WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic filter cloth

  1. Analysis of the efficiency of a cloth cyclone: the effect of the permeability of the filtering medium

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Rodrigues; Arouca,F.O.; Barrozo,M.A.S.; J.J.R. Damasceno

    2003-01-01

    The cloth cyclone is a solid-gas separation device that consists of a Lapple cyclone whose conical section has been replaced by a conical filtering wall. The present research was undertaken with the aim of examining the influence of a conical filtering section made of three different materials on the performance of a Lapple design cyclone. The overall efficiency and pressure drops of the cloth cyclone and a conventional one were compared. The effect of the filtering medium on the behavior of ...

  2. Analysis of the efficiency of a cloth cyclone: the effect of the permeability of the filtering medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Rodrigues

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The cloth cyclone is a solid-gas separation device that consists of a Lapple cyclone whose conical section has been replaced by a conical filtering wall. The present research was undertaken with the aim of examining the influence of a conical filtering section made of three different materials on the performance of a Lapple design cyclone. The overall efficiency and pressure drops of the cloth cyclone and a conventional one were compared. The effect of the filtering medium on the behavior of the cyclone was also evaluated using an equation that correlates the cut size diameter with the operational conditions, the properties of the gas-solid system and the resistance of the filtering medium. The experimental results demonstrated that the overall efficiency of the conventional cyclone was similar to that of the proposed device, with the latter displaying a reduction in pressure drop. Consequently, energy costs are lowered when cloth cyclones are used.

  3. Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

    2009-06-01

    In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity.

  4. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  5. Adaptive spatio-temporal filtering of disturbed ECGs: a multi-channel approach to heartbeat detection in smart clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Urban; Karlsson, Marcus; Ostlund, Nils; Berglin, Lena; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Karlsson, Stefan; Sandsjö, Leif

    2007-06-01

    Intermittent disturbances are common in ECG signals recorded with smart clothing: this is mainly because of displacement of the electrodes over the skin. We evaluated a novel adaptive method for spatio-temporal filtering for heartbeat detection in noisy multi-channel ECGs including short signal interruptions in single channels. Using multi-channel database recordings (12-channel ECGs from 10 healthy subjects), the results showed that multi-channel spatio-temporal filtering outperformed regular independent component analysis. We also recorded seven channels of ECG using a T-shirt with textile electrodes. Ten healthy subjects performed different sequences during a 10-min recording: resting, standing, flexing breast muscles, walking and pushups. Using adaptive multi-channel filtering, the sensitivity and precision was above 97% in nine subjects. Adaptive multi-channel spatio-temporal filtering can be used to detect heartbeats in ECGs with high noise levels. One application is heartbeat detection in noisy ECG recordings obtained by integrated textile electrodes in smart clothing.

  6. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  7. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Benzophenone-3 (also known as BP-3 or oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics, and some coatings to filter UV radiation. The suspected endocrine disruptor BP-3 has been detected in the air and settled dust of homes and is expected to redistribute from its original sources to other indoor....../m(3). Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum...

  8. Effect of Calendering Temperature on Properties of Woven Filter Cloth%轧光温度对机织过滤布性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明光; 梁红艳; 曹继鹏; 王瑞

    2016-01-01

    Under certain pressure and speed, polypropylene fiber filter cloth was calendered on a pressure-adjustable MHPK280-240 calendering machine at different temperatures. Furthermore, the bubble point aperture, gas permeability and strength of the calendered cloth were tested with Porolux1000 capillary flow apertometer. The influence of temperature on the indexes of the calendered filter cloth was also analyzed. Besides, the principle and operation of Porolux1000 capillary flow apertometer are introduced.%以聚丙烯纤维滤布为研究对象,在压力、车速一定的条件下,以不同的温度对丙纶滤布在MHPK280-240可调压力轧光机上进行轧光,然后对轧光后滤布使用Porolux1000毛细管流动孔径仪进行泡点孔径、透气率等指标测试,并分析了温度对轧光滤布指标的影响;同时简要介绍了国际上先进的Po-rolux1000毛细管流动孔径仪的应用原理与操作。

  9. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  10. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  11. The use of filter paper plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde in ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H.T.S. Barbosa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available F1-antigen purified from Yersinia pestis was covalently linked to 5-mm diameter filter paper discs plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde. These discs were used both for ELISA and dot-ELISA for the detection of anti-F1 IgG in rabbits. The best conditions were achieved using 1.25 µg of F1 antigen/disc, 3% w/v skim milk in PBS as blocking agent, anti-IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 12,000 times, and serum from rabbits immunized or not against Y. pestis, diluted 6,400 times. The absorbance values obtained from the comparative study between this procedure and conventional ELISA were not significantly different but the low cost of the reagents employed in ELISA using the filter paper discs plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde makes this method economically attractive.

  12. Adopting primary plastic trickling filters as a solution for enhanced nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon P; Ouki, Sabeha K; Saroj, Devendra P; Pearce, Pete A; Bancroft, Louise; Germain, Eve

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater industry is under pressure to optimize performance of sewage treatment works (STW), while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. Using a process configuration selection matrix, this paper explores the practicability of placing a hypothetical cross flow structured plastic media (CFSP) trickling filter (TF) immediately ahead of an existing conventional trickling filter process (CTFP), without intermediate clarification. The viability of this configuration is subsequently demonstrated using an empirical multispecies TF model. This predicts the enhanced nitrification performance of the CTFP by simulating prior removals of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The model predictions propose that prior 50-80% BOD removals can allow for further reductions in effluent ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations of 40-70%, respectively. This illustrates that adopting low energy TF technologies can eliminate the requirement for more energy intensive alternatives, such as submerged aerated filters (SAF). Moreover, this configuration maximizes the potential of existing assets, while simultaneously improving nitrification robustness when compared with tertiary nitrification processes.

  13. Slepian simulation of plastic displacement distributions for shear frame excited by filtered Gaussian white noise ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2003-01-01

    frame. A suitable number of the lower floors has been considered to represent the soil both as a filter of a white noise base rock excitation and as a simplified model for soil structure interaction. In the present paper the Slepian model is applied to obtain plastic displacement distributions...... frame with partial or full feed back from the movement of the top mass to the second and the first mass (top soil layer mass and base rock mass, respectively). Keywords: Clough-Penzien filtered white noise excitation, elasto-plastic shear frame oscillator, plastic displacement distributions, simplified...

  14. Slepian simulation of plastic displacement distributions for shear frame excited by filtered Gaussian white noise ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2003-01-01

    , and with no force feed back from any of the three masses to masses situated below it. The first mass from the ground is force excited by stationary Gaussian white noise as specified in the Clough-Penzien filter definition. The study includes comparisons between plastic displacement results for the same three story...... for a single story shear frame excited by stationary Gaussian ground motion defined by the output of a Clough-Penzien filter with Gaussian white noise input. This is equivalent to considering an artificial three story elasto-plastic shear frame with possible yielding solely in the third column connection...... frame with partial or full feed back from the movement of the top mass to the second and the first mass (top soil layer mass and base rock mass, respectively). Keywords: Clough-Penzien filtered white noise excitation, elasto-plastic shear frame oscillator, plastic displacement distributions, simplified...

  15. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates cloth in the Bronze Age cult in Greece and disusses its function. There is a seperation between cloth for offerings and cloth for cult personnel......The paper investigates cloth in the Bronze Age cult in Greece and disusses its function. There is a seperation between cloth for offerings and cloth for cult personnel...

  16. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel......analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel...

  17. Phosphorus collectors from filter paper and synthetic cloth coated with iron or aluminium oxide to provide phosphorus by diffusion in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernardi Luchese

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus collectors made from filter paper and synthetic cloth, were tested to evaluate their feasibility of determining the need for phosphate application. The collectors were coated with two types of oxides, iron oxide and aluminium oxide. The capacity of the collectors was tested by placing them in a 2 mL of solution containing phosphorus (PO4(3- in the concentration of 0.0, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 7.00, 9.00 and 11.00 µ g.mL-1, respectively, after which they were placed in contact with four types of soil (LBa, LRd, LEd and Ca and incubed for 0.0 and 24 h. In this test the soils were kept at a humidity equivalent to 150 mmHg suction. The amount of phosphorus extracted from the solutions was tested at intervals between 0,0 and 11.0 µ g of phosphorus/mL. Results indicated that collectors were most efficient in Dystrophic Dark-Red Latosol (LEd and less efficient in "Bruno álico" Latosol (LBa and Cambisol (Ca. Synthetic cloth was the support yielding the best performance, whereas iron oxide lining was the most adequate lining material. Phosphorus collection increased with time of incubation.Coletores de fósforo feitos de papel filtro e pano sintético (perfex foram usados no estudo da determinação da necessidade de adubação fosfatada. Foram preparados coletores impregnados com óxido de ferro e outros com óxido de alumínio. A capacidade foi testada colocando-os em 2 mL de uma solução padrão de fósforo (na forma de fosfato com 0,0; 1,00; 3,00; 5,00; 7,00; 9,00 e 11;00 µg.mL-1 , depois foram colocados em contato com 4 tipos de solos (Lba, LRd, Led e Ca e incubados por 0,0 e 24 horas. No teste, os solos foram mantidos com uma umidade equivalente a 150 mmHg de sucção. Os resultados mostraram que os coletores foram mais eficientes, na extração de fósforo, no solo LED e menos eficiente no LBa e Ca (Cambissolo. O pano sintético foi a matriz (material suporte que proporcionou melhores resultados. O óxido de ferro foi o substrato foi o

  18. 钻石型滤布滤池在污水处理厂深度处理中的应用%Application of diamond layout cloth-media filter in the advanced treatment of the wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚枝良

    2012-01-01

    Diamond layout cloth-media filter is mainly applied for the advanced treatment in wastewater treatment plant and is also a new type of equipment for suspended solids (SS) removal in secondary effluent. Taking Qingdao Loushanhe Wastewater Treatment Plant as a case study, and introduced the principles and design methods of the diamond layout cloth-media filter. This paper emphasized operation type and design parameters selection, and listed the practical operation effects, which would offer references for similar engineering projects design.%钻石型滤布滤池主要应用于污水处理厂的深度处理工程,是去除二级出水中SS的一种新型设备.以青岛娄山河污水处理厂升级改造工程为例,阐述了钻石型滤布滤池的工作原理和设计方法,重点分析其运行方式及设计参数选择,并列出实际运行效果,可为同类工程的设计提供参考.

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumuni K. Osman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.80, suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 60%. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of the plastic BioSand filter on health and drinking water quality in rural Tamale, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Kominek, Byron; Liang, Kaida R; Osman, Mumuni K; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-10-24

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.92), suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 59% [corrected]. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  1. 论悬鱼造型艺术对服装空间设计的启示%Inspiration fish hanging on the plastic arts of clothing space design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇刚

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of economic globalization, people pay more attention to the art of chasing nationality and localization features, this situation of clothing space design development of proposed new requirements. In this paper, China's traditional architectural style of art hanging fish, fish analysis hanging plastic arts in costume design in space applications. Hanging fish shape, with its unique aesthetic characteristics of our modern costume design space of great revelation, China's garment hanging space design can fish plastic arts inspiration for innovative design, combined with the characteristics of suspended fish plastic arts and traditional Chinese craft, rich modern costume design space.%在经济全球化的大背景下,人们对艺术的追求更加注重民族性和本土化特性,这一形势对服装空间设计发展提出了新的要求。本文结合我国传统建筑的悬鱼造型艺术,分析悬鱼造型艺术在服装空间设计中的应用。悬鱼造型凭借其独特的美学特点,对我国现代服装空间设计具有重大的启示,我国服装空间设计可以悬鱼造型艺术为创新设计灵感来源,结合悬鱼造型艺术的特点和我国传统工艺,丰富现代服装空间设计。

  2. Why We Wear Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jib

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of clothing as a means of communicating nonverbally in social situations and urges that a "semantics of clothing communication" be compiled to increase understanding of human life. (RB)

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Mumuni K. Osman; Stauber, Christine E.; Byron Kominek; Liang, Kaida R.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received th...

  4. Clothing and Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The purpose of the subject area guide is to present clothing and textiles in the perspective of family living and to relate clothing and textiles to a variety of life styles. Initial emphasis is placed on curriculum planning and the taxonomy of educational objectives. Skills in clothing construction are developed throughout the four homemaking…

  5. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  6. Nonflammable Clothing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard; Radnofsky, Matthew I.

    1968-01-01

    Protective clothing is of major importance in our space program. The authors discuss the requirements, selection, and testing of materials considered for use in the program. The various types of garments worn by astronauts and support personnel are briefly described.

  7. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be ... Make sure your shoes fit your activity. For running, buy running shoes. They are light, flexible, and ...

  8. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  9. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    clothes actually results in a decrease of the environmental burden of the life cycle of clothing. The environmental burden of clothing has been studied in several studies. However, most of these studies focus solely on the energy consumption aspects and pay little attention to the potential benefits...... of diverting used clothing from the waste stream. The aim of the study was to assess the net environmental benefits brought by the disposal of used clothing through charities who return them for second-hand sales assuming that second hand clothes (SHC) to some extent replace the purchase of new clothes...... and reliability of the results obtained in the current study. Such a further work could include the possible difference in the lifetime of second-hand clothes compared to new clothes....

  10. Hmong story cloths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

      The Hmong, a nomadic and agrarian people, may date back 5,000 years. Today there are about 150,000 Hmong in the United States, where their story cloths and embroidered items often appear in craft shows and exhibitions...

  11. Clothes make the man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, A.

    2014-01-01

    When it is winter you will wear a warm jumper, a heavy coat and gloves, during summertime a pair of shorts and a shirt are enough. You adapt your clothes to the climate conditions you live in. However, if you are working under extreme weather circumstances it is a different story, because how do you

  12. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  13. Men's Clothing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  14. ESD - FUNCTIONAL CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCARLAT Razvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional clothing represents a sustainable development direction of in the field of technical textiles, a bridge between various activity domains, a solution to user’s complex requirements. The research and development potential in the field is supported by the new fibers/ yarns generation, the new technologies and the market niches, as well. Protective clothing is now a major part of textile classified under technical textile. Protective clothing refers to the garment and other fabric related items designed to protect the wearer from harsh environmental effects that results in injuries or death. The innovation, as a result of convergence processing technologies, consumer demands and what is viable on the market, defines the personal protective equipment field. In this article, we present the work of an ESD protective clothing development. Therefore, it has been applied a modern knitting technology, on 7E and 12E STOLL machines, using cotton and wool yarns as base yarn and conductive yarns for plaiting structures. Also, the optimal parameters establishment and the functional requirements are aspects of the research activity performed. The experimental models have been conducted in order to demonstrate the design concept used and choosing the optimal variant. The characterization of the developed experimental variants took into account the evaluation of physico-mechanical and electrical characteristics. From the electrical point of view, the variants have been mainly evaluated through “point to point” method in terms of electrical isolation efficiency dimensional changes analysis.

  15. The Cloth Is Not Enough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健

    2000-01-01

    One day,Mr Green went into a tailor's shop(裁缝店) with a piece of cloth. He wanted to have the tailor make some clothes for him. He handed the cloth to the tailor, and said, “You should have brought more cloth, this is not enough. ”Mr Green had to go out, disappointed(失望地). He soon found another tailor's shop and went in. This tailor didn't think the cloth was not enough.

  16. Advanced Clothing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T

  17. Mestizaje and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    The focus of the chapter is on the early determinant of movement (1910s-1940s) between western-central Mexico and the US, seen not through the standard lens of labour migration but as producing a new, transnational, social space. In this social space, migrants could work with and negotiate greater...... self-consciousness as mestizos and Mexicans. The determinants and implications of movement are traced through clothing, in relation to when, why and how men and women in small town Mexico adopted 'modern' styles of dress. Migration to the US opened up possibilities of dressing to cross social as well...

  18. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and at specific times, as follows: For Meyrin site: in Bldg. 2/ R-402 Each second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: in Bldg. 933/ R-007. Each second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  19. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8.00 a.m. and 9.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10.00 a.m. and 11.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  20. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  1. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  2. On the Acoustic Filtering of the Pipe and Sensor in a Buried Plastic Water Pipe and its Effect on Leak Detection: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabrício; Brennan, Michael; Joseph, Phillip; Whitfield, Stuart; Dray, Simon; Paschoalini, Amarildo

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors. PMID:24658622

  3. On the Acoustic Filtering of the Pipe and Sensor in a Buried Plastic Water Pipe and its Effect on Leak Detection: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic techniques have been used for many years to find and locate leaks in buried water distribution systems. Hydrophones and accelerometers are typically used as sensors. Although geophones could be used as well, they are not generally used for leak detection. A simple acoustic model of the pipe and the sensors has been proposed previously by some of the authors of this paper, and their model was used to explain some of the features observed in measurements. However, simultaneous measurements of a leak using all three sensor-types in controlled conditions for plastic pipes has not been reported to-date and hence they have not yet been compared directly. This paper fills that gap in knowledge. A set of measurements was made on a bespoke buried plastic water distribution pipe test rig to validate the previously reported analytical model. There is qualitative agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions in terms of the differing filtering properties of the pipe-sensor systems. A quality measure for the data is also presented, which is the ratio of the bandwidth over which the analysis is carried out divided by the centre frequency of this bandwidth. Based on this metric, the accelerometer was found to be the best sensor to use for the test rig described in this paper. However, for a system in which the distance between the sensors is large or the attenuation factor of the system is high, then it would be advantageous to use hydrophones, even though they are invasive sensors.

  4. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  5. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...... for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement...

  6. 20 CFR 638.525 - Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clothing. 638.525 Section 638.525 Employees... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.525 Clothing. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to provide clothing for all students by means of a clothing purchase allowance and...

  7. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  8. The UTCI-clothing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  9. Microfibrous metallic cloth for acoustic isolation of a MEMS gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert; Burch, Nesha; Black, Meagan; Beal, Aubrey; Flowers, George

    2011-04-01

    The response of a MEMS device that is exposed to a harsh environment may range from an increased noise floor to a completely erroneous output to temporary or even permanent device failure. One such harsh environment is high power acoustic energy possessing high frequency components. This type of environment sometimes occurs in small aerospace vehicles. In this type of operating environment, high frequency acoustic energy can be transferred to a MEMS gyroscope die through the device packaging. If the acoustic noise possesses a sufficiently strong component at the resonant frequency of the gyroscope, it will overexcite the motion of the proof mass, resulting in the deleterious effect of corrupted angular rate measurement. Therefore if the device or system packaging can be improved to sufficiently isolate the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic energy, the sensor may find new applications in this type of harsh environment. This research effort explored the use of microfibrous metallic cloth for isolating the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic excitation. Microfibrous cloth is a composite of fused, intermingled metal fibers and has a variety of typical uses involving chemical processing applications and filtering. Specifically, this research consisted of experimental evaluations of multiple layers of packed microfibrous cloth composed of sintered nickel material. The packed cloth was used to provide acoustic isolation for a test MEMS gyroscope, the Analog Devices ADXRS300. The results of this investigation revealed that the intermingling of the various fibers of the metallic cloth provided a significant contact area between the fiber strands and voids, which enhanced the acoustic damping of the material. As a result, the nickel cloth was discovered to be an effective acoustic isolation material for this particular MEMS gyroscope.

  10. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  11. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  12. Mining dust filter. Bergbaustaubfilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igelbuescher, H.; Hoelter, H.

    1988-12-28

    A dust filter for application underground, whose casing is designed as a transportable unit combinable with further casings and fitted with removable filter pockets. These filter pockets have a frame which seals towards the casing and with the lattices on which the filter cloth is stretched and with spacers holding the said lattices at a distance. Each casing as such has inspection ports that are operationable optionally on either side, and clean and crude gas channels on its upper side. The ends of these channels have coupleable head pieces, so that connection is made easy when casings are arranged in a line. Each crude gas channel is connected to the inside of the casing by means of perforations in the floor of said channel, whereas the clean gas channel, for its part, is in connection with the inside of the casing by means of a channel on the head side of the casing. It is thus possible to create a dust filter having practically any desired output by arranging individual modules in line, in which connection each individual module is reliably transportable on the facilities available below ground, as pre-fabricated above ground. Stable support of the sides of the filter cloths is ensured by the lattice that consists of reciprocally cranked longitudinal and transverse wires. 10 figs.

  13. Clothing Consumption in Urban China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiming(张志明); Li Yi(李毅); Gong Chen(龚晨); John Moody; Liu Wing-sun (廖泳申); Wu Haidong(吴海东)

    2001-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a questionnaire survey with 3,544 respondents in six largest cities in China, the clothing expenditures of Chinese consumers and influential factors are investigated in this paper. It was found that regional differences exist sig nificantly among the cities, possibly due to differences in economy,customs, culture and other factors It was also found that the demographic and soionomic factors including age, gender, marital staus , education level,occupation, and household income have a significant influence on clothing expenditures. Further, the interactive influences of geographic variable with demographic and socioeconomic variables on the clothing expenditures were ex amined. The findings should have useful implications for segmenting Chinese consumers and developing marketing strategies in China.

  14. Safer work clothing for fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geving, Ingunn Holmen; Reitan, Jarl; Sandsund, Mariann; Faerevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo; Aasjord, Halvard

    2006-01-01

    The fisherman's work environment consists of many potential risks. A study of occupational accidents in the Norwegian fishing industry in the nine-year period from 1998 to 2006 shows that more than 3/4 of the deaths were caused by loss of fishing vessel or man-overboard accidents. Furthermore, the greatest risk of drowning is found in the smallest fleet. The aim of our project was to develop safer work clothing and through this contribute to a reduction in work accidents and injuries in the fishing fleet. We considered that it is possible to produce protective work clothing that satisfies a specification of requirements covering the fishermen's needs for protection and comfort during work. An end user-centred process including twenty-three personal interviews and a questionnaire was used to clarify the fishermen's needs and wishes before detailed design and product development. We identified an overview of all the fishermen's needs for protection during work, and produced a prioritised list of functional requirements for the clothing. The results show that the clothing previously preferred by fishermen does not satisfy all the users' demands for safety, functionality and comfort. These demands have been taken into consideration when designing improved work clothing for the fishing fleet. A selected number of prototypes were developed on the basis of the established specification of requirements. The prototypes were evaluated according to the users' requirements through tests in SINTEF's Work Physiology Laboratory and on board fishing vessels. The results demonstrate that the new protective clothing satisfies the fishermen's requirements.

  15. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  16. Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This guide was prepared to help instructors of adult textiles and clothing programs improve their teaching; it is designed to be used with other department publications: Clothing Services Training Guide, Resource Courses for Planning Local Adult Homemaking Programs, and Resource Kit Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing (see AC 008 741). Each…

  17. Marketing Strategies in the Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Chinese clothing industry has stepped into a new era when the fierce competition,the internationalization and the pluralism coexist.If the clothing enterprises want to catch the market opportunities,and stand out in the clothing industry,they should chang

  18. Re-creation of Chinese Traditional Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 张祖芳

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on both the typical characteristics of Chinese traditional clothing and trendy fashion on present market that is inspired from it,this paper illustrates several re-creation methods of Chinese traditional clothing.These suggestions would push this oriental traditional clothing to a new high in world fashion field and adopted by more and more common people.

  19. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing. 142.36... Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy, heavy dust, or hazardous materials shall wear clothing and gloves providing protection against the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1840 - Protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective clothing. 154.1840 Section 154.1840 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1840 Protective clothing... operation, except those assigned to gas-safe cargo control rooms, wears protective clothing....

  1. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  2. 76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... service-connected disability, wears or uses a prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including a wheelchair) which VA determines tends to wear out or tear the veteran's clothing or uses prescription medication for... uses a qualifying appliance for a service-connected disability and prescription medication for a...

  3. Modeling Neanderthal clothing using ethnographic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Nathan

    2012-12-01

    Although direct evidence for Neanderthal clothing is essentially nonexistent, information about Paleolithic clothing could provide insights into the biological, technological, and behavioral capabilities of Neanderthals. This paper takes a new approach to understanding Neanderthal clothing through the collection and analysis of clothing data for 245 recent hunter-gatherer groups. These data are tested against environmental factors to infer what clothing humans tend to wear under different conditions. Beta regression is used to predict the proportion of the body covered by clothing according to a location's mean temperature of the coldest month, average wind speed, and annual rainfall. In addition, logistic regression equations predict clothing use on specific parts of the body. Neanderthal clothing patterns are modeled across Europe and over a range of Pleistocene environmental conditions, thereby providing a new appreciation of Paleolithic behavioral variability. After accounting for higher tolerances to cold temperatures, it is predicted that some Neanderthals would have covered up to 80% of their bodies during the winter, probably with non-tailored clothing. It is also likely that some populations covered the hands and feet. In comparison with Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic modern humans are found to have worn more sophisticated clothing. Importantly, these predictions shed new light on the relationship between Neanderthal extinction and their simple clothing.

  4. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, Yingli; Arditi, Aries

    2011-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system.

  5. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  6. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  7. [Clothes of the HOUSE, or Clothes of REASON? Children's clothing during the Age of Enlightenment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Children's clothing is a subject that forms part of the history of pediatrics. Many studies focus on the ideas developed by Locke and Rousseau. Here we choose to focus our study on an author who is rarely quoted: Jacques Ballexserd (1726-1774), "citizen of Geneva," who is little known to historians of pediatrics. However, George Frederic Still (1868-1941) devotes two pages to his views in his Histoire de la Pédiatrie.

  8. Physics model for wringing of wet cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany Rahmayanti, Handika; Utami, Fisca Dian; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2016-11-01

    One activity that has been performed by human beings for a long time is washing clothes. Before the invention of the washing machine, clothes were washed by hand and then wrung before drying in the open air. When observed carefully, the wringing of cloth presents some interesting phenomena. However, there are no reports on the physical modelling of this very old activity. This paper reports a simple model to explain the discharge of water from clothes when squeezed. A simple tool was also designed to retrieve data to confirm the theory. We found that the theoretical predictions accurately explained the experimental results. The experiments were conducted on two types of cloth: towels and batik cloth. We also obtained a universal curve to which all the data converged.

  9. Plausible cloth animation using dynamic bending model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhou; Xiaogang Jin; Charlie C.L. Wang; Jieqing Feng

    2008-01-01

    Simulating the mechanical behavior of a cloth is a very challenging and important problem in computer animation. The models of bending in most existing cloth simulation approaches are taking the assumption that the cloth is little deformed from a plate shape.Therefore, based on the thin-plate theory, these bending models do not consider the condition that the current shape of the cloth under large deformations cannot be regarded as the approximation to that before deformation, which leads to an unreal static bending. [This paper introduces a dynamic bending model which is appropriate to describe large out-plane deformations such as cloth buckling and bending, and develops a compact implementation of the new model on spring-mass systems. Experimental results show that wrinkles and folds generated using this technique in cloth simulation, can appear and vanish in a more natural way than other approaches.

  10. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  11. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  12. Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In Colleges Of ... failure of students in Clothing and Textiles more than foods and Nutrition and Home ... of students in the academic performance in clothing and Textiles were made.

  13. Brand Development Suggestions of Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陈素英

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese clothing brand, the corresponding measures are raised from three aspects of brand positioning, brand broadcast and brand extension strategy. Some guidance and reference value is provided for the brand building and upgrading of Chinese clothing brand.

  14. Irradiation Aging Testing of Fiber Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Hu; BAI; Bing; LIU; Xin-peng; YU; Bin-tao; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2013-01-01

    Fiber cloth is a kind of insulation material which is widely used in nuclear power plants.In the NPP reactors,due to the effect of high temperature,neutron irradiation and other factors,the strength of material will reduce significantly.It results in pollution in NPP by the loss of fiber cloth.In order to

  15. Obsessive compulsive disorder presenting for redundant clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported.

  16. Traditional Woman Clothing and Ornamentations Which Belongs to Sille, Konya in Turkish Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek TUFAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sille which is one of the oldest settlements and cradle of civilizations, has a big importance of traditional clothing and crafts to shape them besides food and oral culture. These traditional clothes is maintained carefully by Sille woman from childhood to the periods of maidenhood, being bride, maturity and senility by obeying the rules of those peri ods. These woman clothes that are used traditionally in an attentive way reached the present day by passing down. It is important to record Sille region‟s woman clothes by taking photos with regards to save and maintain these traditional clothes. In this research it is analysed that traditional clothes cepken set, silah kürkü set, cubba ve sarka clothing samples belong to Sille, Konya with regards to material, colour, cut, sewing, ornamentation technique and or namentation the metoh and down to next gener ations and to record them by the help of observation vouchers.

  17. 塑料排水板芯板及滤膜物理力学性能研究%Physical and mechanical properties of core and filter membrane for plastic vertical drains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧; 李涛

    2016-01-01

    塑料排水板作为真空预压地基处理法中水分排出的竖向通道,其性能的优劣影响对地基处理效果起到至关重要的作用。对不同排水板的芯板及滤膜开展一系列的物理力学性能试验,得出整体式芯板横截面积稍微大于分离式芯板;防淤堵系列芯板的整体力学性能要优于常规系列芯板;且滤膜样本中编织布相对于无纺布而言厚度较薄、质量较轻,力学性能表现上也明显劣于无纺布滤膜;无纺布样本中,防淤堵无纺布较常规无纺布厚度较薄、质量较轻,但其力学性能表现要优于后者;防淤堵整体式排水板通水性能为最优。%The plastic vertical drain is a vertical channel of water discharge in foundation treatment by vacuum preloading. The effect of the performance on the foundation treatment is very important. A series of physical and mechanical tests are carried out for different plastic vertical drains. The transverse sectional area of the integral core plate is slightly larger than that of the separation core plate. The mechanical properties of the anti-clogging core plate is superior to those of the conventional core board. For the membrane samples, the thickness of woven cloth is thinner than that of the non-woven fabric, with lighter quality. The mechanical performance is also significantly inferior to that of the non-woven fabric. For the non-woven fabric samples, the thickness of the anti-clogging non-woven fabric is thinner than that of the conventional one, with lighter quality. The mechanical performance is superior to that of the conventional non-woven fabric. The anti-clogging integral drains show optimal performance.

  18. An Environmental Perspective on Clothing Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Nielsen, Kristian S.; Mueller, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to decrease the environmental impact of today’s clothing industry across the entire process of production, purchase, maintenance, and disposal can be driven by either suppliers or consumers. Changing the behavior of the latter, however, requires an understanding of current clothing...... consumption patterns—a currently under-researched area. We therefore shed more light on these patterns in the purchase, use and maintenance, and discard phases by analyzing unique data on 4617 adult consumers (aged 18–65) from Germany, Poland, Sweden, and the U.S., who we divide into five segments based...... on clothing consumption behavior. At the low end of the spectrum is a consumer segment that earns the least, consumes mostly budget brand clothing, and is the least open to alternative more environmentally friendly business models such as fashion leasing or clothing libraries. At the other extreme lies...

  19. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  20. Research on human physiological parameters intelligent clothing based on distributed Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Li, Hongqiang

    2008-12-01

    A human physiological parameters intelligent clothing is researched with FBG sensor technology. In this paper, the principles and methods of measuring human physiological parameters including body temperature and heart rate in intelligent clothing with distributed FBG are studied, the mathematical models of human physiological parameters measurement are built; the processing method of body temperature and heart rate detection signals is presented; human physiological parameters detection module is designed, the interference signals are filtered out, and the measurement accuracy is improved; the integration of the intelligent clothing is given. The intelligent clothing can implement real-time measurement, processing, storage and output of body temperature and heart rate. It has accurate measurement, portability, low cost, real-time monitoring, and other advantages. The intelligent clothing can realize the non-contact monitoring between doctors and patients, timely find the diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases, and make patients get timely treatment. It has great significance and value for ensuring the health of the elders and the children with language dysfunction.

  1. Low cost inlet filters for rainwater tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brett; Thomas, T.

    2005-01-01

    Inlet filters are a common method for enhancing water quality in rainwater harvesting systems. They range from cheap cloth or gravel filters to complex and expensive multi-stage systems. Field experience has shown, however that filters often suffer from a lack of maintenance so self-cleaning is an advantage. Filters can clean themselves by dividing the water stream into two components; the first and largest is the clean water passed to the tank, the second much smaller component can be used t...

  2. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  3. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... disability ``wears or uses a prosthetic appliance (including a wheelchair) which the Secretary determines... tear caused by plastic-hinged prosthetics as well. The commenter further stated that prescription skin... ``(including a wheelchair)'' was included in proposed Sec. 3.810(a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii)(A), but was...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of March...

  5. System Design of Cold Weather Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkam Kasturiya

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available System design of cold weather protective clothing is a critical process, as it involvesconsideration of the effects of a number of external and internal parameters like environmental factors and physical, physico-mechanical and psychological parameters. The bulk and weightof the textile materials used in protective clothing should be as low as possible, so thatclothing does not create physical stress and discomfort to the soldier and does not affecthis combat duties adversely. This paper discusses the essential factors involved in thedesigning of cold weather protective clothing and different insulating materials availablein the market for developing better protective clothing. Different stores'developed at theDefence Materials & Stores Research & Development Establishment, Kanpur, the order ofarrangement of various insulating materials in those stores and the protection level achievedare discussed.

  6. Scientists Create Clothing with 'Knitted' Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163272.html Scientists Create Clothing With 'Knitted' Muscle Power Fabric reacts to low voltage charge and could ... techniques that one day might help provide muscle power to disabled people or seniors who have trouble ...

  7. Principle of Melt-glue Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈人豪; 曹建达; 李济群; 张利梅; 何洋

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a new concept of textile-meltglue cloth, and introduces the readers to the basic principle of melt-glue cloth. On the basis of melt spinning, the spinneret can be replaced by a spinning device that consists of an outer spinneret (a loop)and an inner spinneret ( a round plate), and between them there is an interval circle on which the centers of the holes are evenly distributed. When the machine is running, the outer spinneret (or the inner one) is fixed, the inner spinneret (or the outer one)is spinning, and a columnar net will be obtained.Then it will be excided with the help of a cutter in transporting it. Finally the once-forming melt-glue cloth will be produced. Compared with the traditional woven fabric, melt-glue cloth has a lot of special features and a bright future of application.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  9. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  10. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  12. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  13. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  14. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  15. Anisotropic Cloth Modeling for Material Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigengx; Mi, Qingfeng

    Physically based cloth simulation has been challenging the graphics community for more than three decades. With the developing of virtual reality and clothing CAD, it has become the key technique of virtual garment and try-on system. Although it has received considerable attention in computer graphics, due to its flexible property and realistic feeling that the textile engineers pay much attention to, there is not a successful methodology to simulate cloth both in visual realism and physical accuracy. We present a new anisotropic textile modeling method based on physical mass-spring system, which models the warps and wefts separately according to the different material fabrics. The simulation process includes two main steps: firstly the rigid object simulation and secondly the flexible mass simulation near to be equilibrium. A multiresolution modeling is applied to enhance the tradeoff fruit of the realistic presentation and computation cost. Finally, some examples and the analysis results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  17. Multifunctional Laminated Composite Materials for Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin M. Aly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protective clothing performs a vital role in maintaining the safety of human in workplace. The developments in this field are proceeding to fulfill the needs with multifunctional materials at competitive costs. Recently, the protective clothing field introduces the usage of composite materials taking advantage of their outstanding properties. In this paper, the multifunctional performance of hybrid laminated composites (HLC was investigated aiming to be utilized in protective clothing. The influences of reinforcement and resin properties on the physical properties of the laminated composites and their resistance to puncture load and UV transmittance were studied. ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that, the reinforcement material and structure and the fiber/matrix interface have major influences on the laminated composites performance. It was revealed that, the HLC fabricated from (polyester/glass fabric with satin 4 structure and nonwoven glass fiber mat exhibited the best functional performance.

  18. Otzi, the iceman and his leather clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püntener, Alois G; Moss, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Over 5000 years ago, a man climbed up to the icy heights of the glacier in South Tyrol, Italy and died. He was found by accident in 1991, with his clothes and equipment, mummified and frozen: an archaeological sensation and a unique snapshot of a Copper Age man. For several years highly specialised research teams have examined the mummy and all accompanying items. This paper describes how fur and leather clothes of the iceman could have been tanned. Details of the analytical tests undertaken on the 5000 year old leather samples and what they revealed are presented.

  19. The Changing Fate of Cloth Shoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ONE day I found by chance one of my old photos taken 30 years ago. In it I was still a serious 17-year-old girl with my hair in two short braids and dressed in a blue cloth coat, brown corduroys and a pair of black cloth shoes each fastened by a strap at the side My eyes fixed on the shoes and lingered for quite a long time. A smile quietly crawled over my lips. Isn't it the fashionable "little girl's shoe" which is expected to prevail in the market this year?

  20. The CSR Challenges in the Clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Księżak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the clothing and textile industry through the prism of the CSR. First of all, it investigates the ways in which companies of this sector deal with the social responsibility issues that are specifically important to the characteristics of the fashion industry. Secondly, the motivators of implementing CSR in the textile and clothing business are identified and analysed. Thirdly, the CSR practices of H&M Hennes & Mauritz AB, a wellknown multinational corporation operating in the sector of fashion, are discussed in order to illustrate the theoretical review with the case study approach.

  1. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The stark, geometric, black and white designs tradi- ... Due to the symbolic nature of the mud cloth designs, and the use of these .... Tourist-Market Bogolan Large quantities of cloth .... interested in their graphic quality (Rovine, 1997; Luke-.

  2. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve

  3. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve protection

  4. Shared Emotional Values in Sustainable Clothing Design Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durrani, Marium; Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Recent sustainable initiatives in fashion companies are framing design practices that challenge the traditional role of clothing designers. This preliminary study aims to open discussion on challenging traditional clothing design, through an exploration of the shared emotional values between user...

  5. People's clothing behaviour according to external weather and indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carli, M.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zarrella, A.

    2007-01-01

    In prehistoric times man wore furs of animals to protect himself from the cold. Successively over the centuries clothing has become also a tool to distinguish ourselves in society. Clothing has in addition an important impact on people's perception of the indoor environment. Clothing behaviour ha...

  6. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  7. Virtual Dressing Simulation toward both Simpleness and Cloth Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomomi; Ono, Satoshi; Nakayama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for virtually trying clothes on without costly devices. The proposed method approximately acquires a deformation caused by a user's body shape from a 2D image of a marked cloth. Experiments showed the proposed method could reduce cloth size error for about a half of tested examinees.

  8. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  9. Clothing Company Pegs Chinese Retail Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuAlun

    2003-01-01

    Using a flurry of brand and marketing strategies, Zheng Yonggang has staged the most astonishing turnaround in China's clothing industry. The once insolvent State-owned factory that Zheng was transferred to in 1989 now boasts the country's top fashion brands, and is quickly becoming a multi-business conglomerate. In 1994, the FIRS

  10. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  11. Clothing and Textiles II. Semester Course. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Harriet; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide for a second level semester course for grades 10-12 identifies objectives and learning experiences with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of students. It was developed for use with students who exhibited skill and a high degree of satisfaction from…

  12. The Art of African Senufo Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Senufo people create paintings on hand-woven fabric using natural fibers, natural dyes made from leaves, and mud dug from the roots of trees. The fabric of the Senufo is woven in strips approximately six-to-eight inches wide, and sewn together to make a larger fabric for painting. The stylized drawings painted on the cloth are of masked…

  13. INNOVATIVE CLOTHING DESIGN FOR WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Georgeta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy there is an evident change in the physical appearance of a woman's body. The most evident change is the substantial weight gain, increased abdominal region, torso and hip, and limbs thickening. Physical changes leads to the need of a wardrobe changing, especially in the fourth month of pregnancy. Given these factors the question arises is to identify the transformations of body conformation and ensure a maximum comfort in developing clothing products for this category. Because it is a continuous transformation, the products must be designed to be adjustable and versatile, ensuring their usability for a long period of the pregnancy and even after birth. The paper presents the specific algorithms for body conformations during pregnancy and the patterns designed based on these algorithms with the proper modifications. The principle of designing clothes for pregnant women refers to the introduction of pregnancy-related size changes in the standard method of pattern design. The research was conducted by INCDTP during the initial stage of a project, financed through national founds, consisting in a documentary study on morphologic indicators of women during the pregnancy period, the changes observe and their application in pattern design. Following the principles specific to the product group studied regarding comfort and style, INCDTP specialists have developed and produced a collection of clothing products for women during pregnancy. Key words: Pregnancy, algorithms, proportions, morphological indices, pattern design, clothing, changes

  14. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error. DATES: This... Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each...

  15. Calculation of Clothing Insulation and Vapour Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-31

    W.B. Shelley, and T.F. Hatch (1947). Thermal exchanges of man at high temperatures. Am. J. Physiol. 11, 626. Nielsen, R., B.W. Olesen, and P.O. Fanger ...Madsen, and P.O. Fanger (1982). Ef- fect of body posture and activity on the thermal insulation of clothing: measurements by a movable thermal manikin

  16. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wears or uses certain prosthetic or orthopedic appliances which tend to wear or tear clothing (including a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... Director or designee certifies that because of such disability a prosthetic or orthopedic appliance is...

  17. Optical Illusions and Effects on Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Visual perception” is in the first ranking between the types of perception. Gestalt Theory of the major psychological theories are used in how visual perception realizes and making sense of what is effective in this process. In perception stage brain tak es into account not only stimulus from eyes but also expectations arising from previous experience and interpreted the stimulus which are not exist in the real world as if they were there. Misperception interpretations that brain revealed are called as “Pe rception Illusion” or “Optical Illusion” in psychology. Optical illusion formats come into existence due to factors such as brightness, contrast, motion, geometry and perspective, interpretation of three - dimensional images, cognitive status and color. Opti cal illusions have impacts of different disciplines within the study area on people. Among the most important types of known optical illusion are Oppel - Kundt, Curvature - Hering, Helzholtz Sqaure, Hermann Grid, Muller - Lyler, Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusion etc . In fact, all the optical illusions are known to be used in numerous area with various techniques and different product groups like architecture, fine arts, textiles and fashion design from of old. In recent years, optical illusion types are frequently us ed especially within the field of fashion design in the clothing model, in style, silhouette and fabrics. The aim of this study is to examine the clothing design applications where optical illusion is used and works done in this subject. Some research of the design with the changing fashion of clothes of different types of optical illusions is discussed with examples of their effects on visual perception. In the study, optical illusory clothing models are scanned by visual analysis from documents like film , video, picture, web pages. The findings were analyzed in terms of the surface and design and effects of the optical illusion on clothing design has tried to put

  18. Hierarchically Arranged Helical Fiber Actuators Derived from Commercial Cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiang; Lin, Huijuan; Dunlop, John W C; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-02-20

    The first hygroscopically tunable cloth actuator is realized via impregnation of a commercial cloth template by a three dimensionally (3D) nanoporous polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid network. The nanoporous hybrid guarantees diffusion of water into the cloth actuator and amplifies the deformation scale. The cloth actuators are mechanically stable with high tensile strength. Because the commercial cotton cloth is inexpensive, such actuators capable of complex motions can be produced in a large size and scale for a wide variety of utilities (e.g. electric generators and "smart" materials).

  19. Design and Realization of Cloth Order System on Mobile Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; SHAO Shi-huang; ZENG Xian-hui; PU Fang; YIN Mei-hua

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of developing target, function and constitution of cloth order system under wap gateway,the mobile communication principle of cloth order system under wap gateway is given out. The implementation method for information commnication of cloth order system are elaborated by using programming technology of active server page (ASP)3.0 and wireless markup language (WML). The browsing and inquiry of cloth information, sending and receiving of cloth order can be easily realized by the developed order system on mobile internet according to user's requirements.

  20. A View on Wear Mechanism of Metallic Card Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liang; WANG Wen-qiang; NI Huai-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The wear mechanism of metallic card clothing,used in textile industry, was analyzed. A fast wear test for metallic card clothing racks was developed, which was used as collecting the wear metal particles. The failure type of card clothing was analyzed by the mean of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferro-spectrum technology. The results show that the main wear mechanism of metallic card clothing is low load and high repetition interval fatigue wear caused by friction force between fiber and metal wire teeth.The appropriate quenching microstmcture, which improves the wear resistance of the metallic card clothing rack is also discussed.

  1. The Progress of the Clothing for Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takeshi; Ijiri, Tokiko

    The clothing for cold weather were discused. The total insulation in man is made up of sum of the insulation afforded by clothes, air and tissues. A function of clothing is to protect the body from the environment, this is especially true when himalayan expedition. Many expedition to the himalayan high altitude have had useful experiences in the textile and clothing field. Historical development and fundamental matters of clothing for himalayan expedition were explained. The insulating properties of a fabric are due not to the fibers of the fabric itseif, but to the air trapped with in the fabric. it is impotant to realise that the thermal insulation of clothing is proportional to the thickness of the dead space air trapped within the clothing. Down clothes are extremely warm, light and comfortable. A windproof outer layer is necessary to prevent penetration by external air. If air penetrates, clothing the trapped dead air is moved and insu1ation will diminish. Overheating when exercising in the cold with loss of insulation associated with the production of sweat, and thus of darnp clothing, is a well recognized hazard. It was considered that we must make every effort to be as safe as possible in clothing science field for cold environment.

  2. 3D quantification of microclimate volume in layered clothing for the prediction of clothing insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yejin; Hong, Kyunghi; Hong, Sung-Ae

    2007-05-01

    Garment fit and resultant air volume is a crucial factor in thermal insulation, and yet, it has been difficult to quantify the air volume of clothing microclimate and relate it to the thermal insulation value just using the information on the size of clothing pattern without actual 3D volume measurement in wear condition. As earlier methods for the computation of air volume in clothing microclimate, vacuum over suit and circumference model have been used. However, these methods have inevitable disadvantages in terms of cost or accuracy due to the limitations of measurement equipment. In this paper, the phase-shifting moiré topography was introduced as one of the 3D scanning tools to measure the air volume of clothing microclimate quantitatively. The purpose of this research is to adopt a non-contact image scanning technology, phase-shifting moiré topography, to ascertain relationship between air volume and insulation value of layered clothing systems in wear situations where the 2D fabric creates new conditions in 3D spaces. The insulation of vests over shirts as a layered clothing system was measured with a thermal manikin in the environmental condition of 20 degrees C, 65% RH and air velocity of 0.79 m/s. As the pattern size increased, the insulation of the clothing system was increased. But beyond a certain limit, the insulation started to decrease due to convection and ventilation, which is more apparent when only the vest was worn over the torso of manikin. The relationship between clothing air volume and insulation was difficult to predict with a single vest due to the extreme openings which induced active ventilation. But when the vest was worn over the shirt, the effects of thickness of the fabrics on insulation were less pronounced compared with that of air volume. In conclusion, phase-shifting moiré topography was one of the efficient and accurate ways of quantifying air volume and its distribution across the clothing microclimate. It is also noted

  3. TRADITIONAL WOMAN CLOTHES OF TAVAS, DENİZLİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ERDEN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When it is examined, it is obvious that clothing has had different phases from old periods up to now. People have created clothings in accordance with their civilization level and any nation has formed its own clothes according to its customs, rituals beliefs and life styles. By this forms, any nation has created its own clothings. While clothing has been formed by t he effect of natural environment, traditional clothing has been formed according to social features. In the formation of these clothings, natural environment has not had an direct effect; yet, they are evaluated in their geographical regions and vicinities , because there are the same sociological, psychological and historical formations. People living in Anatolia have tried to make their clothes much more ostentatious and useful. And they have displayed admirable ornamentations on their clothes. It is possi ble to see that on traditional clothings. Clothing which has a big importance differs from city to city and even from town to town. This study is done on the pupose of analysing, fixating and finding out the clothes whose usage disappear swiftly but exist only in weddings, chests and doweries with regards to reveal the clothing culture and the understanding of art which takes form on this culture in Tavas, Denizli. This study is done by the purpose of analysing the traditional Turkish woman clothings that are don (şalvar, göynek, üç etek, cepken, tel kırma(bürgü, krep, kuşak, peştamalin which belong to Tavas, Denizli region in terms of material, cut, sewing and ornamentation features; and providing evidence in the direction of science discipline.

  4. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  5. Cloth Modeling Based on Particle System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟跃崎; 王善元

    2001-01-01

    A physical-based particle system is employed for cloth modeling supported by two basic algorithms, between which one is the construction of the internal and external forces acting on the particle system in terms of KES-F bending and shearing tests, and the other is the collision algorithm of which the collision detection is carried by means of bi-section of time step and the collision response is handled according to the empirical law for frictionless collision With these algorithms. the geometric state of parcles can be expressed as ordinary differential equationswhich is numerically solved by fourth order Runge- Kutta integration. Different draping figures of cotton fabric and wool fabric prove that such a particle system is suitable for 3D cloth modeling and simulation.

  6. Integrated human-clothing system model for estimating the effect of walking on clothing insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, Nesreen [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad ElSolh, 1107 2020, Beirut (Lebanon); Ghali, Kamel [Beirut Arab University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut (Lebanon); Jones, Byron [Kansas State University, College of Engineering, 148 Rathbone Hall, 66506-5202, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a 1-D transient heat and mass transfer model of a walking clothed human to predict the dynamic clothing dry heat insulation values and vapor resistances. Developing an integrated model of human and clothing system under periodic ventilation requires estimation of the heat and mass transfer film coefficients at the skin to the air layer subject to oscillating normal flow. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of 25 C and 50% relative humidity to measure the mass transfer coefficient at the skin to the air layer separating the wet skin and the fabric. A 1-D mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic thermal behavior of clothing and its interaction with the human thermoregulation system under walking conditions. A modification of Gagge's two-node model is used to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The human model is coupled to a clothing three-node model of the fabric that takes into consideration the adsorption of water vapor in the fibers during the periodic ventilation of the fabric by the air motion in from ambient environment and out from the air layer adjacent to the moist skin. When physical activity and ambient conditions are specified, the integrated model of human-clothing can predict the thermo-regulatory responses of the body together with the temperature and insulation values of the fabric. The developed model is used to predict the periodic ventilation flow rate in and out of the fabric, the periodic fabric regain, the fabric temperature, the air layer temperature, the heat loss or gain from the skin, and dry and vapor resistances of the clothing. The heat loss from the skin increases with the increase of the frequency of ventilation and with the increased metabolic rate of the body. In addition, the dry resistance of the clothing fabrics, predicted by the current model, IS compared with published experimental data. The current

  7. Shanghai:Clothes Sales Rebound in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the regular statistics release of Shanghai Garment Industry Association,the top 10 department stores of Shanghai sold 1.3 million sets/pieces clothes in October,rising 161,000 sets/pieces from previous month,or up by 14.1% month over month,and up by 5.7% year over year.The sales value were 579 million yuan,rising 19 million yuan from previous month.

  8. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation.

  9. Electrostatic sampling of trace DNA from clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Martin; Defaux, Priscille Merciani; Utz, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    During acts of physical aggression, offenders frequently come into contact with clothes of the victim, thereby leaving traces of DNA-bearing biological material on the garments. Since tape-lifting and swabbing, the currently established methods for non-destructive trace DNA sampling from clothing, both have their shortcomings in collection efficiency and handling, we thought about a new collection method for these challenging samples. Testing two readily available electrostatic devices for their potential to sample biological material from garments made of different fabrics, we found one of them, the electrostatic dust print lifter (DPL), to perform comparable to well-established sampling with wet cotton swabs. In simulated aggression scenarios, we had the same success rate for the establishment of single aggressor profiles, suitable for database submission, with both the DPL and wet swabbing. However, we lost a substantial amount of information with electrostatic sampling, since almost no mixed aggressor-victim profiles suitable for database entry could be established, compared to conventional swabbing. This study serves as a proof of principle for electrostatic DNA sampling from items of clothing. The technique still requires optimization before it might be used in real casework. But we are confident that in the future it could be an efficient and convenient contribution to the toolbox of forensic practitioners.

  10. REFLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF M ALATYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Turks who have a rich culture and an old and well - known civilization have a unique clothing style. The clothing of Turks varies according to the geographical regions, living styles, social differences and gender along the periods they lived. Clothing is one of the most important needs in life depending on the individual and social attributes. The clothing which first emerged as protection means is a social fact complementing the physical and psychological existence of human being, changing forms depending on technological developments and phases, and continuously changing under the affect of fashion today. Clothing is an aesthetic value fed by the feelings of individuals. So, clothing has an indispensable place in the structure and communication of cultural and social identity within this direction. The costumes of traditional Turkish Anatolian women reflect thoughts an d feelings When Turkish Nation’s long history and the cultures that it had interacted are thought, it’s seen that the glory and magnificence it had has also reflected in it’s clothing culture. Traditional clothing of Malatya region has a special character istic. However, these clothes are dissappearing day by day, With the present study, we aimed to protect our cultural heritage and carry these clothes to the present via current designs. This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion .

  11. Chronic urticaria treated with soft nasal filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old boy having two attacks of urticaria per day for the last 5 years and intermittent attacks of sneezing and rhinorrhoea, and without any clues to the causative agent in spite of a detailed history and follow up, showed almost complete relief on wearing an ordinary cloth mask for 3 days. He was subsequently trained to use the soft nasal filters and obtained almost 80% relief in urticaria and complete relief in rhinitis during the next 1 year. Wearing the mask for 2 days again led to complete relief and further training in the proper use of the filters was helpful.

  12. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  13. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  14. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  15. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  16. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected against warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found. Models of all relevant processes were created to find this optimum. The airflow profile around a cylinder with clothing-representing a dressed human body part-was modelled. This flow profile was used for calculating the agent vapour breakthrough through the clothing and for calculating the deposition of agents onto the skin (as indicators for protection). The flow profile was also used for calculating the temperature profile around the body part and the relative humidity underneath and in the clothing (as representative for physiological burden). As a result a tool was created, which can be used to identify the optimum properties of CBRN protective clothing, depending on the intended mission of the soldiers.

  17. Investigating Moisture Management Properties of Weaving Military Clothes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra TAŞTAN ÖZKAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clothes which are used as military clothes are different from the other clothes, because they areworn continuously and long time. Heat, humidity and air movements are very important for these clothesbecause these parameters effect the thermophysiological comfort properties of clothes. These clothes mustallow the passage of water vapour from the body of the garment to feel comfortable to wearer. In thisstudy, moisture management properties of different blends of wool/polyester fabrics which are used inwinter military clothes were examined with MMT test device. For this aim, wetting time, absorption rate,spreading speed, accumulative one way transfer index and overall moisture management capacity offabrics, which have different wool/polyester blend ratio and weave pattern, were investigated. Also fabricpattern which are more appropriate for moisture transfer, were determined.

  18. Animating Wrinkles by Example on Non-Skinned Cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, Javier S; Brito, Juan P; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The simulation of cloth with rich folds and wrinkles is a computationally expensive process. In this paper, we introduce an example-based algorithm for fast animation of plausible cloth wrinkles. Our algorithm does not depend on a character's pose, therefore it is valid for loose dresses, curtains, etc., not just cloth defined by skinning techniques. Central to our approach is a correspondence between low and high-resolution cloth deformations, both at the training and synthesis stages. Based on this correspondence, we define an algorithm for synthesizing cloth wrinkles as a function of the deformation of a low-resolution cloth and a set of example poses. We demonstrate the animation of plausible high-resolution wrinkles at high frame rates, suitable for interactive applications such as video games.

  19. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  20. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable fashion and consumption

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.

  1. Does variation in clothing make us more thermally comfortable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    In the same room, people will wear different amounts of clothes if there is no strict dress code. Ideally everybody would put on just the right amount to feel thermally comfortable, but that is not always the case. To improve simulations of thermal comfort, an estimate of clothing insulation...... among people is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and that people do choose their clothing according to thermal preference, but that the distribution of thermal comfort votes is the same....

  2. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  3. The mature female clothing shopper: Profiles and shopping behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Visser

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to profile the mature female clothing shopper. More specifically certain variables that could be attributed to differences in consumer behaviour were investigated. Mature female clothing shoppers were segmented as clothing moderates, clothing enthusiasts and the clothing unconcerned. These three cluster groups significantly differed regarding clothing involvement, clothing orientation, activities, interests, opinions, family orientation, needs and media usage. No significant differences were found among the three groups regarding evaluative criteria for clothing and clothing store attributes. Profiles of the clusters were developed, along with applicable marketing implications. Recommendations for further research are made. Opsomming  Hierdie studie is onderneem ten einde die vroulike kledingverbruikers van 55 en ouer te tipeer. Die veranderlikes wat 'n bydrae kon lewer ten opsigte van die verskille in verbruikersgedrag is ondersoek. Die verbruikers is gesegmenteer as die kledinggematigdes, kleding- entoesiaste en die kleding-onbetrokkenes. Die drie groeperings verskil beduidend van mekaar ten opsigte van die volgende veranderlikes naamlik: kleding-betrokkenheid, kleding-oriëntasie, aktiwiteite belangstellings, opinies, familie oriëntasie, behoeftes en media gebruik. Geen beduidende verskille kon gevind word tussen die drie groeperings ten opsigte van die veranderlikes evalueringskriteria van klere en winkeleienskappe nie. Profiele van die verskillende trosse is ontwikkel en die bemarkingsimplikasies is uitgewys. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gedoen.

  4. Estimating Clothing Thermal Insulation Using an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hoon Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating clothing insulation is proposed to assess thermal comfort, based on the non-contact and real-time measurements of the face and clothing temperatures by an infrared camera. The proposed method can accurately measure the clothing insulation of various garments under different clothing fit and sitting postures. The proposed estimation method is investigated to be effective to measure its clothing insulation significantly in different seasonal clothing conditions using a paired t-test in 99% confidence interval. Temperatures simulated with the proposed estimated insulation value show closer to the values of actual temperature than those with individual clothing insulation values. Upper clothing’s temperature is more accurate within 3% error and lower clothing’s temperature is more accurate by 3.7%~6.2% error in indoor working scenarios. The proposed algorithm can reflect the effect of air layer which makes insulation different in the calculation to estimate clothing insulation using the temperature of the face and clothing. In future, the proposed method is expected to be applied to evaluate the customized passenger comfort effectively.

  5. Modern cleanroom clothing systems: people as a contamination source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmüller, Berit; Ljungqvist, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    Today, clothing and clothing systems for cleanrooms are mainly tested with regard to material properties such as particle generation, particle filtration, and resistance to wear. The dispersal chamber or "body-box" has been used for studying the protective efficacy of clothing systems in use, for example by Hoborn in 1981 (1) and Whyte and Bailey in 1985. A modified dispersal chamber has recently been installed at KTH. Tests and comparative studies have been performed in the dispersal chamber on selected clothing systems. The latest tests have been performed in two parts. In Part 1, each person performed 12 sequences dressed in new, modern cleanroom clothing systems with small variations, such as with and without goggles, different face masks, and different sizes of hoods. In Part 2, each person performed six test sequences with new, modern cleanroom clothing systems with variations in fabrics, and as a comparison, two sequences with pharmaceutical clothing system and surgical clothing system, respectively. The results are given in total number of airborne particles (> or = 0.5 microm per cubic meter) and airborne aerobic CFU per cubic meter. Statistical evaluations of the results have been performed. The source strengths of the contamination source people wearing modern cleanroom clothing systems have been estimated.

  6. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.G.M.; Rossi, R.; Meinander, H.; Broede, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Holmér, I.; Nocker, W.; Havenith, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT p

  7. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  8. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  9. Intelligence in Clothing Pattern CAD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu; ZHANG Zu-fang

    2007-01-01

    It analyzes three recognition methods for fiveelements, i.e. dot, line, loop, dothing pattern as well ascharacters, and also appfies intelligent points and tangentialcurve in the CAD system to solve the problem complained byCAD users. It indicates that recognition of five elements is afoundational technique of intelligence in clothing patternCAD system. Common functions in operation state such asmove, rotation, flip, measure, should precede ones inelement state as dot, line, and pattern. Moreover, it isrealized that the less skill the CAD user needs, the more theCAD software is high-tech.

  10. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  11. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  12. Development of a permeation panel to test dermal protective clothing against sprayed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Yost, Michael G; Whittaker, Stephen G; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Camp, Janice; Dills, Russell

    2011-03-01

    Design, construct, and characterize an apparatus to evaluate dermal protective clothing for resistance to polymerizing materials. Specifically, we evaluated the permeation of the most common glove material used in automotive collision repair (0.10-0.13 mm or 4-5 mil latex) with representative isocyanate-containing clear coats. Our ultimate goal is to make informed recommendations on dermal protective materials to prevent isocyanate exposures and reduce the likelihood of occupational illness in automotive collision repair and other industries. A novel permeation panel was developed to assess dermal protective clothing. With this apparatus, up to eight test materials may be evaluated under typical-spray application conditions. Solid collection media comprised of 1-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine (2-PP)-coated fiberglass filters or colorimetric SWYPE™ pads were placed behind test materials to capture permeants. The 2-PP-coated filters were subsequently analyzed using a modified OSHA42/PV2034 method. Color change in the SWYPEs provided an immediate field estimate of breakthrough time. In addition, Teflon filters were mounted proximal to the permeation cells to measure the mass of clear coat applied to the panel and to evaluate loading homogeneity. This study evaluated the permeation of isocyanates through 0.10-0.13 mm latex glove material at a fixed time (30 min post-spraying) and over a time course (6-91 min post-spraying). Monomers 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) permeated through (0.10-0.13 mm) latex glove material under typical glove use conditions (30 min). The latex glove material exhibited immediate breakthrough, with a permeation rate of 2.9 ng min(-1) cm(-2). The oligomeric forms of HDI and IPDI did not permeate the latex glove material. The spray application at 71 ± 5 °F was fairly homogeneous (33.7 ± 8 mg weight of dry clear coat per 5 cm(2)). The permeation panel is a viable method to assess dermal protective clothing

  13. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  15. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  16. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING in a CLOTHING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASNALCACI Kubra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.

  17. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  18. Pre-Flight Advanced Clothing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini; Byme, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The present study was undertaken to find ways further to reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The primary objective of the study is to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment. The secondary objective is to assess the reasons for length of wear from perceptions of clothing characteristics, including nine ordinal scales. Cardiovascular exercise was chosen as the activity in this experiment for its profuse sweating effect and because it is considered a more severe treatment applied to the clothes than every-day usage. Study garments were exercise T-shirts and shorts purchased from various vendors. Fabric construction, fabric composition, and finishing treatment were defined as the key variables. A web-based questionnaire was used for self-reported data collection. The study was divided in three balanced experiments: a cotton-polyester-wool (CPW) T-shirts study with 61 participants, a polyester-modacrylic-polyester/cocona (PMC) T-shirts study with 40 participants, and a shorts study with 70 participants. In the CPW study, the T-shirts were made of 100% cotton, or of 100% polyester or of 100% wool, and categorized into open and tight knit constructions. In the PMC study, the T-shirts were made of 100% polyester, or of 82% modacrylic, or of 95% polyester with 5% cocona fiber, without construction distinction. The shorts were made either of 100% cotton or of 100% polyester, and were knitted or woven. Some garments were treated with Bio-Protect 500 antimicrobial finish according the experimental design

  19. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona;

    2014-01-01

    comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  20. Textiles and clothing sustainability implications in textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively covers the topic of sustainability in the clothing and fashion sector. Sustainability is applied under different industrial sectors and there has to be a distinction in every industrial sector when it comes to sustainability in its application. Though the definition is common for sustainability, sustainability in the clothing sector has its unique objectives, principles, and limitations, which this book highlights.

  1. The Analysis of Competitiveness of China's Textiles and Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The pattern of global textilesand clothing trade The trade volume of global textiles and clothing changed from 50 billion U.S. dollars in the early 60s to 583.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2007, with an increase of 100 times. Since 1990, trade volume (especially import volume) in some developed countries increased day by day.

  2. Effects of Dressing Poses on Clothing Thermal Insulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘岩; 张渭源

    2004-01-01

    With a thermal manikin, the effects of dressing poses on clothing thermal insulation are studied. It is found that the thermal insulation of still air layer over human body has not been influenced by the dressing poses, but the dressing poses have effects on the thermal insulation of clothing system.

  3. Thermal Insulation Distribution Pattern of Layered Clothing Ensemble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 韦鸿发; 刘岩; 张渭源

    2004-01-01

    With a thermal manikin, the distribution pattern of thermal insulation in multi-layered clothing ensemble is studied. It is found that the thermal insulation of multi-layered clothing ensemble has certain statistical relationship with the thermal insulation of each layer, and the prediction equation has been established.

  4. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the se

  5. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  6. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  7. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  8. The influence of the clothing sales assistant on the female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    consumers' emotions as influenced by the clothing sales assistant ... a direct impact on the consumer's emotions, which may influence the ... Four factors regarding the clothing sales assistant's influence on the ... store behaviour (De Klerk et al, 1998), purchase satis- ..... such as patience, self-respect, and respect for other.

  9. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  10. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane and carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decomissioning and decontamination of former DOE sites. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer (for water transmission and breathability) with a sorptive layer.

  11. Acquisition: Buy American Act Issues on Procurements of Military Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    mandatory uniform items (shirts, trousers, coats, headwear , etc.) that are procured by the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia and requisitioned by...FSC codes cover the following types of military clothing and related items: • FSC 8415-Special purpose clothing: special purpose headwear

  12. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  13. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  14. Phthalates and alternative plasticizers and potential for contact exposure from children's backpacks and toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingjie; Wu, Yaoxing; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the mass content of plasticizers in children's backpacks and toys, and their mass transfer from product surfaces to cotton wipes. The mass content of plasticizers in six backpacks and seven toys was measured by extracting them in tetrahydrofuran. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) was the most common plasticizer, dominating the composition of plasticizers in four backpacks (average mass content in product polyvinyl chloride, 5.38 ± 1.98%-25.5 ± 3.54%) and six plastic toys (8.17 ± 1.85%-21.2 ± 1.11%). The surface of each product was wiped with three dry and three wet (by isopropanol) cotton wipes, so as to evaluate the mass transfer of plasticizers to clothing and human skin, respectively. DEHT was the most common plasticizer detected on wipe samples. There were strong correlations (backpacks r=0.90; plastic toys r=0.96) between average mass transfer of DEHT to wet wipes and its average mass content in the product. The mass transfers of the five dominant plasticizers in one backpack to both dry and wet wipes were also correlated (both r=1.00) with their mass contents. These results suggest that the mass transfer of plasticizers from products to clothing or human skin is strongly associated with their mass content.

  15. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  16. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  17. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  18. Thermoelectric fabrics: toward power generating clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-23

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  19. Characterization of a Regenerable Impactor Filter for Spacecraft Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerable filters will play an important role in human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Life Support Systems aboard crewed spacecrafts will have to operate reliably and with little maintenance over periods of more than a year, even multiple years. Air filters are a key component of spacecraft life support systems, but they often require frequent routine maintenance. Bacterial filters aboard the International Space Station require almost weekly cleaning of the pre-filter screen to remove large lint debris captured in the microgravity environment. The source of the airborne matter which is collected on the filter screen is typically from clothing fibers, biological matter (hair, skin, nails, etc.) and material wear. Clearly a need for low maintenance filters requiring little to no crew intervention will be vital to the success of the mission. An impactor filter is being developed and tested to address this need. This filter captures large particle matter through inertial separation and impaction methods on collection surfaces, which can be automatically cleaned after they become heavily loaded. The impactor filter can serve as a pre-filter to augment the life of higher efficiency filters that capture fine and ultrafine particles. A prototype of the filter is being tested at the Particulate Filtration Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center to determine performance characteristics, including particle cut size and overall efficiency. Model results are presented for the flow characteristics near the orifice plate through which the particle-laden flow is accelerated as well as around the collection bands.

  20. Bern clothes washer study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Rizy, D.T.

    1998-03-01

    The US market for domestic clothes washers is currently dominated by conventional, vertical axis washers, which typically require about 40 gallons of water for each load. Although small for an individual load, the fact that 35 billion loads of laundry are washed annually in the US results in a substantial quantity of water and energy use. Although much smaller, today`s market for high-efficiency clothes washers which use much less water and energy is growing albeit slowly as manufacturers are making washers based around tumble-action, horizontal axis designs available, information about their performance and benefits is being developed, and consumers are made aware of these benefits. To help build awareness of these benefits and to accelerate markets for high-efficiency washers, DOE, under its Energy Star Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances, conducted a field-evaluation of high-efficiency washers using Bern, Kansas (population approximately 200) as a test bed. Baseline washer performance data as well as customer washing behavior were obtained from data collected on the existing washers of more than 100 participants in this instrumented study. Following a 2-month initial study period, all conventional washers were replaced by high-efficiency, tumble action washers, and the experiment continued for another 3-month period. Based on measured data from over 20,000 loads of laundry, the impact of the washer replacement on (1) individual customers` energy and water consumption, (2) customers` laundry habits and perceptions, and (3) the community`s water supply and waste water systems were determined and reported.

  1. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  2. Non-iterative distance constraints enforcement for cloth drapes simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, R. L. L. G.; Wibowo, Arifin, Z.; Suyitno

    2016-03-01

    A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

  3. Clothing selection behavior of the aged women for thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, W S

    1999-05-01

    Wearing behavior and thermoregulatory responses of five young women (YG; 20 +/- 1 yr) and five aged women (AG; 65 +/- 3 yr) to indoor cold in summer were investigated in this study. The subjects were exposed to 21.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% RH while seated during a 90-minute experiment. The subjects were allowed to select and wear for thermal comfort clothing whenever they needed additional clothing during the experiment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and temperatures of 7 sites (head, chest, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot) of the skin of the subjects were measured every 10 minutes. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the subject was obtained every 10 minutes. First selection time of additional clothing was monitored and weight of selected total clothing was calculated. The results for this study were as follows: Tre and Tsk gradually decreased in YG and AG, however Tre decreased less than Tsk which decreased greater in AG than YG (p clothing and thermal sensation response were slower than YG's. Furthermore, total clothing weight was less in AG than YG. It was concluded that clothing selection behavior would modify the intrinsic thermoregulatory responses of the aged women to the cold stress in the summer.

  4. RE FLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF KONYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is the way of wearing that is owned by a society, or a job. There is the essance of social statue and differance rather than fashion. In this aspect made a way of wearing according to their own custom and social organism. One of the specialities of setting apart the societies and defining their cultural differances and social classes is the way of wearing. As it is known, Turkish clothes reflecting the specialities of Turki sh culture and way of living them are the greatest heritage coming from ancient times. Between those heritages, women clothes show a great variety of examples. If you look into those examples, you will see the delight of past, way of art, way of living. Th ose clothes also are at the quality of certificate showing the delight of Turkish people. In this study, traditional Anatolian part of our culture in the position of clothes to protect , promote and special occasions using the transfer to future generation s in terms of Konya traditional women's clothes from the old carpets , rugs and ethnographic goods trading profession dealing with Velinaci Gezgin's stores located in the clothes were examined This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion . The technique used in the research is defined firstly the survey of written resources. As the result of research made in that area, observations, research and findi ngs are transferred into text.

  5. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  6. Circular Economy in the Clothing Industry : Challenges and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO ROSA, ANDRÉ MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    This  exploratory research  identifies  how  can  clothing companies  implement  textile recyclingtechnologies that help transition them to a sustainable circular economy business model, given the challenges of eco-innovation diffusion. The study is exploratory in nature, employs a literature review and a case study of Patagonia, the outdoor equipment and clothing company that pioneered the use of recycled fibers in the outdoor clothing industry and continues to have today several initiatives...

  7. DEMAND FOR TEXTILE AND CLOTHING EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This research has seen the trade prospects for Pakistan’s textile and clothing exports in the international market at the time when it has been decided in the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing that the trade in this sector from the developing to developed countries should be completely free from quantitative restrictions and governed by the normal GATT rules by 2005. The paper has also reviewed the current status of Pakistan’s textile industry. Textile and clothing is the major contribut...

  8. 78 FR 49607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... continuously or intermittently tumbles the clothes dryer drum after the clothes dryer indicates to the user..., ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the IEC test standard 61121, ``Tumble dryers for household use... Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 157 /...

  9. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  10. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  11. Application of FAHP and Artificial Neural Network on Clothing Plant Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Clothing manufacturers' direct investment and joint ventures in developing regions have seen to grow rapidly in the past few decades. Non-optimized selection can contribute to adverse effects affecting the performance of the plants on aspects of productivity, manufacturing and logistics cost. Selection of proper plant location is thus crucial. The conventional approaches to sites location are based on the factors and their weights. However, determining the weight of each factor is very difficult and time consuming. While the situation is changed, all the work must be redone again. This study aims to develop a decision-making system onclothing plant location for Hong Kong clothing manufacturer. The proposed system utilizes artificial neural network to study the relationship between the factors and the suitability index of candidate sites. Firstly, the factors are stratified using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) by review the related references and interviewing the experts.Secondly, the corresponding data are collected from the experts by questionnaire and the related government publication. Finally, the feedforward neural network with error backpropagation(EBP) learning algorithm is trained and applied to make decision. The results show that the proposed system performs well and has the characteristic of adaptability and plasticity.

  12. The Application of Drama Elements in the Clothing Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔振伟

    2013-01-01

    Chinese drama is an art form of Chinese traditional, and it’s a representation of Chinese soul. It uses the reference of the aesthetic features of the drama elements in clothing design, through analysis of drama ele-ments in the image and aesthetic features in modern clothing design’s practice and innovation. And it elaborates drama elements in the reality combining born, vivid design methods, demonstration of modern clothing design the innovation and reference in Chinese drama elements. We can draw that the aesthetic characteristics of the drama elements and modern clothing design are mutual penetration to each other. And we make creative prac-tice by using the aesthetics facial makeup.

  13. The aesthetic of dragon pattern elements in modern clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩慧

    2015-01-01

    Dragon pattern with a long history of traditional patterns,contains profound cultural connotation.This passage illustrate the aesthetic analysis of dragon pattern in modern clothing, analyze the aesthetic expression of dragon pattern with modern costume designer.

  14. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Departement Consumer Study: Food, Clothing, Housing. University of ..... Norum (1989) used the age of the household head .... necessarily made purchases known to the ..... children on family life cycle spending behavior: theory and.

  15. The systematization of information: functional clothes through the mind map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Auxiliadora Assunção Ourives

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, if checks the evolution in women's clothing design aiming at the well-being, comfort and quality of life. However, women still complain of discomfort of breast movement during physical activities carried out in factory floors and sporting activities, among other activities. This discomfort, according to the women, increases during the menstrual period. Therefore, to structure the information on the subject is important, because it will suit the functional clothing designs for these activities. The mind map is a tool suitable for this because assists the organization process of thought and understanding of the information about a particular subject. With that, this work aims to structure information for project requirements with a focus on functional female clothing. The method of research is descriptive and exploratory character. In the end, this work presented project guidelines of functional guidelines female clothing through the process of analysis the mind map.

  16. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  17. The Textile and Clothing Sector in Botswana: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Textile and Clothing Sector in Botswana: Challenges and Opportunities ... South Africa and Swaziland through the SACU Agreement and thus products ...... assistance and value chain support, SME training and offer export support. 6.

  18. E-Commerce Strategies for Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zu-fang; TANG Ming-hao; DAI Wei

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the characteristics and consuming behaviors of the Chinese people. The difficulties in developing e-commerce for enterprises in China are discussed and the practical strategies suitable for China's clothing enterprises are proposed.

  19. The South African clothing industry: problems experienced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    The South African clothing industry: problems experienced with body measurements. ISSN 0378-5254 .... men's dress shirt requires three dimensions – neck girth, shoulder girth ..... It is not always easy to describe or explain how and where ...

  20. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebeko, Alexander; Arslanaliev, Adam

    2017-03-01

    We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation) operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed) properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors) of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  1. The main factors influencing green consumer’s purchasing behavior in Chinese clothing market Case RYB

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tingting

    2012-01-01

    Green clothing has emerged as the new products in the green market in China. With the improvement of living standard, the demand transfer of consumer from practicability of clothing to ecological and health clothing especially in the children’s clothing has increased. It is significant for marketers to understand the main factors influencing green consumer purchasing behavior in the Chinese clothing market. The main objective of this thesis was to find out the major factors influencing gr...

  2. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Knežević; Mia Delić; Kristina Ptić

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper expla...

  3. Sustainable clothing: challenges, barriers and interventions for encouraging more sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Fiona; Roby, Helen; Dibb, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Research with consumers has revealed limited awareness of the sustainability impact of clothing (Goworek et al., 2012). Semi-structured interviews conducted with a range of experts in sustainable clothing to increase understanding of the challenges for sustainable clothing revealed that a focus on sustainability alone will not drive the necessary changes in consumers’ clothing purchase, care and disposal behaviour for three reasons: (i) clothing sustainability is too complex; (ii) consumers a...

  4. Cloth Simulation Based Motion Capture of Dressed Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Nils; Rosenhahn, Bodo; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    Commonly, marker based as well as markerless motion capture systems assume that the tracked person is wearing tightly fitting clothes. Unfortunately, this restriction cannot be satisfied in many situations and most preexisting video data does not adhere to it either. In this work we propose a graphics based vision approach for tracking humans markerlessly without making this assumption. Instead, a physically based simulation of the clothing the tracked person is wearing is used to guide the tracking algorithm.

  5. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  6. ROMANIAN TEXTILES AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY – PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu FOLCUT; Diana-Mihaela POCIOVĂLIŞTEANU; Radu DESPA; Razvan MUSTEA; Iuliu IVANESCU; Mona Maria IVANESCU

    2009-01-01

    In January 2007 Romania joined the EU. Since then its current import duties for clothing and textiles has dropped a full 10% to between 6% and 8%. Consequently, import and re-export opportunities for Hong Kong, the Chinese mainland and other Asian suppliers are expected to increase, according to local Romanian importers. Chinese mainland firms are said to have invested US $254 million in the Romanian economy, but no details are available about the proportion directly invested in the clothing ...

  7. Influential factors of Chinese purchaser behavior in clothing market

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zaichen

    2013-01-01

    Clothing market is a competitive market. Enterprises strive to attract purchasers consumption, as the result more strategies are carried out on sale, goods and services. Purchasers are facing more options and different experiences. Hereby, purchaser behavior is changing by the influence of competitive market. The thesis is aim to research the Chinese purchaser behavior in clothing market worldwide. The behaviors are different against the market from western countries to China, as the cons...

  8. Circular economy business models in the clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Setterwall Rydberg, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Production, consumption and waste managment of clothing is causing severe environmental damage and needs to be transformed. In this thesis the question of how circular economy business models can contribute to make the clothing business more sustainable is investigated. Two small companies in Jämtland, Sweden, are used as case studies. Case A, Rent-a-Plagg, is renting outdoor wear on a ski resort. By providing the possibility to get access instead of ownership they make their customers avoid ...

  9. Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation for Quality of Clothing Industry's Salesman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; FANG Fei

    2002-01-01

    It is essential for the human resource management to establish a scientific and efficient evaluation system for the clothing industry. This paper discusses the evaluation system for the quality of clothing industry's salesman, using fuzzy set theory from the following five aspects: basic quality,work attitude, knowledge level,work ability and work achievement. A just and useful way for the human resource manager to evaluate employees' quality is elaborated.

  10. Protective Clothing Part 4. Industrial Environments (A Bibliography with Abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Heat pipes NTIS/PS-75/316/OGSB NTIS/PS-75/317/8GSB Heliostats , Solar energy concentrators NTIS/PS-75/690/8GSB Hematuria NTIS/PS-75/260/OGSB...8217 working operat determined that the wear personal clothing of the heat stress problem. Rec regulations set forth by industrial hygiene practi any...Criteria, Inspection, Standards, Recommendations, Industrial hygiene, Oil refineries. Insulation, Heat stress. Protective clothing IDENTIFIERS

  11. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  12. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  13. DNA extraction and amplification from contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Moncada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. METHODOLOGY: We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials.

  14. A Mathematical Modeling Framework for Analysis of Functional Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Man

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis and design of functional clothing systems, it is helpful to quantify the effects of a system on a wearer’s physical performance capabilities. Toward this end, a clothing modeling framework for quantifying the mechanical interactions between a given clothing system design and a specific wearer performing defined physical tasks is proposed. The modeling framework consists of three interacting modules: (1 a macroscale fabric mechanics/dynamics model; (2 a collision detection and contact correction module; and (3 a human motion module. In the proposed framework, the macroscopic fabric model is based on a rigorous large deformation continuum-degenerated shell theory representation. Material models that capture the stress-strain behavior of different clothing fabrics are used in the continuum shell framework. The collision and contact module enforces the impenetrability constraint between the fabric and human body and computes the associated contact forces between the two. The human body is represented in the current framework as an assemblage of overlapping ellipsoids that undergo rigid body motions consistent with human motions while performing actions such as walking, running, or jumping. The transient rigid body motions of each ellipsoidal body segment in time are determined using motion capture technology. The integrated modeling framework is then exercised to quantify the resistance that the clothing exerts on the wearer during the specific activities under consideration. Current results from the framework are presented and its intended applications are discussed along with some of the key challenges remaining in clothing system modeling.

  15. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  16. Notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

  17. Effect of volume fraction of ramie cloth on physical and mechanical properties of ramie cloth/UP resin composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Wen-guang; REN Chao

    2006-01-01

    Ramie cloth/UP resin composite was formed at 0.2 MPa and cured at room temperature for 24 h and treated at 80 ℃ for2 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites with different volume fractions of ramie cloth were studied. The results show that,with the increase of the volume fraction of the ramie cloth,densities of the composites become greater and greater,though all lower than the theoretical values,the linear shrinkage during the formation decreases from 1.20% of the original UP resin to 0.18% of the composite with 30% of ramie cloth in volume,all the composites also absorb more water than UP resin casting,greater volume fraction of the fiber,more water will be absorbed,but the increase in water absorption becomes smaller and smaller with time. As regards some mechanical properties,the tensile strength,flexural strength,flexural modulus and impact strength are all improved when more ramie fiber is added. Compared with those of pure UP resin casting,the mechanical properties are increased by 93.93%,76.20%,190.18% and 227.26% respectively when the volume fraction of the ramie cloth in the composite is 30%. The differential scanning calorimetry results show that only one peak will appear for the sample without or with less ramie fiber while two peaks will appear when more ramie cloth is added.

  18. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  19. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  20. Enhanced removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid in an activated carbon cloth by electroadsorption in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernabeu, S; Ruiz-Rosas, R; Quijada, C; Montilla, F; Morallón, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the electrochemical treatment (potentiostatic treatment in a filter-press electrochemical cell) on the adsorption capacity of an activated carbon cloth (ACC) was analyzed in relation with the removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid pollutant from water. The adsorption capacity of an ACC is quantitatively improved in the presence of an electric field (electroadsorption process) reaching values of 96% in comparison to 55% in absence of applied potential. In addition, the cathodic treatment results in higher removal efficiencies than the anodic treatment. The enhanced adsorption capacity has been proved to be irreversible, since the removed compound remains adsorbed after switching the applied potential. The kinetics of the adsorption processes is also improved by the presence of an applied potential.

  1. A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation.

  2. Detection of pedestrians in far-infrared automotive night vision using region-growing and clothing distortion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ronan; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin

    2010-11-01

    We present a night-time pedestrian detection system based on automotive infrared video processing. Far-infrared or thermal night vision is a technology well suited for automatic detection of pedestrians at night as they generally appear warmer than the background. However, the appearance of a pedestrian in IR video can vary dramatically depending on the physical properties of the clothing they wear, the time spent adjusting to the outside environment, and the ambient temperature. We highlight the difficulties of detection in low temperatures (below 8 °C) when pedestrians typically wear highly insulating clothing, which can lead to distortion of the IR signature of the pedestrian. A pre-processing step is presented, which compensates for this clothing-based distortion using vertically-biased morphological closing. Potential pedestrians (Regions of Interest) are then segmented using feature-based region-growing with high intensity seeds. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features are extracted from candidates and utilised for Support Vector Machine classification. Positively classified targets are tracked between frames using a Kalman filter, adding robustness and increasing performance. The proposed system adapts not just to variations between images or video frames, but to variations in appearance between different pedestrians in the same image or frame. Results indicate improved performance compared to previous HOG-SVM automotive IR pedestrian detection systems, which utilised stereo IR cameras.

  3. Physiological effects of a modification of the construction of impermeable protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Anna; Bartkowiak, Grazyna; Lezak, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve the construction of impermeable clothing protecting against liquid chemical agents in order to lower the thermal strain caused by the clothing during work. Previous studies indicated that light work in a hot environment in this kind of clothing could last 30 min only. We propose a modification of the construction; new models of protective clothing were tested in wear trials. Then the results were compared with a basic model of impermeable protective clothing. Results indicated that all new models of protective clothing allowed workers to work 39-64% longer than in a basic model of protective clothing. Thus new clothing significantly improved comfort of work in impermeable protective clothing because of the lower thermal strain that it imposed on the user.

  4. The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J

    2015-01-01

    Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1 m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1 m to 18.3 m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75 μs) and force (1700 N) or stress (100 MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Plastic Explosive Traces in the Human Thermal Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowadia, Huban A.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    Aviation security requires the detection of explosive devices which terrorists, posing as passengers, may conceal beneath their clothing. Our goal is to understand the generation, transport, and collection of trace signals from such concealed explosives, which are found in the natural convective plume produced by the human body. Previous work (APS/DFD96, CG10) has visualized this plume and shown that concealed volatile explosives (e.g. TNT) produce a detectable vapor signal therein. Plastic explosives, on the other hand, have vanishingly low vapor pressures and are thus considered very difficult to detect. Present experiments use a dispersal chamber to collect and sample the plumes of human subjects wearing concealed gauze patches containing milligrams of RDX, the primary component of plastic explosives such as C-4. These experiments address the effects of agitation, clothing, temperature and humidity on trace detectability. Further experiments address the effects of oily vs. dry skin, contaminated clothing vs. gauze patches, and residual contamination left on skin previously in contact with RDX. The key role of airborne contaminated textile fibers is noted. Knowledge thus gained contributes to the design of an explosive detection portal for aviation security screening. (Research supported by FAA Grant 93-G-052.)

  6. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  7. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  8. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  9. European cloth and "tropical" skin: clothing material and British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain's imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the "tropics" had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their "kits." This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material--wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials--and the role of "black" skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and "civil" climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire.

  10. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  11. Near infrared transmission through clothing: applications in sensing and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Canal, C. M.; Saleem, A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Green, R. J.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that near infrared (NIR) transmission through a wide range of clothing materials is possible. Studies have shown that the characteristics of NIR transmission are affected by both the type of fibre used, and the weave pattern. A series of experiments has indicated that NIR transmission is also dependent on other variables such as fabric porosity and dye colour. It is shown that, in many cases, transmission coefficients are sufficiently high that imaging and spectroscopy of objects hidden behind clothing samples should be possible. However, while transmission through clothing at NIR wavelengths in the 750-1,700 nm range is often more effective than in the visible or IR regions, the fabrics themselves will modify the transmitted signal in terms of spatial effects, intensity and spectral content. The paper also describes the possible use of near infrared signals to identify objects that are hidden behind clothing layers. This can be done using spectroscopy. It is important, however, to distinguish the various contributions that exist within the backscattered signal. A set of careful laboratory experiments have demonstrated that transmission through a set of different clothing fabrics does modify the spectral content of signals, but that the spectrum of a particular chemical can still be identified, provided certain steps are taken. These involve a set of careful calibration measurements, and the use of processing techniques for the retrieval of data. It will be shown that this is possible for both granular solids and selected liquids.

  12. Performance and Characteristics of Heat Pump Clothes Drier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Nasution, D. M.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a study of clothes drying using a heat pump drier has been carried out. The objective is to examine the performance and drying characteristics of the heat pump clothes dryer. The result of performances and drying characteristics were compared with waste heat drying system of split-type residential air conditioner (RAC). A drying chamber with volume 1 m3 integrated with heat pump component had been designed and fabricated. The heat pump operated by vapor compression cycle with power input of 800W and refrigerant R22 as a working fluid. The clothes dried made of pure cotton with initial weight varied from 3.00 kg, 5.25 kg, and 6.38 kg, respectively. The results shown that the drying time and drying rate of heat pump drier are faster than waste heat drying system. The average total performance of heat pump clothes drier is 6.56. On the other hand, SMER which is obtained 1.492 kg/kWh. These values are lower than the SMER of waste heat drying system which shown the average value of 2.492 kg/kWh. In the case of drying clothes, waste heat drying of RAC shows a better performance in comparison with heat pump drying system.

  13. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  14. Development of a clothing iron safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Ryan; Anthamatten, Mitchell; Reid, Dixie; Kahn, Steven A; Lentz, Christopher W

    2009-01-01

    Contact burns from clothing irons are a common injury seen in children. These injuries occur when an unattended iron is within reach of toddlers in its upright position. In a previous study, the authors have shown that the surface of an iron takes 90 minutes to cool below the epidermal injury threshold of 49 degrees C. The authors have constructed an "iron shoe" to shield the iron surface from young hands during cooling. The device is intended to set the cooling iron in its down position providing additional protection. The device will insulate the iron surface to avoid the fire hazard when positioned in this manner. A silicone polymer was used to create an "iron shoe." This polymer is stable at temperatures up to 370 degrees C. The device included sidewalls to shield the edges from contact. Thermal analysis of the device was conducted using an inexpensive and expensive iron. Thermocouples were placed on the iron surface and below the iron shoe. The irons were heated to its maximum temperature, placed in the shoe and then unplugged. Temperature cooling curves were obtained from the thermocouples. The experiment was repeated by measuring the temperature difference between the iron edge and the shoe sidewalls. The surface of both expensive and inexpensive irons reached a maximum of 205 degrees C. The temperature below the iron shoe reached a maximum of 49 degrees C (inexpensive) and 60 degrees C (expensive). The iron edge temperature reached a maximum of 188 degrees C (inexpensive) and 154 degrees C (expensive). The shoe sidewall temperature achieved a maximum of 52 degrees C (inexpensive) and 49 degrees C (expensive). Both expensive and inexpensive irons reach temperatures over 200 degrees C. The silicone "iron shoe" effectively shielded the surface and edge of both irons and approached the epidermal injury threshold of 49 degrees C. The temperature beneath the expensive iron did exceed 49 degrees C, but because the intention of the device is to place the iron in

  15. Birthplace of Fashion Designers: Beijing Institute of Clothing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    CLOTHING, as the old Chinese saying goes, is regarded as the most basic human need. In 1988 in Beijing, the first institute of higher learning to focus on the design and manufacture of clothing was established. The Beijing Institute of Clothing Technology (BICT) offers a combined curriculum of art and fashion that has fostered the talent of many outstanding young designers. The college is located near the ruins of the city wall from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) and has an enrollment of 2,500 undergraduate and graduate students. Before 1988 the building housed a college of chemical fibre engineering that had many lecturers and professors who where considered accomplished at both theory and application. The school was expanded with the addition of nine subjects and three new departments—Garment,

  16. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small.

  17. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HYBANTHUS ENNEASPERMUS ON WET CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Napoleon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During rainy season, when clothes are not properly dried they develop spots. In clothes the spots appear as black or greenish black in color and these spots or mildews were cultured and microscopically examined. It was identified as fungi, viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antifungal activities of different extracts of Hybanthus enneaspermus were screened. The antifungal activity was graded, based on the zone of inhibition. Among the three extracts used for the present studies, methanolic extract exhibited the maximum growth inhibition, followed by chloroform and petroleum ether extract.

  18. A Methodological Approach to the Materiality of Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepp, Ingun Grimstad; Bjerck, Mari

    2014-01-01

    clothes relate to each other on the whole or within parts of the wardrobe. More specifically, we discuss how this method can contribute to increasing the materiality of clothes studies. The theoretical point of departure for this approach is a practice theory in which the material enters as an integral...... part. First, the article briefly discusses developments within the study of dress and fashion. Second, the methods combined and developed in wardrobe studies are discussed. The emphasis here is primarily not only on the weaknesses of the individual methods in practice-oriented dress studies, but also...

  19. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  20. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air.... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers...

  1. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  2. Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

  3. Integrating 3D Scanning\\ud Data & Textile Parameters into Virtual Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jess; Apeagyei, P.R.; Jefferson, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has changed the face of the clothing and textile industries in many developed and developing nations. In the twenty first century no longer are clothes manufactured and retailed in specific local regions. Fashion and clothing have joined textiles in becoming a truly global operation. Despite this revolution many authors report that clothing and textiles still lag behind other manufacturing industries in relation to their enthusiasm to adopt new product development processes. The...

  4. Weaving the nation : Scottish clothing and textile cultures in the Long Eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, Sally Jeanne Susan

    2011-01-01

    Clothing and textiles are an important means of communication, providing nuanced signals of economic and social status, occupation, and political affiliation. Consequently the study of clothing and textiles is a valuable approach to the investigation of a past society. Building on current methodological approaches associated with clothing and textile history and the study of material culture, this thesis will investigate how the clothing and textiles of the Scottish population ...

  5. 78 FR 151 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... clothes dryer to mean a cabinet-like appliance designed to dry fabrics in a tumble- type drum with forced... standard HLD-1-2009, ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the IEC test standard 61121, ``Tumble... Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 1 /...

  6. 76 FR 50145 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (AHAM) clothes dryer test standard HLD-1-2009, ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) test standard 61121, ``Tumble dryers for household use--Methods... Residential Clothes Dryers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  7. JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING THE OPTIMAL PACKAGE OF MATERIALS FOR CLOTHING CHILDREN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko I. N.

    2014-01-01

    Quality regulations of clothes and materials do not include features of children and adolescents with disorders of obesity in the design of clothes and selection of the materials. In the article, we proposed the choice of clothing materials management package with the structural features of the surface of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, the properties of materials and their functions

  8. Ozone consumption and volatile byproduct formation from surface reactions with aircraft cabin materials and clothing fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We measured ozone consumption and byproduct formation on materials commonly found in aircraft cabins at flight-relevant conditions. Two series of small-chamber experiments were conducted, with most runs at low relative humidity (10%) and high air-exchange rate (˜20 h -1). New and used cabin materials (seat fabric, carpet, and plastic) and laundered and worn clothing fabrics (cotton, polyester, and wool) were studied. We measured ozone deposition to many material samples, and we measured ozone uptake and primary and secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subset of samples. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 cm s -1. Emissions of VOCs were higher with ozone than without ozone in every case. The most commonly detected secondary emissions were C 1 through C 10 saturated aldehydes and the squalene oxidation products 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetone. For the compounds measured, summed VOC emission rates in the presence of 55-128 ppb (residual level) ozone ranged from 1.0 to 8.9 μmol h -1 m -2. Total byproduct yield ranged from 0.07 to 0.24 moles of product volatilized per mole of ozone consumed. Results were used to estimate the relative contribution of different materials to ozone deposition and byproduct emissions in a typical aircraft cabin. The dominant contributor to both was clothing fabrics, followed by seat fabric. Results indicate that ozone reactions with surfaces substantially reduce the ozone concentration in the cabin but also generate volatile byproducts of potential concern for the health and comfort of passengers and crew.

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. United States Textiles and Clothing Imports Sink in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009,United States’ textiles and clothing imports experienced their worst fall in over 20 years.The year in fact witnessed an upheaval. Compared to 2008,the dollar value of United States’ sector imports in 2009 dropped by 13.7%.Coming on top of a

  11. "The Polishing Cloth": Student Writing Creates Writing Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah L.

    The concept of using good student writing to inspire more good student writing, of using a text to create the next year's text is a vital process that demonstrates DeKalb College's emphasis on individual student instruction and recognition. "The Polishing Cloth" is a collection of the best student essays from English composition,…

  12. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beryllium, regardless of measured exposure levels. (b) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910... and equipment. (c) The responsible employer must establish procedures for donning, doffing, handling... that contain beryllium with contamination on their bodies or their personal clothing; and (2)...

  13. Fiber, Fabric, and Fashion. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum. Environment I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A competency-based instructional guide for grades 7-14, this volume is one of three parts, each of which focuses on a different instructional environment (psychomotor, cognitive, or affective) for clothing or fashion instruction, and each of which includes competencies and corresponding learning activities for each of three instructional levels.…

  14. Chemistry I and Clothing, Textiles and Fashion Merchandising Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    The application of principles learned in a first course in chemistry to chemical problems of interest to home economics majors specializing in clothing and textiles or fashion merchandising is described. Concept transfer--teaching difficult concepts in terms of an everyday analogue--is also explained and relevant laboratory experiments are…

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORDS, TEXTS, CLOTHES AND TEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STURZA Amalia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will speculate the possible relationships between “word,” “text,” “textile,” and “clothing”. Many of the terms we use to describe our interactions with words are derived from the common linguistic root and numerous other expressions associated with reading and writing are drawn from the rich vocabulary of cloth. Textiles are one of the most ubiquitous components of material culture and they are also integral to the material history of texts. The intersection between texts and textiles locates the relationship between language and dress, as together they structure the fashion scene over the century. We compare these texts and storytelling with the process of making clothes, they go from fibers that are spun and then create the fabric or the material out of which the clothes are made. Besides the similitude of the words “text” and “textile” that have four similar letters there is also the resemblance in the way they transmit a message. While texts are meant to transmit something to the reader, to enchant and to create emotions in so various ways, just in the same way clothes are also meant to transmit emotions and feelings to the wearer or to the people watching them.

  16. 447 Clothing for Elderly Persons: Management and Caring Strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... so, the need and desire for food, and probably for fashion. The taste and choice of clothing among the elderly is believed to be tied with the individual .... other factors, this disease could cause a person to become so insensitive to ... location of older people and the role of consumer culture in age identities.

  17. Research on application of carbon fiber heating material in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of society, the way of keeping warm clothing is also developing. Carbon fiber has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, mobility and comfort. As a heating element, it has good application prospect. In this paper, the main technology, application issues and design method of carbon fiber heating garment are analyzed, and the key problems in industrialization are also put forward.

  18. A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Heus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However,this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties,the effects of

  19. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to physic

  20. Female consumers' familiarity with clothing brands and their trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female consumers' familiarity with clothing brands and their trust in brand names as an ... between the CBO and COM influences consumers' product perceptions. ... Data collection involved convenience sampling, and the self-completion of a ... Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, factor analysis, analysis of ...

  1. Early adolescent girls' expectations about the fit of clothes: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 32, 2004 .... investigation and study of the self, physically as well .... changes could influence her evaluation of her clothes and could ... ment fit and lack of knowledge about factors that influ- ... fact that it influences the encoding of new information.

  2. Concept to comfort-condition subjects wearing restrictive clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E. M.

    1968-01-01

    Heat exchanger maintains a desirable thermal balance in a subject wearing restrictive clothing. A grid of high thermal conductance fibers, in contact with the skin, transfers heat to or from the skin surface by means of a system of ducts, carrying the transfer fluid which is maintained at a controlled temperature.

  3. DNA profiles from clothing fibers using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We report on the successful use of direct PCR amplification of single fibers from items of worn clothing. Items of clothing were worn throughout the course of a day, with the individual commencing regular activities. Single fibers were taken from the cuff of the clothing at regular intervals and amplified directly. The same areas were subjected to tape-lifting, and also amplified directly for comparison. The NGM™ kit that amplifies 15 STR loci plus amelogenin was used. A total of 35 single fiber samples were processed and analyzed from five items of clothing, with 81 % of samples returning a profile of 14 alleles or more. All tape-lift samples amplified directly produced DNA profiles of 15 alleles or more. The aim was to develop a simple, operational method that could be used routinely in forensic science casework and that has the potential to generate more complete profiles, which would not be detected using standard extraction methods on this type of sample. For ease of implementation, the process also adheres to standard methods with no increase in the cycle number.

  4. Competency Based Curriculum for Clothing Services and Production Sewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charlotte

    Designed to meet individual needs and learning levels of high school and postsecondary students enrolled in vocational training for occupations in clothing services and production sewing, this competency-based curriculum teaches skills in alterations, dressmaking, and power sewing machine operations. Skills are organized into 13 units: Awareness…

  5. Women’s Cloth-Making Campaign in Shanxi(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    THE cloth-making campaign carried out by the Eighth Route Army and the local people in Shanxi helped pulp them through a tough situation and win the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-1945). In the remote hills where both industrial and agricultural development was slow-

  6. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to physic

  7. Holland Code, Job Satisfaction and Productivity in Clothing Factory Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Martin; And Others

    Published research on vocational interests and personality has not often assessed the characteristics of workers and the work environment in blue-collar, women-dominated industries. This study administered the Self-Directed Search (Form E) to 318 sewing machine operators in three clothing factories. Holland codes, productivity, job satisfaction,…

  8. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  9. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  10. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  11. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  12. Systems approach to clothing for disabled users. Why is it difficult for disabled users to find suitable clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorén, M

    1996-12-01

    Today's clothing market is not adapted for people with unusual body dimensions and/or different kinds of functional impairments. They will be referred to as disabled users. The method of user-oriented product development combined with the soft systems methodology has been applied in order to understand and possibly solve their problem. Sixty five disabled users were interviewed. The results show that the disabled users must be divided into subgroups. Their requirements are very much dependent on their impairment not only regarding the fit and function of the clothing, but also regarding shopping and service in the stores. The symbolic values of clothing are just as important as the functional values. However, it is essential not to focus on the end product only, but to look at the problem as a system consisting of: manufacturing, marketing and end use. A new method of taking three dimensional measurements from range images of the human body has been developed. In combination with other developments in information technology it will be possible to synthesise a new system where the manufacturers and retailers of clothing can co-operate in order to give service to disabled users.

  13. Doing Business in Textiles and Clothing with China——What You Need to Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don Shen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the global textile and clothing market,China has been a major player for almost two decades. Since becoming a member of the World Trade Organization, China's textile and clothing manufacturing and sales have increased dramatically, largely due to increased business from the West. In order to inform foreign businesses about current practices in trade with Chinese textile and clothing companies, a study was conducted examining major changes in China's textile and clothing industries over the last two decades.Specifically, this study intended to provide an overview of China's textile and clothing industries to foreign companies interested in doing business in China.

  14. 服装专卖店的设计%Design of Monopolistic Clothing Store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贤昌

    2004-01-01

    Monopolistic clothing store is the best place for clothing industry to present the complete identity and distinctive style of brands. Actually the brand identity is reflected not only from clothes itself, but also from different aspects, e.g. an ornament, a brochure, a logo, and a clothes rack, or the outside appearance of the store, the window display and the inside environment. So monopolistic clothing store should focus on promoting the philosophy of brand and present the brand identity in its visual designs.

  15. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  16. Pressure drop – flow characteristic investigations of ATF filter in automatic transmissions (AT of cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Dziubak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. Potentials effects of pressure drop-flow characteristics of ATF filter on the hydraulic pumps are discussed. Draft device to investigations pressure drop-flow characteristics of ATF filter used in automatic transmissions constructed based on SAE J2312 standard is presented. Method of investigation pressure drop-flow characteristics of ATF filter used in automatic transmission is presented. The results of investigation pressure drop-flow characteristics Δp = f(QV of two types ATF filter (metal mesh and filter cloth in two technical conditions (at the beginning of the operation and after are presented and analyzed.[b]Keywords[/b]: AT — automatic transmissions, ATF — automatic transmission fluid, ATF filter, pressure drop-flow characteristic

  17. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  18. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  19. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  20. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  1. Fabric Selection for the Reference Clothing Destined for Ergonomics Test of Protective Clothing: Physiological Comfort Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkowiak Grażyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently used methods of ergonomic assessment of protective clothing depend on the subjective feeling of research participants and don’t take into consideration all aspects of its use. Therefore, more amount of work is undertaken toward the development of new research tools for the ergonomic assessment of protective clothing. Research was carried out at the Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute in Lodz. A new methodology will take into consideration a variant of reference clothing, which is related to the results of ergonomics research of protective clothing. Preparation of the reference clothing initiated by picking the appropriate fabric is based on the results of parameters influencing the physiological comfort and sensorial comfort. In the current part, results of different fabric parameters are presented, which are related to physiological comfort, i.e., the thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, hygroscopicity, and air permeability. In the next part of research, we will focus on the parameters related to objective sensorial feelings, i.e., total hand value and its components. Seven fabrics, including six cotton/polyester fabrics, diverse in terms of constituent fiber content and structure parameters (weave, thread density per 1 dm, thread linear density, mass per square meter, thickness, and Tencel/polyester fabric were tested. The best in terms of thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, and air permeability was the cotton/polyester fabric (35% cotton/65% PES with the smallest mass per square meter. This fabric also exhibits the high hygroscopicity of 7.5%, which puts it into the fourth position.

  2. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  3. Sustainability and Philanthropic Awareness in Clothing Disposal Behavior Among Young Malaysian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loi Wai Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Young consumers are the stylish shoppers who have a strong tendency to follow the latest fashion. With the rapid changes in the fashion trends, the overconsumption of clothing has had a significant environmental impact on society. Hence, there is a need to understand how young fashionable consumers are disposing their unwanted clothes. The survey was conducted among 205 young respondents, and the results show that clothing disposal behavior is affected by philanthropic awareness and mediated by the attitude toward clothing disposal. Interestingly, environmental economic factors only influence clothing disposal behavior through the attitude toward the disposal of clothing. The findings provide a valuable insight into the government and related authorities or organizations in developing strategies to encourage young consumers to increase their clothing-recycling rate, and, thus, eliminate the environmental issues in near future.

  4. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  5. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  6. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  7. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-03-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  8. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  9. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  10. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  11. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  12. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  13. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  14. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  15. Grafting of activated carbon cloths for selective adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineys, M.; Benoit, R.; Cohaut, N.; Béguin, F.; Delpeux-Ouldriane, S.

    2016-05-01

    Chemical functionalization of an activated carbon cloth with 3-aminophthalic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid groups by the in situ formation of the corresponding diazonium salt in aqueous acidic solution is reported. The nature and amount of selected functions on an activated carbon surface, in particular the grafted density, were determined by potentiometric titration, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanotextural properties of the modified carbon were explored by gas adsorption. Functionalized activated carbon cloth was obtained at a discrete grafting level while preserving interesting textural properties and a large porous volume. Finally, the grafting homogeneity of the carbon surface and the nature of the chemical bonding were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique.

  16. Global Quota System and China's Textile and Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2006-01-01

    By the middle of 2005, many Chinese textile and clothing enterprises were unable to continue business. Because of the safeguard actions invoked by WTO member countries, especially the USA, the EU and some developing countries, such as Turkey and Mexico, a stable and predictable overseas market no longer exists for export-oriented Chinese firms. It had actually been predicted that China would be the big winner after the elimination of the global quota system on 1 January 2005. What has happened to China's textile and clothing industries? What are the prospects for them over the next few years? Using a partial equilibrium analysis framework, this paper finds that China was the big loser under the quota system before 2005, and that China will be the big loser once again after the ending of that system.

  17. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  18. A Review of 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an account of journalist Anne Elizabeth Moore’s short comics, co-authored with the Ladydrawers collective, relating to the fashion industry and global apparel and sex trades, and that have been recently collected together in book form. The review argues that the resulting book, 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex & Trafficking' (2016, is evidence of the ability of the comics form to document social justice issues with nuance, yet without losing sight of the politically imperative calls for change that those issues demand.   'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking', by The Ladydrawers and Anne Elizabeth Moore, Portland: Microcosm Publishing, 2016. Paperback, 160 pages, 6 x 8, 2 colour interior (8.1 oz, Published May 3, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-62106-739-9

  19. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

  20. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  1. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  2. Net profit increased slightly in most clothing listed companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Entering July, listed companies’ performance report in the first half of 2012 will be disclosed. Up to July 16th, 54 textile and clothing listed companies published performance report. Among them, 5 companies’ net profit increased, 23 companies’ net profit slightly increased , 6 companies’ net profit slightly reduced, 4 companies’ net profit reduced compared with the expectation, 6 companies had losses for the first time, 9 companies sustained losses and 1 company made up the deficits and got surpluses.

  3. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Gilbert, Tom; Cappellini, Enrico

    Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tr...... tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin....

  4. Principles of Slow Fashion Application in Clothing Collection Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Agnė Antanavičiūtė; Vaida Dobilaitė

    2015-01-01

    Today we can clearly see the damage which is caused by fast fashion production and mass consumption. Therefore, a relevant issue is how to reduce consumption, waste, and threat to the environment and human health. Research into the slow fashion designers approach towards eco-friendly and slow fashion products shows that it is necessary to spread ideas of slow fashion widely and teach users about ecologically friendly clothing. Therefore, this paper analyses theoretical and practical slow fash...

  5. Comparison of Testing Clothing Thermal Resistance on 2 Thermal Manikins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-hong(谌玉红); JIANG Zhi-hua(姜志华); WU Zhi-xiao(吴志孝); Ingvar Holmer; Kalev Kuklane

    2003-01-01

    The paper compares clothing thermal resistance of the same ensemble tested by different thermal manikins in different laboratories. It also examines the consistence of the two groups of total thermal resistance by Paired-Sample T Test method, which proves that there is no remarkable difference in testing results under the same experiment method and requirement. It is of great significance in promoting the application of thermal manikin testing technology and academic exchange among different institutes.

  6. Motivation of Chinese consumers toward Western luxury clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Shuk Man

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to investigate the motivation of Chinese consumers towards the consumption/purchase of Western luxury clothing products, specifically the luxury in Chinese market, interpersonal and personal motives to purchase luxury products, and Chinese culture influences on luxury purchase motivation. The research was conducted by in-depth interviews following an interview guide. Snowball sampling technique was employed, and there were twelve Chinese participants involved in the...

  7. Transient Structures. Layers of Social Meaning in Conceptual Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BROSCATEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the conceptual framework of WLC 2016 we have chosen to explore a transdisciplinary approach of postmodern clothing. Fashion has always been a domain in which sociological, philosophical, political, cultural approaches have spoken about its contents and contexts. Recent sociological studies of fashion have revealed the deep meanings of conceptual clothing and the interwoven network of thoughts that is the starting point for such intellectual approaches. Fashion scholars such as Bradley Quinn, Caroline Evans, Valerie Steele or Malcolm Barnard have underlined the role of conceptual clothing in casting a light upon various social issues and symptoms. Through this paper we want to argument how layers of social meaning transform certain fashion projects in reflexions of the Zeitgeist. In the current socio-political context such investigations do not necessarily offer pertinent answers, but certainly raise more questions and awareness. By focusing on the works of Lucy and Jorge Orta, and Hussein Chalayan, our aim is to explore the different ways in which social changes, urban reconfigurations, and geographical dislocation question our notions of space, form, mobility, and identity. Our research will be a transdisciplinary one, analysing a consistent part of their work from different perspectives in order to reveal their influence on the way in which the design of clothing has taken the responsibility of becoming a shelter, a refuge, a mean of protection against the transient nature of contemporary societies. We will be analyzing Chalayan’s three projects, Afterwords (2000, Temporal Meditations (2003, and Absent Presence (2005, and Orta’s Refugee Wear (1992, Modular Architecture (1996, and Nexus Architecture (1993–2002. In investigating their works we shall focus on the character of artistic process, employed by both Chalayan and Orta, by using the objects (garments and the mechanisms of fashion (runway collection for Chalayan, and the

  8. The Engineering Design of Intelligent Protective Textiles and Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmee; Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    Terrorism has been on the rise in the past decade and continues to disrupt everyday life in many parts of the world. Protection against such threats is therefore critical for preserving peace and security around the world. In particular, the safety of defense personnel engaged in confronting and responding to such threats must be ensured. Since textiles and clothing are pervasive and are always "on" the soldier, they can serve as an excellent infrastructure or platform for such individual protection systems.

  9. A History of Court and Commoner Clothing in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C. Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trần Quang Đức. Ngàn năm áo mũ: Lich sử trang phục Việt Nam giai đoạn 1009–1945 [One thousand years of caps and robes: A history of Vietnamese clothing in the period 1009–1945]. TP Hồ Chí Minh: Nhã Nam, 2013. ISBN: 1467557900. Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. Based on an extensive examination of Vietnamese, Chinese, European, and even Korean sources—most of which only briefly mention clothing in various periods—Đức has succeeded in producing a comprehensive overview of the clothing of Vietnamese rulers and their officials; when possible, he also comments on the dress of other segments of society, such as the military and commoners. One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the Tây Sơn, and the Nguyễn. Đức begins each chapter with an overview of the history of that dynasty’s styles of court dress and then goes into a detailed description of exactly which types of cap and robe the ruler and his officials wore, and in what ways these caps and robes extended previous practices or were innovations. He follows his examination of court dress with a discussion of military and commoner attire. The chapter introductions provide a concise history of changes in court clothing across time, while the detailed discussions of the caps and robes from each period offer a deeper level of understanding...

  10. Architecture of Gothic Period and Its Effect to Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife YILDIZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root of the word Gothic comes from a German tribe which lives in region of the Gotland of Scandinavia. Gothic period is a movement which ends the Midde Age and opens Renaissance. Alth ough seen in all branches of the art, Gothic is widely a style of architecture. Having been originated from the Roman architecture, Gothic Architecture come out in the second half of the 12th century and continued its existence until the half of the 16th c entury when classical architecture come out. In Europe, Gothic painting, sculpture and architecture were dominant and preserved its popularity until the Renaissance. Fashion means all the temporary new styles which come out in a certain period of time with the desires of dressing up, being different, wearing the most desirable. Although seen as two different design field, when we examine closely, we can see that fashion and architecture has many common point from the past to present. As man is the common po int of this two field, they naturally affect each other. Gothic architecture inspired clothing designs, which is enough to show how much they affected each other. In this study, our purpose is to reveal effects of the Gothic architecture on the clothing d esigns. The style used in the Gothic period architecture and models and styles in clothing designs was presented with the help of table of specification. According to this, both fields' sharing common aesthetic concern and same theoritic and ideologic bas e was accompanied by stylistic and structural similarities accordingly. Designers in this two different fields turned even to themselves for inspiration and technical strategy. Environmental and cultural factors affect both fashion designers and architects . When seen as a part of historical process, clothes and buildings with their important cultural and economic conditions are priceless anthropological buildings which show technological developments within the period.

  11. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Gilbert, Tom; Cappellini, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tr...... tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin....

  12. Use of social media among speciality clothing companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kotamäki, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a research about how certain clothing companies in Finland use social media, especially Facebook and Instagram, in their marketing. The idea of the thesis was created during my work placement, which I completed at the case company, Dropinmarket. Dropinmarket has quite a poor social media presence at the moment and the goal of this thesis is to give recommendations on how to improve it. The introduction gives a more detailed view to the background of this thesis, introduces ...

  13. Calculation of clothing insulation by serial and parallel methods : effects on clothing choice by IREQ and thermal responses in the cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuklane, K.; Gao, C.; Holmér, I.; Giedraityte, L.; Bröde, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Meinander, H.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cold protective clothing was studied in 2 European Union projects. The objectives were (a) to examine different insulation calculation methods as measured on a manikin (serial or parallel), for the prediction of cold stress (IREQ); (b) to consider the effects of cold protective clothing on metabolic

  14. "I Am Only Ten Years Old": Femininities, Clothing-Fashion Codes and the Intergenerational Gap of Interpretation of Young Girls' Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysst, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Based in experience-near anthropology, this article explores constructions of gender by 10-year-old Norwegian girls who are informed by a developmental discourse and by new clothing-fashion codes. The analysis reveals gaps in aesthetic understanding between the clothing-fashion industry, preteen girls and older generations. The industry seems to…

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-1: Consumer Approach to Textiles and Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on consumer approach to textiles and clothing is the first in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  16. "I Am Only Ten Years Old": Femininities, Clothing-Fashion Codes and the Intergenerational Gap of Interpretation of Young Girls' Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysst, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Based in experience-near anthropology, this article explores constructions of gender by 10-year-old Norwegian girls who are informed by a developmental discourse and by new clothing-fashion codes. The analysis reveals gaps in aesthetic understanding between the clothing-fashion industry, preteen girls and older generations. The industry seems to…

  17. 不同地膜覆盖方式在果树生产中的应用%Application of Different Plastic Film Mulching in Fruit Tree Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红波; 陶增姣; 李海东; 辛燕; 路瑾瑾; 祝秋平; 郑禾

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the application of different plastic film mulching methods in the production of fruit trees,in the paper, the author applied the application of different plastic film mulching (ordinary plastic film, non-woven cloth and cloth) is used as the material. The result showed that the ordinary plastic film mulching short-term cost savings, but to the pollution of the environment larger; non-woven cloth pollution automatic degradation, but actual service life is short;gardening cloth durable, long term saving production cost, the best overall performance.%本研究旨在探讨不同地膜覆盖方式在果树生产上的应用。以不同地膜覆盖(普通塑料地膜、无纺布地布和园艺地布)为材料,在果树生产上进行应用。结果表明:普通塑料地膜覆盖短期节约成本,但对环境污染较大;无纺布地布无污染可自动降解,但实际使用寿命较短;园艺地布经久耐用,长期来看节约生产成本,综合表现最好。

  18. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  19. Influence of illumination on autonomic thermoregulation and choice of clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hi; Jeong, Woon Seon

    2002-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how different levels of illumination below 1,000 lx would affect the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation of humans. Seven healthy college-aged women (20+/-0 years) volunteered to participate in this study. They were exposed to a temperature of 26 °C in 320 lx for 30 min ('Equilibrium') followed by 700 lx or 70 lx for 30 min (stage 1). After stage 1, they were exposed to 20 °C for 30 min in the same illumination as in stage 1 (stage 2). In stage 2 the subjects were instructed to select and wear the clothing they needed for their thermal comfort. The data obtained were analyzed by paired t-test and repeated measures of analysis of variance. Forearm skin blood flow tended to remain steady in 700 lx but decreased markedly in 70 lx in stage 1. There were no significant differences between subjective thermal responses of the subjects experiencing 700 lx or 70 lx in both stages although the subjects felt cooler in stage 2 than in stage 1. The subjects were likely to prefer wearing heavier clothing in 70 lx than in 700 lx. It was concluded that vasoconstriction in the upper limbs occurred more strongly in dim light, which might result in different clothing preferences in a cool environment from those associated with brighter light intensity.

  20. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  1. Analytical Provision of Profitable Activity of Clothing Industry Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk Mykola Ye.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is improvement of the methodology of study of financial results through introduction into the domestic practice of application of modern instruments of methods of non-linear dynamics – catastrophe theory for analytical provision of management of profitability of clothing industry enterprises on its basis. In the result of the conducted study the article proves that the catastrophe theory is a conceptual and methodological basis for studying and forecasting financial results of activity of clothing industry enterprises as unstable to system changes and is a component of such a modern scientific direction as synergetics. The essence of the latter is that under conditions when in the course of conduct of main activity there is accumulation of a critical reserve of influence of various factors upon change of financial results, which, in their turn, undergo impact of various factors, including random ones, and at a certain point of time the activity becomes unprofitable, changing its qualitative characteristics in leaps and bounds, that is, it passes to a new trajectory of changes. The prospect of further studies in this direction is the study of behaviour of financial results of clothing production, which are negative for its activity due to uneven negative changes and which manifest themselves in unprofitable management due to unexpected reaction on correlation between the object of study and insignificant fluctuations of influence factors, in particular, in disproportions between the rates of growth of expenditure and income components of activity.

  2. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals.

  3. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0-8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa-1) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading.

  4. MEANS OF SHAPING AND FORMSERIALIZE IN MODERN FUR CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we perform an analysis of the means of shaping and formserialize in fur clothes taken in the production of domestic and foreign fur companies. The spatial form of fur garments is solved, in the main, constructive. The type, direction and amount of articulation were determined by the design of the product and the properties of the fur: the height of the hairline, the size of fur semi-finished product. The proposed positioning of the shaping of articulation in fur clothes has to be performed in the environment of 3D CAD. It is established that in modern models of the silhouette of a fur product may be formed not only by design divisions but also by a combination of the product of different types of fur. We have performed studies on the use of funds of formation in models of industrial collections fur coat 2015-16 presented on the trading spots of Moscow. We have conducted a monitoring of consumer preferences on the types of fur among women and determined the causes of loss of fur, clothing of spatial forms under adverse conditions of wearing. We have also proposed innovative means of formserialize in a fur garment of solid and perforated fur

  5. Uncovering Sundanese Values by Analyzing Symbolic Meaning of Ménak Priangan Clothing (1800-1942)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmila, M.; Suciati; Widiaty, I.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates symbolic meanings found in the Sunda ethnic clothing, particularly the Menak Priangan clothing. This study aims to uncover and document those symbolic meanings found in the Menak Priangan clothing as an effort to develop Sunda cultural artefacts of West Java. This study on Menak Priangan clothing applies ethnography (visual) and aesthetic methods. The visual method is utilized in order to uncover local cultural (Sunda) values found in Menak Priangan clothing visualization, including: design, model, name, and representing colours, which then directed towards local Sundanese aesthetic concepts living within the Priangan community. Furthermore, aesthetic method is used to explore role of aesthetic values in empowering visual cultural values within certain community, particularly Sunda aesthetic values. The study results show that since the 19th century, Sunda ethnic clothing was limited to Priangan Sunda only, while traditional clothing wearing by Priangan people reflects their social strata, consisting of: a. Menak Gede (Menak pangluhurna: mayor), bearing raden title, b. Menak Leutik/Santana (mayor assistant), titles: asep, mas, agus, ujang, (Nyimas for woman), c. Somah/Cacah: ordinary people/lower class. Clothing is a cultural phenomenon within certain culture reflecting such society experiences. For Menak people, clothing and its accessories have important meanings. They wear such traditional clothing and accessories as a symbol of power they have within bureaucratic structure and as a symbol of social status they bear within traditional community structure.

  6. Synaptic plasticity functions in an organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoupidenis, Paschalis; Schaefer, Nathan; Strakosas, Xenofon; Fairfield, Jessamyn A.; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-12-01

    Synaptic plasticity functions play a crucial role in the transmission of neural signals in the brain. Short-term plasticity is required for the transmission, encoding, and filtering of the neural signal, whereas long-term plasticity establishes more permanent changes in neural microcircuitry and thus underlies memory and learning. The realization of bioinspired circuits that can actually mimic signal processing in the brain demands the reproduction of both short- and long-term aspects of synaptic plasticity in a single device. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of neuromorphic functions similar to biological memory, such as short- to long-term memory transition, in non-volatile organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). Depending on the training of the OECT, the device displays either short- or long-term plasticity, therefore, exhibiting non von Neumann characteristics with merged processing and storing functionalities. These results are a first step towards the implementation of organic-based neuromorphic circuits.

  7. Analysis of the Interaction of Pulsed Laser with Nanoporous Activated Carbon Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.V. Kalucljerovic; M.S. Trtica; B.B. Radak; J.M. Stasic; S.S. Krstic Musovic; V.M. Dodevski

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of pulsed transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2-1aser radiation at 10.6 μm with nanoporous activated carbon cloth was investigated. Activated carbon cloth of different adsorption characteristics was used. Activated carbon cloth modifications were initiated by laser pulse intensities from 0.5 to 28 MW/cm^2, depending on the cloth adsorption characteristics. CO2 laser radiation was effectively absorbed by the used activated carbon cloth and largely converted into thermal energy. The type of modification depended on laser power density, number of pulses, but mostly on material characteristics such as specific surface area. The higher the surface area of activated carbon cloth, the higher the damage threshold.

  8. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  9. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  10. Selected Plastics Wear Resistance to Bonded Abrasive Particles Compared to Some Ferrous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are macromolecular materials without we cannot imagine any branch of human activity with. Plastics have unique properties, often very different from metals. At the choice of the concrete plastic for the concrete application it is necessary to evaluate its mechanical, physical, chemical and technological properties. In last years producers offer also plastics for production of parts exposed to different types of wear. In the contribution the results of wear resistance studying of 10 types of plastics (PTFE, PVC, POM-C, PC, PETP, PEEK, PA66, PP, PA6E and PE-UHMW of one producer are published and compared with test results of four different Fe alloys (grey iron, structural steel, cast steel wear resistant and high-speed steel. The laboratory tests were carried out using the pin-on-disk machine with abrasive cloth (according to ČSN 01 5084, when the abrasive clothes of three different grits (240, 120 and 60 were used. It corresponds to the average abrasive grain sizes of 44.5 µm, 115.5 µm and 275 µm. During the test the test sample was pressed to the abrasive cloth by the pressure of 0.1 MPa. The wear intensity was assessed by the volume, weight and length losses of tested samples. The technical-economical evaluation was the part of the carried out tests. It was univocally proved that at the intensive abrasive wear using the abrasive cloth the best results shows the High-Speed Steel HSS Poldi Radeco 19 810 according to ČSN 41 9810, although its price is relatively high. Other tested Fe alloys, namely grey iron according to ČSN 42 2415, structural steel 11 373 according to ČSN 41 1373 and wear resistant cast steel VPH 6 showed also very favourable properties at the material low price. In comparison with Fe alloys the wear of all plastics was considerably higher and the plastics were considerably more expensive.

  11. COMPARISON OF JAPANESE AND CHINESE CLOTHING EVALUATIONS BY EXPERTS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT MARKETABILIT

    OpenAIRE

    Kim KyoungOk; Takatera Masayuki; Zhu AliChunhong; Otani Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the reasons for the marketability of clothing now designed and sold in China and Japan, we asked Japanese and Chinese experts to evaluate Chinese and Japanese brands of clothing currently for sale in the Japanese market. The marketability of the Chinese apparel items in the Japanese market was evaluated by the Japanese experts. Five Japanese jackets were purchased from a department store in Tokyo, and ten items of Chinese clothing were purchased from a department store in...

  12. The Influence of the Environment and Clothing on Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Liu; Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objection The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. Methods The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensi...

  13. Adultification of Children′s Clothing%童装成人化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐韵; 熊兆飞

    2011-01-01

    It analyzed the reasons of children′s clothing tending to adultification,discussed how to make adult cloth elements combined better with children′s clothes,and gave the related measures.%分析了童装趋向于成人化的原因,探讨了如何使成人服装元素更好地与童装相结合,并给出了相关措施。

  14. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  15. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  16. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  17. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  18. Design and production of nursing clothes for the upper limb disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    岡部, 千幸

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most trending clothes are specifically made to fit the shape of the human body. So, we can say that we are wearing clothes based on the clothing’s shape. However, due to disabilities and advanced age, there are people who are unable to wear these types of general clothing. But recently, certain brands have been receiving public attention for making clothes that are designed to fit, even the elderly. For my research, I propose a system in which customers, ranging from the younger ge...

  19. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops. Also, the society influences in forming adolescents’ attitudes and decisions towards store selection and purchasing preferences of clothes were examined. The research findings showed that shopping centres are the preferred retail format. In addition, adolescents do not have a fully developed attitude on fashion and clothing. Therefore, they strongly refer to opinions of family and friends when choosing clothes. Moreover, the Internet and TV are evaluated as influential channels of consumer communication within this particular group of consumers. Based on the findings, suggestions for service management and marketing strategies are provided for apparel retail companies that target adolescents.

  20. Study on the Relation between the Air Gap Size under Clothing and the Comfort Sensations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-yi; PAN Jin-huan; LIU Su-yan

    2006-01-01

    Combining two non-contact testing instruments of a threedimensional body measure system and an infrared camera,the entrapped air gap under clothing and the clothing surface temperature distribution were measured without interfering the air gap state. It was discussed the effect of different air gap size on subjective clothing sensation. At the same time,taken the subjective sensations of moisture, adhesiveness and mugginess from the lower back as example, the relationship among the subjective evaluation, the air gap size and the clothing surface temperature were analyzed.

  1. The Characteristics,Structure and Trend of the Chinese Urban and Rural Residents’ Clothing Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Haifeng; XIAO

    2014-01-01

    As one of the necessities of life,clothing is on the important position in the daily life of urban and rural residents. Firstly,the paper carries out the descriptive statistical analysis about clothing consumption expenditures of urban and rural residents; secondly,based on questionnaires of 543 urban and rural residents in 16 provinces,this paper analyses structure and trend of urban and rural residents’ clothing consumption. The results show that per capita clothing consumption expenditure of urban and rural residents present growth on the whole,but the gap between the two is gradually expanding; clothing consumption expenditure have differences in different regions; the differences of different income levels are also obvious; urban and rural residents’ clothing consumption structure tends to be more diversified,cotton goods and chemical fiber goods is the main variety of clothing consumption,including down feather,cotton and chemical fiber is the main variety of coat,and cotton,chemical fiber and wool is the main variety of suit and knitwear; cotton goods,down goods and woolen goods will be the fiber goods that urban and rural residents buy more in the future; clothing consumption demand will pursue for band,comfort and personality; female residents will still be the main force of clothing consumption. Finally,the paper puts forward some recommendations on the basis of analysis results.

  2. Generalized Hampel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.

  3. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  4. Clothes Cleaning Studies for Long Duration Manned Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Imagine how much could be saved in just 5 years if the garments that are sent to space are reduced by half. My project consisted in analyzing the efficiency of steam cleaning with and without pretreatment of selected garments. Crewmembers wear clothes for a certain period of time, and then these garments are discarded. Having crewmembers wearing their clothes for longer time while giving them the opportunity of reusing the garments (which at the moment is not possible) will reduce costs considerably. More importantly, it will build the path for sustaining human presence in deep space. In addition, reusing cleaned clothes will help crewmembers be in a more hygienic environment because the amount of trash will be reduced. By limiting the amount of garments that are sent, volume and mass will be reduced. As a result, there will be more space to pack other necessary goods. The main duties within the project were to develop a pre wash procedure that will be used for all of the fabrics (4 different fabrics were included in the experiment), to establish a time for the process of cleaning the garments with steam, to know the amount of oil and salt solution necessary to soil the fabric and that will be completely absorbed by the fabric, to determine the amount of chemical agent to use for removing the stains, to create a matrix with the SAS software that will have all the possible combinations to carry out during the experiment when soiling the shirts, to measure the stains before and after the steam process, to measure the cleanliness of the fabric before and after with the use of the Gray Scale for Staining, and to find out whether or not the observations are valid and useful.

  5. Principles of Slow Fashion Application in Clothing Collection Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Antanavičiūtė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today we can clearly see the damage which is caused by fast fashion production and mass consumption. Therefore, a relevant issue is how to reduce consumption, waste, and threat to the environment and human health. Research into the slow fashion designers approach towards eco-friendly and slow fashion products shows that it is necessary to spread ideas of slow fashion widely and teach users about ecologically friendly clothing. Therefore, this paper analyses theoretical and practical slow fashion principles applied by slow fashion designers; according to this, the collection ‘Just Share’ was created. The aim of the collection is to spread ideas of slow fashion and adapt them in specific technical projects dealing with the problems of use and production waste minimisation and creating sustainable, easily recyclable, environmentally friendly garments. Products for reducing consumption are developed based on the idea of sharing clothing. Therefore, garments are one size and suitable for different types of figures of men and women.  Clothing design is inspired by folding, so models have various pleats, unfolds allowing minimal transformation of the garment, which gives the product its individuality and extends time of wearing. Models are designed with a minimal amount of accessories and minimum division lines, maintaining the uniformity of materials and uncomplicated sewing technology. In this way, out of wear garments can be easily remade. Original constructions of models are based on the ‘zero waste’ principle. This method reduces waste generation. So this research was prepared using the principles of slow fashion, which has a potential to reduce excessive consumption and stop growth of textile waste.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.2.12392

  6. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelens Brian E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1 children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2 clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical

  7. The Günther-Tulip retrievable filter: a method for assessing tilting of the filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cho, Kyung J

    2010-04-01

    Tilting of the Günther-Tulip filter may be responsible for failure or difficulty to retrieve. Assessment of the filter tilt can be difficult when only AP imaging is available. This study is performed in vitro to develop a simple method to assess the Günther-Tulip filter for tilting. A model consisting of a plastic tube was used to simulate vena cava. A Günther-Tulip filter was placed centred or tilted within the tube at various positions and radiograms were taken in AP, lateral, and craniocaudally angled projections. The images were analysed to determine the actual degree of tilt, the distance between the limb hooks on AP radiograms and the craniocaudal angulation degree needed to align the limb hooks linearly. When the filter was centred or tilted laterally, all limb hooks of the filter were aligned linearly on AP radiograms. When the filter was tilted in AP or oblique direction, linear alignment of the limb hooks was lost and the ventral and dorsal limb hooks showed separation on AP projection. The amount of separation and the craniocaudal angles to align the filter hooks corresponded to actual tilt angles. Loss of linear alignment of limb hooks in AP radiograms may suggest the presence of tilt in the AP plane. Significant separation of limb hooks should be alarming for significant filter tilt, and further evaluation of the filter position by CT scan or lateral cavogram should be obtained prior to planning of the retrieval. Copyright 2009 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  9. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  10. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  11. Article of Clothing for Storing and Deploying a Scarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Robert (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A clothing article surrounds a wearer's upper torso. The article includes connected front portion, a collar. A sleeve is formed in the front portion. A jacket, and coat with an attachable/detachable scarf will be folded and stored in the inter portion of the front side of the collar area with elastic at each end and Velcro onto the inner portion of your collar, therefore eliminating the lost of them by any consumers, and especially children. A sleeve like collar attached to the coat and jacket for storing a scarf and making it easily deployable while in use.

  12. Effects of Protective Clothing on Personnel Performance--Annotated Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-20

    CLOTHING IN THE HEAT ON 00-86 SIGNAL DETECTION OVER THE VISUAL FIELD (U) Army Tank- Automotive Command (Warren, MI) 069 EVALUATION OF COMBAT 4EHICLE GUNNER...thing apparatus at a light (21% V02 max ). and a moderate 41% V02 max ) work level. The mean endurance times were 12% (NS) and 24% (P less than 0.01...protocols were administered. Heart rate (HR). oxygen consumption ( Vo2 ). skin (Ts) and rectal (Tr) temperatures were monitored. The impervious suits results

  13. Environmental friendly production of synthetic fabrics for clothing (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hjortbak, Grethe Føns; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    This report analyses and estimates the environmental strain in the lifecycle of synthetic clothing. Based on a screening it has been decided to survey the production phase in details, because that is the most important phase in which the U-landsimporten can make demands.In connection to the survey...... it will be relevant for the U-landsimporten to make demands for better conditions for the environment and the employers of the supplier.The demands are mostly made for the production but there are also demands for the fiber production, spinning and transportation....

  14. Preface: Phragmites australis: A sheep in wolf's clothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M.P.; Keough, J.R.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Litvin, S.Y.

    2003-01-01

    A. problem with national priorities for control or prevention of aquatic nuisance species is that we often do not know the full extent of the problem, if there is one. To address this issue, we hosted a technical forum and workshop-Phragmites australis: A Sheep in Wolf's Clothing?--with a focus on new research and critical reviews that address the role of Phragmites as a noxious weed. ... The Workshop helped focus the national effort in new multidisciplinary research to better understand the ecology of P australis and its ecosystem-level effects on the structure and function of coastal wetlands.

  15. Explicit Pore Pressure Material Model in Carbon-Cloth Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton; Ehle, Curt

    2003-01-01

    An explicit material model that uses predicted pressure in the pores of a carbon-cloth phenolic (CCP) composite has been developed. This model is intended to be used within a finite-element model to predict phenomena specific to CCP components of solid-fuel-rocket nozzles subjected to high operating temperatures and to mechanical stresses that can be great enough to cause structural failures. Phenomena that can be predicted with the help of this model include failures of specimens in restrained-thermal-growth (RTG) tests, pocketing erosion, and ply lifting

  16. Automatic Modeling of Virtual Humans and Body Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Hyewon Seo; Frederic Cordier

    2004-01-01

    Highly realistic virtual human models are rapidly becoming commonplace in computer graphics.These models, often represented by complex shape and requiring labor-intensive process, challenge the problem of automatic modeling. The problem and solutions to automatic modeling of animatable virtual humans are studied. Methods for capturing the shape of real people, parameterization techniques for modeling static shape (the variety of human body shapes) and dynamic shape (how the body shape changes as it moves) of virtual humans are classified, summarized and compared. Finally, methods for clothed virtual humans are reviewed.

  17. Capsule collection for women's plus-size clothing brand

    OpenAIRE

    Vähäkangas, Oona

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to design a capsule collection for women’s plus-size clothing brand called annascholz Ltd. The thesis was based on a design studio internship period that was carried out by the author at the company during summer 2016 and knowledge gained during that time. The thesis consisted of two parts: the first part was the research part and the second the practice-based design part. In the research part more information was gained of the target group by reading studie...

  18. Women’s Cloth-Making Campaign in Shanxi(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    THE cloth-making campaign was a great activity carried out to pull through and win the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-1945). In the northwest of Shanxi Province, with mountains and long winters, local industry and agriculture developed slowly. Moreover, the Kuomintang and Yan Xishan’s troops feudalist rule and oppression, the warlords harassing and looting, and the Japanese aggressors’ destruction impoverished the farmers, wasted their land, and ruined their dwellings. The original small handicraft industries were almost shut-down completely. The local people lived destitute

  19. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  20. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  1. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  2. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G

    2015-02-01

    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing.

  3. Seasonal adaptation of thermal and metabolic responses in men wearing different clothing at 10° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Tokura, Hiromi

    1993-03-01

    Thermoregulatory responses at ambient temperatures of 20 and 10° C in six male subjects wearing two different kinds of clothing were compared between summer and winter. The two different kinds of clothing were one insulating the upper half of the body lightly and the lower half of the body heavily (clothing A, the weight in the upper and lower halves of the body being, respectively, 489 g and 1278 g) and the other insulating the upper half of the body heavily and the lower half of the body lightly (clothing B: 1212 g and 559 g). The major findings are summarized as follow. (i) Rectal temperature was kept significantly higher in clothing B than in clothing A both in summer and winter. (ii) The fall of rectal temperature was significantly greater in summer than in winter in both types of clothing. (iii) Mean skin temperatures and skin temperatures in the face, chest, thigh and leg were significantly lower at T a of 10° C in summer than in winter in clothing A, while skin temperatures in the face and thigh were also significantly lower at T a of 10° C in summer than in winter in clothing B. (iv) Metabolic heat production was higher in summer than in winter at 20 and 10° C in both types of clothing. (v) The subjects felt cooler and colder to T a of 10° C in summer than in winter in both types of clothing. These different responses occurring between summer and winter are discussed mainly in terms of total conductance and dry heat loss.

  4. Economics of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators - 1984. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheck, R.W.; Mora, R.R.; Belba, V.H.; Horney, F.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report compares the operating and maintenance costs, and equipment capital costs of fabric filter (F) and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) systems for typical 500 MW units meeting a range of particulate emission limitations and firing fuel from fuel (5) major coal and lignite fields. To meet the current New Source Performance Standard 0.03 lbs/10/sup 6/ Btu, ESPs and FFs were found to be economically equivalent for the more precipitable ash from high- to medium-sulfur, eastern coals and North Dakota lignites. The fabric filter is the economic choice for the low-sulfur, western coals investigated in this report. Irrespective of coal and ash properties, a conventional reverse-gas FF with an air-to-cloth ratio of 2.0 ft/min was found to be the economic choice over an ESP with a specific collecting area greater than 500 ft/sup 2//1000 ACFM. This report also examines the cost benefits of applying advanced technology and optimized designs to FFs and ESPs. For example, the levelized costs of a conventional reverse-gas FF can be reduced by increasing the air-to-cloth ratio above the conventional design valve of 2.0 ft/min, with a minimum cost calculated near 2.7 ft/min. Other technologies investigated are shake/deflate and sonic cleaning of FFs, and gas conditioned ESPs. The sensitivity of a particulate collection system's cost estimate to such factors as air-to-cloth ratio, bag life, and power consumption is also demonstrated. 29 refs., 46 figs., 53 tabs.

  5. Computer Aided Filter Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14

  6. A unified Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    When considering problems of linear sequential estimation, two versions of the Kalman filter, the continuous-time version and the discrete-time version, are often used. (A hybrid filter also exists.) In many applications in which the Kalman filter is used, the system to which the filter is applied is a linear continuous-time system, but the Kalman filter is implemented on a digital computer, a discrete-time device. The two general approaches for developing a discrete-time filter for implementation on a digital computer are: (1) approximate the continuous-time system by a discrete-time system (called discretization of the continuous-time system) and develop a filter for the discrete-time approximation; and (2) develop a continuous-time filter for the system and then discretize the continuous-time filter. Generally, the two discrete-time filters will be different, that is, it can be said that discretization and filter generation are not, in general, commutative operations. As a result, any relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time versions of the filter for the same continuous-time system is often obfuscated. This is particularly true when an attempt is made to generate the continuous-time version of the Kalman filter through a simple limiting process (the sample period going to zero) applied to the discrete-time version. The correct result is, generally, not obtained. In a 1961 research report, Kalman showed that the continuous-time Kalman filter can be obtained from the discrete-time Kalman filter by taking limits as the sample period goes to zero if the white noise process for the continuous-time version is appropriately defined. Using this basic concept, a discrete-time Kalman filter can be developed for a continuous-time system as follows: (1) discretize the continuous-time system using Kalman's technique; and (2) develop a discrete-time Kalman filter for that discrete-time system. Kalman's results show that the discrete-time filter generated in

  7. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    . The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF CLOTHING SECTOR IN THE EU-28 MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analyzing the comparative advantages in the European clothing sector with the focus on Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. For all Balkan countries export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development and the clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity in this countries. The evolution of the RCA index for garment industry is decreasing for all countries in the Balkans. The evolution of the Lafay index is also decreasing in the most Balkan countries (except Greece, Montenegro and Slovenia but still the values for Lafay index is positive what indicating that in these countries the sale of garments contribute positively to balance the trade balance of countries analyzed. Negative value of the Lafay index may be due to the fact that the garment industry is one of the key industries in the economy of that country and also because the earnings from garment industry in these countries is high. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries.

  9. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R. [Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of the program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former Department of Energy sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Such sites are contaminated with a variety of hazardous compounds, ranging from asbestos, mercury and other heavy metals, to toxic organic compounds, such as PCB and chlorinated solvents, and radioactive metals and salts. Because of the hazards of exposure to these materials, workers must wear protective garments. These garments, which are made from Saran{reg_sign}, butyl rubber or other impermeable materials, provide excellent protection against particulates, liquids, aerosols, organic vapors and gases, but are impermeable to water vapor. Consequently, humidity and temperature within the suit rise rapidly during use, causing increasing discomfort. Heat stress occurs if the suit is worn for more than brief periods without resting. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer with a sorptive layer. If successfully developed, suits made from this fabric will offer equivalent, or better, protection than current materials, combined with a very high water vapor transmission rate (1,000 g/m{sup 2}{sm_bullet} day or more) that will dramatically improve {open_quotes}breathability,{close_quotes} comfort, and worker productivity.

  10. Practicing Sustainability: Illuminating ‘Use’ in Wearing Clothes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the ordinary in everyday dressing remain elusive to fashion studies, meaning the life of what Judy Attfield calls ‘design in the lower case’ escapes notice. In this article, the authors assemble a practice-oriented perspective to illuminate ‘wearing’ as an outcome of sets of commonplace and routine practices related to dressing, that wear a garment in and out over time, and enhance the visibility of clothing use. The central example is a research project that tests the theory of loosening the meaning of clean by trialling alternative laundering techniques to understand the transition to sustain-ability, or less resource-intensive competencies in the spectrum of clothing use. The promise of an interdisciplinary conceptual framework that draws from ‘theories of practice’ at the intersection of cultural studies, sociology and design is also tested as appropriate for the analysis of the quotidian realm of wearing and laundering; the analysis is particularly assisted with sustainable design research about the transition toward sustainable ways of living such as the development of ‘slow fashion’.

  11. ROMANIAN TEXTILES AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY – PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu FOLCUT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2007 Romania joined the EU. Since then its current import duties for clothing and textiles has dropped a full 10% to between 6% and 8%. Consequently, import and re-export opportunities for Hong Kong, the Chinese mainland and other Asian suppliers are expected to increase, according to local Romanian importers. Chinese mainland firms are said to have invested US$254 million in the Romanian economy, but no details are available about the proportion directly invested in the clothing and textile sectors. Romania is now a lesser force in the garment and textile industry than it used to be, where it comes to feeding the EU market - even though the country is still the largest producer of such goods in Central and Eastern Europe, ahead of comparable economies such as Ukraine and Bulgaria. Romania also easily outcompetes more expensive labour in Hungary and Poland, neither of which are now considered contenders for price-sensitive trades, say Romanian analysts.

  12. EVALUATION OF OUTDOOR SPORTS CLOTHING BRAND PERSONALITY BY USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.

  13. ABSORBENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PESHTAMALS: TRADITIONAL TURKISH WOVEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorbency of textiles is defined as the ability of taking in a fluid in the manner of a sponge. Absorbency is required for comfort properties in so me clothes such as sportswear and underwear clothing, for drying properties in napkins, towels and bathrobes, for health concerns in some medical textiles such as bandages, gauze and absorbent cotton, and for cleaning properties in washclothes and mops. In this study five different fabric samples (three woven 100% cotton fabrics A, B and P respectively at plain, twill, and peshtamal weaving patterns and two 100% cotton terry towels T1 and T2 were tested. The absorbency properties of the samples were evaluated according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests (pottasium chromate test. Peshtamal samples showed better absorbency results than plain and twill weaves and lower but close results to towel samples according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests. The absorbency properties of peshtamals showed results close to towel samples. The void content of peshtamals is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. The good absorbency results of peshtamals might be due to the void content of peshtamals which is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. Peshtamals which are good in absorbency and light in weight might be used widespreadly in daily life for their high absorbency, and on travel for weight saving purposes.

  14. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  15. Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Kabindra M; Noyes, Alyssa; Kallin, Randa; Peltier, Richard E

    2016-08-17

    Inexpensive cloth masks are widely used in developing countries to protect from particulate pollution albeit limited data on their efficacy exists. This study examined the efficiency of four types of masks (three types of cloth masks and one type of surgical mask) commonly worn in the developing world. Five monodispersed aerosol sphere size (30, 100, and 500 nm, and 1 and 2.5 μm) and diluted whole diesel exhaust was used to assess facemask performance. Among the three cloth mask types, a cloth mask with an exhaust valve performed best with filtration efficiency of 80-90% for the measured polystyrene latex (PSL) particle sizes. Two styles of commercially available fabric masks were the least effective with a filtration efficiency of 39-65% for PSL particles, and they performed better as the particle size increased. When the cloth masks were tested against lab-generated whole diesel particles, the filtration efficiency for three particle sizes (30, 100, and 500 nm) ranged from 15% to 57%. Standard N95 mask performance was used as a control to compare the results with cloth masks, and our results suggest that cloth masks are only marginally beneficial in protecting individuals from particles<2.5 μm. Compared with cloth masks, disposable surgical masks are more effective in reducing particulate exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 17 August 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.42.

  16. The Employment Challenge of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Scenario and Strategies for Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In January 2005, the quota system for imports of textiles and clothing was phased out and gave way to more liberalized global trade in textiles and clothing. The T&C industry is Pakistan’s main export engine. It is also a major industrial employer, and one of the few sectors

  17. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  18. The Employment Challenge of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Scenario and Strategies for Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In January 2005, the quota system for imports of textiles and clothing was phased out and gave way to more liberalized global trade in textiles and clothing. The T&C industry is Pakistan’s main export engine. It is also a major industrial employer, and one of the few sectors tha

  19. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...) Standard HLD-1-1974, ``AHAM Performance Evaluation Procedure for Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers... Consumption of Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers'' December 1975 (AHAM Standard HLD-2EC). The test... test procedure additional language based on provisions from European Standard EN 61121, ``Tumble...

  20. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  1. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considere

  2. Attitudes of hospitalized patients toward wearing patient clothing in Tianjin, China: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: More than half of the hospitalized patients dislike wearing patient clothing because they were unaware of its functions and were skeptical about its hygiene, comfortability, fit, and appearance. Therefore, these patients must be provided with comfortable, well fitting, hygienic, and aesthetically pleasing clothing.

  3. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  5. 76 FR 69869 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... laboratory could select the ``Colors'' setting, for example, while another might select the ``Permanent Press... clothing because they may lead to clothing damage such as shrinkage, dye transfer, puckering, or other...'', ``Whites'', ``Colors'', etc.). In other instances, the word ``cycle'' refers to an individual wash/rinse...

  6. Self-reported clothing size as a proxy measure for body size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered the potential utility of clothing size as a predictor of diseases associated with body weight. METHODS: We used data on weight-stable men and women from a subcohort of the Netherlands Cohort Study to assess the correlation of clothing size with other

  7. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For...

  8. Inconspicuous dressing: a critique of the construction-through-consumption paradigm in the sociology of clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Laan; O. Velthuis

    2013-01-01

    Based on ‘wardrobe interviews’, this article studies how young Dutch men dress themselves. We argue that existing sociological studies of clothing have gone too far in emphasizing the symbolic aspects of clothing and have not paid sufficient attention to the role of routines and rules in daily dress

  9. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callewaert,C.; De Maeseneire, E.; Kerckhof, F.M.; Verliefde, A.; Van de Wiele, T.; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts wer

  10. Competencies in Clothing and Textiles Needed by Beginning Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 300 family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals in North Carolina received 140 responses that rated the importance of teacher competencies in textiles and clothing instruction. Clothing construction ranked highest. Results informed the work of a committee revising FCS curriculum. (JOW)

  11. Clothing and the Affects on a Teacher's Image: How Students View Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Joseph B.; Buzza, John

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is an essential element of our daily lives that is basically an expression of who we are. People shop to buy clothing for a variety of reasons, such as enjoyment and socialization. It is fundamental that participating in social activities and life satisfaction are related to well-being. Our well-being is influenced by education, income,…

  12. Research Trends in Textiles and Clothing: An Analysis of Three Journals, 1980-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sharron J.; Johnson, Kim K. P.; Park, Ji-Hye

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of textiles and clothing research in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, and Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 1980-1999 (n=586) found that survey and experimentation were used most often; data analysis is primarily quantitative, although qualitative is increasing; and in the…

  13. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  14. An investigation on clothing buying behavior of more than 60 years old men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Çivitci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a regular and inescapable process that causes some changes on psychology, intelligence qualifications and social relations of people. Importance of clothing increases during elderly stage due to physical changes at the body and limitations arising body changes effect clothing preferences. It has been tried to determine clothing buying behavior of more than 60 years old man consumers in this investigation. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate after determining clothing buying behaviors of elderly man consumers and offer some suggestions to consumers and producers according to the results. Material of this investigation is consist of data obtained questionnaire forms that are carried out 840 voluntary people from more than 60 years old ready to wear consumers living different regions (İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir and Adana of Turkey. According to the data derived from this questionnaire form, clothing buying behaviors of elderly men consumers have been determined and evaluated scientifically. At the end of the investigation, it has been revealed that elderly consumers have had some difficulties while buying clothing and they need various model clothing that available on their bodies. Under favor of the results, it has been offered some suggestions to manufacturers and elderly man consumers who buying clothing.

  15. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callewaert,C.; De Maeseneire, E.; Kerckhof, F.M.; Verliefde, A.; Van de Wiele, T.; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts

  16. 78 FR 8992 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC63 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers... procedures for residential clothes dryers established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; ``EPCA'' or...

  17. Post-Secondary Analysis of Clothing/Textiles Technology Programs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson, Linda R.; And Others

    A study examined postsecondary occupational programs in clothing and textiles technology in Texas in order to (1) identify common essential competencies taught in postsecondary clothing/textiles technology programs, (2) develop and distribute student competency profiles of essential common competencies shared by the eight areas of study within…

  18. Rags in the High Rent District: the Evolution of Quota Rents in Textiles and Clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Woerz

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a mixed complementarity programming (MCP) based estimating framework for non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to examine the evolution of market access conditions in the textile and clothing sectors, working with a panel of bilateral trade data on textile and clothing trade, underlying

  19. Undressing Transformative Learning: The Roles of Instrumental and Communicative Learning in the Shift to Clothing Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Lisa J.; Sinclair, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Clothing is an integral part of our lives, yet modes of producing, using, and disposing of apparel have significant impacts on the environment. Our research explored the role transformative learning plays in the transition to more sustainable thinking and actions about clothing to illuminate instrumental learning processes and examine the…

  20. Rags in the High Rent District: the Evolution of Quota Rents in Textiles and Clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Woerz

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a mixed complementarity programming (MCP) based estimating framework for non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to examine the evolution of market access conditions in the textile and clothing sectors, working with a panel of bilateral trade data on textile and clothing trade, underlying

  1. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  2. Penetration of Combustion Aerosol Particles Through Filters of NIOSH-Certified Filtering Facepiece Respirators (FFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Kim, Jinyong; Yermakov, Michael; Elmashae, Yousef; He, Xinjian; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are commonly worn by first responders, first receivers, and other exposed groups to protect against exposure to airborne particles, including those originated by combustion. Most of these FFRs are NIOSH-certified (e.g., N95-type) based on the performance testing of their filters against charge-equilibrated aerosol challenges, e.g., NaCl. However, it has not been examined if the filtration data obtained with the NaCl-challenged FFR filters adequately represent the protection against real aerosol hazards such as combustion particles. A filter sample of N95 FFR mounted on a specially designed holder was challenged with NaCl particles and three combustion aerosols generated in a test chamber by burning wood, paper, and plastic. The concentrations upstream (Cup) and downstream (Cdown) of the filter were measured with a TSI P-Trak condensation particle counter and a Grimm Nanocheck particle spectrometer. Penetration was determined as (Cdown/Cup) ×100%. Four test conditions were chosen to represent inhalation flows of 15, 30, 55, and 85 L/min. Results showed that the penetration values of combustion particles were significantly higher than those of the "model" NaCl particles (p combustion particles. Aerosol type, inhalation flow rate and particle size were significant (p combustion particles through R95 and P95 FFR filters (were tested in addition to N95) were not significantly higher than that obtained with NaCl particles. The findings were attributed to several effects, including the degradation of an N95 filter due to hydrophobic organic components generated into the air by combustion. Their interaction with fibers is anticipated to be similar to those involving "oily" particles. The findings of this study suggest that the efficiency of N95 respirator filters obtained with the NaCl aerosol challenge may not accurately predict (and rather overestimate) the filter efficiency against combustion particles.

  3. Temperature and energy consumption for clothing dryer; Temperatura e consumo de energia em secadora de vestuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jefferson Almeida; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The cloth dehumidification is done by hot air circulation through it in dryers. The air circulation is done by a fan, run by an electrical motor, and the air temperature raise, which goes through the cloths aiming their moisture dragging, is gotten by the heat dissipation from electrical resistance. This work shows the results of an experimental modeling, examining the behavior of several kinds of cloth in a vertical suspense-type dryer, such as: polyester, cotton-spandex, flannel, blue-jeans and viscose rayon. It was analyzed the behavior of the moisture content in these cloths related to controlled-temperature-air flows, determining the needed heat to reach the required drying standards. The drying device fans were tested for the determination of their flow rate and energy consumption, establishing a flow rate versus consumption relationship. Comparative results among the various kinds of cloths are presented. (author)

  4. A Design Tool for Clothing Applications: Wind Resistant Fabric Layers and Permeable Vents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gibson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational clothing design tool is used to examine the effects of different clothing design features upon performance. Computational predictions of total heat and mass transfer coefficients of the clothing design tool showed good agreement with experimental measurements obtained using a sweating thermal manikin for four different clothing systems, as well as for the unclothed bare manikin. The specific clothing design features examined in this work are the size and placement of air-permeable fabric vents in a protective suit composed primarily of a fabric-laminated polymer film layer. The air-permeable vents were shown to provide additional ventilation and to significantly decrease both the total thermal insulation and the water vapor resistance of the protective suit.

  5. The effect of cold protective clothing on comfort and perception of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Kirsi; Valkama, Anita; Remes, Jouko; Anttonen, Hannu; Peitso, Ari

    2010-01-01

    The physiological properties of clothing designed to provide protection against cold, windy and damp conditions affect comfort. The weight, thickness, stiffness of the fabrics and friction between the clothing layers affect physical performance. The comfort and perception of performance associated with 3 military winter combat clothing systems from different decades (the new M05 system, the previous M91 system and traditional clothing) were observed during a winter military manoeuvre. Subjective experiences concerning comfort and performance were recorded for 319 subjects using questionnaires. The most challenging conditions for comfort and performance were perspiration in the cold and external moisture. The new M05 system provided warmer thermal sensations (p development of the clothing system guarantees good comfort and performance during cold exposure.

  6. ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN CIVILIZATION OF FASHION INDUSTRY: CLOTHES CONCEPT REFLECTION IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mustami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept Apparel in Islamic education. This was currently a lot of variety of fashion in dress. Although the general function of clothes was a human genitalia cover and protect the body from the heat of the sun. However hijab at this time not just cover the nakedness, but rather as a fashion style that became a common thing now was infecting the womenfolk including Muslim. Ranging from clothes, pants, until hijab began in innovation so as to attract the eye. Although it is not yet represent the shape and fashion model/standard clothes, but felt able to express Islamic education in the dressing (hijab and a fashion model/Islamic clothing. Obviously keep on religious norms, ethical and moral teachings. Substance of clothing in Islam is polite in accordance with the values of Islamic Education.

  7. Design and development of high performance panel air filter with experimental evaluation and analysis of filter media pleats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar R. Patil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In automobile vehicles mostly plastic molded panel filters used for the purpose of engine air filtration. Fibrous structured cellulose media were being used with different permeability’s according to requirement of rated air flow rate required for the engine. To optimize the filter pleat design of automotive panel air filter, it is important to study correlation of pressure drop, dust holding capacity & efficiency. The main role of a filter is to provide least pressure drop with high dust holding and efficiency. A channel made for the testing of different pleat designs. This research comprises of experimental design & evaluation of filter element with variable pleat depth and pleat density. This assessment offers the selection of pleat design according to the performance requirements.

  8. Three-zone pupil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  9. Potential applications of smart clothing solutions in health care and personal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Harriet; Honkala, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development in the fields of sensor and telecommunication technologies has created completely new possibilities also for the textile and clothing field. New smart textile and clothing systems can be developed by integrating sensors in the textile constructions. Application fields for these added-value products are e.g. protective clothing for extreme environments, garments for the health care sector, technical textiles, sport and leisure wear. Some products have already been introduced on the markets, but generally it can be stated that the development is only in its starting phase, and the expectations for the future are big. Many different aspects have to be considered in the development of the wearable technology products for the health care sector: medical problems and their diagnosis, sensor choice, data processing and telecommunication solutions, clothing requirements. A functional product can be achieved only if all aspects work together, and therefore experts from all fields should participate in the RTD projects. In the EC-funded project DE3002 Easytex clothing and textiles for disabled and elderly people were investigated. Some recommendations concerning durability, appearance, comfort, service and safety of products for different special user groups were defined, based on user questionnaires and seminars, general textile and clothing requirements and on laboratory test series."Clothing Area Network--Clan" is a research project aiming to develop a technical concept and technology needed in enabling both wired and wireless data and power transfer between different intelligent modules (user interfaces, sensors, CPU's, batteries etc.) integrated into a smart clothing system. Fire-fighters clothing system is chosen as the development platform, being a very challenging application from which the developed technology can be transferred to other protective clothing systems.

  10. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  11. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  13. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  14. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  15. 16 CFR 1610.61 - Reasonable and representative testing to assure compliance with the standard for the clothing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission enforces the Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles (“the Standard”), 16 CFR part 1610... assure compliance with the standard for the clothing textiles. 1610.61 Section 1610.61 Commercial... OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Interpretations and Policies § 1610.61 Reasonable and representative testing...

  16. Surface modification of plasticized PVC by dry cleaning methods: Consequences for artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Muñoz, C.

    2010-03-01

    A study of dry cleaning methods for plasticized PVC has been undertaken using three commercial cloths recommended for plastics artworks, in addition to cotton swabs traditionally used in art conservation. The evaluation of the cleaning has focussed on the efficiency of the cleaners, and the physical and chemical damages caused by the cleaning. The physical and chemical modifications of the PVC surface have been studied by optical microscopy, non-contact profilometry and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, while spectrocolorimetry and non-contact profilometry have been used for evaluating the cleaning efficiency. The results have shown that the cleaner's composition and the cleaning time play an important role in damaging the plasticized PVC surface. On the contrary, it has not been completely determined if the texture of the cleaning agents' surface had an influence on the cleaning efficiency.

  17. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  19. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  20. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  1. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  2. Plastic shaping of aqueous alumina suspensions with saccharides and dicarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, H.; Schilling, C.H.; Biner, S.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Traditional methods for the shape-forming of engineering ceramics entail plastic deformation of powder slurries containing hazardous organic liquids as suspending media. Replacing these organics with aqueous media requires the development of environmentally-benign, water-soluble additives which serve as plasticizers and binders. Fundamental studies were performed with aqueous suspensions of colloidal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to evaluate the role of sucrose, maltodextrin, and oxalic acid on viscosity, sedimentation and filtration characteristics, plastic flow behavior of filter cakes, and sinterability. Maltodextrin and oxalic acid systems exhibited superior results, including filtration to high packing-densities and clay-like plasticity with minimal cracking.

  3. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  5. Crux vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin H; Johnson, Eric D; Kopchok, George E; Fogarty, Thomas J; Arko, Frank R

    2009-09-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are widely accepted for pulmonary embolic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. While long-term complications have been associated with permanent filters, retrievable filters are now available and have resulted in the rapid expansion of this technology. Nonetheless, complications are still reported with optional filters. Furthermore, device tilting and thrombus load may prevent retrieval in up to 30% of patients, thereby eliminating the benefits of this technology. The Crux vena cava filter is a novel, self-centering, low-profile filter that is designed for ease of delivery, retrievability and improved efficacy while limiting fatigue-related device complications. This device has been proven safe and user-friendly in an ovine model and has recently been implanted in human subjects.

  6. CrowdFilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Lind; Wallace, Byron C.; Kraska, Tim

    for complex multi-criteria search problems through crowdsourcing. The CrowdFilter system is capable of supporting both criteria-level labels and n-gram rationales, capturing the human decision making process behind each filtering choice. Using the data provided through CrowdFilter we also introduce a novel......Multi-criteria filtering of mixed open/closed-world data is a time-consuming task, requiring significant manual effort when latent open-world attributes are present. In this work we introduce a novel open-world filtering framework CrowdFilter, enabling automatic UI generation and label elicitation...... multi-criteria active learning method; capable of incorporating labels and n-gram rationales per inclusion criteria, and thus capable of determining both clear includes/excludes, as well as complex borderline cases. By incorporating the active learning approach into the elicitation process of Crowd...

  7. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  8. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  9. Active Cooling e-Textiles for Smart Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-A Lee; Jooyong Kim

    2006-01-01

    Cooling function is definitely one of the most desirable attributes of clothing. In spite of the recent progress on phase changing material (PCM) research, the final products with sufficient amount of cooling capability have not yet to be developed in market. A new concept of cooling fabrics has been proposed by applying "Peltier effect" to textile materials. It occurs whenever electrical current flows through two dissimilar conductors; depending on the direction of current flow, the junction of the two conductors will either absorb or release heat. This effect has been tested on P-type and N-type conducting polymers. A P-type conductive polypyrrole coated fabric was synthesized by insitu polymerization on plain weave PET to make conductive fabrics. And an N-type electrically conductive material was synthesized by treatment of MWNT and polyethyleneimine (PEI). A noticeable amount of temperature difference has been found in the fabric.

  10. Motion aware clothing for the personal health assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Gerhard; Kirstein, Tünde; Lukowicz, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper sketches the vision and first results of a 'Personal Health Assistant' PHA, opening up new vistas in patient centred healthcare. The PHA is comprised of a wearable sensing and communicating system, seamlessly embedded in daily clothing. Several on-body sensors monitor the biometric and contextual status of the wearer continuously. The embedded computer fuses the vital and physiological data with activity patterns of the wearer and with the social environment; based on these data the on-body computer generates the 'Life Balance Factor' LBF as an individual feedback to the user and to the surroundings afford-ing effective disease prevention, management and rehabilitation, the last also involving telemedicine. The state-of-the-art enabling technologies: smart textile technology and miniaturization of electronics combined with wireless communication, along with recent developments in wearable computing are presented and assessed in the context of multiparameter health monitoring.

  11. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  12. Fundamentals of Stochastic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of stochastic filtering is to determine the best estimate for the state of a stochastic dynamical system from partial observations. The solution of this problem in the linear case is the well known Kalman-Bucy filter which has found widespread practical application. The purpose of this book is to provide a rigorous mathematical treatment of the non-linear stochastic filtering problem using modern methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the theoretical analysis of numerical methods for the solution of the filtering problem via particle methods. The book should provide sufficient

  13. Release behavior of smoke and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filter under the fire accident. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukamoto, Michio; Tashiro, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Shiro [Nippon Muki Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Koji [Sanzo Environment Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    In a part of building ventilating installation of reprocessing plant, the pre-filter is equipped in front of a HEPA filter. The pre-filter plays a role in protection and repression of clogging of HEPA filter. However, in a fire accident, it is considered that large smoke generation cause the pre-filter clogging due to smoke loading, increase of differential pressure and breakdown. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the demonstration tests to confirm the performance of ventilation filters by a fire accident were carried out. In the tests, smoke was generated from burning of the mock solid wastes (gloves made of rubber and/or cloth) or the mock recovered solvent (n-dodecane or tributyl phosphate / n-dodecane). The test data was acquired on generation of smoke, decrease evolution of smoke by transportation through the compositions of ventilation system (cell, duct, damper, filters) and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters due to smoke loading. From the results, it was found that the performance of the whole of ventilation system was kept even if the pre-filter was breakdown. To adopt the analysis of the increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter using the safety analysis code, CELVA-1D, increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter was expressed by quadratic empirical equation with function of smoke loading per unit filtration area and it coefficients, ({alpha}, {beta}), were estimated. (author)

  14. A RESEARCH ON EXAMINATION OF SWIMMER CLOTHING FOR INCREASING SPORTSMAN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÖLÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the problems of swimmers about swimming clothing in trainings or competitions and their expectations from swimming clothing for increasing their performan ce . Descriptive method was used in the research . Survey was developed as a data collection tool on clothing comfort parameters and functional design p roperties that swimming clothing should have . The universe of the r esearch is composed of male and female swimmers interested in swimming sport in T urkey, in the province of Çorum. And the sample is composed of 50 swimmers who participate in the research v oluntarily among the members of Olympic Indoor Swimming Pool serving in Çorum Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Spor ts . The findings were analyzed in Statistics Package Program in Social Sciences (SPSS. As a result of the r esearch ; it was determined that the problems experienced with the clothing were quick deform ation, restriction of movements, and the fact that fabric texture and sewing properties discomfort the skin and expectations from clothing were durability, ease of movement , to accord with the body and easy maintenance . It is considered that r esearch results shall be a guide for research and development activities to be performed about clothing comfort on both academic and sector basis for increasing sportive performan ce in running sport and protection of sportsmen health .

  15. The development of anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert P C; Guo, Y P; Wong, Francis K W; Li, Y; Sun, S; Han, X

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, the design situation was explored, including clothing fabric heat/moisture transporting properties and UV protection and the aspects of clothing ergonomic design (mobility, convenience, and safety). The problem structure was derived from the results of the surveys in three local construction sites, which agreed well with the task requirements and observations. Specifications were consequently described and 30 commercially available fabrics were identified and tested. Fabric testing data and design considerations were inputted in S-smart system to predict the thermal functional performance of the clothing. A new uniform prototype was developed and evaluated. The results of all measurements suggest that the new uniform which incorporated fabrics with superior heat/moisture transporting properties and loose-fitting design could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. Practitioner Summary: The construction workers' uniform currently used in Hong Kong during summer was unsatisfactory. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, an anti-heat stress uniform was developed by testing 30 fabrics and predicting clothing thermal functional performance using S-smart system. The new uniform could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance.

  16. Comparison of stool containment in cloth and single-use diapers using a simulated infant feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, M; Kressner, B; Raynor, W; Davis, J; Syverson, R E

    1993-03-01

    Single-use diapers and cloth diapers with vinyl pants were compared for their relative abilities to contain stool within the diaper. Artificial feces with carbon black as an additive allowed a quantitative measure of fecal containment by image analysis in 60 infants. This method showed complete containment of feces in the diaper in 50% of the single-use diapers whereas only 10% of the cloth diapers showed complete containment. In infants where the border of the vinyl pants was used as the boundary of containment with the cloth diapers, complete containment occurred only 33% of the time. Fluorescein dye ratings for containment/leakage in 69 infants showed that 83% of single-use diapers and 30% of the cloth diapers were rated as having no or minor leakage of feces. Cultures were taken of laundered vinyl pants that had previously been used over cloth diapers to determine microbial contamination. Thirty-nine percent of the pants contained Gram-negative, lactose-fermenting bacilli indicating fecal contamination. This study comparing single-use and cloth diapers for containment of artificial feces by use of image analysis and fluorescein dye ratings showed better containment by single-use diapers. The study also raises the question of possible spread of feces-borne pathogens by the vinyl pants used over cloth diapers, particularly in a day-care center.

  17. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm(2). All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm(2). Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm(2) were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services.

  18. Derivation of single layer clothing penetration factors from the pesticide handlers exposure database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John; Mihlan, Gary; Lunchick, Curt; Landenberger, Bryce

    2007-11-01

    Quantitative characterization of the penetration of chemical residues through various types and configurations of clothing is an important underpinning of mitigation strategies to reduce dermal exposure to occupational cohorts. The objective of the evaluation presented herein is the development of pesticide clothing penetration (or conversely protection) factors for single layer clothing (i.e., long-sleeved shirt, long pants; gloves are not included) based on dermal exposure monitoring data (passive dosimetry) included in the Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database (PHED). The analysis of penetration per replicate was conducted by comparison of the inside and outside (total deposition), expressed as mug/cm(2), for each replicate pair of dermal dosimeters. Clothing penetration was investigated as a function of job classification, dosimetry sampling method, body part, application method, and type of formulation. Grand mean single layer clothing penetration values for patch (n=2029) and whole-body (n=100) dosimeter samples from PHED were 12.12 (SE=0.33; SD=15.02) and 8.21 (SE=1.01; SD=10.14) percent, respectively. Linear regression was used to evaluate clothing penetration as a function of outer dosimeter loading. The regression analysis supports the hypothesis that single layer clothing penetration increases with decreasing outer dosimeter loading.

  19. Efficiency of beating cloth in sampling for soybean insect pests in different row spacing and cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Renato Stürmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the collecting capacity of three types of beating cloth in sampling for soybeans caterpillars and stink bugs in different row spacing and cultivars. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six replications in a 2x3x3 factorial, using two cultivars (BMX Potencia RR and Fundacep 53 RR, three row spacing (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 m and three types of beating cloth (beating cloth, wide beating cloth and vertical beat sheet. To determinate the collecting capacity of caterpillars, samples were taken at V9, V11 and R1 stages and for stink bugs, the samplings were performed at R5.3 and R5.5 stages. Results showed no interaction between the factors, indicating independence among them. Caterpillars had no preference between cultivars, however, stink bugs had a higher population density on Fundacep 53 RR. In the three evaluation dates, the density of larvae was higher when soybean was sown with reduced spacing. For stink bugs, higher infestation was observed on soybean sown with 0.4 m row spacing in the first assessment (R5.3, difference not observed in the evaluation at R5.5. The wide beating cloth and vertical beating cloth showed greater collecting capacity for caterpillars and bugs over beating cloth.

  20. SP: Measurements of Clothing Evaporative Resistance Using a Sweating Thermal Manikin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming

    2017-06-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented.

  1. [Clothing make the doctor--patients have more confidence in a smartly dressed GP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocks, Janwillem W H; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Berkelmans, P G J Ine

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the general practitioner's style of clothing on the patient's level of confidence in that doctor; is vanity a functional attribute for the GP? Experimental comparative study. 4 photographic models representing 4 types of GP, namely the older male, younger male, older female and younger female GP, were each photographed dressed in 4 different styles of clothing (business wear, formal, semi-formal and casual). These photos were shown to evaluators with the question 'How much confidence do you have in this doctor?' The level of confidence was allocated a score on a numerical scale from 0 (no confidence) to 10 (complete confidence). There were 2 groups of evaluators: patients aged ≥ 65 years and professionals attending a symposium. The clothing style had a significant impact on the level of confidence in the older and younger male doctor and in the younger female doctor. The assessment by elderly patients (n = 116) differed significantly from the assessment by professionals (n = 59). The professionals had a far more pronounced opinion on style of clothing than the patients did. Business wear and formal clothing generally inspired more confidence than casual clothing. A GP's style of clothing affects the patient's initial level of confidence in that doctor. Vanity therefore seems to be a functional attribute for the GP.

  2. Competitive Potential in Clothing Exports for Hong Kong and the Interior of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区健勋

    2001-01-01

    Hong Kong and the Interior of China are leading clothing exporters in the world. Together they accounted for nearly 29 percent of the global clothing exports in 1999.The paper is basically divided into two parts. Firstly, it discusses that high world market share is an indicator of competitiveness for the product. From United Nations statistics, it was identified that Hong Kong and the Interior of China were competitive in certain discrete clothing items and a trend was apparent in the production shift of labour intensive clothing items from Hong Kong to the Mainland as witnessed from 1987-1993. With the revised statistical classification system in clothing items released by United Nations, second part of the paper further investigates the broad clothing categories of knitted and woven garments from 1987-1998. It was discovered that Hong Kong was traditionally more competitive in knitted garments while the Interior of China possessed advantages in the manufacture of woven items. Taking the labour cost advantage of the Interior of China and the marketing strengths of Hong Kong, their co-operation for clothing production is considered complementary to each other and able to foster synergistic effects.

  3. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  4. The role of clothing in the pre-bourgeois ambience of Kersnik’s novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of women’s and men’s clothing appearances in the prebourgeois ambience of Kersnik’s novels. Particular clothing items and clothing appearances indicate the presence of specific spiritual and social characteristics, typical for the cultural and historical environment in which the two literary works were created. The methodological approach of the analysis in terms of theory is based on general semiotic theory (Eco, Lotman, cultural semiotics (Barthes, literary theory and literary history, Lotman’s symbol theory, clothing culture, discourse analysis and Bourdieu’s theory of habitus. The article discusses separately the clothing appearances of male and female characters. The descriptions of clothing appearances reveal the socio-historical background of the literary works as well as many other abstract categories such as characters’ mental states, their ideologies, political beliefs, positive and negative character attributes as well as their moral virtues and vices. Clothes as part of the pre-bourgeois habitus try to establish a balance between the urban and the rural, between prestige and humility, between refi nement and coarseness. Irony is often a result of the contrast between the physical determinants and the associate variable, i.e. the clothing. The author uses a range of various clothing appearances to characterize and mock different classes of people; the trivial conversations about fashion denote the banality of social life; the differences between the “true” bourgeoisie and those who strive to reach and fi t into that social class are already strongly indicated in the descriptions of their external appearances. Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;

  5. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  6. Can the PHS model (ISO7933) predict reasonable thermophysiological responses while wearing protective clothing in hot environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the prediction accuracy of the PHS (predicted heat strain) model on human physiological responses while wearing protective clothing ensembles was examined. Six human subjects (aged 29 ± 3 years) underwent three experimental trials in three different protective garments (clothing thermal insulation I(cl) ranges from 0.63 to 2.01 clo) in two hot environments (40 °C, relative humidities: 30% and 45%). The observed and predicted mean skin temperature, core body temperature and sweat rate were presented and statistically compared. A significant difference was found in the metabolic rate between FIRE (firefighting clothing) and HV (high visibility clothing) or MIL (military clothing) (p development of heart rate demonstrated the significant effects of the exposure time and clothing ensembles. In addition, the predicted evaporation rate during HV, MIL and FIRE was much lower than the experimental values. Hence, the current PHS model is not applicable for protective clothing with intrinsic thermal insulations above 1.0 clo. The results showed that the PHS model generated unreliable predictions on body core temperature when human subjects wore thick protective clothing such as firefighting clothing (I(cl) > 1.0 clo). The predicted mean skin temperatures in three clothing ensembles HV, MIL and FIRE were also outside the expected limits. Thus, there is a need for further extension for the clothing insulation validation range of the PHS model. It is recommended that the PHS model should be amended and validated by individual algorithms, physical or physiological parameters, and further subject studies.

  7. Technical Design of Flexible Thin-Film Solar Heating Clothes with Switchable Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the research and development of thermal clothes through technical design, by adopting unique removable electronic equipment and applying carbon fiber material to thermal clothes against cold, so as to meet the requirements of active heating and passive warmth retention. Firstly, the specification of power supply system was determined in accordance with the requirements of power system, and the specification of charging system was determined according to the specification of power system. Then circuit system was designed and tested. Fianlly, the electronic device was configured on the clothes appropriately, so that it should be conforms to ergonomic principles, convenient and fast.

  8. Upgrading Paths of Chinese Textile and Clothing Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-ming; CHEN Yan; ZHENG Zhe

    2006-01-01

    The game theory is applied to analyze the benefits and losses of trade confliction between China and USA/EU in textile and clothing industry. Current situations of Chinese textile and clothing industry are also analyzed. The innovative upgrading paths of Chinese textile and clothing industry are suggested to realize from OEM, ODM to OBM in order to increase the competitive capacity, to add additional values,and to avoid the trade barriers of international market. The countermeasures and suggestions are also put forward to make full use of comparative and backwardness advantages of China to win the game in the world market.

  9. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computin

  10. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  11. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter...

  12. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  13. Silk-Cloth Weaving Development of the Mon-Khmer Ethnic Group in Lower-Isan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wira Phansuwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Silk cloth weaving culture of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan has a specific identity which should be handed down to future generation. The purposes of this research were to examine: (1 the body knowledge concerning silk clothes of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan region, (2 the process of production or silk-cloth weaving of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan region and (3 development of silk-cloth weaving of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan region. Approach: The research data was gathered from documents concerned and research fields. A sample was 156 people living at 7 villages and those involving silk-cloth production or weaving. The data was analyzed according to the research purposes and presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: Silk-cloth weaving has been a cultural heritage transferred from ancestors. In 1215 Chow Tang Kwan stated that the Siamese people came there, grew mulberries, raised silkworms and wove silk clothes from that time through learning from generation to generation. The cloth-identity and patterns have been party influenced by their ethnic group together with the way of life in each period. In the past, the main purpose of silk-cloth weaving was for household use. Some of the silk clothes were kept for being supplement to various rituals and Buddhist ceremonies. Thus, it was not necessary for them to have commercial production. Household-labor was still an important-productive factor of sufficient economy and reliant society. For the production process, it has been found that at present the economic and social structures have changed from household-use production to commercial production. There are complete production processes in the type of forming groups and the management system by increasing production competency to obtain both quantity and quality as well as standard prices. There are transmutations into a variety of other products and promotion of

  14. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  15. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  16. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  17. 10 CFR Appendix J to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., agitation or tumble cycle time, number of rinse cycles, and spin speed. The characteristics of the clothes... cloth which has been dried in a dryer at maximum temperature for a minimum of 10 minutes, removed and... tumbling it through the water. 1.7Front-loader clothes washer means a clothes washer which...

  18. Naive Bayesian for Email Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a method of email filter based on Naive Bayesian theory that can effectively filter junk mail and illegal mail. Furthermore, the keys of implementation are discussed in detail. The filtering model is obtained from training set of email. The filtering can be done without the users specification of filtering rules.

  19. Mapping homeostatic synaptic plasticity using cable properties of dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenan, B N; Lee, K J; Tan, H; Huganir, R L; Vicini, S; Pak, D T S

    2016-02-19

    When chronically silenced, cortical and hippocampal neurons homeostatically upregulate excitatory synaptic function. However, the subcellular position of such changes on the dendritic tree is not clear. We exploited the cable-filtering properties of dendrites to derive a parameter, the dendritic filtering index (DFI), to map the spatial distribution of synaptic currents. Our analysis indicates that young rat cortical neurons globally scale AMPA receptor-mediated currents, while mature hippocampal neurons do not, revealing distinct homeostatic strategies between brain regions and developmental stages. The DFI presents a useful tool for mapping the dendritic origin of synaptic currents and the location of synaptic plasticity changes.

  20. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA - THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blazenka Knezevic; Mia Delic; Kristina Ptic

    2016-01-01

    ... or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops...

  1. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blaženka Knežević; Mia Delić; Kristina Ptić

    2016-01-01

    ... or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops...

  2. Ethnicity and Acculturation: Influences on Asian American Consumers' Purchase Decision Making for Social Clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)

  3. Cotton/polyester and cotton/nylon warp knitted terry cloth: Why ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    warp knitting machine, using three sets of warp yarns. (Hatch, 1993:358; Kadolph ..... facturing and Materials Technology Centre for Fibres,. Textiles and Clothing ... interpreted if the interaction effects were not signifi- cant; otherwise various ...

  4. Gendered role communication in marketing blue-collar occupational gear and clothing in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Seoha

    2015-01-01

    ...) for women working in blue-collar occupations. To explore the phenomenon, a content analysis of products and advertising images in seven websites selling blue-collar work clothes and PPE was used...

  5. The Effects of Physical Changes on Clothing Preferences of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Diane G.; Horridge, Patricia E.

    1979-01-01

    The results from this study indicate that ready-to-wear garments do not accommodate the clothing needs of elderly women; garments do not allow for increased trunk girth, decreased height, or physical impairments. (Author)

  6. Ethnicity and Acculturation: Influences on Asian American Consumers' Purchase Decision Making for Social Clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)

  7. An Environmental Perspective on Clothing Consumption: Consumer Segments and Their Behavioral Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wencke Gwozdz; Kristian Steensen Nielsen; Tina Müller

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to decrease the environmental impact of today’s clothing industry across the entire process of production, purchase, maintenance, and disposal can be driven by either suppliers or consumers...

  8. [Medico-criminal examination of damages to clothes in flight accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Alpatov, I M

    2005-01-01

    Examination of cloths is a permanent sphere in the practice of forensic-medical expert and an indispensable expertise stage providing for decision-making on the key issues set before the expert. Although, the examination of cloth in forensic-medical expertise has been productive, research in this field slowed down during the recent decades; definition of new sets of evident informative signs has been also suspended. The methodological potentialities of examination of cloths items were demonstrated by examples of aviation incidents because such incidents reflect the principle variations of impacts, i.e. blow, explosion, fire, compression and chemical factors etc., which are subject to examination in the forensic-medical practice. Identification of mechanism causing damage and other signs on cloths helps a lot the forensic-medical expert in solving quite a number of issues related with circumstances of an incident and with a nature of an impact encountered by a person.

  9. 77 FR 24341 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction AGENCY: Office... energy conservation standards until the compliance date of any amended standards. In the preamble to the... Administrative practice and procedure, Confidential business information, Energy conservation,...

  10. Single-use surgical clothing system for reduction of airborne bacteria in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, A; Ljungqvist, B; Reinmüller, B

    2013-07-01

    It is desirable to maintain a low bacterial count in the operating room air to prevent surgical site infection. This can be achieved by ventilation or by all staff in the operating room wearing clothes made from low-permeable material (i.e. clean air suits). We investigated whether there was a difference in protective efficacy between a single-use clothing system made of polypropylene and a reusable clothing system made of a mixed material (cotton/polyester) by testing both in a dispersal chamber and during surgical procedures. Counts of colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3) air were significantly lower when using the single-use clothing system in both settings. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social and environmental risk management in supply chains: a survey in the clothing industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freise, Matthias; Seuring, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aims at analysing both why companies in the clothing industry are performing management of social and environmental risks in their supply chain and what kind of action they are taking...

  12. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  13. Nonflammable Crew Clothing Utilizing Phosphorus-Based Fire-Retardant Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For maintaining U.S. leadership in space exploration, there is an urgent need to develop nonflammable crew clothing with the requirements of comfort, ease of...

  14. manufacturing of emery cloth (sand paper)from local raw materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The materials and their sources requires for the production of the emery cloth are discussed and also the physical properties of the materials are considered.

  15. The Effect of Impermeable Clothing on Weight Loss, Heart Rate, and Core Temperature in Wrestlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Harold B.; Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1976-01-01

    Results refute the hypotheses that weight losses in lightly clothed wrestlers might equal or exceed those of wrestlers wearing vapor barrier suits under conditions of equal thermal and exercise stress. (JD)

  16. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  17. FAST FASHON AND SECOND HAND CLOTHES BETWEEN ECOLOGICAL CONCERNS AND GLOBAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUC Sunhilde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of the fast fashion and how these lead to an excessive consumption of clothes and as result a growth of the worn products market. The paper also aims to establish how fast fashion is influencing not only the economy also the environment. The fast fashion model can also damage developing economies with a low household income, which are not the necessary most important markets of these companies. Our study has identified the influences in increased purchase behavior and focused especially of the positive relationship between income and clothing expenses. We found out that it is a large gap between the European countries regarding clothing expenses in year and Romania is for far the lowest consumer. It is presented the second hand clothes import-export trade during 2007-2012 and we found out that there is an inverse relation between the balances sheet of import-export of textile products between the developed and developing countries. The authors conclude that the Romania is the largest European importer of second hand clothes but has no large scale recycling. Since collection is done on a voluntary basis it can be confusing for population to know how and where to discard used clothing therefore it is recommended a focus on collection systems of second hand clothes. The methodology used for this paper has mainly been a literature study where both scientific literature, such as scientific articles and reports, and popular science articles have been studied. We also use official information provided from National and International statistical Offices. Academic research on the effects of redirecting used clothing from the waste stream is still in its infancy; however this paper provides some insights into the phenomenon which may add to the emerging literature. .

  18. The President Has No Clothes: The Case for Broader Application of Red Teaming within Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    still the need for a young child to tell us the truth. Red Teams fulfill the function of Anderson’s fairy tale . Red Teams are charged with telling...244 Hans Anderson, The Emperor’s New Clothes, Fairy Tales Told to Children, 1835. 58 and will attack our seams where...Clothes, Fairy Tales Told to Children, 1835. Andrews, Peter. Executive Technology Report, IBM Advanced Business Institute, http://www-935.ibm.com

  19. A New Methodology for the Integration of Performance Materials into the Clothing Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jess

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrating the study of performance materials into the clothing curriculum. In recent years there has been an increase in demand for stylish, functional and versatile sports apparel. Analysts predict this will reach US$126.30 billion by 2015. This growth is accredited to dramatic lifestyle changes and increasing participation in sports/leisurely pursuits particularly by women. The desire to own performance clothing for specific outdoor pursuits is increasing a...

  20. Transient thermal sensation and comfort resulting from adjustment of clothing insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole;

    2003-01-01

    uniforms and were asked to take off or don a part of the uniform after they had adapted to the experimental conditions for more than 20 minutes. The results showed that the thermal sensation votes responded immediately to the adjustment of clothing insulation and reached a new steady-state level within 5...... minutes after both an increase and a decrease of clothing insulation, independent of the activity level....

  1. Analysis of Fabric's Visual Image Based on Seasonal Application to Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛杉; 周旭东

    2004-01-01

    Fabric's visual image is on important that affects its seasonal application to clothing. In this paper, color and luster property of the fabric were simultaneously considered to elaborate application to clothing in seasons. Fabric samples were selected in the four seasons, which were quantified by using the Muncell color system. The data of the color attributes and fabric's surface luster property were analyzed, which applied in spring, summer, autumn and winter.

  2. Articles of protective clothing adapted for deflecting chemical permeation and methods therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

  3. Ethical Clothing: How it’s defined and how it influences purchase behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Magnuson, Bryce

    2017-01-01

    The clothing industry is a key contributor to the global economy, serving as a key source of income for many countries, and as a key source of employment for their residents. These benefits, however, can come at a great cost. For example, the clothing industry contributes to environmental degradation via the pollution it generates and the many natural resources it consumes. Moreover, its negative impacts extend beyond the environment in general, to also include direct imp...

  4. Determination of generated textile waste in clothing companies of different technological level

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, the clothing manufacturing companies have being exposed to high competition from the low labor countries and to constant increasing of production costs. This in turn, for the manufacturing companies aiming to increase competitiveness and profitability, imposes the issue of better utilization of the existing resources. The material costs in clothing manufacturing represent more than 50% of the price of the garment. The technique of processing cutting orders and plann...

  5. Labour Cost and Export Behaviour of Firms in Indian Textile and Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Agreement on Textile and Clothing (ATC) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) renders both threats and opportunities to India’s Textile and Clothing (T&C) industry in the wake of liberal international trade in the sector. Firms acquire greater international competitiveness through various cost cutting and efficiency enhancing strategies. The question we try to ponder on is, what route does Indian firms take to join the international export market in T&C. Empirical an...

  6. Establishment of a Clothing Company in Finland Based on a University Brand Case: LAMK Apparel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Biliba, Arsenii; Mishchenko, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to assist LAMK Apparel Company in its entry into the clothing market, in Finland. Based on country analysis of the two target countries (Russia and Finland), its original business idea is developed together with innovative concepts. Accordingly, the business plan is created to describe an applicable development way for the idea. The authors focus on the process of establishing a clothing company in Finland based on a university brand through the implementation of a business p...

  7. Study of Translation Strategy Applications in Clothing Brand Advertising Slogans in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Afsoon Absalan; Mohammad Reza Falahati Qadimi Fumani

    2016-01-01

    Advertising is an important part of marketing which has great influence on the way people behave and think. An advertisement slogan is a form of logo that sums up specialty, benefit, and marketing position. The present study aimed to investigate the strategies used in translation of clothing brand advertisement slogans from English to Persian in Iran. The study sample consisted of 50 clothing brand advertising slogans, which were translated by 30 B.A. and 30 M.A. senior English translation st...

  8. Changing Value Chain Strategies of Danish Clothing and Fashion Companies, 1970-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Taudal Poulsen, René

    2013-01-01

    Over the last four decades, the clothing industry has seen one of the most radical, global transformations of any industry, and Western European clothing companies have been put under strain. To the surprise of industry observers and academics, however, Denmark continues to hold expansive and pro...... of new companies entering the sector rather than the transformation of old ones. The article demonstrates that value chain strategies are constantly in the making and successful ones rarely remain competitive for long....

  9. Intelligent textiles and clothing for ballistic and NBC protection technology at the cutting edge

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    2012-01-01

    This volume describes the latest developments in protective clothing against nearly any kind of threat for both military and civilians. It deals with protection through the use of nanotechnology, interactive clothing and biotechnological processes. Factors such as comfort and ballistics are also considered in the book, and several practical examples are discussed. All papers are written by leading experts in their respective fields. Professionals and students alike will benefit from the knowledge and expertise imparted in these outstanding contributions.

  10. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  11. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1...... filter and the DD2 filter. It also contains functions for Unscented Kalman filters as well as several versions of particle filters. The toolbox requires MATLAB version 7, but no additional toolboxes are required....

  12. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  13. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  14. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  15. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  16. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  17. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  18. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  19. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  20. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...