thus improved heat exchanger cores will be required. In this Phase I investigation, MRi aimed to demonstrate improved thermal management using graphite foam (Gr-foam) core heat exchangers. The proposed design was to combine Gr-foams from POCO with MRi's innovative low temperature, active metal joining process (S-Bond{trademark}) to bond Gr-foam to aluminum, copper and aluminum/SiC composite faceplates. The results were very favorable, so a Phase II SBIR with the MDA was initiated. This had primarily 5 tasks: (1) bonding, (2) thermal modeling, (3) cooling chip scale packages, (4) evaporative cooling techniques and (5) IGBT cold plate development. The bonding tests showed that the ''reflow'' technique with S-Bond{reg_sign}-220 resulted in the best and most consistent bond. Then, thermal modeling was used to design different chip scale packages and IGBT cold plates. These designs were used to fabricate many finned graphite foam heat sinks specifically for two standard type IC packages, the 423 and 478 pin chips. These results demonstrated several advantages with the foam. First, the heat sinks with the foam were lighter than the copper/aluminum sinks used as standards. The sinks for the 423 design made from foam were not as good as the standard sinks. However, the sinks made from foam for the 478 pin chips were better than the standard heat sinks used today. However, this improvement was marginal (in the 10-20% better regime). However, another important note was that the epoxy bonding technique resulted in heat sinks with similar results as that with the S-bond{reg_sign}, slightly worse than the S

  14. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  15. Synergistic effect of casein glycomacropeptide on sodium caseinate foaming properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Martinez, M J; Pilosof, A M R

    2017-11-01

    Several strategies to improve the interfacial properties and foaming properties of proteins may be developed; among them, the use of mixtures of biopolymers that exhibit synergistic interactions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on foaming and surface properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and to establish the role of protein interactions in the aqueous phase. To this end particles size, interfacial and foaming properties of CMP, NaCas and NaCas-CMP mixtures at pH 5.5 and 7 were determined. At both pH, the interaction between CMP and NaCas induced a decrease in the aggregation state of NaCas. Single CMP foams showed the highest and NaCas the lowest foam overrun (FO) and the mixture exhibited intermediate values. CMP foam quickly drained. The drainage profile of mixed foams was closer to NaCas foams; at pH 5.5, mixed foams drained even slower than NaCas foam, exhibiting a synergistic performance. Additionally, a strong synergism was observed on the collapse of mixed foams at pH 5.5. Finally, a model to explain the synergistic effect observed on foaming properties in CMP-NaCas mixtures has been proposed; the reduced aggregation state of NaCas in the presence of CMP, made it more efficient for foam stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire-Induced Response in Foam Encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, T.T.; Chu, T.Y.; Erickson, K.L.; Gill, W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Humphries, L.L.; Renlund, A.M.; Ulibarri, T.A.

    1999-04-02

    The paper provides a concise overview of a coordinated experimental/theoretical/numerical program at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an experimentally validated model of fire-induced response of foam-filled engineered systems for nuclear and transportation safety applications. Integral experiments are performed to investigate the thermal response of polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. A suite of laboratory experiments is performed to characterize the decomposition chemistry of polyurethane. Mass loss and energy associated with foam decomposition and chemical structures of the virgin and decomposed foam are determined. Decomposition chemistry is modeled as the degradation of macromolecular structures by bond breaking followed by vaporization of small fragments of the macromolecule with high vapor pressures. The chemical decomposition model is validated against the laboratory data. Data from integral experiments is used to assess and validate a FEM foam thermal response model with the chemistry model developed from the decomposition experiments. Good agreement was achieved both in the progression of the decomposition front and the in-depth thermal response.

  17. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-27

    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  18. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  19. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  20. The dynamics of diffracted rays in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-12-18

    We have studied some aspects of the optics of the light scattering in foams. This paper describes the difference between rays and diffracted rays from the point of view of geometrical theory of diffraction. We have represented some bifurcations of light rays using dynamical systems. Based on our observations of foams, we created a solid optical device. The interference patterns of light scattering in foams forming Airy fringes were explored observing the pattern named as the eye of Horus. In the cases we examine, these Airy fringes are associated with light scattering in curved surfaces, while the halo formation is related to the law of edge diffraction. We are proposing a Pohl interferometer using a three-sided bubble/Plateau border system. - Highlights: • We obtained halos scattering light in foams. • We model the light scattering in foams using the geometrical theory of diffraction. • We examine the difference between rays and the diffracted rays. • We developed optical devices for diffracted rays.