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Sample records for plastic containers developed

  1. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    122 xii TEST PLAN DEVELOPMENT FOR PLASTIC AM4MINITION CONTAINERS - VOLUME I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project...11 LA 00 Li C:0 z CP -0 133 0( LIE r r ’ D2 U)~ E C IP a g 0- L) LaLn 4’ MOIAIV3H-Q3.~f-trCYin, 20o Tabla 6-D Performance Prediction Model 155ram

  2. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  3. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  4. Urban Trash Containers Made of Recycled Plastic Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto Ledur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost and easy-to-handle manufacturing procedure for urban trash containers, made of recycled plastic lumber, was developed focusing on the following aspects: materials selection, materials compounding, plastic sheet manufacturing and mechanical testing, urban trash container design and assembly, and a pilot test. The material, a composite of polyethylene (PE urban waste, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA industrial waste and calcium carbonate, was prepared in a Drais batch mixer. The mixture was hot compression molded as rectangular-shaped sheets of 900 mm length, 600 mm width and 12 mm or 7 mm thickness. These sheets were characterized with regard to mechanical properties, microstructure and UV resistance. An urban trash container prototype was prepared from the plastic sheets and a hundred trash containers were submitted to a pilot test. All the steps, material compounding, plastic sheet processing, and trash container design and manufacturing were optimized in order to give the required physico-mechanical properties, functional characteristics and finish of the urban trash containers.

  5. Screening study on hemolysis suppression effect of an alternative plasticizer for the development of a novel blood container made of polyvinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Chie; Tanoue, Akito; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Isama, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Atsuko; Niimi, Shingo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify a plasticizer that is effective in the suppression of the autohemolysis of the stored blood and can be used to replace di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in blood containers. The results of hemolysis test using mannitol-adenine-phosphate/red cell concentrates (MAP/RCC) spiked with plasticizers included phthalate, phthalate-like, trimeliate, citrate, and adipate derivatives revealed that di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (Hexamoll(®) DINCH), di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-phthalate (DOTP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) exhibited a hemolysis suppression effect almost equal to that of DEHP, but not other plasticizers. This finding suggested that the presence of 2 carboxy-ester groups at the ortho position on a 6-membered ring of carbon atoms may be required to exhibit such an effect. The hemolytic ratios of MAP/RCC-soaked polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets containing DEHP or different amounts of DINCH or DOTP were reduced to 10.9%, 9.2-12.4%, and 5.2-7.8%, respectively (MAP/RCC alone, 28.2%) after 10 weeks of incubation. The amount of plasticizer eluted from the PVC sheet was 53.1, 26.1-36.5, and 78.4-150 µg/mL for DEHP, DINCH, and DOTP, respectively. PVC sheets spiked with DIDP did not suppress the hemolysis induced by MAP/RCC because of low leachability (4.8-6.0 µg/mL). These results suggested that a specific structure of the plasticizer and the concentrations of least more than ∼10 µg/mL were required to suppress hemolysis due to MAP/RCC.

  6. Innovation Promotes Development of Plastic Assistant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Driven by the rapid growth of China's plastic product sector, the development of the plastic sector has been accelerated and assistant products are now becoming more multi-function, high performance, high in molecular weight and environmentfriendly.

  7. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition.

  8. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  9. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  10. Developments in Plasticity Approach to Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with plastic methods applied to shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Emphasis is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced and lightly shear reinforced beams and slabs. The model, which is an upper bound plasticity approach, takes...

  11. Analysis of phthalate migration to food simulants in plastic containers during microwave operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany A; André, Leiliane C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2013-12-30

    Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  12. Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriany A. Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  14. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C; Verdier, M

    1993-06-01

    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied. Stedim 6, is anew multilayer film whose inner layer is made of polyethylene. The drugs were in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions and the influence of these was also considered. The remaining concentrations of each drug were determined at regular time intervals in a 24-h period, by a spectrofluorometric method for chlorpromazine hydrochloride and by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for the other drugs. No binding was observed for viloxazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides whatever the infusion solution and the plastic container. A slight retention in PVC bags, but not in Stedim 6 ones, was noted for clomipramine hydrochloride and clorazepate dipotassium salt. This was more marked in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. Diazepam and chlorpromazine hydrochloride were bound both in PVC and Stedim 6 bags, but more in the former and more again in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. The results were explained in terms of the degree of crystallinity of the plastic material and the degree of lipophilicity of the drugs. Practical consequences are discussed.

  15. Corundum Based Composite Block Containing Plastic Phase YB/T 4129-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Chai Junlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition, classifica-tion, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation and quality certificate of corundum block containing plastic phase.

  16. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  17. Polymers from plants to develop biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Udo

    2005-11-01

    Katrin Neumann et al. have recently shown that transgenic tobacco and potato plants can accumulate high levels of cyanophycin, a possible source for poly-aspartate. This work opens the way to the future production of biodegradable plastics using a plant-based production system. Several problems need to be overcome first, such as growth retardation as a result of cyanophycin accumulating in the cytosol, and a co-production system needs to be developed for economical reasons.

  18. Influence of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures on the Development of Plastic Shrinkage Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Pease, Bradley Justin; Mazzotta, Guy;

    2007-01-01

    settlement of the concrete and tensile stress development in the surface of the concrete, which increase the potential for development of plastic shrinkage cracks. Specifically, this paper studies the development of plastic shrinkage cracks in mortars containing a commercially available shrinkage......-reducing admixture (SRA). Mortars containing SRA show fewer and narrower plastic shrinkage cracks than plain mortars when exposed to the same environmental conditions. It is proposed that the lower surface tension of the pore fluid in the mortars containing SRA results in less evaporation, reduced settlement......, reduced capillary tension, and lower crack-inducing stresses at the topmost layer of the mortar....

  19. The effect of biobased plastic resins containing chichen feather fibers on the growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate growth and flowering of Begoniaboliviensis A. DC. 'Bonfire' when grown in medium mixed with pellets made from biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers. We also analyzed macro- and macro-elements in soil and leaf tissues during different develope...

  20. Development and Plasticity of Intra- and Intersensory Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Daniel B.; Hillock, Andrea R.; Spankovich, Christopher; Popescu, Maria V.; Royal, David W.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The functional architecture of sensory brain regions reflects an ingenious biological solution to the competing demands of a continually changing sensory environment. While they are malleable, they have the constancy necessary to support a stable sensory percept. How does the functional organization of sensory brain regions contend with these antithetical demands? Here we describe the functional organization of auditory and multisensory (i.e., auditory-visual) information processing in three sensory brain structures: (1) a low-level unisensory cortical region, the primary auditory cortex (A1); (2) a higher-order multisensory cortical region, the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES); and (3) a multisensory subcortical structure, the superior colliculus (SC), We then present a body of work that characterizes the ontogenic expression of experience-dependent influences on the operations performed by the functional circuits contained within these regions. We will present data to support the hypothesis that the competing demands for plasticity and stability are addressed through a developmental transition in operational properties of functional circuits from an initially labile mode in the early stages of postnatal development to a more stable mode in the mature brain that retains the capacity for plasticity under specific experiential conditions. Finally, we discuss parallels between the central tenets of functional organization and plasticity of sensory brain structures drawn from animal studies and a growing literature on human brain plasticity and the potential applicability of these principles to the audiology clinic. PMID:19358458

  1. Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers using SORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2010-10-01

    The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with coloured plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for coloured glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is

  2. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  3. PLASTIC ZONES IN AN INFINITELY LONG TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOLID CYLINDER CONTAINING A RINGSHAPED CRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut UYANER

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problem of a ring shaped-crack contained in an infinitely long solid cylinder of elastic perfectly-plastic material is considered. The problem is formulated for a transversely isotropic material by using integral transform technique under uniform load. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Hankel and Fourier integral transform techniques are chosen and the problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. This integral equation is solved numerically by using Gaussian Quadrature Formulae and the values are evaluated for discrete points. The plastic zone lengths are obtained by using the plastic strip model.

  4. Homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage model for ductile failure of materials containing heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Bai, Jie; Paquet, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops an accurate and computationally efficient homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage (HCPD) model for macroscopic analysis of ductile failure in porous ductile materials containing brittle inclusions. Example of these materials are cast alloys such as aluminum and metal matrix composites. The overall framework of the HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) type elasto-plasticity model for porous ductile materials. The HCPD model is assumed to be orthotropic in an evolving material principal coordinate system throughout the deformation history. The GTN model parameters are calibrated from homogenization of evolving variables in representative volume elements (RVE) of the microstructure containing inclusions and voids. Micromechanical analyses for this purpose are conducted by the locally enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) [Hu, C., Ghosh, S., 2008. Locally enhanced Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) for simulating evolving fracture in ductile microstructures containing inclusions. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 76(12), 1955-1992]. The model also introduces a novel void nucleation criterion from micromechanical damage evolution due to combined inclusion and matrix cracking. The paper discusses methods for estimating RVE length scales in microstructures with non-uniform dispersions, as well as macroscopic characteristic length scales for non-local constitutive models. Comparison of results from the anisotropic HCPD model with homogenized micromechanics shows excellent agreement. The HCPD model has a huge efficiency advantage over micromechanics models. Hence, it is a very effective tool in predicting macroscopic damage in structures with direct reference to microstructural composition.

  5. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...... days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles...

  6. Improved tensile strength of glycerol-plasticized gluten bioplastic containing hydrophobic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present work has been to study the influence of hydrophobic liquids on the morphology and the properties of thermo-molded plastics based on glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG). While the total amount of castor oil and glycerol was remained constant at 30 wt%, castor oil with various proportions with respect to glycerol was incorporated with WG by mixing at room temperature and the resultant mixtures were thermo-molded at 120 degrees C to prepare sheet samples. Moisture absorption, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break) of the plastics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the physical properties of WG plastic were closely related to glycerol to castor oil ratio. Increasing in castor oil content reduces the moisture absorption markedly, which is accompanied with a significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus. These observations were further confirmed in 24 wt% glycerol-plasticized WG plastics containing 6 wt% silicone oil or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid rubber.

  7. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  8. Neurotrophic regulation of synapse development and plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are traditionally thought to be secretory proteins that regulate long-tern survival and differe, ntiation of neurons. Recent studies have revealed a previously unexpected role for these factors in synaptie de velopment ami plasticity in diverse neuronal populations. Here we review experimeuts carried oul in our own laboratory in the last few years.. We have made two important discoveries.First,we were among the first to report that brain-derived. neurotrophie faclor (BDNF) facilitates hippocampal hmg-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plaslicity believed to be involved in learning and memory. BDNF modulates LTP al CAI synapses by enhaneing synaptic responses to high frequency, tetanic slimulalion. This is achieved primafily by facilitating synaptie vesicle doeking, possibly due to an in crease in the levels of the vesicle prolein synaptobrevin and synaptoplysin in the nerve terminals. Gene knockout study demonstrates thai the effects of BDNF are primarily mediated through presynaptic mechanisms. Second, we demonstrated a form of long-term, neurotrophin-mediated synaptic regulation. We showed that long-term treatment of the neuromuscu lar synapses with neurotrophin-3 (NT3) resulted in an enhancement of both spontaneous and evoked synaptic currcuts, as well as profound changes in thc number of synaptic varicosities and syuaptic vesicle proteins in motoneurons, all of which are indicative of more mature synapses. Our current work addresses the following issues:(i) activity-dependent trafficking of neurotrophin receptors, and its role in synapse-specific modulation; (ii) signal transduction mechanisms medialing the acute enhancement of synaplic transmission by neurotrophins; (iii) acute and long-tenn synaptie actions of the GDNF family; (iv) role of BDNF in late-phase LTP and in the development of hippocampal circuit.

  9. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Implications for Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity allows the central nervous system to learn skills and remember information, to reorganize neuronal networks in response to environmental stimulation, and to recover from brain and spinal cord injuries. Neuronal plasticity is enhanced in the developing brain and it is usually adaptive and beneficial but can also be maladaptive…

  10. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Implications for Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity allows the central nervous system to learn skills and remember information, to reorganize neuronal networks in response to environmental stimulation, and to recover from brain and spinal cord injuries. Neuronal plasticity is enhanced in the developing brain and it is usually adaptive and beneficial but can also be maladaptive…

  11. Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Ayers, Tracy L; Knee, Jacqueline; Oremo, Jared; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Nyagol, Ronald O; Stauber, Christine E; Lantagne, Daniele S; Quick, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Reactor containment research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, N. A.

    1963-06-15

    An outline is given of containment concepts, sources and release rates of energy, responses of containment structures, effects of projectiles, and leakage rates of radioisotopes, with particular regard to major reactor accidents. (T.F.H.)

  13. New Opportunities in Developing Engineering Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Weicai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Owing to their excellent mechanical property, electric behavior, chemical resistance, heat resistance, abrasion resistance, size stability, weather resistance, lighter weight than metal materials and small energy consumption in molding, engineering plastics are extensively used in the sectors-electronic/electric, automobile, construction and office equipment.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  15. Development trends and market analysis of China's plastics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zheng-Pin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's plastics industry has witnessed the leap-forward development with the stable and sound growth of national economy,having increased its economic and technical indicators stably and greatly for consecutive ten years.

  16. Somatostatin and Somatostatin-Containing Neurons in Shaping Neuronal Activity and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery over four decades ago, somatostatin (SOM) receives growing scientific and clinical interest. Being localized in the nervous system in a subset of interneurons somatostatin acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and its role in the fine-tuning of neuronal activity and involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory formation are widely recognized in the recent literature. Combining transgenic animals with electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular methods allowed to characterize several subpopulations of somatostatin-containing interneurons possessing specific anatomical and physiological features engaged in controlling the output of cortical excitatory neurons. Special characteristic and connectivity of somatostatin-containing neurons set them up as significant players in shaping activity and plasticity of the nervous system. However, somatostatin is not just a marker of particular interneuronal subpopulation. Somatostatin itself acts pre- and postsynaptically, modulating excitability and neuronal responses. In the present review, we combine the knowledge regarding somatostatin and somatostatin-containing interneurons, trying to incorporate it into the current view concerning the role of the somatostatinergic system in cortical plasticity.

  17. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  18. Research on plastic fender development and key technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hao; Li Li; Liu Qiang; Yang Anzhi; Ma Fangwu; Zhao Fuquan; Guo Yihui; Song Leifeng

    2012-01-01

    Automotive lightweight and safety performance come into play as key technologies to promote competiveness, and average applied amount of automotive plastics has become a significant sign for automotive industrial development level of a country. Various performances of a vehicle with plastic automotive fenders are analyzed in the paper. The re- search is emphasized on sinking-resistance and pedestrian protection performance of the plastic fenders by studying plas- tics characteristics and simulation analysis. It offers references for engineering design in which both automotive light- weight and safety performance are achieved and well balanced.

  19. Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M Tuates jr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. It is use as food and fruits packaging, fruit bag, food container, seedling bag, mulching film, protective for greenhouse, dryer shed and among others. However, this generates higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose by farmers. The plastic residues remain on the soil for some years as large pieces and they are impediment to plant growth and also a potential hazard to animals if the land is subsequently put down to grass. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. Cassava starch and polybutylene succinate (PBS was used in the development biodegradable film. The PBS and starch was melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition.  The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. However, it has higher density, thickness swelling and absorbed more water. It is projected that after thirty six (36 weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing shows that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag  and old newspaper.  

  20. Phenotypic plasticity in development and evolution: facts and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giuseppe; Minelli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This theme issue pursues an exploration of the potential of taking into account the environmental sensitivity of development to explaining the evolution of metazoan life cycles, with special focus on complex life cycles and the role of developmental plasticity. The evolution of switches between alternative phenotypes as a response to different environmental cues and the evolution of the control of the temporal expression of alternative phenotypes within an organism's life cycle are here treated together as different dimensions of the complex relationships between genotype and phenotype, fostering the emergence of a more general and comprehensive picture of phenotypic evolution through a quite diverse sample of case studies. This introductory article reviews fundamental facts and concepts about phenotypic plasticity, adopting the most authoritative terminology in use in the current literature. The main topics are types and components of phenotypic variation, the evolution of organismal traits through plasticity, the origin and evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its adaptive value. PMID:20083631

  1. Issues Related to Implementation of the EU Requirements on Plastic Crates and Pallets Containing Heavy Metals in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alis Lebedys

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of problems which had to be dealt with by Lithuanian institutions while implementing environmental requirements laid down in Article 11 of European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on Packaging and Packaging Waste as well as in Decision 2009/292/EC of the European Commission establishing the conditions for derogation of plastic crates and plastic pallets related to heavy metal concentration limits set by Directive 94/62/EC. While the Directive puts ban on the usage of packaging with the aggregate concentration of 4 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium exceeding 100 ppm, Decision 2009/292/EC, instead, allows their usage if terms of derogation specified in the Decision are met. The implementation of the Decision means that each crate and/or pallet item circulating in the market with the concentration of the 4 heavy metals above the set level has to be identified, accounted, traced while in service, must at the end of service be delivered into a controlled recycling system and finally recycled in a way specified by the Decision. Therefore, the establishment of such a country-wide system presents a challenging task for the country as EU legislation sets no common requirements for its structure and leaves it to the country’s discretion. This paper systematises and summarises some principles and practices of managing the usage of plastic crates and plastic pallets containing the amount of heavy metals higher than 100 ppm (as set by Directive 94/62/EC in the EU Member States. The paper analyses possibilities and offers several scenarios for implementation of Directive 94/62/EC with respect to plastic crates and pallets with high concentration of heavy metals in Lithuania. Both the Directive and the Decision are based on using the data available from bookkeeping conducted by owners of crates and pallets and the EU environmental accounting/control system used in the country. The offered

  2. Hormone signaling and phenotypic plasticity in nematode development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J; Ogawa, Akira

    2011-09-27

    Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of an organism to adopt different phenotypes depending on environmental conditions. In animals and plants, the progression of juvenile development and the formation of dormant stages are often associated with phenotypic plasticity, indicating the importance of phenotypic plasticity for life-history theory. Phenotypic plasticity has long been emphasized as a crucial principle in ecology and as facilitator of phenotypic evolution. In nematodes, several examples of phenotypic plasticity have been studied at the genetic and developmental level. In addition, the influence of different environmental factors has been investigated under laboratory conditions. These studies have provided detailed insight into the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity and its ecological and evolutionary implications. Here, we review recent studies on the formation of dauer larvae in Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolution of nematode parasitism and the generation of a novel feeding trait in Pristionchus pacificus. These examples reveal a conserved and co-opted role of an endocrine signaling module involving the steroid hormone dafachronic acid. We will discuss how hormone signaling might facilitate life-history and morphological evolution.

  3. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm{sup 2} after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLES CONTAINERS FOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Poggio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of biodegradable containers for crops that could be transplanted directly and act as fertilizers is proposed. Bovine gelatin was chosen as the base material, which was processed in a mini-injector mixer with a concentrated urea solution acted as a plasticizer. Rheological and tensile tests were performed in order to evaluate the injection of gelatin based formulations and mechanical properties related to the proposed application. Taking into account that biodegradable materials have a low water resistance, the increment of container stability was proposed using a surface coating. In addition, the influence of moisture content, the soluble matter and swelling were studied and analyzed. It was observed that coated samples were significantly more stable than the control ones, which guarantees the feasibility of the selected system and its potential development of biodegradable containers.

  5. Development Trend of China's Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui-di

    2005-01-01

    @@ China's economy is at an important turning point. After more than 20 years of high-speed development, to maintain a high growth rate continuously is more difficult ,as shown by international experience.

  6. Microglia: Dynamic Mediators of Synapse Development and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuwen; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; MacVicar, Brian A; Stevens, Beth

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal communication underlies all brain activity and the genesis of complex behavior. Emerging research has revealed an unexpected role for immune molecules in the development and plasticity of neuronal synapses. Moreover microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, express and secrete immune-related signaling molecules that alter synaptic transmission and plasticity in the absence of inflammation. When inflammation does occur, microglia modify synaptic connections and synaptic plasticity required for learning and memory. Here we review recent findings demonstrating how the dynamic interactions between neurons and microglia shape the circuitry of the nervous system in the healthy brain and how altered neuron-microglia signaling could contribute to disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Development and growth in synanthropic species: plasticity and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Čelik, Tatjana; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Šuen, Klavdija; Šiling, Rebeka; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-07-01

    Urbanization poses serious extinction risks, yet some species thrive in urban environments. This may be due to a pronounced developmental plasticity in these taxa, since phenotypically, plastic organisms may better adjust to unpredictable urban food resources. We studied phenotypic plasticity in Nuctenea umbratica, a common European forest and urban vegetation spider. We subjected spiderlings to low (LF), medium (MF) and high (HF) food treatments and documented their growth and developmental trajectories into adulthood. Spiders from the three treatments had comparable numbers of instars and growth ratios, but differed in developmental periods. Longest developing LF spiders (♀ = 390, ♂ = 320 days) had the smallest adults, but MF (♀ = 300, ♂ = 240 days) and HF (♀ = 240, ♂ = 210 days) spiders reached comparable adult sizes through shorter development. While males and females had comparable instar numbers, females had longer development, higher growth ratios, adult sizes and mass; and while males adjusted their moulting to food availability, female moulting depended on specific mass, not food treatment. We discussed the patterns of Nuctenea sex-specific development and compared our results with published data on two other Holarctic urban colonizers ( Larinioides sclopetarius, Zygiella x- notata) exhibiting high plasticity and fast generation turn-over. We conclude that despite relatively unconstrained developmental time in the laboratory enabling Nuctenea to achieve maximal mass and size—main female fitness proxies—their relatively fixed growth ratio and long generation turn-over may explain their lower success in urban environments.

  8. The plasticity of intellectual development: insights from preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J

    1984-10-01

    Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.

  9. Fundamental display properties of flexible devices containing polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal between plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kawakita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    We describe several fundamental display properties of a flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal device containing polymer fibers between thin plastic substrates. The composite film of liquid crystal and polymer was created from a solution of liquid crystal and monomer materials between the plastic substrates under ultraviolet light irradiation. The dynamic electrooptic response to analog voltage pulses was examined with an incidence of laser beam light, and its light modulation property exhibited good linearity in continuous gray-scale capability. The excellent spatial uniformity of liquid crystal alignment formed between the flexible substrates resulted in high-contrast light modulation, although slight spontaneous bending of liquid crystal alignment in the device plane was recognized. When the laser light beam was obliquely incident on the flexible display device, the measured transmittance revealed that the device has a wide viewing angle of more than 100 deg without contrast reversal. This is considered to be caused by the molecular switching in the device plane and the thin electrooptic layer in the display device.

  10. EFFECT OF UNEQUAL DEFORMATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PLASTIC PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An effect of unequal deformation in development of advanced plastic processing technologies is researched by studying an in-plane bending process of strip metal under unequal compressing. The research results show the following: If appropriately controlled, unequal plastic deformation can play an important role not only in the improvement of quality of parts obtained by plastic processing technologies, but also in the development of new processes for advanced plastic working technologies. A coordinated growth of unequal plastic deformation can develop the deformation potentiality of material to the full. The degree of unequal plastic deformation can be used as bases for optimization design of processes and dies of plastic forming.

  11. Polarity Determinants in Dendritic Spine Development and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaye

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric distribution of various proteins and RNAs is essential for all stages of animal development, and establishment and maintenance of this cellular polarity are regulated by a group of conserved polarity determinants. Studies over the last 10 years highlight important functions for polarity proteins, including apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity regulators, in dendritic spine development and plasticity. Remarkably, many of the conserved polarity machineries function in similar manners in the context of spine development as they do in epithelial morphogenesis. Interestingly, some polarity proteins also utilize neuronal-specific mechanisms. Although many questions remain unanswered in our understanding of how polarity proteins regulate spine development and plasticity, current and future research will undoubtedly shed more light on how this conserved group of proteins orchestrates different pathways to shape the neuronal circuitry.

  12. Polarity Determinants in Dendritic Spine Development and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaye Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of various proteins and RNAs is essential for all stages of animal development, and establishment and maintenance of this cellular polarity are regulated by a group of conserved polarity determinants. Studies over the last 10 years highlight important functions for polarity proteins, including apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity regulators, in dendritic spine development and plasticity. Remarkably, many of the conserved polarity machineries function in similar manners in the context of spine development as they do in epithelial morphogenesis. Interestingly, some polarity proteins also utilize neuronal-specific mechanisms. Although many questions remain unanswered in our understanding of how polarity proteins regulate spine development and plasticity, current and future research will undoubtedly shed more light on how this conserved group of proteins orchestrates different pathways to shape the neuronal circuitry.

  13. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the cu......Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed....... In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...

  14. Strain gradient crystal plasticity analysis of a single crystal containing a cylindrical void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Kysar, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of void size and hardening in a hexagonal close-packed single crystal containing a cylindrical void loaded by a far-field equibiaxial tensile stress under plane strain conditions are studied. The crystal has three in-plane slip systems oriented at the angle 60 degrees with respect...... to one another. Finite element simulations are performed using a strain gradient crystal plasticity formulation with an intrinsic length scale parameter in a non-local strain gradient constitutive framework. For a vanishing length scale parameter the non-local formulation reduces to a local crystal...... to three times higher for smaller void sizes than for larger void sizes in the non-local material....

  15. Plasticity of lung development in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Rose

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to previous studies, we found that Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised in normoxic water without access to air can routinely complete metamorphosis with lungs that are either severely stunted and uninflated or absent altogether. This is the first demonstration that lung development in a tetrapod can be inhibited by environmental factors and that a tetrapod that relies significantly on lung respiration under unstressed conditions can be raised to forego this function without adverse effects. This study compared lung development in untreated, air-deprived (AD and air-restored (AR tadpoles and frogs using whole mounts, histology, BrdU labeling of cell division and antibody staining of smooth muscle actin. We also examined the relationship of swimming and breathing behaviors to lung recovery in AR animals. Inhibition and recovery of lung development occurred at the stage of lung inflation. Lung recovery in AR tadpoles occurred at a predictable and rapid rate and correlated with changes in swimming and breathing behavior. It thus presents a new experimental model for investigating the role of mechanical forces in lung development. Lung recovery in AR frogs was unpredictable and did not correlate with behavioral changes. Its low frequency of occurrence could be attributed to developmental, physical and behavioral changes, the effects of which increase with size and age. Plasticity of lung inflation at tadpole stages and loss of plasticity at postmetamorphic stages offer new insights into the role of developmental plasticity in amphibian lung loss and life history evolution.

  16. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  17. Spindle Activity Orchestrates Plasticity during Development and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lindemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle oscillations have been described during early brain development and in the adult brain. Besides similarities in temporal patterns and involved brain areas, neonatal spindle bursts (NSBs and adult sleep spindles (ASSs show differences in their occurrence, spatial distribution, and underlying mechanisms. While NSBs have been proposed to coordinate the refinement of the maturating neuronal network, ASSs are associated with the implementation of acquired information within existing networks. Along with these functional differences, separate synaptic plasticity mechanisms seem to be recruited. Here, we review the generation of spindle oscillations in the developing and adult brain and discuss possible implications of their differences for synaptic plasticity. The first part of the review is dedicated to the generation and function of ASSs with a particular focus on their role in healthy and impaired neuronal networks. The second part overviews the present knowledge of spindle activity during development and the ability of NSBs to organize immature circuits. Studies linking abnormal maturation of brain wiring with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders highlight the importance to better elucidate neonatal plasticity rules in future research.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  19. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  20. Emotion Processing by ERP Combined with Development and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions important for survival and social interaction have received wide and deep investigations. The application of the fMRI technique into emotion processing has obtained overwhelming achievements with respect to the localization of emotion processes. The ERP method, which possesses highly temporal resolution compared to fMRI, can be employed to investigate the time course of emotion processing. The emotional modulation of the ERP component has been verified across numerous researches. Emotions, described as dynamically developing along with the growing age, have the possibility to be enhanced through learning (or training or to be damaged due to disturbances in growth, which is underlain by the neural plasticity of emotion-relevant nervous systems. And mood disorders with typical symptoms of emotion discordance probably have been caused by the dysfunctional neural plasticity.

  1. Development and test of a plastic deep-well pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. H.; Gao, X. F.; Xu, Y.; Shi, W. D.; Lu, W. G.; Liu, W.

    2013-12-01

    To develop a plastic deep-well pump, three methods are proposed on structural and forming technique. First, the major hydraulic components are constructed by plastics, and the connection component is constructed by steel. Thus the pump structure is more concise and slim, greatly reducing its weight and easing its transportation, installation, and maintenance. Second, the impeller is designed by maximum diameter method. Using same pump casing, the stage head is greatly increased. Third, a sealing is formed by impeller front end face and steel end face, and two slots are designed on the impeller front end face, thus when the two end faces approach, a lubricating pair is formed, leading to an effective sealing. With above methods, the pump's axial length is greatly reduced, and its stage head is larger and more efficient. Especially, the pump's axial force is effectively balanced. To examine the above proposals, a prototype pump is constructed, and its testing results show that the pump efficiency exceeds the national standard by 6%, and the stage head is improved by 41%, meanwhile, its structure is more concise and ease of transportation. Development of this pump would provide useful experiences for further popularity of plastic deep-well pumps.

  2. Vertebrate Neural Stem Cells: Development, Plasticity, and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Natural recovery from disease and damage in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is limited compared with that in lower vertebrate species, including fish and salamanders. Species-specific differences in the plasticity of the CNS reflect these differences in regenerative capacity. Despite numerous extensive studies in the field of CNS regeneration, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms determining the regenerative capacity of the CNS is still relatively poor. The discovery of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in mammals, including humans, in the early 1990s has opened up new possibilities for the treatment of CNS disorders via self-regeneration through the mobilization of these cells. However, we now know that aNSCs in mammals are not plastic enough to induce significant regeneration. In contrast, aNSCs in some regenerative species have been found to be as highly plastic as early embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). We must expand our knowledge of NSCs and of regenerative processes in lower vertebrates in an effort to develop effective regenerative treatments for damaged CNS in humans.

  3. Capability of 19-litre polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Michael B; Castro-Alférez, M; Polo-López, M I; Calderero, I Fernández; Al-Eryani, Y A; Joseph-Titus, C; Sawant, B; R Dhodapkar; Mathur, C; McGuigan, Kevin G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 litres) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in the developing world. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 litres) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs) as S...

  4. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  5. MicroRNA networks direct neuronal development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Loohuis, N F M; Kos, A; Martens, G J M; Van Bokhoven, H; Nadif Kasri, N; Aschrafi, A

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small, non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In neurons, the functions of individual miRNAs are just beginning to emerge, and recent studies have elucidated roles for neural miRNAs at various stages of neuronal development and maturation, including neurite outgrowth, dendritogenesis, and spine formation. Notably, miRNAs regulate mRNA translation locally in the axosomal and synaptodendritic compartments, and thereby contribute to the dynamic spatial organization of axonal and dendritic structures and their function. Given the critical role for miRNAs in regulating early brain development and in mediating synaptic plasticity later in life, it is tempting to speculate that the pathology of neurological disorders is affected by altered expression or functioning of miRNAs. Here we provide an overview of recently identified mechanisms of neuronal development and plasticity involving miRNAs, and the consequences of miRNA dysregulation.

  6. The Role of Plastic Surgeons in Advancing Development Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, P Niclas; Jenny, Hillary E; Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S; Juran, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    In September 2015, the international community came together to agree on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a plan of action for people, the planet, and prosperity. Ambitious and far-reaching as they are, they are built on three keystones: the elimination of extreme poverty, fighting climate change, and a commitment to fighting injustice and inequality. Critical to the achievement of the Agenda is the global realization of access to safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care when needed. The landmark report by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that between 28 and 32 percent of the global burden of disease is amenable to surgical treatment. However, as many as five billion people lack access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care, a burden felt most severely in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Surgery, and specifically plastic surgery, should be incorporated into the international development and humanitarian agenda. As a community of care providers dedicated to the restoration of the form and function of the human body, plastics surgeons have a collective opportunity to contribute to global development, making the world more equitable and helping to reduce extreme poverty. As surgical disease comprises a significant burden of disease and surgery can be delivered in a cost-effective manner, surgery must be considered a public health priority.

  7. Mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal injury, development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kyle H; Strack, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Mitochondria fulfill numerous cellular functions including ATP production, Ca(2+) buffering, neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation, ROS production and sequestration, apoptosis and intermediate metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics, a collective term for the processes of mitochondrial fission, fusion and transport, governs mitochondrial function and localization within the cell. Correct balance of mitochondrial dynamics is especially important in neurons as mutations in fission and fusion enzymes cause peripheral neuropathies and impaired development of the nervous system in humans. Regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is partly accomplished through post-translational modification of mitochondrial fission and fusion enzymes, in turn influencing mitochondrial bioenergetics and transport. The importance of post-translational regulation is highlighted by numerous neurodegenerative disorders associated with post-translational modification of the mitochondrial fission enzyme Drp1. Not surprisingly, mitochondrial dynamics also play an important physiological role in the development of the nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Here, we highlight recent findings underlying the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in relation to neurological disease, as well as the development and plasticity of the nervous system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Development of a Whole Container Seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for utilizing electrically conductive textiles as a whole container seal. This method has the potential to provide more robustness for ensuring that the container has not been breached versus conventional sealing methods that only provide tamper indication at the area used for normal access. The conductive textile is used as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing container tamper or breach. For sealing purposes, the conductive fabric represents a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. The well-known infinite resistance grid problem was used to model and confirm the expected accuracy and validity of this approach. An experimental setup was built that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge measurement to determine the resistances of a coarse electrode grid across the conductive fabric. Non-uniform resistance values of the grid infer the presence of damage or tears in the fabric. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of disturbances in conductive fabric samples. Current work is focused on constructing experimental prototypes for field and environmental testing to gauge the performance of these whole container seals in real world conditions. We are also developing software and hardware to interface with the whole container seals. The latest prototypes are expected to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events, although detection of a penetration should be adequate for most sealing applications. We are also developing smart sensing nodes that integrate digital hardware and additional sensors (e.g., motion, humidity) into the electrode nodes within the whole container seal.

  9. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  10. Development of recycled plastic composites for structural applications from CEA plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Agrim

    Plastic waste from consumer electronic appliances (CEAs) such as computer and printer parts including Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) and PC/ABS were collected using handheld FTIR Spectrophotometer. The blends of these plastics with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) are manufactured under special processing conditions in a single screw compounding injection molding machine. The blends are thermoplastics have high stiffness and strength, which may enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE like tensile modulus, ultimate tensile strength, tensile break and tensile yield. These composites have a potential to be used for the future application of recycled plastic lumber, thus replacing the traditional wood lumber.

  11. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, M.; Shanta, C.; Asim, T.; Sushil, M.

    2015-04-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path.

  12. Recent developments in plastic optical fiber components for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, James R.; Jennings, Kurt L.; Lynn, Mark A.; Steele, Robert E.

    1993-02-01

    The majority of production applications using plastic optical fiber (POF) have been for illumination applications. These applications continue to be refined and new illumination applications continue to be introduced. Point-to-point data communication applications of POF are beginning to appear in production vehicles. New developments in connection systems and networking components are occurring rapidly. This paper discusses recently developed components for illumination and data communications. The illumination components were designed for three different applications: lamp monitoring, keyhole illumination, and PRNDL indication (gear shift). Components for data communications include two connection systems and two passive stars designed for networking. The two connections systems are a 16 electrical/1 optical system for point-to-point links and a 5 electrical/2 optical for two-way optical communications. The two stars are a 16 node star and 7 node star. Performance characteristics and design advantages are described for all components.

  13. Impact of container material on the development of Aedes aegypti larvae at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The results revealed the variation in temperature of water in different types of containers depending on the material of container, affecting duration of larval development. As the larval development was faster in earthen pot as compared to plastic and iron containers, community should be discouraged for storing the water in earthen pots. However, in view of containers of different materials used by the community in different temperature zones in the country, further studies are required for devising area-specific preventive measures for Aedes breeding.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  15. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  16. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  17. Plastics. A Handbook for Workplace Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donna; Smith, Mikki

    This handbook was designed to help adult literacy education teachers to understand the plastics industry, develop a curriculum, and teach basic skills classes in a plastics company. The book contains four main sections. The first section, on the basics of plastics, contains a brief history of the industry, an elementary description of the…

  18. Present and future development in plastics from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Biobased plastics have experienced fast growth in the past decade thanks to the public concerns over the environment, climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels. This perspective provides an overview of the current global market of biobased plastics, their material properties, technical substi

  19. Present and future development in plastics from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Biobased plastics have experienced fast growth in the past decade thanks to the public concerns over the environment, climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels. This perspective provides an overview of the current global market of biobased plastics, their material properties, technical

  20. Regulatory gene networks that shape the development of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ralf F; Li, Yuanhao; Meyer, Axel; Gunter, Helen M

    2014-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms with a given genotype to develop different phenotypes according to environmental stimuli, resulting in individuals that are better adapted to local conditions. In spite of their ecological importance, the developmental regulatory networks underlying plastic phenotypes often remain uncharacterized. We examined the regulatory basis of diet-induced plasticity in the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) of the cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi, a model species in the study of adaptive plasticity. Through raising juvenile A. alluaudi on either a hard or soft diet (hard-shelled or pulverized snails) for between 1 and 8 months, we gained insight into the temporal regulation of 19 previously identified candidate genes during the early stages of plasticity development. Plasticity in LPJ morphology was first detected between 3 and 5 months of diet treatment. The candidate genes, belonging to various functional categories, displayed dynamic expression patterns that consistently preceded the onset of morphological divergence and putatively contribute to the initiation of the plastic phenotypes. Within functional categories, we observed striking co-expression, and transcription factor binding site analysis was used to examine the prospective basis of their coregulation. We propose a regulatory network of LPJ plasticity in cichlids, presenting evidence for regulatory crosstalk between bone and muscle tissues, which putatively facilitates the development of this highly integrated trait. Through incorporating a developmental time-course into a phenotypic plasticity study, we have identified an interconnected, environmentally responsive regulatory network that shapes the development of plasticity in a key innovation of East African cichlids.

  1. Development of Improved Chemicals and Plastics from Oilseeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Patricia A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2006-11-09

    The overall objective of this program was to develop technology that can be applied to the production of various chemicals and plastics from seed oils. This research and development program included activities in all four key barrier areas identified in the US DOE Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources, namely Plant Science, Production, Processing, and Utilization. Participants in the project included The Dow Chemical Company, Castor Oil, Inc., and the USDA Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). The objective of this production task was to evaluate and develop metathesis catalyst technology as a means of utilizing seed oils as feedstocks for the chemical industry. Specifically, ethenolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME’s, leads to functionalized derivatives. These serve as valuable starting points for materials which cascade into a variety of applications, many of which have a current market presence. The relatively recent discovery and commercial availability of a family of metathesis catalysts which are tolerant of polar functional groups and the acquisition and implementation of high throughput synthesis and screening infrastructure led to a prime opportunity to investigate this project area.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    OYETUNJI, A.

    2010-01-01

    Development of small injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale industries was studied. This work which entailed design, construction and test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic components. Design ...

  3. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  4. Surveillance as an innovative tool for furthering technological development as applied to the plastic packaging sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Abel Vargas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for production process efficiency and quality has made it necessary to resort to new tools for development and technological innovation. Surveillance of the enviroment has thus bee identified as beign a priority, paying special attention to technology which (by its changing nature is a key factor in competitiveness. Surveillance is a routine activity in developed countries ' organisations; however, few suitable studies have been carried out in Colombia and few instruments produced for applying it to existing sectors of the economy. The present article attempts to define a methodology for technological awareness (based on transforming the information contained in databases by means of constructing technological maps contributing useful knowledge to production processes. This methodology has been applied to the flexible plastic packaging sector. The main trends in this industry's technological development were identified allowing strategies to be proposed for incorporating these advances and tendencies in national companies and research groups involved in flexible plastic packaging technological development and innovation. Technological mappiong's possibilities as an important instrument for producing technological development in a given sector are the analysed as are their possibilities for being used in other production processes.

  5. Crack development through plastic shrinkage in fresh concretes and mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguanell García, M.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The rate of water evaporation in the exposed surfaces plays an important part in the development of cracks in fresh concretes and mortars before hardening is completed. This rate of evaporation depends on the drying power of the wind sweeping such surfaces as a function of the relative humidity, temperature and speed of the air. After many studies and research work on the subject of plastic cracking, the following axiom has been established: "Plastic shrinkage and cracking of concrete surfaces take place when water evaporates from the surface quicker than it can be replaced through exudation". Once the value of weather parameters are known, the extent of the risk of crack development can be known and preventive steps taken to overcome such risk. Obviously, such steps are all oriented to reducing or stopping evaporation and go from covering surfaces with wet sackcloth or plastic foil, through sprinkling water mists or lowering the concrete temperature, to using film-forming curing products. Another additional measure can be the addition of polypropelene fibers to the concrete while in the mixer, at the rate of 0.9 kg fiber to 1 m3 of concrete.

    En la formación de grietas en morteros y hormigones frescos, antes de finalizar el fraguado, tiene una primordial importancia la velocidad de evaporación del agua de las superficies expuestas al exterior, velocidad que depende del poder desecante de los vientos que barren estas superficies y que está en función de la humedad relativa del aire, de su temperatura y de su velocidad. Después de los múltiples estudios e investigaciones sobre este tema de la formación de las grietas plásticas, se ha llegado a establecer el siguiente axioma: "La retracción plástica y las grietas se producen, en las superficies del hormigón, cuando el agua se evapora de ellas más rápidamente que la que puede ser reemplazada por exudación." Conociendo el valor de los parámetros meteorol

  6. Plastic surgery-myths and realities in developing countries: experience from eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brijesh; Koirala, Robin; Tripathi, Nalini; Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Adhikary, Buddhinath; Shah, Surendra

    2011-01-01

    B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, is the only tertiary care referral centre in the eastern region of Nepal. This paper discusses the author's experience of starting a plastic surgery unit in eastern Nepal regarding need and present status of plastic surgery care in Nepal. Methods. We analyzed the data of patients treated in Plastic surgery unit from July 2007 to February 2009. We did evaluation regarding type of patients, procedures, and their outcome. We also evaluated the limitations and their possible solutions to overcome the barriers to establish effective plastic surgical centers in developing countries. Results. Plastic surgery services were started as a unit in general surgery by single plastic surgeon and one general surgery resident on rotation. Total 848 patients were treated for different plastic-surgery-related conditions, which included 307 acute burn patients 541 general plastic surgery patients. Trauma constituted the major bulk 22%, followed by tumors 20%, while aesthetic surgery operations were only 10.1%. Conclusions. In developing countries, aesthetic procedures constitute very small part of plastic surgery interventions and plastic surgery units are primarily required for reconstructive needs for optimum management of patients.

  7. optimization of the development of a plastic recycling machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machine and shows that at a speed of 268 rpm the machine functions effectively ... Keywords: recycling machine, plastics-recycling, recyclability/efficiency, throughput/capacity, ...... cycling such as the sorting and cleaning should be efficient so ...

  8. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  9. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  10. Presynaptic active zone density during development and synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaëlle L Clarke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS, active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  11. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic with balsa wood cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with balsa cores. Containers of this type are commonly used on tank trailers for the transport of hazardous chemicals. 1.2 This practice is limited to cylindrical shape containers, 0.5 m [20 in.] to 3 m [120 in.] in diameter, of sandwich construction with balsa wood core and over 30 % glass (by weight) FRP skins. Reinforcing material may be mat, roving, cloth, unidirectional layers, or a combination thereof. There is no restriction with regard to fabrication technique or method of design. 1.3 This practice is limited to containers that are designed for less than 0.520 MPa [75.4 psi] (gage) above static pressure head due to contents. 1.4 This practice does not specify a time interval between examinations for re-qualification of a pressure container. 1.5 This practice is used to determine if a container is suitable for service or if follow-up NDT is needed before that...

  12. A 2D analytical multiple slip model for continuum texture development and plastic spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, E. van der; Houtte, P. van

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional continuum slip model is presented which accounts in an approximate way for texture development in polycrystalline metals during large strain plastic deformations. The basic kinematic model is that of a rigid-plastic laminated material deforming predominantly by slip along its conta

  13. IQGAP1: A microtubule-microfilament scaffolding protein with multiple roles in nerve cell development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausoro, Ignacio; Mestres, Iván; Remedi, Mónica; Sanchez, Mónica; Cáceres, Alfredo

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we review our current understanding of the biology of IQ domain-containing GTPase-Activating Protein 1, IQGAP1, a scaffolding protein with multiple binding partners, which is widely expressed among different cell types, including neurons, and capable of linking Rho-GTPase signaling with cytosleletal elements and environmental cues. Interestingly, a series of recent studies suggest that IQGAP family members have an important role in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity and nervous system disorders involving alterations in spine density.

  14. Development of Plastic Scintillator Detector Array Based on SPMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Dan; ZHANG; Guo-guang; ZHAO; Xiao; FENG; Shu-qiang; ZHANG; Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photoelectric multiplier tuber(SPMT)is made of silicon chip,which can collect weak optical signal(Fig.1).When visible light irradiates SPMT,SPMT can change optical signal to electrical signal.The electrical signal size can be obtained through detecting optical signal size.When putting plastic scintillator before

  15. Development of Mullite Substrates and Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibold, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The mullite-molten silicon interaction was evaluated through fabrication of a series of bodies made with variations in density, alumina-silica ratio, and glass-crystalline ratio. The materials were tested in a sessile drop technique. None of the variations stood up to extended exposure to molten silicon sufficiently to be recommended as a container material. However, directional solidification experiments suggest that, under proper conditions, contamination of the silicon by mullite containers can be minimized. To improve an already good thermal expansion match between mullite and silicon, compositional variations were studied. Altering of the alumina-silica ratio was determined to give a continuously varying thermal expansion. A standard mullite composition was selected and substrates 40 x 4 x .040 inches were fabricated. Slotted substrates of various configurations and various compositions were also fabricated.

  16. Physical and chemical properties of biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to (a) characterize bioplastic pellets containing feather fibers (pellets) by low temperature-scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction analysis, (b) evaluate growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis A. DC. ‘Bonfire’ when grown in medium amended with pellets, and...

  17. Reduced migration from flexible poly(vinyl chloride) of a plasticizer containing beta-cyclodextrin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ong Yong; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2008-10-01

    The migration of endocrine-disrupting di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. In this study, we successfully prepared a plasticizerwith reduced DEHP migration by directly incorporating 2,3,6-per-O-benzoyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Bz-beta-CD) into DEHP. Bz-beta-CD was prepared by esterification between the hydroxyl groups of beta-CD and benzoyl chloride. The presence of this cyclodextrin is expected to facilitate formation of stable complexes through pi-pi association with DEHP molecules. The flexible PVC was prepared with a gelation-fusion process that uses the prepared migration-resistant plasticizer, and its properties (flexibility, thermal stability, and clarity) were evaluated by carrying out DSC and tensile testing, TGA, and haze testing, respectively. No significant changes in the physical properties of the flexible PVC were observed when Bz-beta-CD was added. DEHP migration tests were carried out for the flexible PVC according to the ISO 3826:1993(E) test method, and the quantity of migrated DEHP was then determined with UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of Bz-beta-CD decreases the levels of DEHP migration from the flexible PVC samples by almost 40%. We investigated the molecular interaction between Bz-beta-CD and DEHP using molecular mechanics simulations, and we conclude that this reduction in DEHP migration is due to the formation of stabilized pi-pi attractive association and inclusion complexes of Bz-beta-CD and DEHP in flexible PVC.

  18. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid and natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tanrattanakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid. Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the derived TPE. Four plasticizers were selected: tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC, tributyl citrate (TBC, glycerol triacetate (GTA, and triethyl-2-acetyl citrate (TEAC. The investigated properties were the tensile properties, tear strength, thermal ageing and ozone resistance, hardness, resilience, tension set and compression set. All plasticizers increased the strain at break. TBAC and TBC increased the stress at break. All plasticizers decreased the tear strength, hardness and resilience, and slightly changed the tension and compression set. TBAC seemed to be the best plasticizer for the TPE. The presence of 4 pph (parts per hundred resin of plasticizer provided the highest strength and tensile toughness and the strain at break increased with the increasing plasticizer content. The plasticizers decreased the Tg and Tcc of the PLA and did not affect the degree of crystallinity of PLA in the TPE.

  19. Development of Enzyme-Containing Functional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    absorbed) roentgen shake slug torr (nm Hg , 0° C) 1.000 000 X E -10 1.013 25 X E +2 1.000 000 X E +2 1.000 000 X E -28 1.054 350 X E +3 4 .184 000...nanoparticles, containing no enzyme, after particle synthesis to demonstrate that the adsorption of the enzyme or the presence of nanoparticles was not the...thermo-responsive nanoparticle nor enzyme adsorption onto the surface of the nanoparticle were responsible for artificially increasing enzymatic

  20. Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, M I; Olea-Serrano, M F; Rivas-Velasco, A M; Medina-Rivero, E; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G; De León-Rodríguez, A

    2011-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, phthalic-acid, dibutyl-phthalate, diethyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate was determined in vegetable cans, baby bottles and microwaveable containers from the Mexican market. Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry was used for the identification and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography with UV/Visible light and fluorescence detectors was used for the quantification. Endocrine disruptors were found in all samples. PA and DOP were the substances most commonly found, and maximum concentrations were 9.549 and 0.664 μg/kg, respectively from a jalapeno peppers can. Bisphenol A, phthalic-acid, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, dioctyl-phtalate and dibutyl-phthalate were found in baby bottles and microwaveable containers.

  1. Development and Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics Geogrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingbiao; ZHANG Cong; WEN Xiaokang; L Rongshan; LIANG Xunmei; LU Shide

    2015-01-01

    Glassfi ber reinforced plastics geogrid has a wide application in thefi eld of soil reinforcement because of its high strength, good toughness, and resistance to environmental stress, creep resistance and strong stability. In order to get high-powered glassfi ber reinforced plastics geogrid and its mechanical characteristics, the properties and physical mechanical index of geogrid have been got through the study of its raw material, production process and important quality index. The analysis and study have been made to the geogrid’s mechanical properties with loading speed, three-axial compression, temperature tensile test and FLAC3D numerical simulation, thus obtain the mechanical parameters of its displacement time curve, breaking strength and elongation at break. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (a) Using glassfi ber materials, knurling and coated projection process, the fracture strength and corrosion resistance of geogrid are greatly improved and the interlocking bite capability of soil is enhanced. (b) The fracture strength of geogrid is related to temperature and loading rate. When the surrounding rock pressure is fixed, the strength and anti-deformation ability of reinforced soil are significantly enhanced with increasing reinforced layers. (c) The pullout test shows the positive correlation between geogrid displacement and action time. (d) As a new reinforced material, the glass fi ber reinforced plastics geogrid is not mature enough in theoretical research and practical experience, so it has become an urgent problem both in theoretical study and practical innovation.

  2. Establishing sustainable design and development for plastic mold under product service system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Kuo, Kuo-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Face the energy recovery and environmental concerns and policy, the plastic molds design and develop have to focus on the issues of the lead-free, non-toxic, recyclable, re-manufactured, and integrate...

  3. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção; Santos, Isaac Rodrigues dos; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  4. Chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) films containing ZnO nanoparticles and plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Denice S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Smania, Arthur [Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro C.M., E-mail: mauro@qmc.ufsc.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Chemistry Department, QUITECH, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2010-05-10

    In this study ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the Pechini method from a polyester by reacting citric acid with ethylene glycol in which the metal ions are dissolved, and incorporated into blend films of chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, Tween 80 (T80). These films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, degradation of films in Hank's solution and the mechanical properties. Besides these characterizations, the antibacterial activity of the films was tested, and the films containing ZnO nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus. The observed antibacterial activity in the composite films prepared in this work suggests that they may be used as hydrophilic wound and burn dressings.

  5. Silver speciation and characterization of nanoparticles released from plastic food containers by single particle ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, K; Gómez-Gómez, M M; Cámara, C; Ramos, L

    2016-05-01

    Silver migration from a commercial baby feeding bottle and a food box containing AgNPs, as confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis, was evaluated using food simulant solutions [i.e., water, 3% (v/v) acetic acid, and 10% and 90% (v/v) ethanol]. Silver release was investigated at temperatures in the 20-70°C range using contact times of up to 10 days. Migration of silver from the food box was in all cases 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for the baby bottle, although the total silver content in the original box material was half of that found in the baby bottle. As expected, for both food containers, silver migration depended on both the nature of the tested solution and the applied conditions. The highest release was observed for 3% acetic acid at 70°C for 2h, corresponding to 62ngdm(2) and 1887ngdm(-2) of silver for the baby bottle and the food box, respectively. Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS) was used to characterise and quantify AgNPs in the food simulants extracts. Sample preparation was optimized to preserve AgNPs integrity. The experimental parameters affecting AgNPs detection, sizing and quantification by SP-ICPMS were also optimised. Analyses of water and acidic extracts revealed the presence of both dissolved silver and AgNPs. Small AgNPs (in the 18-30nm range) and particle number concentrations within the 4-1510 10(6)L(-1) range were detected, corresponding to only 0.1-8.6% of the total silver released from these materials. The only exception was AgNPs migrated into water at 40°C and 70°C from the food box, which accounted for as much as 34% and 69% of the total silver content, respectively.

  6. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  7. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  8. Spatial and temporal plasticity of chromatin during programmed DNA-reorganization in Stylonychia macronuclear development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postberg Jan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In this study we exploit the unique genome organization of ciliates to characterize the biological function of histone modification patterns and chromatin plasticity for the processing of specific DNA sequences during a nuclear differentiation process. Ciliates are single-cell eukaryotes containing two morphologically and functionally specialized types of nuclei, the somatic macronucleus and the germline micronucleus. In the course of sexual reproduction a new macronucleus develops from a micronuclear derivative. During this process specific DNA sequences are eliminated from the genome, while sequences that will be transcribed in the mature macronucleus are retained. Results: We show by immunofluorescence microscopy, Western analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments that each nuclear type establishes its specific histone modification signature. Our analyses reveal that the early macronuclear anlage adopts a permissive chromatin state immediately after the fusion of two heterochromatic germline micronuclei. As macronuclear development progresses, repressive histone modifications that specify sequences to be eliminated are introduced de novo. ChIP analyses demonstrate that permissive histone modifications are associated with sequences that will be retained in the new macronucleus. Furthermore, our data support the hypothesis that a PIWI-family protein is involved in a transnuclear cross-talk and in the RNAi-dependent control of developmental chromatin reorganization. Conclusion: Based on these data we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatial and temporal pattern of histone modifications during this nuclear differentiation process. Results obtained in this study may also be relevant for our understanding of chromatin plasticity during metazoan embryogenesis.

  9. Microstructural Development during Welding of Silicon- and Aluminum-Based Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels—Inclusion and Elemental Partitioning Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.; Hermans, M.; Richardson, I.

    2009-01-01

    Microstructural development in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welded silicon- and aluminum-based transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels was studied by optical and electron microscopy. The fusion zone (FZ) of both welds contained complex inclusions. Energy-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis on

  10. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors including interior design work and in automotive among others, thereby curbing the problem of garbage accumulation in the environment. The project provides eco-friendly solutions by making best use of the available resources (wood and plastic resins thus, finding sustainable solutions to the problem of limited waste dumping sites and deforestation in the country. The composites were made from PP and HDPE thermoplastics and mahogany sawdust obtained from our wood workshop in Dedan Kimathi University. From the tests carried out and results obtained, it was found that, the composite has more advantages than the individual constituent materials. Water absorption test revealed that all the samples took up water though not as much pronounced as for plain sawdust. Additionally, the rate of water reduction was found to be excellent. They took less time to release the absorbed water to the environment meaning that they can be applied in humid or wet environ. The composite samples were easy to machine since they were easily shaped using a handsaw.

  11. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  12. Effect of Hydroxyl Number of Hydroxyl-Containing Plasticizers on Their Plasticization for Starch Sizing Agents%羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 祝志峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of number of hydroxyls in molecules of hydroxyl-containing plasticizers on the plasticization for starch sizing agents, plasticization of the plasticizers was investigated through contrast test. The plasticization was evaluated in terms of extension and tensile strength of starch film. And end - use ability of the plasticizers was accessed through film performances, adhesion-to-fibers, and paste behaviors (viscosity and its stability). The plasticizers evaluated included n-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1, 2-propylene glycol, glycol, glycerol, 1, 1, 1-trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, xylitol, and sorbic alcohol. Experimental results demonstrated that all the plasticizers exhibited plasticization for starch sizing agents, and could reduce the shortcomings such as film rigidity and brittleness of starch. The plasticizers enhanced the plasticization of starch with increasing the number of hydroxyls up to 3, reaching maximal effect, and beyond this number it reduced again. Glycerol and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane showed the most marked plasticization for plasticizing starch sizing agents among the plasticizers considered. For this reason, these two plasticizers were recommended in uses for reducing shedding of size and lint in sizing and weaving operations so as to improve weaving efficiency.%以淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长为评价标准,通过对比试验评价羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料的增塑作用,从分子结构上认识羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响,并通过浆液特性及黏附性能评估羟基增塑剂正戊醇、正丁醇、1,2-丙二醇、乙二醇、甘油、1,1,1-三羟甲基丙烷、季戊四醇、木糖醇及山梨醇的使用效果.研究结果表明:羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料都具有增塑作用,能够改善淀粉浆膜脆而硬的缺陷.随着增塑剂羟基数目的增加,淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长率逐渐增大;在羟基数目为3时,增塑作用达到最大;但

  13. Preparation and properties of thermoplastic poly(caprolactone) composites containing high amount of esterified starch without plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Hu, Qiongen; Qian, Jiangtao; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Shi, Dongjian; Dong, Weifu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-03-30

    Based on stearyl chloride and native starch, esterified starch were prepared and the chemical structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR. It was found that stearyl chloride was an efficient agent to fabricate esterified starch with high degree of substitution (DS). During the melt blending of esterified starch (80 wt%) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 20 wt%), it was shown the torque of PCL/esterified starch was much lower than that of PCL/native starch without any plasticizer, and further decreased with increasing DS. Compared with PCL/native starch, the tensile properties of PCL/esterified starch composites were significantly enhanced. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased from 2.7 MPa to 56% for PCL/native starch composites to 9.1 MPa and 626% for PCL/esterified starch ones with DS of 1.50, respectively. SEM observation revealed the esterified starch particles in matrix became smaller and more uniform. In addition, the water resistance and hydrophobic character of PCL/esterified starch composites were improved. PCL composites containing 80 wt% esterified starch with favorable mechanical properties would have great potential applications in broad areas.

  14. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 1: Motivation and Development of New Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the $(1 + L^2)$ term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform densi...

  15. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  16. Development of methods for predicting large crack growth in elastic-plastic work-hardening materials in fully plastic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Hugh; Turner, C. E.; Fenner, R. T.; Curr, R. M.; Ivankovic, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objects of the first, exploratory, stage of the project were listed as: (1) to make a detailed and critical review of the Boundary Element method as already published and with regard to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, to assess its potential for handling present concepts in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. To this was subsequently added the Finite Volume method and certain aspects of the Finite Element method for comparative purposes; (2) to assess the further steps needed to apply the methods so far developed to the general field, covering a practical range of geometries, work hardening materials, and composites: to consider their application under higher temperature conditions; (3) to re-assess the present stage of development of the energy dissipation rate, crack tip opening angle and J-integral models in relation to the possibilities of producing a unified technology with the previous two items; and (4) to report on the feasibility and promise of this combined approach and, if appropriate, make recommendations for the second stage aimed at developing a generalized crack growth technology for its application to real-life problems.

  17. Development of a highly transparent superamphiphobic plastic sheet by nanoparticle and chemical coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ten It; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fuke; Sin, Sau Leng; Quan, Cheng Gen; Wang, Shi Jie; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    A highly transparent superamphiphobic plastic sheet was developed. The plastic sheet polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was spin-coated on a glass substrate. Synthesized silica nanoparticles were sprayed on PMMA, followed by fluorosilane drop-coating. The results of contact angle measurements show that the developed PMMA sheet has superamphiphobic properties with high advancing contact angles for water (154°), toluene (139°), and silicone oil (132.9°). The amphiphobicity of the plastic sheet can be tuned by the surface coverage of the silica nanoparticles distributed on the PMMA surface. The surface coverage of the nanoparticles on our PMMA sheet is about 20%, and it agrees with our contact angle calculations for the sheet with and without nanoparticles.

  18. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PERMANENT MECHANICAL REPAIR SLEEVE FOR PLASTIC PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitesh Patadia

    2004-09-30

    The report presents a comprehensive summary of the project status related to the development of a permanent mechanical repair fitting intended to be installed on damaged PE mains under blowing gas conditions. Specifically, the product definition has been developed taking into account relevant codes and standards and industry input. A conceptual design for the mechanical repair sleeve has been developed which meets the product definition.

  20. High efficiency 200 TEU container ship developed by CSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three years operation, the large, energy-efficient, environment-friendly 200 TEU container ship Changjiang developed by China Changjiang National Shipping Group Corporation (CSC) has become an important force in the fleet of container ships in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in China.

  1. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Development of suitable plastic standards for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christian; Hanning, Stephanie; Simons, Christoph; Wegner, Anne; Janβen, Anton; Kreyenschmidt, Martin

    2007-02-01

    For the adoption of the EU directive "Restriction on use of certain Hazardous Substances" and "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" using X-ray fluorescence analysis suitable standard materials are required. Plastic standards based on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, containing the regulated elements Br, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb were developed and produced as granulates and solid bodies. The calibration materials were not generated as a dilution from one master batch but rather the element concentrations were distributed over nine independent calibration samples. This was necessary to enable inter-elemental corrections and empirical constant mass absorption coefficients. The produced standard materials are characterized by a homogenous element distribution, which is more than sufficient for X-ray fluorescence analysis. Concentrations for all elements except for Br could be determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy after microwave assisted digestion. The concentration of Br was determined by use of Neutron Activation Analysis at Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin, Germany. The correlation of the X-ray fluorescence analysis measurements with the values determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Neutron Activation Analysis showed a very good linearity.

  3. Development of flexible plasmonic plastic sensor using nanograting textured laminating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Saswat; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.

    2017-02-01

    The work presented in this paper describes the development of a cost-effective, flexible plasmonic plastic sensor using gold-coated nanograting nanoimprinted on a laminating plastic. The fabrication of plasmonic plastic sensor involved the transfer of nanograting pattern from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer stamp to laminating plastic via thermal nanoimprint lithography, and subsequent gold film deposition. Gold-coated nanograting sample acted as a plasmonic chip, which exhibited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode in reflectance spectra under the white light illumination. The theoretical calculation was performed to study and analyze the excited SPR mode on the plasmonic chip. Further, the bulk refractive index sensitivity was demonstrated with respect to changing surrounding dielectric medium giving a value about 800  ±  27 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). In addition, the surface binding sensitivity upon adsorption of bovine serum albumin protein on the sensor surface was approximately 4.605 nm/(ng/mm2).We believe that our proposed low-cost plastic based plasmonic sensing device could be a potential candidate for the label-free and high-throughput screening of biological molecules.

  4. Migration of plasticizers from PVC medical devices: Development of an infusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Cueff, R; Chagnon, Mc; Abdoulouhab, F; Décaudin, B; Breysse, C; Kauffmann, S; Cosserant, B; Souweine, B; Sautou, V

    2015-10-15

    Alternatives to DEHP plasticizers are used in various PVC medical devices (MD) for infusion. As they are able to migrate from these MDs into infused solutions, they may come into contact with patient. Different and specific clinical parameters influence their migration in at-risk situations such as infusion. In contrast to the regulations for Food Contact Materials (MCDA), there is currently no acceptable migration limits for the use of these plasticizers in clinical situations. In order to assess their migration, and thus control the risks linked to these MDs, we developed a migration model for the plasticizers in MDs. To this end, we applied a cross-disciplinary methodological process similar to that used in the food-processing industry, taking into account the MDs' conditions of use in clinical practice. The simulation model is simple and includes the following conditions: MD should be tested with a dynamic method that respects our established clinical assumption (2 L of infused solutions via 13 dm(2) of plasticized PVC), at a temperature of 25 °C and during 24 h of contact, using a 50/50 (v/v) ethanol/water simulant. This model could be proposed as a tool for the safety evaluation of the patients' exposure risk to plasticizers from PVC medical devices for infusions.

  5. DEVELOPING THE METHOD FOR PRODUCING FUNCTIONAL TONIC DRINKS CONTAINING PECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galut N. V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Main technologic characteristics were developed for the production of functional tonic drinks containing pectin. Their component composition was justified. Their physical, chemical and organoleptic properties were determined

  6. Development of high plasticity Al-Si alloy and its casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭国文; 李元元; 陈维平; 张大童; 龙雁

    2002-01-01

    Aiming to meet the challenge of the shape complexity and high plasticity demanded for the upper connective plate(UCP) in motorcycle, a high plasticity Al-Si alloy named HGZL-02 was developed by optimizing the chemical composition and casting process. Premium UCP castings were obtained by using optimized casting process. Results show that fine and dense microstructure are obtained in the UCP castings. An average of 224MPa in ultimate tensile strength, 149MPa in yield strength and 13.2% in elongation are achieved for T6 heat-treated UPS castings.

  7. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE LASER SCANNER FOR GEOMETRICAL VERIFICATION OF METALLIC AND PLASTIC PARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Fisker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    and plastic parts. A first prototype of the novel measuring system has been developed, using laser triangulation. The system, besides ensuring the automatic reconstruction of complete surface models, has been designed to guarantee user-friendliness, versatility, reliability and speed. The paper focuses mainly...... dimensional measurements with adequate accuracy for most industrial requirements....

  9. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Intellectual, Language and Academic Functions in Children with Ischaemic Perinatal Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Angela O.; Spilkin, Amy M.; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A.

    2008-01-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain…

  10. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  11. The wiring of developing sensory circuits - from patterned spontaneous activity to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Helen Leighton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately process incoming sensory stimuli, neurons must be organized into functional networks, with both genetic and environmental factors influencing the precise arrangement of connections between cells. Teasing apart the relative contributions of molecular guidance cues, spontaneous activity and visual experience during this maturation is on-going. During development of the sensory system, the first, rough organization of connections is created by molecular factors. These connections are then modulated by the intrinsically generated activity of neurons, even before the senses have become operational. Spontaneous waves of depolarisations sweep across the nervous system, placing them in a prime position to strengthen correct connections and weaken others, shaping synapses into a useful network. A large body of work now supports the idea that, rather than being a mere side-effect of the system, spontaneous activity actually contains information which readies the nervous system so that, as soon as the senses become active, sensory information can be utilized by the animal. An example is the neonatal mouse. As soon as the eyelids first open, neurons in the cortex respond to visual information without the animal having previously encountered structured sensory input (Cang et al., 2005a; Ko et al., 2013; Rochefort et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012. In vivo imaging techniques have advanced considerably, allowing observation of the natural activity in the brain of living animals down to the level of the individual synapse. New (optogenetic methods make it possible to subtly modulate the spatio-temporal properties of activity, aiding our understanding of how these characteristics relate to the function of spontaneous activity. Such experiments have had a huge impact on our knowledge by permitting direct testing of ideas about the plasticity mechanisms at play in the intact system, opening up a provocative range of fresh questions. Here, we

  12. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  13. Design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalon, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems use is described. The objective of this development was to examine the feasibility of producing lenses with a cost effectiveness superior to that of lenses made by casting of acrylic. The procedure used in executing this development, the method used in cost effectiveness evaluation, results obtained and recommendations for further work are presented.

  14. Cellular Plasticity within the Pancreas— Lessons Learned from Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sapna; Hebrok, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas has been the subject of intense research due to the debilitating diseases that result from its dysfunction. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the critical tissue interactions and intracellular regulatory events that take place during formation of the pancreas from a small cluster of cells in the foregut domain of the mouse embryo. Importantly, an understanding of principles that govern the development of this organ has equipped us with the means to manipulate both embryonic and differentiated adult cells in the context of regenerative medicine. The emerging area of lineage modulation within the adult pancreas is of particular interest, and this review summarizes recent findings that exemplify how lessons learned from development are being applied to reveal the potential of fully differentiated cells to change fate. PMID:20230744

  15. Cellular plasticity within the pancreas--lessons learned from development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sapna; Hebrok, Matthias

    2010-03-16

    The pancreas has been the subject of intense research due to the debilitating diseases that result from its dysfunction. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the critical tissue interactions and intracellular regulatory events that take place during formation of the pancreas from a small cluster of cells in the foregut domain of the mouse embryo. Importantly, an understanding of principles that govern the development of this organ has equipped us with the means to manipulate both embryonic and differentiated adult cells in the context of regenerative medicine. The emerging area of lineage modulation within the adult pancreas is of particular interest, and this review summarizes recent findings that exemplify how lessons learned from development are being applied to reveal the potential of fully differentiated cells to change fate.

  16. Selective processes in development: implications for the costs and benefits of phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2012-07-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a genotype to develop a phenotype appropriate to the local environment, allows organisms to cope with environmental variation and has implications for predicting how organisms will respond to rapid, human-induced environmental change. This review focuses on the importance of developmental selection, broadly defined as a developmental process that involves the sampling of a range of phenotypes and feedback from the environment reinforcing high-performing phenotypes. I hypothesize that understanding the degree to which developmental selection underlies plasticity is key to predicting the costs, benefits, and consequences of plasticity. First, I review examples that illustrate that elements of developmental selection are common across the development of many different traits, from physiology and immunity to circulation and behavior. Second, I argue that developmental selection, relative to a fixed strategy or determinate (switch) mechanisms of plasticity, increases the probability that an individual will develop a phenotype best matched to the local environment. However, the exploration and environmental feedback associated with developmental selection is costly in terms of time, energy, and predation risk, resulting in major changes in life history such as increased duration of development and greater investment in individual offspring. Third, I discuss implications of developmental selection as a mechanism of plasticity, from predicting adaptive responses to novel environments to understanding conditions under which genetic assimilation may fuel diversification. Finally, I outline exciting areas of future research, in particular exploring costs of selective processes in the development of traits outside of behavior and modeling developmental selection and evolution in novel environments.

  17. Capability of 19-L polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): Field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 L) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in resource-poor environments. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 L) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs)...

  18. Elasto-Plastic 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Department of Defence, Australia, January 1988. 5. D Duprat, D Campassens...Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon Witold Waldman AUSTRALIA DEFENCE ORGANISATION No. of Copies Task Sponsor OIC-ASI-DGTA...UNCLASSIFIED DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GROUP DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA 1. DLM/CAVEAT (OF DOCUMENT) 2. TITLE Elasto–Plastic 3D Finite Element

  19. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  20. Plasticity during childhood and adolescence: innovative approaches to investigating neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Linden, David E J; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-07-01

    Adolescence is a period of profound change, which holds substantial developmental milestones, but also unique challenges to the individual. In this opinion paper, we highlight the potential of combining two recently developed behavioural and neural training techniques (cognitive bias modification and functional magnetic neuroimaging-based neurofeedback) into a research approach that could help make the most of increased levels of plasticity during childhood and adolescence. We discuss how this powerful combination could be used to explore changing brain-behaviour relationships throughout development in the context of emotion processing, a cognitive domain that exhibits continuous development throughout the second decade of life. By targeting both behaviour and brain response, we would also be in an excellent position to define sensible time windows for enhancing plasticity, thereby allowing for targeted intervention approaches that can help improve emotion processing in both typically and atypically developing populations.

  1. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  2. Development of plastic heat exchangers for ocean thermal energy conversion. Final report, August 1976--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.K.; Lee, C.O.; Latour, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Materials and processes have been selected and design information obtained for plastic ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) heat exchangers as the result of a program comprising five types of laboratory experiments. Tests to evaluate the chemical resistance of seven commercially available thermoplastics to sea water and several possible working fluids were conducted with emphasis placed on compatibility with ammonia. Environmental rupture tests involving exposure of stressed specimens to sea water or liquid ammonia indicated that the high density polyethylene (HDPE) is the best suited candidate and produced an extrapolated 100,000 hour failure stress of 1060 psi for HDPE. Long term durability tests of extruded HDPE plate-tube panel confirmed that plastic heat transfer surface is mechanically reliable in an OTEC environment. Thermal conductivity measurements of acetylene black filled HDPE indicated that conductivity may be increased by 50% with a 35% by weight filler loading. The permeability coefficient measured for liquid ammonia through HDPE was higher than previous estimates. Test showed that the rate can be significantly reduced by sulfonation of HDPE. A review of biofouling mechanisms revealed that the permeable nature of the plastic heat exchanger surface may be used to control primary biofouling form formation by allowing incorporation of non-toxic organic repellents into the plastic. A preliminary design and fabrication development program suggests that construction of an ammonia condenser test unit is feasible using currently available materials and manufacturing techniques.

  3. Effects of plasticization and shear stress on phase structure development and properties of soy protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinwen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was used as a plastic component to blend with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Effects of SPC plasticization and blend composition on its deformation during mixing were studied in detail. Influence of using water as the major plasticizer and glycerol as the co-plasticizer on the deformation of the SPC phase during mixing was explored. The effect of shear stress, as affected by SPC loading level, on the phase structure of SPC in the blends was also investigated. Quantitative analysis of the aspect ratio of SPC particles was conducted by using ImageJ software, and an empirical model predicting the formation of percolated structure was applied. The experimental results and the model prediction showed a fairly good agreement. The experimental results and statistic analysis suggest that both SPC loading level and its water content prior to compounding had significant influences on development of the SPC phase structure and were correlated in determining the morphological structures of the resulting blends. Consequently, physical and mechanical properties of the blends greatly depended on the phase morphology and PBAT/SPC ratio of the blends.

  4. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  5. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  6. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate. PMID:23967057

  7. Evolution and plasticity of anuran larval development in response to desiccation. A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Boix, Alex; Tejedo, Miguel; Rezende, Enrico L

    2011-09-01

    Anurans breed in a variety of aquatic habitats with contrasting levels of desiccation risk, which may result in selection for faster development during larval stages. Previous studies suggest that species in ephemeral ponds reduce their developmental times to minimize desiccation risks, although it is not clear how variation in desiccation risk affects developmental strategies in different species. Employing a comparative phylogenetic approach including data from published and unpublished studies encompassing 62 observations across 30 species, we tested if species breeding in ephemeral ponds (High risk) develop faster than those from permanent ponds (Low risk) and/or show increased developmental plasticity in response to drying conditions. Our analyses support shorter developmental times in High risk, primarily by decreasing body mass at metamorphosis. Plasticity in developmental times was small and did not differ between groups. However, accelerated development in High risk species generally resulted in reduced sizes at metamorphosis, while some Low risk species were able compensate this effect by increasing mean growth rates. Taken together, our results suggest that plastic responses in species breeding in ephemeral ponds are constrained by a general trade-off between development and growth rates.

  8. Development of Wolsong Unit 2 Containment Analysis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon, Choi [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Ko Bong; Chan, Park Young [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To be prepared for the full scope safety analysis of Wolsong unit 2 with modified fuel, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2b(QA), are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. A detailed nodalization of 39 control volumes and 92 flow paths is constructed to determine the differential pressure across internal walls or hydrogen concentration and distribution inside containment. A lumped model with 15 control volumes and 74 flow paths has also been developed to reduce the computer run time for the assessments in which the analysis results are not sensitive to detailed thermal hydraulic distribution inside containment such as peak pressure, pressure dependent signal and radionuclide release. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the containment building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various containment subsystems. The parameter values are based on best estimate or design values for that parameter. The analysis values are determined by conservatism depending on the analysis objective and may be different for various analysis objectives. Basic input decks of Wolsong unit 2 were developed for the various analysis purposes with GOTHIC 7.2b(QA). Depend on the analysis objective, two types of models are prepared. Detailed model models each confined room in the containment as a separate node. All of the geometric data are based on the drawings of Wolsong unit 2. Developed containment models are simulating the steady state well to the designated initial condition. These base models will be used for Wolsong unit 2 in case of safety analysis of full scope is needed.

  9. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

    1998-09-01

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Thermal behavior of vehicle plastic blends contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in pyrolysis using TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guicai; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-03-01

    As important plastic blends in End-of-Life vehicles (ELV), pyrolysis profiles of ABS/PVC, ABS/PA6 and ABS/PC were investigated using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). Also, CaCO3 was added as plastic filler to discuss its effects on the pyrolysis of these plastics. The results showed that the interaction between ABS and PVC made PVC pyrolysis earlier and HCl emission slightly accelerated. The mixing of ABS and PA6 made their decomposition temperature closer, and ketones in PA6 pyrolysis products were reduced. The presence of ABS made PC pyrolysis earlier, and phenyl compounds in PC pyrolysis products could be transferred into alcohol or H2O. The interaction between ABS and other polymers in pyrolysis could be attributed to the intermolecular radical transfer, and free radicals from the polymer firstly decomposed led to a fast initiation the decomposition of the other polymer. As plastic filler, CaCO3 promoted the thermal decomposition of PA6 and PC, and had no obvious effects on ABS and PVC pyrolysis process. Also, CaCO3 made the pyrolysis products from PA6 and PC further decomposed into small-molecule compounds like CO2. The kinetics analysis showed that isoconversional method like Starink method was more suitable for these polymer blends. Starink method showed the average activation energy of ABS50/PVC50, ABS50/PA50 and ABS50/PC50 was 186.63kJ/mol, 239.61kJ/mol and 248.95kJ/mol, respectively, and the interaction among them could be reflected by the activation energy variation.

  11. Uncertainties Scientific AND Probability Theory IN Judicial Decision: The Case OF Bisphenol A - BPA IN Containers Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Graziela de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at observing the theory of probability as decisional support to cases involving scientific uncertainties, from the pragmatic-systemic matrix. The toxicity of chemicals in packaging plastic in contact with food is an object of study in various area of knowledge, and the chemical compound Bisphenol A (BPA) appointed as harmful to human health. The packages have an important socio-economic function, but failure to comply with minimum limits on production and consumer information ...

  12. Ovarian actinomycosis developed during the use of a plastic intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Z; Csömör, S; Zámbó, Z; Fedák, L; Vilics, G; Németh, F

    1977-01-01

    The case of a primary ovarian actinomycosis developed during the use of a Szontágh--Szereday type plastic IUD is presented. After a radical operation the patient was discharged in a good condition but 40 days later had to be readmitted because of a pelvic and abdominal wall abscess. After local surgery and massive penicillin treatment she is free of complaints. It is assumed that the IUD had a pathomechanical role.

  13. Recent Development of Air-Cooled Bainitic Steels Containing Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hong-sheng; YANG Fu-bao; BAI Bing-zhe; YANG Zhi-gang; YIN Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The superiorities of air-cooled bainitic steels were described.A series of air-cooled bainitic steels containing manganese were developed and presented,which include low carbon granular bainitic steels,low carbon grain-boundary allotriomorphic ferrite/granular bainite dual phase steels,medium and medium high carbon bainite/martensite dual phase steels and casting bainitic steels.The development of ultra-low carbon bainitic steels in China was also introduced.

  14. Simulation methodology development for rotating blade containment analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing HE; Hai-jun XUAN; Lian-fang LIAO; Wei-rong HONG; Rong-ren WU

    2012-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation on the aeroengine blade/case containment analysis is presented.Blade out containment capability analysis is an essential step in the new aeroengine design,but containment tests are time-consuming and incur significant costs; thus,developing a short-period and low-cost numerical method is warranted.Using explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis software,the present study numerically investigated the high-speed impact process for simulated blade containment tests which were carried out on high-speed spin testing facility.A number of simulations were conducted using finite element models with different mesh sizes and different values of both the contact penalty factor and the friction coefficient.Detailed comparisons between the experimental and numerical results reveal that the mesh size and the friction coefficient have a considerable impact on the results produced.It is shown that a finer mesh will predict lower containment capability of the case,which is closer to the test data.A larger value of the friction coefficient also predicts lower containment capability.However,the contact penalty factor has little effect on the simulation results if it is large enough to avoid false penetration.

  15. Heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation for selective surface hydrophilization of plastics containing brominated and chlorinated flame retardants (B/CFRs): separation from automobile shredder residue by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2016-12-09

    One method of weakening the inherently hydrophobic surface of plastics relevant to flotation separation is heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation. Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-catalyzed ozonation for 15 min efficiently decreases the surface hydrophobicity of brominated and chlorinated flame retardant (B/CFR)-containing plastics (such as acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) in automobile shredder residue (ASR) to such an extent that their flotation ability is entirely depressed. Such a hydrophilization treatment also stimulates the ABS, HIPS, and PVC surface roughness, wetting of the surface, and the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at the surface and ultimately changes surface polarity. SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS analyses of the PVC and ABS surfaces demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl/Br] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as C-O, C=O, and (C=O)-O. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5 % of ABS and 99.5 % of HIPS in ASR samples settled out, resulting in a purity of 98 and 98.5 % for ABS and HIPS in ASR samples, respectively. Furthermore, at 150 rpm, we also obtained 100 % PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98 % purity in ASR. Total recovery of non-B/CFR-containing plastics reached nearly 100 % in the floating fraction. The amount of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO reagent employed during ozonation is very small, and additional removal of surface contaminants from the recycled ASR plastic surfaces by ozonation makes the developed process simpler, greener, and more effective.

  16. Theoretical Development of an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Generalized Composite Material Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Harrington, Joseph; Subramanian, Rajan; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within LS-DYNA (Registered), there are several features that have been identified that could improve the predictive capability of a composite model. To address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed and is being implemented into LS-DYNA as MAT_213. A key feature of the improved material model is the use of tabulated stress-strain data in a variety of coordinate directions to fully define the stress-strain response of the material. To date, the model development efforts have focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic material model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients of the yield function, and the stresses to be used in both the yield function and the flow rule, are computed based on the input stress-strain curves using the effective plastic strain as the tracking variable. The coefficients in the flow rule are computed based on the obtained stress-strain data. The developed material model is suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA for use in analyzing the nonlinear response of polymer composites.

  17. The development of strain anisotropy during plastic deformation of an aluminium polycrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsunsky, A.M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Daymond, M.R. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Oxon (United Kingdom); Wells, K.E. [Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Mfg. Engineering, Univ. of Newcastle (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    To measure internal strains in an Al MMC, time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction was used on the ENGIN instrument at ISIS, RAL, in Oxfordshire, and a monochromated X-ray beam was employed on the BM16 beamline at the ESRF in Grenoble. The development of intergranular stresses between groups of grains possessing certain crystallographic orientations was studied using diffraction of penetrating radiation. Due to aluminium's highly isotropic elastic modulus, the variation of measured strains in the alloy matrix with orientation can be attributed to the anisotropy of the crystal yield surface and plastic flow parameters. A simple illustrative model is presented which explains the observed correlation between the amount of plastic strain (PS) and the measured anisotropy strain (AS) values. In particular, the model explains why a linear relationship is observed between AS and PS for low strain values, and how saturation of AS sets in at higher imposed PS levels. (orig.)

  18. Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Lillycrop, Karen A; Vickers, Mark H; Pleasants, Anthony B; Phillips, Emma S; Beedle, Alan S; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A

    2007-07-31

    Developmental plasticity in response to environmental cues can take the form of polyphenism, as for the discrete morphs of some insects, or of an apparently continuous spectrum of phenotype, as for most mammalian traits. The metabolic phenotype of adult rats, including the propensity to obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperphagia, shows plasticity in response to prenatal nutrition and to neonatal administration of the adipokine leptin. Here, we report that the effects of neonatal leptin on hepatic gene expression and epigenetic status in adulthood are directionally dependent on the animal's nutritional status in utero. These results demonstrate that, during mammalian development, the direction of the response to one cue can be determined by previous exposure to another, suggesting the potential for a discontinuous distribution of environmentally induced phenotypes, analogous to the phenomenon of polyphenism.

  19. Modeling texture development during cold rolling of IF steel by crystal plasticity finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the consideration of slip deformation mechanism and various slip systems of body centered cubic (BCC) metals,Taylor-type and finite element polycrystai models were embedded into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS to realize crystal plasticity finte element modeling,based on the rate dependent crystal constitutive equations.Initial orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were directly input into the crystal plasticity finite element model to simulate the development of rolling texture of interstitial-flee steel (IF steel) at various reductions.The modeled results show a good agreement with the experimental results.With increasing reduction,the predicted and experimental rolling textures tend to sharper,and the results simulated by the Taylor-type model are stronger than those simulated by finite element model.Conclusions are obtained that rolling textures calculated with 48 {110}+{ 112}+{123} slip systems are more approximate to EBSD results.

  20. Sugar-dependent modulation of neuronal development, regeneration, and plasticity by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory M; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) play important roles in the developing and mature nervous system, where they guide axons, maintain stable connections, restrict synaptic plasticity, and prevent axon regeneration following CNS injury. The chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS GAG) chains that decorate CSPGs are essential for their functions. Through these sugar chains, CSPGs are able to bind and regulate the activity of a diverse range of proteins. CSPGs have been found both to promote and inhibit neuronal growth. They can promote neurite outgrowth by binding to various growth factors such as midkine (MK), pleiotrophin (PTN), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neurotrophin family members. CSPGs can also inhibit neuronal growth and limit plasticity by interacting with transmembrane receptors such as protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ), leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, and the Nogo receptors 1 and 3 (NgR1 and NgR3). These CS-protein interactions depend on specific sulfation patterns within the CS GAG chains, and accordingly, particular CS sulfation motifs are upregulated during development, in the mature nervous system, and in response to CNS injury. Thus, spatiotemporal regulation of CS GAG biosynthesis may provide an important mechanism to control the functions of CSPGs and to modulate intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we will discuss these sulfation-dependent processes and highlight how the CS sugars on CSPGs contribute to neuronal growth, axon guidance, and plasticity in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OYETUNJI, A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of small injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale industries was studied. This work which entailed design, construction and test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic components. Design concept, operation, and assembly of components parts were made. Also, working drawings and materials selection were made based on calculations of the diameter of injection plunger, number of teeth required for the plunger rack and spur gear, the angular velocity, number of revolution, torque and power obtained from the electric motor selected and the leverage on the handle of the machine. The machine parts/components were then assembled in line with the designed made, thereafter the constructed machine was tested using high density polyethylene and master batch. The results obtained from the test were satisfactory.

  2. Gamma irradiation of food contact plastics: identification of tin-containing intermediates in the degradation of organotin-stabilised PVC by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Brooks, J.S.; Unwin, J.; McGuiness, J.D.

    1985-08-05

    A brief account is given of the use of radiation as a process for food preservation. In particular, the effect of radiation on food packaging plastic materials is considered. Results are presented for the effect of various doses of gamma radiation on PVC containing organotin stabilisers, showing the presence of varying amounts of intermediates and a steady increase in the amount of tin (IV) chloride. Thermal degradation produced only a trace of tin (IV) chloride, in contrast. The significance of the results is discussed.

  3. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid) and natural rubber

    OpenAIRE

    V. Tanrattanakul; P. Bunkaew

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid) were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid). Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the deri...

  4. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  5. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  6. Implementation of Lumped Plasticity Models and Developments in an Object Oriented Nonlinear Finite Element Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Christopher L.

    Numerical simulation tools capable of modeling nonlinear material and geometric behavior are important to structural engineers concerned with approximating the strength and deformation capacity of a structure. While structures are typically designed to behave linear elastic when subjected to building code design loads, exceedance of the linear elastic range is often an important consideration, especially with regards to structural response during hazard level events (i.e. earthquakes, hurricanes, floods), where collapse prevention is the primary goal. This thesis addresses developments made to Mercury, a nonlinear finite element program developed in MATLAB for numerical simulation and in C++ for real time hybrid simulation. Developments include the addition of three new constitutive models to extend Mercury's lumped plasticity modeling capabilities, a constitutive driver tool for testing and implementing Mercury constitutive models, and Mercury pre and post-processing tools. Mercury has been developed as a tool for transient analysis of distributed plasticity models, offering accurate nonlinear results on the material level, element level, and structural level. When only structural level response is desired (collapse prevention), obtaining material level results leads to unnecessarily lengthy computational time. To address this issue in Mercury, lumped plasticity capabilities are developed by implementing two lumped plasticity flexural response constitutive models and a column shear failure constitutive model. The models are chosen for implementation to address two critical issues evident in structural testing: column shear failure and strength and stiffness degradation under reverse cyclic loading. These tools make it possible to model post-peak behavior, capture strength and stiffness degradation, and predict global collapse. During the implementation process, a need was identified to create a simple program, separate from Mercury, to simplify the process of

  7. Simultaneous imaging of structural plasticity and calcium dynamics in developing dendrites and axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Friederike; Lohmann, Christian

    2013-11-01

    During nervous system development, the formation of synapses between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is a remarkably specific process. Both structural and functional plasticity are critical for the selection of synaptic partners and for the establishment and maturation of synapses. To unravel the respective contributions of structural and functional mechanisms as well as their interactions during synaptogenesis, it is important to directly observe structural changes and functional signaling simultaneously. Here, we present an imaging approach to simultaneously follow changes in structure and function. Differential labeling of individual cells and the neuronal network with distinct dyes allows the study of structural plasticity and changes in calcium signaling associated with neural activity at the same time and with high resolution. This is achieved by bulk loading of neuronal populations with a calcium-sensitive indicator in combination with electroporation of individual cells with a calcium indicator and an additional noncalcium-sensitive dye with a different excitation spectrum. Recordings of the two differently labeled structures can be acquired simultaneously using confocal microscopy. Thus, structural plasticity and calcium dynamics of the individually labeled neuron and the surrounding network can be related to each other. This combined imaging approach can be applied to virtually all systems of neuronal networks to study structure and function. We provide a comprehensive description of the labeling procedure, the imaging parameters, and the important aspects of analysis for simultaneous recordings of structure and function in individual neurons.

  8. Mapping plastic greenhouse with medium spatial resolution satellite data: Development of a new spectral index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dedi; Chen, Jin; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Xuehong; Cao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Plastic greenhouses (PGs) are an important agriculture development technique to protect and control the growing environment for food crops. The extensive use of PGs can change the agriculture landscape and affects the local environment. Accurately mapping and estimating the coverage of PGs is a necessity to the strategic planning of modern agriculture. Unfortunately, PG mapping over large areas is methodologically challenging, as the medium spatial resolution satellite imagery (such as Landsat data) used for analysis lacks spatial details and spectral variations. To fill the gap, the paper proposes a new plastic greenhouse index (PGI) based on the spectral, sensitivity, and separability analysis of PGs using medium spatial resolution images. In the context of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, the paper examines the effectiveness and capability of the proposed PGI. The results indicate that PGs in Landsat ETM+ image can be successfully detected by the PGI if the PG fraction is greater than 12% in a mixed pixel. A kappa coefficient of 0.83 and overall accuracy of 91.2% were achieved when applying the proposed PGI in the case of Weifang District, Shandong, China. These results show that the proposed index can be applied to identifying transparent PGs in atmospheric corrected Landsat image and has the potential for the digital mapping of plastic greenhouse coverage over a large area.

  9. Emerging Roles of BAI Adhesion-GPCRs in Synapse Development and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Duman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synapses mediate communication between neurons and enable the brain to change in response to experience, which is essential for learning and memory. The sites of most excitatory synapses in the brain, dendritic spines, undergo rapid remodeling that is important for neural circuit formation and synaptic plasticity. Abnormalities in synapse and spine formation and plasticity are associated with a broad range of brain disorders, including intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and schizophrenia. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate these neuronal processes is critical for understanding brain function and disease. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI subfamily of adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs has recently emerged as central regulators of synapse development and plasticity. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of BAIs at synapses, highlighting their regulation, downstream signaling, and physiological functions, while noting the roles of other adhesion-GPCRs at synapses. We will also discuss the relevance of BAIs in various neurological and psychiatric disorders and consider their potential importance as pharmacological targets in the treatment of these diseases.

  10. Sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Jillian D; Juliano, Steven A

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD.

  11. Testing of containers made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic with the aid of acoustic emission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitz, K.; Brockmann, W.; Fischer, T.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic emission analysis as a quasi-nondestructive test method makes it possible to differentiate clearly, in judging the total behavior of fiber-reinforced plastic composites, between critical failure modes (in the case of unidirectional composites fiber fractures) and non-critical failure modes (delamination processes or matrix fractures). A particular advantage is that, for varying pressure demands on the composites, the emitted acoustic pulses can be analyzed with regard to their amplitude distribution. In addition, definite indications as to how the damages occurred can be obtained from the time curves of the emitted acoustic pulses as well as from the particular frequency spectrum. Distinct analogies can be drawn between the various analytical methods with respect to whether the failure modes can be classified as critical or non-critical.

  12. 141 BOVINE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT RATES ARE AFFECTED WHEN OOCYTES ARE MATURED IN DIFFERENT VIALS CONTAINING HEPES/BICARBONATE BUFFERED MEDIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N; Secher, J O; Pryor, J H; Long, C R; Looney, C R; Avery, B; Hyttel, P; Stroebech, L

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory ware for the in vitro-produced embryos is generally made from embryo-tested plastic instead of glass. The quality of the plastic is crucial for the outcome because plastic is often toxic to gametes (Nijs et al. 2009 Fertil. Steril. 92, 527-535). In addition, gas molecules permeate through the plastic at a rate that depends on a variety of factors, such as diffusion coefficient and thickness of the plastic. In an incubator with appropriate concentration of CO2 and vented culture vessels, the gas permeability of the plastic is not important. When oocytes are transported outside a controlled atmosphere, gas permeability, toxicity, and oocyte cumulus cell CO2 metabolism could perturb the outcome. Medium containing bicarbonate buffer increases pH outside of a controlled atmosphere within minutes, whereas medium buffered with HEPES maintains suitable pH for hours. Previously, we tested that gas permeability differs among plastic vials and glass vials with no cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) by measuring pH after 2, 5, and 24h at the same temperature. The objective of this study was to compare pH post-maturation, blastocyst development rates on Day 8 post-IVF (Day 0=IVF) between 2 different 1.2-mL polypropylene cryovials (A: VWR DK, 479-1219; B: Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, CLS430289), glass vial (VWR DK, NSCAC4015-96), and 4-well plate (4WP) as control (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA, 144444). A total of 1135 abattoir-derived COC in Exp. 1 and 133 in Exp. 2 were divided equally between the treatments (20-25 COC per vessel). Vials/4WP contained 0.8/0.5mL of BO-IVM HEPES, a HEPES/bicarbonate medium (IVF Bioscience; BO-HEPES-IVM, UK). Maturation lasted 22 to 24h at 38.8°C in an incubator with either a humidified atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 in air (Exp. 1) or with no CO2 contact (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, oocyte vials were matured without a vial lid while in Exp. 2 vial lids were closed. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square and mean±SD. In Exp

  13. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  14. Neuronal stathmins: a family of phosphoproteins cooperating for neuronal development, plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Stéphanie; Sobel, André

    2015-03-01

    Nervous system development, plasticity and regeneration require numerous, coordinated and finely tuned subcellular mechanisms. Phosphoproteins of the stathmin family, originally identified as intracellular signal relay proteins, are mostly or exclusively expressed in the nervous system with a high level of expression during brain development. Vertebrate stathmins 1-4 all possess a C-terminal "stathmin-like domain" that binds or releases tubulin in a phosphorylation dependent way, and hence participates in the control of microtubule dynamics, an essential process for neuronal differentiation. Contrary to stathmin 1, stathmins 2-4 possess an N-terminal extension whose reversible palmitoylation specifically targets them to the Golgi and intracellular membranes. Regulation of stathmins 2-4 palmitoylation is therefore an important regulatory mechanism that controls their shuttling to various neuronal compartments where they can then act locally. Expression of stathmins is upregulated during neuronal differentiation and plasticity, and altered in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental perturbation of stathmins expression in Drosophila or in neurons in culture revealed their importance in neuronal growth and differentiation, each stathmin fulfilling at least partially distinct and likely complementary roles. On the other hand, knock-out of stathmins in mice, with the exception of stathmin 2, resulted in mostly mild or no detected phenotype, revealing likely compensations among stathmins. Altogether, through their combinatorial expression and regulation by phosphorylation and by palmitoylation, and through their interactions with tubulin and other neuronal protein targets, the various stathmins appear as essential regulators of neuronal differentiation at the various stages during development and plasticity of the nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasticity of hatching and the duration of planktonic development in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Strathmann, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Plasticity in hatching potentially adjusts risks of benthic and planktonic development for benthic marine invertebrates. The proportionate effect of hatching plasticity on duration of larval swimming is greatest for animals that can potentially brood or encapsulate offspring until hatching near metamorphic competence. As an example, early hatching of the nudibranch mollusk Phestilla sibogae is stimulated by scattering of encapsulated offspring, as by a predator feeding on the gelatinous egg ribbon. When egg ribbons are undisturbed, hatching is at or near metamorphic competence. Disturbance of an unguarded benthic egg mass can insert 4 or more days of obligate larval dispersal into the life history. As another example, the spionid annelid Boccardia proboscidea broods capsules, each with both cannibalistic and developmentally arrested planktivorous siblings plus nurse eggs. Early hatching produces mainly planktivorous larvae with a planktonic duration of 15 days. Late hatching produces mainly adelphophages who have eaten their planktivorous siblings and metamorphose with little or no period of swimming. Mothers actively hatch their offspring by tearing the capsules, and appeared to time hatching in response to their environment and not to the stage of development of their offspring. Higher temperature increased the variance of brooding time. Females appeared to hatch capsules at an earlier developmental stage at lower temperatures. Species that release gametes or zygotes directly into the plankton have less scope for plasticity in stage at hatching. Their embryos develop singly with little protection and hatch at early stages, often as blastulae or gastrulae. Time of hatching cannot be greatly advanced, and sensory capabilities of blastulae may be limited.

  16. Development of Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterson, Stephanie A; Singh, Mansher; Orgill, Dennis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Han, Elizabeth; Ciociolo, George; Laskowski, Karl; Greenberg, Jeffery O

    2015-09-01

    With rising cost of healthcare, there is an urgent need for developing effective and economical streamlined care. In clinical situations with limited data or conflicting evidence-based data, there is significant institutional and individual practice variation. Quality improvement with the use of Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) might be beneficial in such scenarios. The SCAMPs method has never before been reported to be utilized in plastic surgery. The topic of immediate breast reconstruction was identified as a possible SCAMPs project. The initial stages of SCAMPs development, including planning and implementation, were entered. The SCAMP Champion, along with the SCAMPs support team, developed targeted data statements. The SCAMP was then written and a decision-tree algorithm was built. Buy-in was obtained from the Division of Plastic Surgery and a SCAMPs data form was generated to collect data. Decisions pertaining to "immediate implant-based breast reconstruction" were approved as an acceptable topic for SCAMPs development. Nine targeted data statements were made based on the clinical decision points within the SCAMP. The SCAMP algorithm, and the SDF, required multiple revisions. Ultimately, the SCAMP was effectively implemented with multiple iterations in data collection. Full execution of the SCAMP may allow better-defined selection criteria for this complex patient population. Deviations from the SCAMP may allow for improvement of the SCAMP and facilitate consensus within the Division. Iterative and adaptive quality improvement utilizing SCAMPs creates an opportunity to reduce cost by improving knowledge about best practice.

  17. Plasticity of Myeloid Cells during Oral Barrier Wound Healing and the Development of Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Kaur, Kawaljit; Kanayama, Keiichi; Morinaga, Kenzo; Park, Sil; Hokugo, Akishige; Kozlowska, Anna; McBride, William H; Li, Jun; Jewett, Anahid; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2016-09-23

    Injury to the barrier tissue initiates a rapid distribution of myeloid immune cells from bone marrow, which guide sound wound healing. Bisphosphonates, a widely used anti-bone resorptive drug with minimal systemic side effects, have been linked to an abnormal wound healing in the oral barrier tissue leading to, in some cases, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here we report that the development of ONJ may involve abnormal phenotypic plasticity of Ly6G+/Gr1+ myeloid cells in the oral barrier tissue undergoing tooth extraction wound healing. A bolus intravenous zoledronate (ZOL) injection to female C57Bl/6 mice followed by maxillary first molar extraction resulted in the development of ONJ-like lesion during the second week of wound healing. The multiplex assay of dissociated oral barrier cells exhibited the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, which was significantly modulated in ZOL mice. Tooth extraction-induced distribution of Ly6G+/Gr1+ cells in the oral barrier tissue increased in ZOL mice at week 2. ONJ-like lesion in ZOL mice contained Ly6G+/Gr1+ cells with abnormal size and morphology as well as different flow cytometric staining intensity. When anti-Ly6G (Gr1) antibody was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days during the second week of tooth extraction, CD11b+GR1(hi) cells in bone marrow and Ly6G+ cells in the oral barrier tissue were depleted, and the development of ONJ-like lesion was significantly attenuated. This study suggests that local modulation of myeloid cell plasticity in the oral barrier tissue may provide the basis for pathogenesis and thus therapeutic as well as preventive strategy of ONJ.

  18. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  19. JTEC monograph on biodegradable polymers and plastics in Japan: Research, development, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    A fact-finding team of American scientists and engineers visited Japan to assess the status of research and development and applications in biodegradable polymers. The visit was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and industry. In Japan, the team met with representatives of 31 universities, government ministries and institutes, companies, and associations. Japan's national program on biodegradable polymers and plastics evaluates new technologies, testing methods, and potential markets for biodegradables. The program is coordinated by the Biodegradable Plastics Society of Japan, which seeks to achieve world leadership in biodegradable polymer technology and identify commercial opportunities for exploiting this technology. The team saw no major new technology breakthroughs. Japanese scientists and engineers are focusing on natural polymers from renewable resources, synthetic polymers, and bacterially-produced polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(amino acids), and polysaccharides. The major polymers receiving attention are the Zeneca PHBV copolymers, Biopol(registered trademark), poly(lactic acid) from several sources, polycaprolactone, and the new synthetic polyester, Bionolle(registered trademark), from Showa High Polymer. In their present state of development, these polymers all have major deficiencies that inhibit their acceptance for large-scale applications.

  20. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  1. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  2. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Development of Benzimidazole-Containing Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Ma, Shutao

    2016-04-05

    Clinically significant antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. However, new antibacterial agents are currently being developed at a much slower pace than our growing need for such drugs. Given their diverse biological activities and clinical applications, many bioactive heterocyclic compounds containing a benzimidazole nucleus have been the focus of interest for many researchers. The benzimidazole nucleus is a structural isostere of naturally occurring nucleotides. This advantage allows benzimidazoles to readily interact with the various biopolymers found in living systems. In view of this situation, much attention has been given to the exploration of benzimidazole-based antibacterial agents, leading to the discovery of many new chemical entities with intriguing profiles. In this minireview we summarize novel benzimidazole derivatives active against various bacterial strains. In particular, we outline the relationship between the structures of variously modified benzimidazoles and their antibacterial activity.

  4. PROSPECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR DEVELOPING PRODUCT CONTAINING MICROENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic micro-organisms explored for delivering associated proclaimed valuable benefits and its market is expanding in diverse sphere. Probiotics (PRs are presented as pharmaceutical, dairy, non-dairy, and personal care products. To improve performances and marketplace survival of these products, diverse methods and technology devised. Amongst them microencapsulation (MEC is widely explored to get product with wished and improved performances. Interest evoke for marketing of product containing microencapsulated probiotics (PCEP to upkeep performance, reproducible, throughout its life cycle. The review features on prospective action plan for evolution of PCEP including method for combating issues. Presented information will be a helping hand for developers to get PCEP, with excellent feature and performance, and improved marketability.

  5. Activity- and age-dependent GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the developing rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubellini, P; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    2001-12-01

    Activity-dependent plasticity of GABAergic synaptic transmission was investigated in rat hippocampal slices obtained between postnatal day (P) 0-15 using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. Spontaneous GABA(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents (sGABA(A)-PSCs) were isolated in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. A conditioning protocol relevant to the physiological condition, consisting of repetitive depolarizing pulses (DPs) at 0.1 Hz, was able to induce long-lasting changes in both frequency and amplitude of sGABA(A)-PSCs between P0 and P8. Starting from P12, DPs were unable to induce any form of synaptic plasticity. The effects of DPs were tightly keyed to the frequency at which they were delivered. When delivered at a lower (0.05 Hz) or higher (1 Hz) frequency, DPs failed to induce any long-lasting change in the frequency or amplitude of sGABA(A)-PSCs. In two cases, DPs were able to activate sGABA(A)-PSCs in previously synaptically silent cells at P0-1. These results show that long-term changes in GABAergic synaptic activity can be induced during a restricted period of development by a conditioning protocol relevant to the physiological condition. It is suggested that such activity-induced modifications may represent a physiological mechanism for the functional maturation of GABAergic synaptic transmission.

  6. Development of a plastic injection molding training system using Petri nets and virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, Virtual Reality (VR)-based plastic injection molding training system (VPIMTS), which can be modeled as an integrated system with a task planning module, an intelligent instruction module, a simulation module, and virtual environment (VE) module, was developed. Presented in this paper are an architecture of VPIMTS, a practical knowledge modelling approach for modelling the training scenarios of the system by using Petri nets formalism and key techniques (FEM, injection molding procedure modelling) which have been developed independently. The utilization of the Petri net model realized the environment where the trainee can behave freely, and also made it possible to equip the system with the function of showing the next action of the trainee whenever he wants. The overall system is a powerful approach for highly improving the trainee's comprehension and injection molding study-efficiency by building digital, intelligent, knowledgeable, and visual aids.

  7. A period of structural plasticity at the axon initial segment in developing visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eGutzmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical networks are shaped by sensory experience and are most susceptible to modifications during critical periods characterized by enhanced plasticity at the structural and functional level. A system particularly well-studied in this context is the mammalian visual system. Plasticity has been documented for the somatodendritic compartment of neurons in detail. A neuronal microdomain not yet studied in this context is the axon initial segment (AIS located at the proximal axon segment. It is a specific electrogenic axonal domain and the site of action potential generation. Recent studies showed that structure and function of the AIS can be dynamically regulated. Here we hypothesize that the AIS shows a dynamic regulation during maturation of the visual cortex. We therefore analyzed AIS length development from embryonic day (E 12.5 to adulthood in mice. A tri-phasic time course of AIS length remodeling during development was observed. AIS first appeared at E14.5 and increased in length throughout the postnatal period to a peak between postnatal day (P 10 to P15 (eyes open P13-14. Then, AIS length was reduced significantly around the beginning of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity (CP, P21. Shortest AIS were observed at the peak of the CP (P28, followed by a moderate elongation towards the end of the CP (P35. To test if the dynamic maturation of the AIS is influenced by eye opening (onset of activity, animals were deprived of visual input before and during the CP. Deprivation for 1 week prior to eye opening did not affect AIS length development. However, deprivation from P0-P28 and P14-P28 resulted in AIS length distribution similar to the peak at P15. In other words, deprivation from birth prevents the transient shortening of the AIS and maintains an immature AIS length. These results are the first to suggest a dynamic maturation of the AIS in cortical neurons and point to novel mechanisms in the development of neuronal

  8. Developing New Methods for Efficient Container Stacking Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Gharehgozli (Amir)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContainerized transportation has become an essential part of the intermodal freight transport. Millions of containers pass through container terminals on an annual basis. Handling a large number of containers arriving and leaving terminals by different modalities including the new mega-

  9. Effect of plasticizer and fumed silica on ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing HPF6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitender Paul Sharma; S S Sekhon

    2013-08-01

    The effect of addition of propylene carbonate (PC) and nano-sized fumed silica on the ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing different concentrations of hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6) in polyethylene oxide (PEO) has been studied. The addition of PC results in an increase in ionic conductivity, whereas the addition of nano-sized fumed silica improves mechanical strength of electrolytes along with a small increase in ionic conductivity. It was observed that the simultaneous addition of PC and fumed silica results in electrolytes with optimum value of ionic conductivity and other properties.

  10. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  11. A 3D elasto-plastic FEM program developed for reservoir Geomechanics simulations: Introduction and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Chamani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of yielded or failure zone due to an engineering construction is a subject of study in different disciplines. In Petroleum engineering, depletion from and injection of gas into a porous rock can cause development of a yield zone around the reservoir. Studying this phenomenon requires elasto-plastic analysis of geomaterial, in this case the porous rocks. In this study, which is a continuation of a previous study investigating the elastic behaviour of geomaterial, the elasto-plastic responses of geomaterial were studied. A 3D finite element code (FEM was developed, which can consider different constitutive models. The code features were explained and some case studies were presented to validate the output results of the code. The numerical model was, then, applied to study the development of the plastic zone around a horizontal porous formation subjected to the injection of gas. The model is described in detail and the results are presented. It was observed that by reducing the cohesion of rocks the extension of the plastic zone increased. Comparing to the elastic model, the ability to estimate the extension of the yield and failure zone is the main advantage of an elasto-plastic model.

  12. Development of enteric coated sustained release minitablets containing mesalamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Fernanda de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a multiparticulate modified release system, composed of minitablets with a sustained release matrix system coated with a pH-dependent release polymer, using mesalamine as a model drug. Polyox® WSR 1105 was the polymer used in the matrix system and Eudragit® L30D55 was used as a pH-dependent polymer. The minitablets (with 20%, 30% or 40% Polyox® concentration were prepared by dry granulation, which led to good quality minitablets. The developed minitablets were coated in a fluidized bed at 8% of the coating level. Dissolution studies were performed in media that simulated the gastrointestinal tract (pH 1.4, 6.0 and 7.2 and showed that formulations with higher Polyox® concentrations were capable of retaining the drug release in pH 1.4. All formulations prolonged the drug release and presented zero-order kinetic behaviour. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model demonstrated that formulations with 20% or 30% of polymer exhibited anomalous transport behaviour, whilst the 40% sample exhibited super case II model transportation. Dissolution efficiency showed that only the formulations containing 20% and 40% polymer could be considered statistically different.

  13. Development and characterization of lipidic cochleate containing recombinant factor VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclea, Razvan D.; Varma, Prashant R.; Peng, Aaron; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2007-01-01

    Hemophilia A, a life threatening bleeding disorder is caused by deficiency of Factor VIII (FVIII). Replacement therapy using rFVIII is the first line therapy for hemophilia A. However, 15-30% of patients develop neutralizing antibody, mainly against the C2, A3 and A2 domains. It has been reported that PS-FVIII complex reduced total and neutralizing anti-rFVIII antibody titers in hemophilia A murine models. Here, we developed FVIII – containing cochleate cylinders, utilizing PS-Ca2+ interactions and characterized these particles for optimal in vivo properties using biophysical and biochemical techniques. Approximately 75% of the protein was associated with cochleate cylinders. Sandwich ELISA, acrylamide quenching and enzymatic digestion studies established that rFVIII was shielded from the bulk aqueous phase by the lipidic structures, possibly leading to improved in vivo stability. Freeze – thawing and rate limiting diffusion studies revealed that small cochleate cylinders with a particles size of 500 nm or less could be generated. The release kinetics and in vivo experiments suggested that there is slow and sustained release of FVIII from the complex upon systemic exposure. In vivo studies using tail clip method indicated that FVIII-cochleate complex is effective and protects hemophilic mice from bleeding. Based on these studies, we speculate that the molecular interaction between FVIII and PS may provide a basis for the design of novel FVIII lipidic structures for delivery applications. PMID:17936245

  14. Development of Technology for Enrichment of Silver Containing Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekiladze, Asmati; Kavtelashvili, Otari; Bagnashvili, Mamuka

    2016-10-01

    The progress of Georgian economics is substantially associated with a development of new deposits of mineral resources. Among them is the David-Gareji deposit where at present the intensive searching geological works are performed. The work goal involves the elaboration of the technology for processing of silver-containing quartz-barite ores. Without its development the mining of more valuable gold-polymetallic ores is impossible. Because of ore complexity silver and barite are considered in a common technological aspect. The investigations were carried out on the representative samples of quartz-barite ores containing 78-88 g/ton of silver and 27-29 % of silver is a nugget in the form of the simple sulphides and chlorides. The ore is characterized by fine coalescence of barite and ore-generating minerals. Non-ferrous metals haven't any industrial value because of their very low content. Therefore, for the processing of the ores under study the direct selective scheme of flotation enrichment was chosen and the formula of optimal reagent regime was elaborated. Potassium xanthogenate is used as a collector for flotation of silver minerals and pine oil- as a foaming agent. The effect of the pulp - pH and medium temperature on silver flotation was studied. It was established that the silver is actively floats in neutral medium. For barite flotation the various collectors were tested: sulfidezid cotton oil-soap stock, soaps of fatty acids and alkyl sulphates of C12 - C16 row, among the “Baritol” is the most efficient one. Depression of the barren rock was carried out by liquid glass in alkaline medium. The effect of pulp pH on barite flotation has been investigated. The best results were obtained at pH=8.5. The increase of the pulp alkalinity has no essential effect on the indexes of the barite enrichment. Conditional concentrate of the barite is obtained by two fold purification of the main flotation concentrate by the addition of the liquid glass to the re

  15. European market developments in prebiotic- and probiotic-containing foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J

    1998-10-01

    A growing number of food manufacturers in western Europe are beginning to explore the commercial opportunities for foodstuffs containing health-promoting microbial food supplements (probiotics) and health-promoting non-digestible food ingredients (prebiotics). A prebiotic is considered to affect the host beneficially by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of naturally present or introduced bacterial species in the colon, also leading to a claimed improvement in host health. Increasingly, probiotics and prebiotics are used in combination, this being termed a synbiotic (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995). Throughout European history, fermented milk products in particular have been considered beneficial to health, but only in recent years has there been scientific support for these beliefs. Issues considered important to the continuing development of this growing market are proof of safety, proof of efficacy, consumer education, market positioning, price and appropriate health claims strategies. Until recently, much of the innovation in the use of probiotics and prebiotics has been in the dairy cabinet, with an ever-growing number and range of 'health-promoting' yoghurts and yoghurt-type fermented milk being made available to the European consumer, a market which is currently estimated to be worth in excess of $US2 billion per annum (Hilliam et al. 1997). However, prebiotics are beginning to find increasing application outside the dairy sector, particularly in baked goods. A key driver behind the broadening application of prebiotics has been the pro-active stance taken by key prebiotic suppliers such as Beghin-Say, Orafti and Cosucra. To date, market activity in probiotic- and prebiotic-containing foods has centred around three health propositions, namely improving general gut health, lowering blood cholesterol and improving the body's natural defences.

  16. Stability, compatibility and plasticizer extraction of quinine injection added to infusion solutions and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faouzi, M A; Khalfi, F; Dine, T; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C; Gressier, B; Goudaliez, F; Cazin, M; Kablan, J; Belabed, A; Cazin, J C

    1999-12-01

    The stability of quinine was determined in various diluents and in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers. The release of diethyhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from PVC bags into intravenous infusions of quinine was also measured. We used an injection of two doses of quinine; quiniforme at 500 mg and quinimax at 400 mg in either 250- or 500-ml PVC infusion bags containing 5% dextrose, to give initial nominal concentrations of 2 or 1 mg ml(-1) quiniforme and 1.6 or 0.8 mg ml(-1) quinimax, the mean concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Samples were assayed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the clarity was determined visually. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the stability and compatibility of quinine would be compromised, and whether DEHP would be leached from PVC bags and PVC administration sets during storage and simulated infusion. There was no substantial loss of quiniforme and quinimax over 1- or 2-h simulated infusion irrespective of the diluent, and storage during 8 h at 22 degrees C, 48 or 72 h at 4 degrees C and 96 h at 45 degrees C. Leaching of DEHP was also detected during simulated infusion delivery using PVC bags and PVC administration sets. The quantity was less than 2 microg ml(-1). During storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature the leaching of DEHP was low, but when the temperature was 45 degrees C the quantity was high, 21 microg ml(-1). To minimise patient exposure to DEHP, quinine solutions with all drugs should be infused immediately or stored for a maximum of 48 h at 4 degrees C.

  17. Development of a fast plastic scintillation detector with time resolution of less than 10 ps

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, J W; Tanihata, I; Terashima, S; Zhu, L H; Enomoto, A; Nagae, D; Nishimura, T; Omika, S; Ozawa, A; Takeuchi, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    Timing-pick up detectors with excellent timing resolutions are essential in many modern nuclear physics experiments. Aiming to develop a Time-Of-Flight system with precision down to about 10 ps, we have made a systematic study of the timing characteristic of TOF detectors, which consist of several combinations of plastic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes. With the conventional electronics, the best timing resolution of about 5.1 ps ({\\sigma}) has been achieved for detectors with an area size of 3x1 cm2. It is found that for data digitalization a combination of TAC and ADC can achieve a better time resolution than currently available TDC. Simultaneously measurements of both time and pulse height are very valuable for correction of time-walk effect.

  18. First performance test of newly developed plastic scintillator for radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M., E-mail: minori@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Katsumata, M. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ono, H. [Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyata, H. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Itoh, Y.; Ishida, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Yamaguchi, Y. [Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0024 (Japan)

    2015-01-11

    We present a plastic scintillator, developed in collaboration with Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., that is fabricated using a liquid parent material cured at room temperature by adding a hardener. The new scintillator can incorporate heat-labile functional materials such as gadolinium to enhance neutron sensitivity. The characteristics of the new scintillator, in particular the light yield and attenuation length, were evaluated using a {sup 90}Sr β-ray source. The light yield was measured 7% Anthracene on the basis of a comparison with commercially available scintillator (BC-408) at a distance of 18 cm from the photodetector surface. This light yield is dependent on the distance between the luminous point and the photodetector because of light attenuation. The attenuation length of the Gd-doped scintillator was about 50 cm.

  19. Development of high-flexible triboelectric generators using plastic metal as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen-Yeu; Shih, Jian-Fu; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Yang, Chii-Rong

    2017-02-01

    A triboelectric generator is a device that harvests energy through the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this work, two polymer materials (PDMS and PET) were selected as triboelectric layers in conjunction with plastic metal (PM) films as conductive layers to produce an electrode with high flexibility. The PDMS film was fabricated with a microstructural array to enhance friction. The proposed PM material was prepared by mixing gallium-indium liquid metal and a glaze powder with excellent coating ability, extensibility, and conductivity. Results demonstrate the superior characteristics of the PM flexible electrodes, including large bending angle (≥180°), small curvature radius (≤1 mm), and stable conductivity. This PM-based triboelectric generator can achieve average output voltage of 80 V and current of 37.2 μA. The proposed flexible electrode with a PM conductive layer could be expected to make a notable contribution to the development of wearable devices.

  20. Aberrant development and plasticity of excitatory visual cortical networks in the absence of cpg15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Nathalie; Leslie, Jennifer H; Trowbridge, Sara K; Subramanian, Jaichandar; Nedivi, Elly; Fagiolini, Michela

    2014-03-05

    During development, experience plays a crucial role in sculpting neuronal connections. Patterned neural activity guides formation of functional neural circuits through the selective stabilization of some synapses and the pruning of others. Activity-regulated factors are fundamental to this process, but their roles in synapse stabilization and maturation is still poorly understood. CPG15, encoded by the activity-regulated gene candidate plasticity gene 15, is a small, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked, extracellular protein that promotes synapse stabilization. Here we show that global knock-out of cpg15 results in abnormal postnatal development of the excitatory network in visual cortex and an associated disruption in development of visual receptive field properties. In addition, whereas repeated stimulation induced potentiation and depression in wild-type mice, the depression was slower in cpg15 knock-out mice, suggesting impairment in short-term depression-like mechanisms. These findings establish the requirement for cpg15 in activity-dependent development of the visual system and demonstrate the importance of timely excitatory network development for normal visual function.

  1. Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshio; Hirose, Yasuo; Ishii, Yoshinori; Takatsudo, Atsushi; Wakasugi, Kazuhico; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO{sub 3} solution of 6 M and NH{sub 4}OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH{sub 3} gas from NH{sub 4}OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH{sub 4}OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day.

  2. ApoE-containing HDL and the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zdrojewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state of knowledge about the role of high density lipoproteins (HDL indicates that their anti-atherogenic function is mainly related to the effectiveness of their actions (mostly to the participation in reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to liver rather than the concentration of HDL itself. HDLs are highly heterogeneous in their structure, lipid and protein composition and metabolic pathways and individual HDL subpopulations differ in their biological activity and effectiveness of anti-atherogenic actions. Apolipoproteins play a key role in HDL metabolism, therefore their presence in lipoproteins is one of the main criterion for HDL classification. According to this criterion HDLs containing apolipoprotein E, called HDL-apoE, are distinguished. Although the anti-atherogenic role of apo E has been demonstrated in many scientific reports, understanding of the mechanisms of formation, transformation and the role of HDL-apoE is still the aim of intense research. The results of epidemiological studies are inconclusive; some of them have demonstrated that high HDL- -apoE concentration has been associated with lower risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD, while other studies have shown that high levels of HDL-apoE has been an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and positively correlated with other risk factors for CHD.

  3. ApoE-containing HDL and the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ćwiklińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of knowledge about the role of high density lipoproteins (HDL indicates that their anti-atherogenic function is mainly related to the effectiveness of their actions (mostly to the participation in reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to liver rather than the concentration of HDL itself. HDLs are highly heterogeneous in their structure, lipid and protein composition and metabolic pathways and individual HDL subpopulations differ in their biological activity and effectiveness of anti-atherogenic actions. Apolipoproteins play a key role in HDL metabolism, therefore their presence in lipoproteins is one of the main criterion for HDL classification. According to this criterion HDLs containing apolipoprotein E, called HDL-apoE, are distinguished. Although the anti-atherogenic role of apo E has been demonstrated in many scientific reports, understanding of the mechanisms of formation, transformation and the role of HDL-apoE is still the aim of intense research. The results of epidemiological studies are inconclusive; some of them have demonstrated that high HDL- -apoE concentration has been associated with lower risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD, while other studies have shown that high levels of HDL-apoE has been an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and positively correlated with other risk factors for CHD.

  4. Comparison of methods for quantitating Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg strain attachment to reusable plastic shipping container coupons and preliminary assessment of sanitizer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaohao; Baker, Christopher A; Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella serovars, one of the leading contributors to foodborne illness and are especially problematic for foods that are not cooked before consumption, such as fresh produce. The shipping containers that are used to transport and store fresh produce may play a role in cross contamination and subsequent illnesses. However, methods for quantitatively attached cells are somewhat variable. The overall goal of this study was to compare conventional plating with molecular methods for quantitating attached representative strains for Salmonella Typhimurium and Heidelberg on reusable plastic containers (RPC) coupons, respectively. We attached Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and serovar Heidelberg SL486 (parent and an antibiotic resistant marker strain) to plastic coupons (2.54 cm(2)) derived from previously used shipping containers by growing for 72 h in tryptic soy broth. The impact of the concentration of sanitizer on log reductions between unsanitized and sanitized coupons was evaluated by exposing attached S. Typhimurium cells to 200 ppm and 200,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Differences in sanitizer effectiveness between serovars were also evaluated with attached S. Typhimurium compared to attached S. Heidelberg populations after being exposed to 200 ppm peracetic acid (PAA). Treatment with NaClO caused an average of 2.73 ± 0.23 log CFU of S. Typhimurium per coupon removed with treatment at 200 ppm while 3.36 ± 0.54 log CFU were removed at 200,000 ppm. Treatment with PAA caused an average of 2.62 ± 0.15 log CFU removed for S. Typhimurium and 1.41 ± 0.17 log CFU for S. Heidelberg (parent) and 1.61 ± 0.08 log CFU (marker). Lastly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize cell attachment and coupon surface topography. SEM images showed that remaining attached cell populations were visible even after sanitizer application. Conventional plating and qPCR yielded similar levels of enumerated bacterial populations

  5. Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka eHrvoj-Mihic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species.The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research.

  6. Differential neuronal plasticity in mouse hippocampus associated with various periods of enriched environment during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, Salma; Pietri, Mariel; Petit-Paitel, Agnès; Zarif, Hadi; Heurteaux, Catherine; Chabry, Joëlle; Guyon, Alice

    2015-11-01

    Enriched environment (EE) is characterized by improved conditions for enhanced exploration, cognitive activity, social interaction and physical exercise. It has been shown that EE positively regulates the remodeling of neural circuits, memory consolidation, long-term changes in synaptic strength and neurogenesis. However, the fine mechanisms by which environment shapes the brain at different postnatal developmental stages and the duration required to induce such changes are still a matter of debate. In EE, large groups of mice were housed in bigger cages and were given toys, nesting materials and other equipment that promote physical activity to provide a stimulating environment. Weaned mice were housed in EE for 4, 6 or 8 weeks and compared with matched control mice that were raised in a standard environment. To investigate the differential effects of EE on immature and mature brains, we also housed young adult mice (8 weeks old) for 4 weeks in EE. We studied the influence of onset and duration of EE housing on the structure and function of hippocampal neurons. We found that: (1) EE enhances neurogenesis in juvenile, but not young adult mice; (2) EE increases the number of synaptic contacts at every stage; (3) long-term potentiation (LTP) and spontaneous and miniature activity at the glutamatergic synapses are affected differently by EE depending on its onset and duration. Our study provides an integrative view of the role of EE during postnatal development in various mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus including neurogenesis, synaptic morphology and electrophysiological parameters of synaptic connectivity. This work provides an explanation for discrepancies found in the literature about the effects of EE on LTP and emphasizes the importance of environment on hippocampal plasticity.

  7. Evolution, development, and plasticity of the human brain: from molecules to bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Bienvenu, Thibault; Stefanacci, Lisa; Muotri, Alysson R; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2013-10-30

    Neuroanatomical, molecular, and paleontological evidence is examined in light of human brain evolution. The brain of extant humans differs from the brains of other primates in its overall size and organization, and differences in size and organization of specific cortical areas and subcortical structures implicated into complex cognition and social and emotional processing. The human brain is also characterized by functional lateralizations, reflecting specializations of the cerebral hemispheres in humans for different types of processing, facilitating fast and reliable communication between neural cells in an enlarged brain. The features observed in the adult brain reflect human-specific patterns of brain development. Compared to the brains of other primates, the human brain takes longer to mature, promoting an extended period for establishing cortical microcircuitry and its modifications. Together, these features may underlie the prolonged period of learning and acquisition of technical and social skills necessary for survival, creating a unique cognitive and behavioral niche typical of our species. The neuroanatomical findings are in concordance with molecular analyses, which suggest a trend toward heterochrony in the expression of genes implicated in different functions. These include synaptogenesis, neuronal maturation, and plasticity in humans, mutations in genes implicated in neurite outgrowth and plasticity, and an increased role of regulatory mechanisms, potentially promoting fast modification of neuronal morphologies in response to new computational demands. At the same time, endocranial casts of fossil hominins provide an insight into the timing of the emergence of uniquely human features in the course of evolution. We conclude by proposing several ways of combining comparative neuroanatomy, molecular biology and insights gained from fossil endocasts in future research.

  8. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  9. Development and Plasticity of Cognitive Flexibility in Early and Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, Frances; Karbach, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility, the ability to flexibly switch between tasks, is a core dimension of executive functions (EFs) allowing to control actions and to adapt flexibly to changing environments. It supports the management of multiple tasks, the development of novel, adaptive behavior and is associated with various life outcomes. Cognitive flexibility develops rapidly in preschool and continuously increases well into adolescence, mirroring the growth of neural networks involving the prefrontal cortex. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in children in order to support the many developmental outcomes associated with cognitive flexibility. This article provides a brief review of the development and plasticity of cognitive flexibility across early and middle childhood (i.e., from preschool to elementary school age). Focusing on interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in typically developing children, we report evidence for significant training and transfer effects while acknowledging that current findings on transfer are heterogeneous. Finally, we introduce metacognitive training as a promising new approach to promote cognitive flexibility and to support transfer of training.

  10. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  11. Protein-kinase C : its role in activity-dependent Purkinje cell dendritic development and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, F; Kapfhammer, JP

    2003-01-01

    The cerebellum is a central organ in the control of motor learning and performance. In this respect, the cellular plasticity model systems of multiple climbing fiber elimination and long-term depression have been intensively studied. The signalling pathways involved in these plastic changes are now

  12. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  13. Myeloid leukemia with transdifferentiation plasticity developing from T-cell progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemke, P. (Pia); Czeh, M. (Melinda); Fischer, J. (Josephine); Walter, C. (Carolin); Ghani, S. (Saeed); Zepper, M. (Matthias); Agelopoulos, K. (Konstantin); Lettermann, S. (Stephanie); Gebhardt, M.L. (Marie L); Mah, N. (Nancy); Weilemann, A. (Andre); Grau, M. (Michael); Gröning, V. (Verena); T. Haferlach (Torsten); D. Lenze (Dido); H.R. Delwel (Ruud); M. Prinz (Marco); Andrade-Navarro, M.A. (Miguel A); Lenz, G. (Georg); Dugas, M. (Martin); C. Müller-Tidow (Carsten); Rosenbauer, F. (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUnfavorable patient survival coincides with lineage plasticity observed in human acute leukemias. These cases are assumed to arise from hematopoietic stem cells, which have stable multipotent differentiation potential. However, here we report that plasticity in leukemia can result from

  14. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  15. Microglia across the lifespan: from origin to function in brain development, plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Savage, Julie C; Hui, Chin Wai; Bisht, Kanchan; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2017-03-15

    Microglia are the only immune cells that permanently reside in the central nervous system (CNS) alongside neurons and other types of glial cells. The past decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of their roles during normal physiological conditions. Cutting-edge techniques revealed that these resident immune cells are critical for proper brain development, actively maintain health in the mature brain, and rapidly adapt their function to physiological or pathophysiological needs. In this review, we highlight recent studies on microglial origin (from the embryonic yolk sac) and the factors regulating their differentiation and homeostasis upon brain invasion. Elegant experiments tracking microglia in the CNS allowed studies of their unique roles compared with other types of resident macrophages. Here we review the emerging roles of microglia in brain development, plasticity and cognition, and discuss the implications of the depletion or dysfunction of microglia for our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Immune activation, inflammation and various other conditions resulting in undesirable microglial activity at different stages of life could severely impair learning, memory and other essential cognitive functions. The diversity of microglial phenotypes across the lifespan, between compartments of the CNS, and sexes, as well as their crosstalk with the body and external environment, is also emphasised. Understanding what defines particular microglial phenotypes is of major importance for future development of innovative therapies controlling their effector functions, with consequences for cognition across chronic stress, ageing, neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases.

  16. Plastic deformation of high-purity a-titanium: model development and validation using the Taylor cylinder impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Nitin; Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Cazacu, Oana

    2016-08-01

    Results of an experimental study on the quasi-static and high-rate plastic deformation due to impact of a high-purity, polycrystalline, a-titanium material are presented. To quantify the plastic anisotropy and tension-compression asymmetry of the material, first monotonic uniaxial compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature under quasi-static conditions. It was found that the material is transversely isotropic and displays strong strength differential effects. To characterize the material's strain rate sensitivity, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests in tension and compression were also conducted. Taylor impact tests were performed for impact velocity of 196 m/s. Plastic deformation extended to 64% of the length of the deformed specimen, with little radial spreading. To model simultaneously the observed anisotropy, strain-rate sensitivity, and tension-compression asymmetry of the material, a three-dimensional constitutive model was developed. Key in the formulation is a macroscopic yield function [1] that incorporates the specificities of the plastic flow, namely the combined effects of anisotropy and tension-compression asymmetry. Comparison between model predictions and data show the capabilities of the model to describe with accuracy the plastic behavior of the a-Ti material for both quasi-static and dynamic loadings, in particular, a very good agreement was obtained between the simulated and experimental post-test Taylor specimen geometries.

  17. Development of hydrophobicity and selective separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics by mild heat treatment after PAC coating and froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2017-01-05

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing chlorine can release highly toxic materials and persistent organic pollutants if improperly disposed of. The combined technique of powder activated carbon (PAC) coating and mild heat treatment has been found to selectively change the surface hydrophobicity of PVC, enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from heavy plastic mixtures included polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) by means of froth flotation. The combined treatments helped to rearrange the surface components and make PVC more hydrophobic, while the remaining plastics became more hydrophilic. After the treatments at 150°C for 80s the contact angle of the PVC was greatly increased from 90.5 to 97.9°. The SEM and AFM reveal that the surface morphology and roughness changes on the PVC surface. XPS and FT-IR results further confirmed an increase of hydrophobic functional groups on the PVC surface. At the optimized froth flotation and subsequent mixing at 150rpm, 100% of PVC was recovered from the remaining plastic mixture with 93.8% purity. The combined technique can provide a simple and effective method for the selective separation of PVC from heavy plastics mixtures to facilitate easy industrial recycling.

  18. Are Supramodality and Cross-Modal Plasticity the Yin and Yang of Brain Development? From Blindness to Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetti, Luca; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Research in blind individuals has primarily focused for a long time on the brain plastic reorganization that occurs in early visual areas. Only more recently, scientists have developed innovative strategies to understand to what extent vision is truly a mandatory prerequisite for the brain’s fine...

  19. Development of self-assembling nanowires containing electronically active oligothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Wen

    This dissertation discusses the development of conductive one-dimensional nanowires from self-assembling oligothiophene molecules. Self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative approach towards high performance, solution processable, and low-cost organic electronics. One of the many challenges in this field is the control of supramolecular morphologies of ordered structures containing pi-conjugated moieties. This research demonstrated several successful strategies to achieve self assembly of conductive nanowires using synergistic interactions combining pi stacking and hydrogen bonding. The first approach used was to develop a hairpin-shaped sexithiophene molecule, which features two arms of the conjugated structure. The diamidocyclohexyl headgroup of this molecule successfully directs the self-assembly from hydrogen bonding among the amides, forming high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional nanowires with well-defined diameters of 3.0 +/- 0.3 nm. The molecular orientation in the nanostructures promotes formation of sexithiophene H and J aggregates that facilitate efficient charge transport. Organic field-effect transistors were fabricated to reveal improved intrinsic hole mobility from films of the nanostructures, 3.46 x 10-6 cm2V-1s-1, which is one order of magnitude higher than films cast from unassembled molecules. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were developed from this molecule and fullerenes utilizing solution-phase fabrication methods. Intimate mix of the molecule and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester creates structured interfaces for efficient exciton splitting. The charge carrier mobilities of each material are improved by self-assembly in solution and thermal-energy assisted phase separation.The photovoltaic devices achieved the highest open-circuit voltage of 0.62 V, short-circuit current of 1.79 mA/cm2, fill factor of 35%, and power conversion efficiency of 0.48%. Another strategy to one-dimensional nanowires studied here involved the

  20. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  1. Emerging Roles of Filopodia and Dendritic Spines in Motoneuron Plasticity during Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik Kanjhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons develop extensive dendritic trees for receiving excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to perform a variety of complex motor tasks. At birth, the somatodendritic domains of mouse hypoglossal and lumbar motoneurons have dense filopodia and spines. Consistent with Vaughn’s synaptotropic hypothesis, we propose a developmental unified-hybrid model implicating filopodia in motoneuron spinogenesis/synaptogenesis and dendritic growth and branching critical for circuit formation and synaptic plasticity at embryonic/prenatal/neonatal period. Filopodia density decreases and spine density initially increases until postnatal day 15 (P15 and then decreases by P30. Spine distribution shifts towards the distal dendrites, and spines become shorter (stubby, coinciding with decreases in frequency and increases in amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents with maturation. In transgenic mice, either overexpressing the mutated human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (hSOD1G93A gene or deficient in GABAergic/glycinergic synaptic transmission (gephyrin, GAD-67, or VGAT gene knockout, hypoglossal motoneurons develop excitatory glutamatergic synaptic hyperactivity. Functional synaptic hyperactivity is associated with increased dendritic growth, branching, and increased spine and filopodia density, involving actin-based cytoskeletal and structural remodelling. Energy-dependent ionic pumps that maintain intracellular sodium/calcium homeostasis are chronically challenged by activity and selectively overwhelmed by hyperactivity which eventually causes sustained membrane depolarization leading to excitotoxicity, activating microglia to phagocytose degenerating neurons under neuropathological conditions.

  2. [The diversity of ontogeny in animals with asexual reproduction and plasticity of early development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, V V

    2010-01-01

    Diversity of blastogenesis and embryogenesis in animals with different reproductive strategy and different variants of the isolation of germ lineage cells, defined in the literature as preformation, epigenesis, and somatic embryogenesis, is discussed. In the course of somatic embryogenesis (or, more precisely, blastogenesis), the oozooid that has developed from the egg is naturally cloned and forms numerous genetically and morphologically identical clonal individuals or modular units of a colony. This cloning results in amplification of the parent genotype; the subsequent sexual reproduction provides for genetic recombination, and the emergence of a huge number of larvae with dispersal function provides for reproductive success. In invertebrates that reproduce asexually, no isolation of the germ cell lineage takes place; the population of stem cell capable of realizing the complete developmental program, which includes gametogenesis and blastogenesis, is represented by a diaspora of cells dispersed in the organism and possessing evolutionarily conservative features of morphofunctional organization typical to cells of the germ lineage. The plasticity of early animal embryogenesis is revealed in experiments with embryonic cells cultivated in vitro. Asexual reproduction emerged repeatedly in the course of metazoan evolution; blastogenesis in animals of different taxa is more variable and less conservative than embryogenesis, but the installation of blastogenesis into the process of early embryogenesis undermines the conservatism of embryonic development.

  3. Plasticity of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane composition under different growth conditions and during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSandoval-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor is a model actinomycete that is well known for the diversity of its secondary metabolism and its complex life cycle. As a soil inhabitant, it is exposed to heterogeneous and frequently changing environmental circumstances. In the present work, we studied the effect of diverse growth conditions and phosphate depletion on its lipid profile and the relationship between membrane lipid composition and development in S. coelicolor. The lipid profile from cultures grown on solid media, which is closer to the natural habitat of this microorganism, does not resemble the previously reported lipid composition from liquid grown cultures of S. coelicolor. Wide variations were also observed across different media, growth phases, and developmental stages indicating active membrane remodeling. Ornithine lipids (OL are phosphorus-free polar lipids that were accumulated mainly during sporulation stages, but were also major components of the membrane under phosphorus limitation. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine, which had been reported as one of the major polar lipids in the genus Streptomyces, is almost absent under these conditions. We identified one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of OL (SCO0921 and found that its inactivation causes the absence of OL, precocious morphological development and actinorhodin production. Our observations indicate a remarkable plasticity of the membrane composition in this bacterial species, reveal a higher metabolic complexity than expected, and suggest a relationship between cytoplasmic membrane components and the differentiation programs in S. coelicolor.

  4. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypropylene. An injection press available at NYANGONO PLASTIC factory (Yaounde-Cameroon was used to manufacture our wood- plastic composites.The following combinations were used: 1/3 Padou flour and 2/3 plastic; 1/4 Padou flour and 3/4 plastic; 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic. We found that the composite made of 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic reaches firstthe hygroscopic saturation point, flowed by the one containing 1/4 of wood and 3/4 of plastic and finally that containing 1/3 of wood and 2/3 of plastic. The moisture content of all the wood-plastic composite made was very low even in a soaked environment enabling us to conclude that these composites will be probably not attacked by fungus and insects.

  5. Editing the Neuronal Genome: a CRISPR View of Chromatin Regulation in Neuronal Development, Function, and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Marty G.; West, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic orchestration of gene expression is crucial for the proper differentiation, function, and adaptation of cells. In the brain, transcriptional regulation underlies the incredible diversity of neuronal cell types and contributes to the ability of neurons to adapt their function to the environment. Recently, novel methods for genome and epigenome editing have begun to revolutionize our understanding of gene regulatory mechanisms. In particular, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has proven to be a particularly accessible and adaptable technique for genome engineering. Here, we review the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in neurobiology and discuss how these studies have advanced understanding of nervous system development and plasticity. We cover four especially salient applications of CRISPR/Cas9: testing the consequences of enhancer mutations, tagging genes and gene products for visualization in live cells, directly activating or repressing enhancers in vivo, and manipulating the epigenome. In each case, we summarize findings from recent studies and discuss evolving adaptations of the method. PMID:28018138

  6. Development of Non-Quenched Prehardened Steel for Large Section Plastic Mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yi; WU Xiao-chun; MIN Yong-an; ZHU Zhu; WANG Hong-bin

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of prehardened steel for large section plastic mould and save energy, a non-quenched prehardened (NQP) steel is developed. The temperature field of a large block is researched by finite ele-ment method simulation and 9 test steels are designed in the laboratory. Their microstructures and hardness are in-vestigated when they are air cooled and control cooled at cooling rate similar to the simulation. The result shows that the hardness uniformity through section is closely correlated to bainitic hardenability for the NQP steel, and the hardness of one test steel (0.27C-1.95Mn-1.04Cr-0. 45Mo-0.1V) fluctuates between HRC 40 and 43 under both cooling conditions. The test steel has better machinability compared with C45 steel, and the NQP steel is produced successfully in the factory based on the laboratory results. Its microstructure is bainite, and it is distributed uniformly through the size of 460 mm×800 mm×3 200 mm.

  7. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination...... of size and orientation of individual grains. The formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei at the particles and in the matrix were examined by correlating the measured change in texture to the observed change in microstructure. It was found that prolific nucleation of grains having a wide spread...... of orientations takes place close to larger particles or clusters of particles early in the recrystallization process. The texture of fully recrystallized material, however, contains only a relatively weak random component showing that the randomisation effect of the particles was limited. This was ascribed...

  8. Development of structure in a model universe containing unstable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Klypin, A.A.; Khlopov, M.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Computer analysis of model universe containing unstable elementary particles discloses parameter domains for which the two-point galaxy autocorrelation function, the time scale for nonlinear evolution of structure, and the fractional mass in galaxy clusters and superclusters all are compatible with the observations. A low density for the cold missing-mass component can reconcile the low random velocities measured for galaxies in superclusters with inflationary-universe models having a critical mean density.

  9. Plasticity in the development of handedness: evidence from normal development and early asymmetric brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Daniela; Williams, Joshua; Snapp-Childs, Winona

    2006-09-01

    Previous research revealed that shifting patterns of hand preference in the first year of life are linked to infants' sensory-motor experiences as they learn to sit, creep, and walk. In this report, we examine whether new and different forms of locomotion and sensory-motor experiences similarly contribute to alter patterns of hand preference in early development. We examined the cases of three infants with unique developmental histories. Two infants adopted distinctive forms of locomotion in lieu of typical hands-and-knees crawling. One infant scooted using both hands and legs in a coupled fashion, while the other infant performed an asymmetrical, left-biased belly-crawl using only one arm to drag his body. The third infant suffered damage to his left-brain hemisphere shortly after birth and received intense physical therapy to his right arm as a result of it. We followed all three infants on a weekly basis and tracked changes in their reaching behavior, mode of locomotion, and postural achievements. The two infants with unique locomotor patterns displayed changes in hand preference that reciprocated the arm patterns that they used during locomotion. The infant who coupled his body for scooting began to reach bimanually, while the infant who adopted the left-biased belly-crawl developed a strong unimanual, right-hand, preference. The infant with left-hemisphere damage initially displayed a right-hand preference, then a temporary decline in preferred hand use as he began to cruise and walk, and ultimately resumed a right-hand preference in the 2nd year of life. This data is consistent with previous work showing that the development of hand preference in the 1st year of life is highly malleable and sensitive to a variety of new sensory-motor experiences.

  10. Mechanism of plasticity Development for Ceramic Dough (Part 2). Investigation on Plasticity by Particle Packing Structure; Seramiku nendo no kasakusei hatsugen mekanizumu 2. Nendo juten kozo to kasakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shuji. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ichikawa, Yukari.; Ishida, Hideki. [INAX Corporation, Aichi (Japan); Shibasaki, Yasuo.; Oda, Kiichi. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Plasticity and packing structure of clay and alumina dough, and of alumina mixed with water-soluble and non-water-soluble plasticizers were investigated. It was found that both plastic clay dough and alumina dough with plasticizers showed a two-peak pore population. When the larger-sized pores increased in volume, the fluidity of the dough was improved. On the otherhand, when the smaller-sized pores decreased in volume, a high rigidity was showed. An aggregate structure was observed in the clay and the dough mixed with water-soluble plasticizer like methyl cellulose. Plasticity was generated when the aggregates were deformed by using the larger-sized pores among each aggregate. The non-water-soluble curdlan did not dissolve in the dough and remained in gel. The larger-sized pores were formed by the gel, whose deformation produced plasticity. It was understood that plasticity is fenerated when either the aggregates or the gel act as a buffer in the dough and enhance deformation of the dough. (author)

  11. Cross-modal plasticity in sensory deprived animal models: From the thalamocortical development point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzera, Cecilia; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2016-09-01

    Over recent decades, our understanding of the plasticity of the central nervous system has expanded enormously. Accordingly, it is now widely accepted that the brain can adapt to changes by reorganizing its circuitry, both in response to external stimuli and experience, as well as through intrinsic mechanisms. A clear example of this is the activation of a deprived sensory area and the expansion of spared sensory cortical regions in individuals who suffered peripheral sensory loss. Despite the efforts to understand these neuroplastic changes, the mechanisms underlying such adaptive remodeling remains poorly understood. Progress in understanding these events may be hindered by the highly varied data obtained from the distinct experimental paradigms analyzed, which include different animal models and neuronal systems, as well as studies into the onset of sensory loss. Here, we will establish the current state-of-the-art describing the principal observations made according to the time of sensory deprivation with respect to the development of the thalamocortical connectivity. We will review the experimental data obtained from animal models where sensory deprivation has been induced either before or after thalamocortical axons reach and invade their target cortical areas. The anatomical and functional effects of sensory loss on the primary sensory areas of the cortex will be presented. Indeed, we consider that the comparative approach of this review is a necessary step in order to help deciphering the processes that underlie sensory neuroplasticity, for which studies in animal models have been indispensable. Understanding these mechanisms will then help to develop restorative strategies and prostheses that will overcome the functional loss.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BACLOFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Janardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier. Free flowing solid dispersion granules were prepared by adsorbing the melt of the drug and carriers onto the surface of an adsorbent, Carbopol 934P followed by direct compression with HPMC K4M and HPMC K100 to obtain an solid dispersion loaded sustained release tablets. FTIR studies confirmed that the compatibility of drug and carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed partially amorphous structures of the drug in solid dispersion granules. The solid dispersion granules dissolved completely within 30 min, which was much faster than that of pure drug baclofen. The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2 and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8. A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BACLOFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Janardhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier. Free flowing solid dispersion granules were prepared by adsorbing the melt of the drug and carriers onto the surface of an adsorbent, Carbopol 934P followed by direct compression with HPMC K4M and HPMC K100 to obtain an solid dispersion loaded sustained release tablets. FTIR studies confirmed that the compatibility of drug and carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed partially amorphous structures of the drug in solid dispersion granules. The solid dispersion granules dissolved completely within 30 min, which was much faster than that of pure drug baclofen. The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2 and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8. A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  14. Are Supramodality and Cross-Modal Plasticity the Yin and Yang of Brain Development? From Blindness to Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetti, Luca; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Research in blind individuals has primarily focused for a long time on the brain plastic reorganization that occurs in early visual areas. Only more recently, scientists have developed innovative strategies to understand to what extent vision is truly a mandatory prerequisite for the brain's fine morphological architecture to develop and function. As a whole, the studies conducted to date in sighted and congenitally blind individuals have provided ample evidence that several "visual" cortical areas develop independently from visual experience and do process information content regardless of the sensory modality through which a particular stimulus is conveyed: a property named supramodality. At the same time, lack of vision leads to a structural and functional reorganization within "visual" brain areas, a phenomenon known as cross-modal plasticity. Cross-modal recruitment of the occipital cortex in visually deprived individuals represents an adaptative compensatory mechanism that mediates processing of non-visual inputs. Supramodality and cross-modal plasticity appears to be the "yin and yang" of brain development: supramodal is what takes place despite the lack of vision, whereas cross-modal is what happens because of lack of vision. Here we provide a critical overview of the research in this field and discuss the implications that these novel findings have for the development of educative/rehabilitation approaches and sensory substitution devices (SSDs) in sensory-impaired individuals.

  15. Are supramodality and cross-modal plasticity the yin and yang of brain development? From blindness to rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cecchetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in blind individuals has primarily focused for a long time on the brain plastic reorganization that occurs in early visual areas. Only more recently, scientists have developed innovative strategies to understand to what extent vision is truly a mandatory prerequisite for the brain’s fine morphological architecture to develop and function. As a whole, the studies conducted to date in sighted and congenitally blind individuals have provided ample evidence that several ‘visual’ cortical areas develop independently from visual experience and do process information content regardless of the sensory modality through which a particular stimulus is conveyed: a property named supramodality. At the same time, lack of vision leads to a structural and functional reorganization within 'visual' brain areas, a phenomenon known as cross-modal plasticity. Cross-modal recruitment of the occipital cortex in visually deprived individuals represents an adaptative compensatory mechanism that mediates processing of non-visual inputs. Supramodality and cross-modal plasticity appear to be the 'yin and yang' of brain development: supramodal is what takes place despite the lack of vision, whereas cross-modal is what happens because of lack of vision. Here we provide a critical overview of the research in this field and discuss the implications that these novel findings have for the development of educative/rehabilitation approaches and sensory substitution devices in sensory-impaired individuals.

  16. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  17. Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Ping; LIU ChangChun; L(U) HeXiang

    2009-01-01

    The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials. The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model. Moreover, this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method, which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials. The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.

  18. Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials.The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model,thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model.Moreover,this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method,which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials.The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.

  19. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  20. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  1. Etodolac Containing Topical Niosomal Gel: Formulation Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyati Shilakari Asthana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1 ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96.72%. TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomal formulation (N2 displayed high percentage of drug release after 24 h (94.91 at (1 : 1 ratio of cholesterol : surfactant. Further selected niosomal formulation was used to formulate topical gel and was characterized with respect to its various parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, ex vivo study, and in vivo potential permeation. Ex vivo study showed that niosomal gel possessed better skin permeation study than the plain topical gel. Further in vivo study revealed good inhibition of inflammation in case of topical niosomal gel than plain gel and niosomal formulation. The present study suggested that topical niosomal gel formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug.

  2. Etodolac Containing Topical Niosomal Gel: Formulation Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Abhay; Singh, Davinder; Sharma, Parveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD) containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96.72%). TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomal formulation (N2) displayed high percentage of drug release after 24 h (94.91) at (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol : surfactant. Further selected niosomal formulation was used to formulate topical gel and was characterized with respect to its various parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, ex vivo study, and in vivo potential permeation. Ex vivo study showed that niosomal gel possessed better skin permeation study than the plain topical gel. Further in vivo study revealed good inhibition of inflammation in case of topical niosomal gel than plain gel and niosomal formulation. The present study suggested that topical niosomal gel formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug. PMID:27478643

  3. Nanoparticles containing curcuminoids (Curcuma longa: development of topical delivery formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Zamarioli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles incorporating Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae, curcuminoids were produced by the hot melt emulsion method. A Box–Behnken factorial design was adopted to study the nanoparticles production at different levels of factors such as the percentage of curcuminoids, time of homogenization and surfactant ratio. The optimized nanoparticles were incorporated into hydrogels for stability, drug release and skin permeation tests. The average nanoparticle sizes were 210.4 nm; the zeta potential of −30.40 ± 4.16; the polydispersivity was 0.222 ± 0.125. The average encapsulation efficiency of curcumin and curcuminoids was 52.92 ± 5.41% and 48.39 ± 6.62%, respectively. Solid lipid nanocapsules were obtained with curcumin load varying from 14.2 to 33.6% and total curcuminoids load as high as 47.7%. The topical formulation containing SLN-Curcuminoids showed good spreadability and stability when subjected to mechanical stress test remained with characteristic color, showed no phase separation and no significant change in pH. As a result of slow release, the nanoparticles were able to avoid permeation or penetration in the pig ear epidermis/dermis during 18 h. The topical formulation is stable and can be used in further in vivo studies for the treatment of inflammatory reactions, in special for radiodermitis.

  4. α2 Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptor Subtypes Are Upregulated and Contribute to Alcohol-Induced Functional Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemeyer, A Kerstin; Shen, Yi; Yazdani, Ferin; Shao, Xuesi M; Spigelman, Igor; Davies, Daryl L; Olsen, Richard W; Liang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol (EtOH) intoxication causes changes in the rodent brain γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) subunit composition and function, playing a crucial role in EtOH withdrawal symptoms and dependence. Building evidence indicates that withdrawal from acute EtOH and chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) results in decreased EtOH-enhanced GABAAR δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic and EtOH-insensitive α1βγ2 subtype synaptic GABAARs but increased synaptic α4βγ2 subtype, and increased EtOH sensitivity of GABAAR miniature postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) correlated with EtOH dependence. Here we demonstrate that after acute EtOH intoxication and CIE, upregulation of hippocampal α4βγ2 subtypes, as well as increased cell-surface levels of GABAAR α2 and γ1 subunits, along with increased α2β1γ1 GABAAR pentamers in hippocampal slices using cell-surface cross-linking, followed by Western blot and coimmunoprecipitation. One-dose and two-dose acute EtOH treatments produced temporal plastic changes in EtOH-induced anxiolysis or withdrawal anxiety, and the presence or absence of EtOH-sensitive synaptic currents correlated with cell surface peptide levels of both α4 and γ1(new α2) subunits. CIE increased the abundance of novel mIPSC patterns differing in activation/deactivation kinetics, charge transfer, and sensitivity to EtOH. The different mIPSC patterns in CIE could be correlated with upregulated highly EtOH-sensitive α2βγ subtypes and EtOH-sensitive α4βγ2 subtypes. Naïve α4 subunit knockout mice express EtOH-sensitive mIPSCs in hippocampal slices, correlating with upregulated GABAAR α2 (and not α4) subunits. Consistent with α2, β1, and γ1 subunits genetically linked to alcoholism in humans, our findings indicate that these new α2-containing synaptic GABAARs could mediate the maintained anxiolytic response to EtOH in dependent individuals, rat or human, contributing to elevated EtOH consumption. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology

  5. Development of Safety Enhancement Technology to Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.C.; Woo, S.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This study is to develop the optimal nondestructive testing methods for concrete structures that can detect the strength and thickness of concrete, the depth of crack of concrete using rebound hammer test, elasto magnetic method and ultrasonic method. (author). 36 refs., 66 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Development of PPR Copper-Plastic Pipe Fitting%PPR铜塑管件的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁飞; 王聚中

    2011-01-01

    Injection molding method was used to produce PPR copper-plastic pipe fitting. The effect of process conditions, such as copper surface treatment, copper groove depth, injection pressure, injection pressure holding time on PPR copper-plastic pipe fitting quality were discussed. The results show that when the copper surface is plated with chrome, copper groove depth is 2. 0 mm, injection pressure is 60 Mpa, plasticizing temperature is 200 ℃ , injection holding time is 20 s, the Dn63 PPR copper-plastic pipe fitting quality is good.%采用注靼法生产出无规共聚聚丙烯(PPR)铜塑管件.讨论了铜件表面处理、铜件沟槽深度、注射压力、注射保压时间等工艺条件对PPR铜塑管件质量的影响.结果表明,当铜件表面经镀铬处理、铜件沟槽深度2.0 mm、注射压力60 MPa、塑化温度200℃、注射保压时间20 s时,Dn63规格的PPR铜塑管件质量较理想.

  7. Development of a prototype sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    US cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. That reputation is expected by foreign and domestic mills. Despite this reputation, U.S. spinners have recently experienced some serious contamination issues with US cotton. Of particular concern are plastic con...

  8. Green building blocks for biobased plastics: biobased processes and market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Hackmann, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    From a chemical perspective, nearly all building blocks for plastics can be made using renewable raw materials. However, not every process is commercially feasible. Processes often remain inefficient, products have insufficient purity or the raw materials are simply too expensive. This publication p

  9. Dr. J. F. S. Esser and his influence on the development of plastic and reconstructive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Haeseker (Barend)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractJan F.S. Esser (1877-1946) was a remarkable and gifled Dutch surgeon whose contributions to plastic and reconstructive surgery, made long befare this specialty was recognised as a branch of surgery, are part of our surgical heritage. His interest in the bloodsupply of skin flaps was the

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

    2013-08-01

    In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.

  11. Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Viswanad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. Objective: The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Results and Discussion: Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg was isolated from this fraction at an R F value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections.

  12. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  13. Development of competitive immunoassays to hydroxyl containing fungicide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kevin C; Jarvis, Shila; Maddison, Ben C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of monoclonal antibodies and the development of competitive immunoassays to pesticide metabolites of the fungicides imazalil, carbendazim and thiabendazole. The metabolite specific hydroxyl residues were used as the reactive group with which to link the metabolite to the carrier proteins Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). In each case immune responses in mice were raised and monoclonal antibodies were produced. Antibodies were developed into competitive ELISAs to the appropriate metabolite. The antibody raised to a metabolite of imazalil was optimised into a competitive ELISA format which had an assay IC50 of 7.5 μg/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1 μg/L. A single antibody isolated against the metabolite of carbendazim had assay IC50s of 3.2 and 2.7 μg/L for the metabolites of carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively with an LOD of 0.38 μg/L for both. These sensitive immunoassays may have application in the monitoring of human exposure to these fungicide residues either by occupational or non-occupational routes.

  14. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60 min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics.

  17. Plastic, Fantastic? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information about plastics, focusing on the uses of plastic bags in particular. Topic areas considered include: (1) making plastic bags; (2) transparency of plastic bags; (3) plastic bags and food odors; (4) food containers (before and since plastics); and (5) disposing of plastic bags and other plastic products. The text is…

  18. Laser Sensor Development for Fluorescence Detection of Plastics and other Anthropogenic Compounds Dissolved in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    in situ AUV-mounted instrument designed to locate and identify plastic and rubber-coated objects, such as mines, in the water column and buried...particulate (phytoplankton) fluorescence for remote sensing, plume tracking, and pollution applications. The multi-channel UV laser-induced fluorescence...deformulation and chemical analyses of commercial marine epoxy systems (Chemir/Polytech, Inc.). Results of the chemical analyses indicate that the water

  19. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules: complementary mediators of plasticity in development and evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stuart A Newman; Ramray Bhat; Nadejda V Mezentseva

    2009-10-01

    Ancient metazoan organisms arose from unicellular eukaryotes that had billions of years of genetic evolution behind them. The transcription factor networks present in single-celled ancestors at the origin of the Metazoa (multicellular animals) were already capable of mediating the switching of the unicellular phenotype among alternative states of gene activity in response to environmental conditions. Cell differentiation, therefore, had its roots in phenotypic plasticity, with the ancient regulatory proteins acquiring new targets over time and evolving into the ``developmental transcription factors” (DTFs) of the ``developmental-genetic toolkit.” In contrast, the emergence of pattern formation and morphogenesis in the Metazoa had a different trajectory. Aggregation of unicellular metazoan ancestors changed the organisms’ spatial scale, leading to the first ``dynamical patterning module” (DPM): cell-cell adhesion. Following this, other DPMs (defined as physical forces and processes pertinent to the scale of the aggregates mobilized by a set of toolkit gene products distinct from the DTFs), transformed simple cell aggregates into hollow, multilayered, segmented, differentiated and additional complex structures, with minimal evolution of constituent genes. Like cell differentiation, therefore, metazoan morphologies also originated from plastic responses of cells and tissues. Here we describe examples of DTFs and most of the important DPMs, discussing their complementary roles in the evolution of developmental mechanisms. We also provide recently characterized examples of DTFs in cell type switching and DPMs in morphogenesis of avian limb bud mesenchyme, an embryo-derived tissue that retains a high degree of developmental plasticity.

  20. 34 CFR 608.21 - What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? 608.21 Section 608.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? (a) A comprehensive development plan must describe...

  1. 34 CFR 609.21 - What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? 609.21 Section 609.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? (a) A comprehensive development plan must describe...

  2. 汽车用改性塑料的发展概况%Automotive Modified Plastics Development Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兴兴

    2015-01-01

    在汽车工业中,“以轻代重”“以塑代钢”已经逐渐成为了该行业未来发展的主流方向,特别是聚苯醚(PPO)、尼龙(PA)、聚丙烯(PP)、聚碳酸酯(PC)和聚甲醛(POM)这5类材料改性塑料的应用。简要探讨了与这些材料有关的最新研究成果和其在汽车零部件上的最新应用情况,并分析了改性塑料行业的技术发展趋势和行业应用趋势。%In the automotive industry, the“light generation heavy”“plastic steel”has gradually become the mainstream of the industry’s future development, especially polyphenylene oxide(PPO), nylon(PA), polypropylene(PP), polycarbonate(PC)and POM(POM)plastic material modification of these five categories of applications. Brief discussion of the latest research results and its latest applications with these materials related to the automotive components and analyzes technology trends and industry trends modified plastics industry applications.

  3. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  4. Critical mass for the development of a new container port in Vlissingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.; Konings, J.W.; Priemus, H.

    2009-01-01

    The economic importance of accommodating container transport and the increasing demand for container-handling capacity are major triggers for conventional ports to develop container terminals. The port of Vlissingen, located between Rotterdam and Antwerp, is aspiring to gain a position in deep-sea c

  5. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N. M.

    2003-07-14

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments.

  6. Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2003-04-01

    Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging.

  7. Development of Craze and Impact Resistance in Glazing Plastics by Multiaxial Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, G M; Wolock, I; Axilrod, B M; Sherman, M A; George, D A; Cohen, V

    1956-01-01

    The loss of strength of cast polymethyl methacrylate plastic as a result of crazing is of considerable importance to the aircraft industry. Because of the critical need for basic information on the nature of crazing and the effects of various treatments and environmental conditions on its incidence and magnitude, an investigation of this phenomenon was undertaken. The following factors were examined: (1) the effect of stress-solvent crazing on tensile strength of polymethyl methacrylate; (2) the critical stress and strain for onset of crazing at various temperatures; (3) the effect of molecular weight on crazing; and (4) the effect of multiaxial stretching on crazing of polymethyl methacrylate and other acrylic glazing materials.

  8. 34 CFR 606.8 - What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? 606.8 Section 606.8 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM General § 606.8 What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? (a)...

  9. 34 CFR 607.8 - What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? 607.8 Section 607.8 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... General § 607.8 What is a comprehensive development plan and what must it contain? (a) A...

  10. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  11. Recycling of plastic wastes from electric and electronic sector new developments; Reciclado de residuos plasticos del sector electrico y electronico. Nuevos desarrollos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Larrauri, E.; Cacho, I.

    1999-07-01

    Automated technologies for the identification and sorting of plastic wastes have been developed to get an adequate and cost-effective recycling. When dealing with plastics from end-of-live electric and electronic equipment not only the polymeric matrix but also fillers and/or flame retardant additives and/or pigments, need to be taken in account. At present, several specific projects are being carried out by GAIKER in order to solve the technological challenge of recycling plastics from the electric and electronic sector. (Author)

  12. Analysis, design and development of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis prototype for myopathic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, C; De Lollis, A; Campo, G; Piancastelli, L; Merlini, L

    1990-01-01

    A traditional knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) for myopathic patients has been studied for the assessment of loads and fatigue resistance. Starting from this basis a thermoplastic matrix carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite (CFRP) KAFO has been developed in order to reduce the weight. A finite-element simulation programme for deformation analysis was used to compare the behaviour of conventional and CFRP orthosis. There were no breakages either of the prototype or of its parts. The CFRP orthosis allows a weight reduction of more than 40 per cent.

  13. Development of a Plastic-Based Microfluidic Immunosensor Chip for Detection of H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jung Park

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lab-on-a-chip can provide convenient and accurate diagnosis tools. In this paper, a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for the diagnosis of swine flu (H1N1 was developed by immobilizing hemagglutinin antigen on a gold surface using a genetically engineered polypeptide. A fluorescent dye-labeled antibody (Ab was used for quantifying the concentration of Ab in the immunosensor chip using a fluorescent technique. For increasing the detection efficiency and reducing the errors, three chambers and three microchannels were designed in one microfluidic chip. This protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in a microfluidic device.

  14. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvačkaj, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (bake hardening effect achieved by interaction of interstitial atoms with dislocations. The Cottrels atmosphere is obtained. The second step of BH effect is to produced the hardening from precipitation of the carbon atoms in e-carbides, or formation of Fe32C4 carbides. WH (work hardening effect is obtained as dislocation hardening from plastic deformations during sheet deep drawing. Experimental works were aimed at as to achieve such plastic material properties after cold rolling, annealing and skin-pass rolling, which would be able to classify the material ZStE220BH into the drawing categories at the level of DQ – DDQ. As resulting from the experimental results, the optimal treatment conditions for the maximal sum (WH+BH = 86 MPa are as follows: total cold rolling deformation ecold = 65 %, annealing temperature Tanneal. = 700 °C.

  15. Plastic materials currently used in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruvjir Shagdarsuren; Nachin Baasanjav; Sosor Baatarjav

    2007-01-01

    The first skin-flap procedures were performed in Mongolia by a team of Chinese doctors ( Chenod, Chen)who treated children with burn injuries in the 1950s. The field of plastic surgery was further developed through assistance from the former Soviet Union and is now widely practiced by a number of surgeons around the country.In recent years, the fast evolving field of plastic surgery in Mongolia has created a need for clear and consistent system for the classification of various plastic materials. A team of Mongolian surgeons at the National Hospital for Traumatology, Orthopedics, Rehabilitation and Teaching Research have completed a research programme aimed at adopting a leading classification system that can facilitate effective communication between plastic surgeons. This requires the chosen system to be in line with modern trends in plastic surgery and the established international norms.As a result of extensive research and analysis, they have developed a customized version of Vasiliev's classification that focuses on formulating general principles of the description of plastic materials based on their functional characteristics. The main reason for this selection is its similarity with existing Mongolian standards as well as its principles that contain important implications for surgery.

  16. INFLUENCE RESEARCH OF COLD PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON DIFFUSION SATURATION PROCESS BY CARBON AND BORON OF THE LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Filonenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of influence of cold prestrain with degree of deformation within the range 0…40 % on diffusion saturation with boron and carbon for low-carbon and boron steels. It is determined that the plastic prestrain with degree of deformation 20 % at temperature 750 °С for the low-carbon steel promote increasing of boron-cementation layer thickness by 25 % and microhardness of perlite layer by 20 %.

  17. Investigation and Analysis of Production in a Given Area of PVC Material in Plastic Food Containers by PAEs Plasticizer Pollution%某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs增塑剂污染情况的调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 杜锡勇; 孙卫良; 詹剑良

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步调查浙江省某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs类增塑剂污染情况。方法:通过深入研究相关文献、国家标准和欧盟法规后,结合研究中PAEs类增塑剂含量及其特定食品模拟物迁移量检出情况,对其污染范围、程度及其安全性进行探索性调查。结果:在20批次的抽检容器中, PAEs类增塑剂DEHP、DBP和DIBP检出率分别为100.0%、35.0%和40.0%,检出量在0.10~57.70 mg/kg;在橄榄油模拟迁移试验中,5个样品中有DEHP检出,其迁移率最高可达15.4%。结论:PAEs类增塑剂在该地区食品用塑料容器的分布较广;通过特定食品模拟物迁移试验发现,在盛装高温油性食品时,PAEs类增塑剂会加速向食品中迁移,迁移量会超过相关标准限量,存在质量风险。%Objective: By sampling and texting, PAEs plasticizer contamination in a region of Zhejiang plastic Non-PVC food containers produced was studied. Methods: Through in-depth study of the relevant literature, standards and EU regulations, and binding of the data of plastic food packaging containers PAEs plasticizer content and specific detection of food simulant migration situation, this paper surveyed the scope of its pollution and the the secrity level exploratory. Results: In 20 batches of plastic food packaging containers, DEHP, DBP and DIBP detection rates were 100.0%、35.0%和40.0%, and PAEs detectable amount of 0.10 ~ 57.70 mg/kg; In the olive oil migration simulation tests, DEHP were detected in each sample, the maximum migration rate could reach to 15.4%. Conclusion: PAEs plasticizer in plastic food container in the region is widespread; Found by specific migration in food simulants: Especially at high temperature containing oily food, PAEs plasticizer will accelerate the migration from contain to food, migration may exceed the standard limit, and there is a quality risk.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF NEW SOLID DENTAL FILLING TEMPORARY MATERIALS CONTAINING ZINC. FORMULA DEVELOPMENT STAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytko-Polończyk, Jolanta; Antosik, Agata; Zajac, Magdalena; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Krywult, Agnieszka; Jachowicz, Renata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Caries is the most popular problem affecting teeth and this is the reason why so many temporary dental filling materials are being developed. An example of such filling is zinc oxide paste mixed with eugenol, Thymodentin and Coltosol F®. Zinc-oxide eugenol is used in dentistry because of its multiplied values: it improves heeling of the pulp by dentine bridge formation; has antiseptic properties; is hygroscopic. Because of these advantages compouds of zinc oxide are used as temporary fillings, especially in deep caries lesions when treatment is oriented on support of vital pulp. Temporary dental fillings based on zinc oxide are prepared ex tempone by simple mixing powder (Thymodentin) and eugenol liqiud together or a ready to use paste Coltosol F®. Quantitative composition depends mainly on experience of person who is preparing it, therefore, exact qualitative composition of dental fillings is not replicable. The main goal of the study was to develop appropriate dental fillings in solid form containing set amount of zinc oxide. Within the study, the influence of preparation method on solid dental fillings properties like mechanical properties and zinc ions release were examined.

  19. Developments in plastic wire chambers operated in the limited streamer mode (LSM detectors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Mikko; Kurvinen, Kari; Orava, Risto

    1988-12-01

    We have calculated the photon detection efficiency of a wire chamber constructed with conductive nylon-66 plastic as cathode material in the photon energy range of 100 keV-1 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the results obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation using the FLUKA [1] transport code and with experimental results. We have also calculated the efficiency for copper and compared these two cathode materials. The comparison shows that wire chambers with nylon and copper cathodes are equally efficient in detecting the 100 keV-1 MeV photons. Furthermore, we have studied the different physical processes contributing to photon detection as well as the detection efficiency as a function of cathode thickness. Finally, we report some results from the first LSM detector operational tests performed with our new wire chamber testing device.

  20. Preparation and Application of a P-containing Polyglycerol Ester Fire-retardant Plasticizer%含磷型聚合甘油脂肪酸酯阻燃增塑剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国东; 胡云; 周永红; 刘朋; 马艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the flame retardancy of oil plasticizer and develop high value-added products using crude glycerin from by-product of diesel oil as starting materials, a novel P-containing soybean-oil-based fire-retardant plasticizer ( DOPO-EAPFAE) was synthesized using crude glycerin,oleic acid and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide ( DOPO) as raw material through polymerization,esterification,epoxidation and ring opening reaction. The structure was verified by Fourier transform infrared ( FT-IR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric behavior and flame retardant properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis,oxygen index test and vertical burning test. When the amount 60% of phthalic acid dioctyl ester ( DOP) was replaced by DOPO-EAPFAE in PVC blends,PVC blends still has good mechanical properties. The limiting oxygen index ( LOI) of the blends increased from 21. 3 to 28. 7,and flame retardant level reached V0 grade. This indicated that the product can effectively improve the flame retardancy of PVC blends. The plasticity and flammability of DOPO-EAPFAE was better than tris(chlorisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP). Comparing to small molecular flame retardant tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate( TCPP) ,flame retardant of DOPO-EAPFAE was not only superior to TCPP,but also exhibited better thermal stability.%为了提高油脂增塑剂的阻燃性,开发以生物柴油副产粗甘油为直接原料的高附加值产品,以粗甘油、油酸和9,10-二氢-9-氧杂-10-磷杂菲-10-氧化物(DOPO)为主原料,经聚合、酯化、环氧化和开环反应,合成含磷型大分子阻燃增塑剂DOPO-环氧乙酰化聚合甘油脂肪酸酯( DOPO-EAPFAE),并通过红外谱图( FT-IR)和核磁共振(1H NMR)确认了其结构。研究了DOPO-EAPFAE用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系力学性能的影响;通过对PVC样条的热重分析( TG)、极限氧指数( LOI)测定和垂直燃烧测试等,分析了PVC制品的

  1. Effects of the kainate receptor agonist ATPA on glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallert, Marko; Malkki, Hemi; Segerstråle, Mikael; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E

    2007-05-01

    Kainate type of glutamate receptors (KARs) modulate synaptic transmission in a developmentally regulated manner at several synapses in the brain. Previous studies have shown that KARs depress glutamatergic transmission at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus and these receptors are tonically active during early postnatal development. Here we use the GluR5 subunit specific agonist ATPA to further characterize the role of KARs in the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in area CA1 during the first two weeks of life. We find that the depressant effect of ATPA on evoked fEPSPs/EPSCs is smaller in the neonate (P3-P6) than in the juvenile (P14-P18) rat CA1, due to endogenous activity of KAR in the neonate. Further, in the neonate but not juvenile CA1, ATPA downregulates action-potential independent transmission (mEPSCs) and its effects are dependent on protein kinase C activity. ATPA-induced depression of fEPSPs in the neonate occludes the presynaptic component of long-term depression (LTD). In contrast, at P14-P18, ATPA prevents LTD indirectly via GABAergic mechanisms. These data show that GluR5 signaling mechanisms are developmentally regulated and suggest distinct functional role for KARs in the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity at different stages of development.

  2. 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: a tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dreyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0. The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes, optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the antennal lobes. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, very importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

  3. Anti-homeostatic synaptic plasticity of glycine receptor function after chronic strychnine in developing cultured mouse spinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M A; Castro, P A; Sepulveda, F J; Cuevas, M; Tapia, J C; Izaurieta, P; van Zundert, B; Aguayo, L G

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we describe a novel form of anti-homeostatic plasticity produced after culturing spinal neurons with strychnine, but not bicuculline or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Strychnine caused a large increase in network excitability, detected as spontaneous synaptic currents and calcium transients. The calcium transients were associated with action potential firing and activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors as they were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), bicuculline, and CNQX. After chronic blockade of glycine receptors (GlyRs), the frequency of synaptic transmission showed a significant enhancement demonstrating the phenomenon of anti-homeostatic plasticity. Spontaneous inhibitory glycinergic currents in treated cells showed a fourfold increase in frequency (from 0.55 to 2.4 Hz) and a 184% increase in average peak amplitude compared with control. Furthermore, the augmentation in excitability accelerated the decay time constant of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. Strychnine caused an increase in GlyR current density, without changes in the apparent affinity. These findings support the idea of a post-synaptic action that partly explains the increase in synaptic transmission. This phenomenon of synaptic plasticity was blocked by TTX, an antibody against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and K252a suggesting the involvement of the neuronal activity-dependent BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. These results show that the properties of GlyRs are regulated by the degree of neuronal activity in the developing network.

  4. Selective separation of ABS/PC containing BFRs from ABSs mixture of WEEE by developing hydrophilicity with ZnO coating under microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-05-05

    This study reports a simple and facile method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS-based plastics (blends of ABS) in waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) by froth flotation after inducing hydrophilization by ZnO coating under microwave treatment. ABS-based plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can release hazardous substances, such as hydrogen bromide and brominated dioxins, during disposal or recycling activities. ABS and ABS-based plastics are typical styrene plastics with similar properties and it is, therefore, difficult to separate them selectively for recycling. We used 2-min microwave treatment to rearrange and change the molecular mobility on the surface of the ZnO-coated ABS with increased hydrophilic surfaces, which eased the selective separation of the ABS/polycarbonate (PC) blend containing BFRs from the remaining plastics. Therefore, the combined ZnO coating and microwave treatments can facilitate the selective separation of ABS/PC blend plastics with a recovery and purity of 100% and 91.7%, respectively, in a short flotation time of 2min. Based on these findings, the combination of ZnO coating-microwave treatment and froth flotation can be applied for the selective separation of ABS-based plastics, leading to improved plastic recycling quality.

  5. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  6. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Associated Polysialic Acid Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning by Restraining the Signaling through GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Senkov, Oleg; Grebenyuk, Sergei; Robinson, Catrina; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Stummeyer, Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Engel, Andreas K.; Feig, Larry; Semyanov, Alexey; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Schachner, Melitta; Dityatev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of α2,8 polysialic acid (PSA) in the mammalian brain. Abnormalities in PSA and NCAM expression are associated with schizophrenia in humans and cause deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning in mice. Here, we show that PSA inhibits opening of recombinant NMDA receptors composed of GluN1/2B (NR1/NR2B) or GluN1/2A/2B (NR1/NR2A/NR2B) but not of GluN1/2A (NR1/NR2A) subunits. Deficits in NCAM/PSA increase GluN2B-mediated transmission and Ca2+ transients in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In line with elevation of GluN2B-mediated transmission, defects in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region and contextual fear memory in NCAM/PSA-deficient mice are abrogated by application of a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Furthermore, treatment with the glutamate scavenger glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, ablation of Ras-GRF1 (a mediator of GluN2B signaling to p38 MAPK), or direct inhibition of hyperactive p38 MAPK can restore impaired synaptic plasticity in brain slices lacking PSA/NCAM. Thus, PSA carried by NCAM regulates plasticity and learning by inhibition of the GluN2B-Ras-GRF1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings implicate carbohydrates carried by adhesion molecules in modulating NMDA receptor signaling in the brain and demonstrate reversibility of cognitive deficits associated with ablation of a schizophrenia-related adhesion molecule. PMID:20237287

  7. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  8. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  9. The New Trends of the Research and Development in the Biodegradeble Plastics%可降解塑料开发的动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳明珠; 刘锴

    1999-01-01

      本文概述了国内外可降解性材料的研究、开发现状与市场前景。并重点考察了发达国家有关生物降解、可控光、生双降解塑料的实际应用和使用降解塑料(包括农膜、包装材料等)的研究。%  It is increasingly being realized that the use of long-lasting for short-lived applications is not entirely justified especially when increased concern exists about the preservation of living systems. The elimination of the waste plastics is therefor of interest in surgery, hygiene, and catering, packing, agriculture, fishing, environmental protection and other potential applications. Most of today’s plastics and synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemicals. As conventional plastics are persistent in the environment, improperly disposed plastics materials are a significant source of environmental pollution, potentially harming wildlife. The production of biodegradable plastics can be viewed within the wider context of the “greening of industry”. Considering of the new development in the field of the biodegradable polymers, this paper discusses current status and new developments of research and technology of the biodegradable plastics in the foreign countries and also in China.

  10. Aqueous leaching of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and "green" plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joshua; Cooper, David G; Marić, Milan; Dodd, Patrick; Yargeau, Viviane

    2012-08-15

    A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as several series of "green" candidate plasticizers, were assessed as a function of their molecular characteristics and compared to the industry standard PVC plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was found that plasticizers containing longer alkyl chains or non-polar branching emanating from polar structural units, increased the hydrophobicity of the molecule and reduced its aqueous leaching rate. Several "green" plasticizer candidates were found to minimize aqueous leaching to rates ten times below that of DEHP; notably dioctyl succinate (DOS), dihexyl maleate (DHM), methyl cyclohexyl diester (MCDE), diethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), hexanediol dibenzoate (C6), and the commercially available Hexamoll® DINCH.

  11. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  12. 塑料水杯盖注塑模具设计%Development of Injection Mold for Plastic Cup Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润娟; 张艳霞

    2014-01-01

    The 3D shape of the plastic cup cover is generated by the software UG.Based on the analysis of the structure process of the plastic parts, The gate location and the mould joint are selected,the core and cavity of the mould structure are designed.A large number of computer aided design is used in the course of design, which shorts the development cycle and reduces production cost.%利用UG软件对塑料水杯盖进行了产品的三维造型,在对塑件结构工艺性分析的基础上,进行了浇口位置和分型面的选择,型芯、型腔、模具等结构的设计,设计过程中采用了大量计算机辅助模具设计,缩短了开发周期,降低了生产成本。

  13. Development of plastic elongation in nanocrystalline and amorphous Ni–W dual phase alloys by brushing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S., E-mail: 00sm.uk0806@gmail.com; Adachi, H., E-mail: adachi@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Yamasaki, T., E-mail: yamasaki@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel agitation technique called the brushing technique is proposed. • A homogeneous material can be obtained with the brushing technique. • The brushed material exhibits large plastic elongation with work hardening. - Abstract: A novel agitation technique, referred to as the “brushing technique” is proposed to treat the surface of a Ni–W alloy film during electrodeposition. This technique was developed to directly remove hydrogen bubbles on the film surface and to apply Ni ions to the interfacial layer with the substrate. The intrinsic mechanical properties of the Ni–W electrodeposits are then evaluated with respect to application. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that both treated and untreated films have nanocrystallites of approximately 5 nm in diameter and an amorphous phase. There was a compositional difference of about. 1.4 at% W between the face side and the reverse side of the film that was not subjected to the brushing technique, whereas this difference was absent in the film subjected to the brushing technique. In addition, the brushing technique reduced the surface roughness of the film and decreased the number of defects. As a result, a large plastic strain of about. 2.9% was observed with work hardening under tensile testing.

  14. The development of thermal nanoprobe methods as a means of characterizing and mapping plasticizer incorporation into ethylcellulose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jin; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; Round, Andrew N; Reading, Mike; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2012-08-01

    The phase composition and distribution of ethylcellulose (EC) films containing varying amounts of the plasticizer fractionated coconut oil (FCO) were studied using a novel combination of thermal and mapping approaches. The thermal and thermomechanical properties of films containing up to 30% FCO were characterized using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Film surfaces were mapped using atomic force microscopy (AFM; topographic and pulsed force modes) and the composition of specific regions identified using nanothermal probes. Clear evidence of distinct conjugate phases was obtained for the 20-30% FCO/EC film systems. We suggest a model whereby the composition of the distinct phases may be estimated via consideration of the glass transition temperatures observed using DSC and DMA. By combining pulsed force AFM and nano-thermal analysis we demonstrate that it is possible to map the two separated phases. In particular, the use of thermal probes allowed identification of the distinct regions via localized thermomechanical analysis, whereby nanoscale probe penetration is measured as a function of temperature. The study has indicated that by using thermal and imaging techniques in conjunction it is possible to both identify and map distinct regions in binary films.

  15. Wheat Gluten-Laminated Paperboard with Improved Moisture Barrier Properties: A New Concept Using a Plasticizer (Glycerol Containing a Hydrophobic Component (Oleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to reduce the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR and water absorbance of wheat gluten/paperboard laminates by introducing a hydrophobic component (oleic acid (OA into the hydrophilic plasticizer (glycerol. Whereas the paperboard showed immeasurably high WVTR, the laminate with gluten/glycerol yielded finite values. More importantly, by incorporating 75 wt.% OA into the plasticizer, the WVTR and water absorbance were reduced by, respectively, a factor of three and 1.5–2. Of particular interest was that the mechanical properties were not changing dramatically between 0 and 50 wt.% OA. The results showed clear benefits of combining a gluten film with paperboard. Whereas the paperboard provided toughness, the WG layer contributed with improved moisture barrier properties. In addition, WVTR indicated that the paperboard reduced the swelling of the outer gluten/glycerol layer in moist conditions; a free standing gluten/glycerol film would yield infinite, rather than finite, WVTR values.

  16. Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    ...) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans...

  17. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of

  18. Equal perimeter yield criterion and its specific plastic work rate: Development, validation and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章顺虎; 赵德文; 陈晓东

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the nonlinearity of Mises criterion, a new linear yield criterion with a dodecagon shape of the same perimeter as Mises criterion was derived by means of geometrical analysis. Its specific plastic work rate expressed as a linear function of the yield stress, the maximum and minimum strains was also deduced and compared with that of Mises criterion. The physical meaning of the proposed yield criterion is that yielding of materials begins when the shear yield stress τs reaches the magnitude of 0.594σs. By introducing the Lode parameter, validation of evolution expressions of the proposed yield criterion with those based on Tresca, Mises and TSS criteria as well as available classical yield experimental results of various metals shows that the present results intersect with Mises results and coincide well with experimental data. Moreover, further application to the limit analysis of circle plate as an example is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed yield criterion, and the subsequent comparison of limit loads with the Tresca analytical solutions and Mises numerical results shows that the present results are higher than the Tresca analytical results, and are in good agreement with the Mises numerical results.

  19. 含氧塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用%APPLICATION OF FLUORINE CONTAINING PLASTIC FILM IN CLEAN ENERGY BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑会林

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride plastic film in clean energy battery applications was briefly reviewed. The application and production method of PVDF membrane used in lithium battery, perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion-exchange membrane used in fuel cells and wind power storage vanadium batteries were introduced respectively. The status of author's latest research results in related fields was also introduced.%简述了含氟塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用.分别论述了用于锂电池的PVDF隔离膜,以及用于燃料电池、风力发电蓄能电池钒电池的全氟磺酸离子膜的应用与制作方法.介绍了笔者在相关领域的最新研究成果.

  20. Determination of Sensitivity of Plastic Explosive Containing Insensitve Explosives%含钝感炸药的塑性炸药配方感度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Orzechowski; Andrzej Maranda; Dorota Powala; Jacek Borkowski

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain low sensitive high explosive formulation. Plastic explosive based on hexogen and octogen were investigated. 3-nitro-1 ,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was used as an additive. The experimental results show this additive decrease the impact and friction sensitivity without worsening another parameters.%采用低感、钝感炸药NTO、NGU作为添加剂,获得了以RDX、HMX为基的低感高能炸药配方,研究了NTO、NUG对其撞击和摩擦感度的影响.实验表明NTO可降低撞击和摩擦感度,并对其他性能产生不大影响.这说明低感或钝感炸药的加入是降低塑性炸药感度的有效方法.

  1. Development of an automated informatic system, for the evaluation of damage in plastics and minerals; Desarrollo de un sistema informatico automatizado, para la evaluacion de danos en plasticos y minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo V, V.; Lopez G, A.D.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Segovia R, A.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    A computer system of pattern recognition to evaluate automatically the damages registered by positive ions in minerals and plastics was developed. In the case of minerals the apatite in which was achievement to recognize and to count the damages by spontaneous fission of the uranium contained in her was selected. The selected plastic was the CR39, in which was possible to obtain the distribution of the diameters of the you give you taken place by slight ions in this plastic. In both cases, the recognition of patterns you bases on Ision for Computer, using the methodology described by Gonzalez and Woods [6]. The technique consists in: Acquisition of the Image, Pre-prosecution, Segmentation, Description and Classification; the computer system you development making use of the software Matlab version 7. The Apatita you selects for their importance in the one dated geologic and the determination of the thermal history, both of importance in the oil prospecting. In the case of the CR39 their importance resides in its wide and massive use as dosimetro of neutrons, determination of environmental Radon and detection of nuclear reactions of low section. (Author)

  2. Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dean G Tang

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells.Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous,containing many subpopulations of self-renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity.The differentiated progeny of adult stem cells also retain significant developmental plasticity that can be induced by a wide variety of experimental approaches.Like normal stem cells,recent data suggest that cancer stem cells(CSCs)similarly display significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity,and that the CSC progeny can manifest diverse plasticity.Here,I discuss CSC heterogeneity and plasticity in the context of tumor development and progression,and by comparing with normal stem cell development.Appreciation of cancer cell plasticity entails a revision to the earlier concept that only the tumorigenic subset in the tumor needs to be targeted.By understanding the interrelationship between CSCs and their differentiated progeny,we can hope to develop better therapeutic regimens that can prevent the emergence of tumor cell variants that are able to found a new tumor and distant metastases.

  3. An Example of Learning about Plastics and Their Evaluation as a Contribution to Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary School Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a secondary school lesson plan for chemistry education on the topic Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The lessons focus both on the chemistry of plastics and on learning about the societal evaluation of competing, chemistry-based industrial products. A specific teaching method was…

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of Concentration Developments for Container Terminals in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Yen Pham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has been one of Asia's fastest growing economies since 1990, with a steady growth of 6-8 percent. Vietnam's container port throughput volume also increases impressively year by year, at around 6-8 percent since 2002. To cope with increasing cargo volume, the development of modernized container terminals in Northern Vietnam has intensified. This longitudinal study aims to identify the development of the system and, in particular, the concentration or deconcentration tendencies, as well as the geographical patterns from 2005 to 2014. In order to achieve the study's objectives, the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI, concentration ratios (CR1, CR3, the Gini coefficient, the Lorenz curve, and shift-share analysis (SSA were applied based on container throughput volume data from 2005 to 2014. The results demonstrate that the development of container terminals in Northern Vietnam has experienced a deconcentration trend and considerable shifting among its terminals during the period of observation. The proposed and validated research is original as it is the first study of concentration, deconcentration, and geographical patterns for container terminals in Northern Vietnam. The findings will enable port authorities, policy makers, and port operators to understand the development and changes of container terminal systems in Northern Vietnam more clearly.

  5. Potential environmental benefits of improving recycling of polyolefines – LCA of Magnetic density separation (MDS) developed in the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Bonou, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The core of the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic is development of a magnetic density separation (MDS) of polyolefines in order to improve the sorting efficiency of these polymer types in different waste fractions. As part of the project a life cycle assessment is performed in order to firstly...... identify eco-design criteria for the development and secondly to document the potential environmental improvement of polyolefin recycling using the MDS technology. A preliminary study focusing solely on the carbon footprint benefits of recycling plastic waste compared to virgin production of polymers...

  6. The development of a performance measurement system for the South African container shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Hector

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is dependent on efficient supply chains and a variety of transport systems. South Africa participates in the world’s economy with an extensive container shipping industry, as well as a road/rail/air distribution system. One of the aims of this research study was to develop a measurement system, or model, that may assist in measuring the performance of a container shipping service, from the time a ship arrives in the harbour, through the process in the container depot until the container arrives at the final customer for imports, and the other way round for exports. The objective was to develop a performance index that would assist management in assessing and/or improving the current system. It is a global phenomenon that inefficiencies cannot be eliminated by a single organisation; it requires the cooperation of all the parties in a supply chain.

  7. Development of DC Inverter Scroll Compressor used for Marine Container Refrigeration Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Tomomi; Kato, Katsumi; Nojima, Nobuhiro; Yoshimura, Keiji; Kitaura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy saving of a container ship is becoming one of the most important issues from the point of environmental protection of the global marine transportation business. To solve this problem, we have developed a new gas injection inverter scroll compressor for marine container refrigeration unit. The new compressor is based on a conventional scroll compressor, which has been used in various industrial air conditioners for a long time, with some greatly improved technologies. F...

  8. Crack nucleation using combined crystal plasticity modelling, high-resolution digital image correlation and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a superalloy containing non-metallic inclusions under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Jiang, Jun; Britton, Ben; Shollock, Barbara; Dunne, Fionn

    2016-05-01

    A crystal plasticity finite-element model, which explicitly and directly represents the complex microstructures of a non-metallic agglomerate inclusion within polycrystal nickel alloy, has been developed to study the mechanistic basis of fatigue crack nucleation. The methodology is to use the crystal plasticity model in conjunction with direct measurement at the microscale using high (angular) resolution-electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) and high (spatial) resolution-digital image correlation (HR-DIC) strain measurement techniques. Experimentally, this sample has been subjected to heat treatment leading to the establishment of residual (elastic) strains local to the agglomerate and subsequently loaded under conditions of low cyclic fatigue. The full thermal and mechanical loading history was reproduced within the model. HR-EBSD and HR-DIC elastic and total strain measurements demonstrate qualitative and quantitative agreement with crystal plasticity results. Crack nucleation by interfacial decohesion at the nickel matrix/agglomerate inclusion boundaries is observed experimentally, and systematic modelling studies enable the mechanistic basis of the nucleation to be established. A number of fatigue crack nucleation indicators are also assessed against the experimental results. Decohesion was found to be driven by interface tensile normal stress alone, and the interfacial strength was determined to be in the range of 1270-1480 MPa.

  9. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  10. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Swinny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because tile cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  11. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Swinny, J. D; van der Want, J.J.L.; Gramsbergen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spat...

  12. Plastic shaping of aqueous alumina suspensions with saccharides and dicarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, H.; Schilling, C.H.; Biner, S.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Traditional methods for the shape-forming of engineering ceramics entail plastic deformation of powder slurries containing hazardous organic liquids as suspending media. Replacing these organics with aqueous media requires the development of environmentally-benign, water-soluble additives which serve as plasticizers and binders. Fundamental studies were performed with aqueous suspensions of colloidal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to evaluate the role of sucrose, maltodextrin, and oxalic acid on viscosity, sedimentation and filtration characteristics, plastic flow behavior of filter cakes, and sinterability. Maltodextrin and oxalic acid systems exhibited superior results, including filtration to high packing-densities and clay-like plasticity with minimal cracking.

  13. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  14. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  15. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  16. Marine microplastics - Method development for detection of plastic particles from sea water down to 10 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Robin; Enders, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    ingesting seabirds are perceived easily by the broad public through emotionally charged photographs and personal experiences on beaches all around the globe. Monitoring programs, beach clean-ups, source elimination, and societal changes such as local bans of single-use plastic bags or outphasing......During the past few years and especially in 2014, plastic pollution has gained a lot of media attention and public awareness is rising. Management plans and policies start to adopt strategies for mitigating effects and reducing entry of marine litter and beached plastic. Strangled seals or plastic...... on the bottom of the food web, whose existence and importance we are rarely aware of. There are chances for severe impacts in plastic accumulating ocean gyres which are of oligotrophic nature and consequently low food availability. So far the concentrations, biological impact and the fate of disintegrating...

  17. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  18. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  19. [PLASTICITY OF THE THERMAL REACTION NORMS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN PEACOCK BUTTERLY INACHIS IO (LEPIDOPTERA, NYMPHALIDAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkova, M V; Lopatina, E B

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the plasticity of the thermal reaction norms for development in the European Peacock butterfly Inachis io under the effect of different photoperiodic conditions and group versus individual maintenance. The overwintered imagoes were collected in Old Peterhof (near Saint-Petersburg) in May, 2010 and 2012-2013. 12 experimental regimens were used: 4 temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) and 3 photoperiods (12, 18 and 22 h of light a day). It was found that under short-day conditions (12 h) the caterpillars developed a little faster than under long-day ones (22 h). The developmental temperature thresholds in these two cases did not differ. A linear regression coefficient characterizing thermal sensitivity of development was significantly higher only in males with their development affected by short-day photoperiod stronger than in females. At 18-h day length, the caterpillar development was less temperature-sensitive and characterized by a lower threshold than in shorter and longer days. The influence of short-day photoperiod on the caterpillar development manifested itself most distinctly in the emerging pupae' weight changes: in all the temperature regimens the pupae were lighter at short than at long days. The pupal weight increased as the temperature rose. The found dependence does not agree with the "temperature-size rule". Individual rearing led to a longer duration and lower thermal sensitivity of caterpillar and pupal development as well as to a reduced weight of the pupae. Individual rearing had a stronger impact on the mineral of females than males.

  20. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  1. The zebrafish tailbud contains two independent populations of midline progenitor cells that maintain long-term germ layer plasticity and differentiate in response to local signaling cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Tsotras, Steve R; Goto, Hana; Martin, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    Vertebrate body axis formation depends on a population of bipotential neuromesodermal cells along the posterior wall of the tailbud that make a germ layer decision after gastrulation to form spinal cord and mesoderm. Despite exhibiting germ layer plasticity, these cells never give rise to midline tissues of the notochord, floor plate and dorsal endoderm, raising the question of whether midline tissues also arise from basal posterior progenitors after gastrulation. We show in zebrafish that local posterior signals specify germ layer fate in two basal tailbud midline progenitor populations. Wnt signaling induces notochord within a population of notochord/floor plate bipotential cells through negative transcriptional regulation of sox2. Notch signaling, required for hypochord induction during gastrulation, continues to act in the tailbud to specify hypochord from a notochord/hypochord bipotential cell population. Our results lend strong support to a continuous allocation model of midline tissue formation in zebrafish, and provide an embryological basis for zebrafish and mouse bifurcated notochord phenotypes as well as the rare human congenital split notochord syndrome. We demonstrate developmental equivalency between the tailbud progenitor cell populations. Midline progenitors can be transfated from notochord to somite fate after gastrulation by ectopic expression of msgn1, a master regulator of paraxial mesoderm fate, or if transplanted into the bipotential progenitors that normally give rise to somites. Our results indicate that the entire non-epidermal posterior body is derived from discrete, basal tailbud cell populations. These cells remain receptive to extracellular cues after gastrulation and continue to make basic germ layer decisions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  4. Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-07-18

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  5. Analysis and suggestions on the management of throwaway plastic food containers in Shanghai%上海市一次性塑料饭盒的管理现状分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 傅丽萍; 毛倩倩

    2011-01-01

    梳理了上海市在一次性塑料饭盒管理工作中回收处置系统难以正常运转的主要问题,提出了建立全国一盘棋的格局,将其他塑料废弃物纳入回收处置的管理范畴,并建立对废塑料回收处置的奖励或补贴政策,从而继续控制视觉污染,促进生活垃圾减量化和资源化。%This paper discussed about the main problems throwaway plastic food containers in Shanghai, and proposed country which put other plastic wastes into recycling and disposa policy be implemented on the recycling and disposal system reduction and recycling. in the recycling and disposal system operation of the taking a comprehensive administration for the whole system, It was also suggested the reward and subsidy so as to control visual pollution and promote waste reduction and recycling.

  6. Development of plastic deformations in 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending of specimens of various length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Leonets, V.A.; Bega, N.D. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1983-08-01

    Effect of specimen length on intensity of plastic deformation development and cyclic strength is studied for annealed 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending. The intensity of microplastic deformations and cyclic strength of annealed 12Kh18N10T steel in the considered case is due to self-heating.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A POLYSENSORY INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM FOR TEACHING KNOWLEDGES AND SKILLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE PLASTICS. REPORT NO. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISH, DALE LEROY

    THIRTY STUDENTS IN GRADES 6 THROUGH 12 CLASSIFIED INTO HIGH, AVERAGE, AND LOW ABILITY GROUPS, USED EXPANDABLE POLYSTYRENE PLASTICS AND EQUIPMENT TO CONSTRUCT A FOAMED RUBBER ICE BUCKET TO PROVIDE AN INDICATOR OF THE SUCCESS OF THE POLYSENSORY SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT. A PRETEST DETERMINED EXISTING KNOWLEDGES AND…

  8. Potential environmental benefits of improving recycling of polyolefines – LCA of Magnetic density separation (MDS) developed in the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Bonou, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The core of the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic is development of a magnetic density separation (MDS) of polyolefines in order to improve the sorting efficiency of these polymer types in different waste fractions. As part of the project a life cycle assessment is performed in order to firstly...

  9. Xenopus laevis neuronal cell adhesion molecule (nrcam): plasticity of a CAM in the developing nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokapally, Ashwin; Metikala, Sanjeeva; Hollemann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the L1 immunoglobulin superfamily, which plays diverse roles during nervous system development including axon growth and guidance, synapse formation, and formation of the myelinated nerve. Perturbations in NRCAM function cause a wide variety of disorders, which can affect wiring and targeting of neurons, or cause psychiatric disorders as well as cancers through abnormal modulation of signaling events. In the present study, we characterize the Xenopus laevis homolog of nrcam. Expression of Xenopus nrcam is most abundant along the dorsal midline throughout the developing brain and in the outer nuclear layer of the retina.

  10. Development of a vaginal delivery film containing EFdA, a novel anti-HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Parniak, Michael A; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Cost, Marilyn R; Rohan, Lisa C

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this work was to develop a fast-dissolving film formulation containing EFdA for potential use as a topical vaginal microbicide for prevention of HIV sexual transmission. Solid state compatibility approaches were used to screen commonly used polymers for formulation development. Factorial design and desirability function were used to investigate the effect of two variables, the ratio of the polymers and the concentration of selected plasticizer on four mechanical responses including tensile strength, elongation at break, toughness and elastic modulus for optimization of the film formulation. Assessments of EFdA-loaded films included physicochemical characteristics, in vitro cytotoxicity, epithelia integrity, ex vivo permeability and bioactivity test. The optimal placebo film was composed of PVA, HPMC E5 and propylene glycol (7:3:3, w/w), and its mechanical characteristics were comparable to those of VCF(®) film (a commercial vaginal film product). Permeability studies using human ectocervical explants showed that there was no significant difference in cumulative permeated amount of EFdA between EFdA film and free EFdA. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity and bioactivity testing showed that 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was several orders of magnitude higher than 50% effective concentration (EC50) of EFdA. Furthermore, epithelial integrity study showed that EFdA-loaded film had a much lower toxicity to HEC-1A cell monolayers as compared to VCF(®). Therefore, EFdA-loaded vaginal film may be considered as a promising vaginal microbicide for HIV prevention.

  11. Cortical Development, Plasticity and Re-Organization in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Nash, Amy A.; Dorman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A basic tenet of developmental neurobiology is that certain areas of the cortex will re-organize, if appropriate stimulation is withheld for long periods. Stimulation must be delivered to a sensory system within a narrow window of time (a sensitive period) if that system is to develop normally. In this article, we will describe age cut-offs for a…

  12. Development time plasticity of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa populations under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae is a univoltine defoliator that is active over a wide range of latitudes and elevations, being largely influenced by temperature variations, especially during larval development across the winter. This work compares field development time with that observed in the laboratory rearing under controlled conditions, in four Th. pityocampa populations characterized by different life history phenology: two populations from the Italian Alps characterized by early and late adult emergence, and two populations from Portugal, the first characterized by winter feeding and late adult emergence, the second by a switch of the larval feeding from winter to summer. The rearing started from the egg stage and was maintained in the laboratory at 20-25°C under natural light in transparent boxes. In spite of the different geographic origins and asynchrony of the period of larval development, all populations maintained an annual life cycle under laboratory conditions, as well as a phenology similar to that of the field populations. Such an outcome was possible due to a trade-off in the duration of the larval and pupal stages, the latter being identified as the phase of development when an efficient regulatory mechanism is acting to maintain the univoltine life cycle.

  13. Plasticity during Childhood and Adolescence: Innovative Approaches to Investigating Neurocognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Linden, David E. J.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of profound change, which holds substantial developmental milestones, but also unique challenges to the individual. In this opinion paper, we highlight the potential of combining two recently developed behavioural and neural training techniques (cognitive bias modification and functional magnetic neuroimaging-based…

  14. A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on resilience: implications for the developing brain, neural plasticity, and preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Blender, Jennifer A

    2006-12-01

    Resilient functioning, the attainment of unexpected competence despite significant adversity, is among the most intriguing and adaptive phenomena of human development. Although growing attention has been paid to discovering the processes through which individuals at high risk do not develop maladaptively, the empirical study of resilience has focused predominantly on detecting the psychosocial determinants of the phenomenon. For the field of resilience to grow in ways that are commensurate with the complexity inherent to the construct, efforts to understand underlying processes will be facilitated by the increased implementation of interdisciplinary research designed within a developmental psychopathology framework. Research of this nature would entail a consideration of psychological, biological, and environmental-contextual processes from which pathways to resilience might eventuate (known as equifinality), as well as those that result in diverse outcomes among individuals who have achieved resilient functioning (know as multifinality). The possible relation between the mechanisms of neural plasticity and resilience and specific suggestions concerning research questions needed to examine this association are discussed. Examples from developmental neuroscience and molecular genetics are provided to illustrate the potential of incorporating biology into the study of resilience. The importance of adopting a multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective for designing and evaluating interventions aimed at fostering resilient outcomes in persons facing significant adversity is emphasized.

  15. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  16. The environment and product development: a study of the plastic recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Morilhas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is aimed to identify how the companies have been developing products through the use of recycled materials. It was veriied which challenges the manufacturers face in their productive chain and how the organizations use such products as a strategic tool. The information presented in this article was obtained through a ield research that made use of a questionnaire sent to companies located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo city and through websites of companies of the area. The results of this study show that the process of product development should improve in an accelerated way in order to assist the desires and needs of the market. In this context, it is up to the companies of the area to update themselves by recycling their products, as well as their processes and management.

  17. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  18. Development of fast switching photochromic coatings on transparent plastics and glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mennig, Martin; Fries, Kira; Lindenstruth, Marion; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1999-01-01

    A new photochromic organic-inorganic nanocomposite (Nanomer(R)) coating system has been developed. It is based on an epoxysilane as network former, an organic bisepoxide as spacer, an organic amine as thermal cross-linker and surface modified SiO2 nanoparticles as fillers. This coating system is compatible with different photochromic dyes, like oxazines and pyrans. Photochromic coatings with blue, yellow, red, green, violet and neutral tints were prepared on flat glass and PMMA substrates by ...

  19. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  20. Cell Death, Neuronal Plasticity and Functional Loading in the Development of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Research on the precise timing and regulation of neuron production and maturation in the vestibular and visual systems of Wistar rats and several inbred strains of mice (C57B16 and Pallid mutant) concentrated upon establishing a timing baseline for mitotic development of the neurons of the vestibular nuclei and the peripheral vestibular sensory structures (maculae, cristae). This involved studies of the timing and site of neuronal cell birth and preliminary studies of neuronal cell death in both central and peripheral elements of the mammalian vestibular system. Studies on neuronal generation and maturation in the retina were recently added to provide a mechanism for more properly defining the in utero' developmental age of the individual fetal subject and to closely monitor potential transplacental effects of environmentally stressed maternal systems. Information is given on current efforts concentrating upon the (1) perinatal period of development (E18 thru P14) and (2) the role of cell death in response to variation in the functional loading of the vestibular and proprioreceptive systems in developing mammalian organisms.

  1. Do more intelligent brains retain heightened plasticity for longer in development? A computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S.C. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin studies indicate that the heritability of general cognitive ability – the genetic contribution to individual differences – increases with age. Brant et al. (2013 reported that this increase in heritability occurs earlier in development for low ability children than high ability children. Allied with structural brain imaging results that indicate faster thickening and thinning of cortex for high ability children (Shaw et al., 2006, Brant and colleagues argued higher cognitive ability represents an extended sensitive period for brain development. However, they admitted no coherent mechanistic account can currently reconcile the key empirical data. Here, computational methods are employed to demonstrate the empirical data can be reconciled without recourse to variations in sensitive periods. These methods utilized population-based artificial neural network models of cognitive development. In the model, ability-related variations stemmed from the timing of the increases in the non-linearity of computational processes, causing dizygotic twins to diverge in their behavior. These occurred in a population where: (a ability was determined by the combined small contributions of many neurocomputational factors, and (b individual differences in ability were largely genetically constrained. The model’s explanation of developmental increases in heritability contrasts with proposals that these increases represent emerging gene-environment correlations (Haworth et al., 2010. The article advocates simulating inherited individual differences within an explicitly developmental framework.

  2. Numerical Control Technology in Plastic Packaging Container Mould Processing Applications%数控技术在塑料包装容器模具加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立

    2012-01-01

    本文简述了在塑料包装容器生产中所用模具的常见加工方法,介绍了高速加工、多轴加工等数控技术特点,阐述了充分利用数控加工技术的优越性,进而提高模具的加工效率和质量,缩短制造周期.%This paper briefly in plastic packaging containers used in the production of the common mould processing method,this paper presents a high speed processing,the multiaxial processing characteristics of numerical control technology,this paper expounds the full use of the advantages of nc machining technology,and improve the mould processing efficiency and quality,shorten the manufacturing cycle.

  3. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors promote glutamate synapse development in hippocampal interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, Wolfgang; Li, Zhijun; Wieland, Sebastian; Senkov, Oleg; Herb, Anne; Göngrich, Christina; Monyer, Hannah

    2014-11-26

    In postnatal development, GluN2B-containing NMDARs are critical for the functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses. GluN2B-containing NMDARs prevail until the second postnatal week when GluN2A subunits are progressively added, conferring mature properties to NMDARs. In cortical principal neurons, deletion of GluN2B results in an increase in functional AMPAR synapses, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs set a brake on glutamate synapse maturation. The function of GluN2B in the maturation of glutamatergic inputs to cortical interneurons is not known. To examine the function of GluN2B in interneurons, we generated mutant mice with conditional deletion of GluN2B in interneurons (GluN2B(ΔGAD67)). In GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice interneurons distributed normally in cortical brain regions. After the second postnatal week, GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice developed hippocampal seizures and died shortly thereafter. Before the onset of seizures, GluN2B-deficient hippocampal interneurons received fewer glutamatergic synaptic inputs than littermate controls, indicating that GluN2B-containing NMDARs positively regulate the maturation of glutamatergic input synapses in interneurons. These findings suggest that GluN2B-containing NMDARs keep the circuit activity under control by promoting the maturation of excitatory synapses in interneurons.

  4. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Weir, Michael D.; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

  5. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment.

  6. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  7. Progress in the development of gas-impregnated lapped plastic film insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E B; McNerney, A J; Muller, A C; Rigby, S J

    1977-01-01

    A flexible superconducting power transmission cable is under development. The electrical insulation consists of lapped polymeric film tapes impregnated with supercritical helium. Ways of satisfying the many constraints on the material were described. Although the cable is intended for low-temperature operation good electrical and mechanical characteristics are needed at room-temperature. Results are given for both small-sample tests and a model cable fabricated commercially. The results are compared with those obtained by other workers and the design of the next test cable is given.

  8. DNA microarrays immobilized on unmodified plastics in a microfluidic biochip for rapid typing of Avian Influenza Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Dufva, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , a portable cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microarray device containing eight individually addressable microfluidic channels was developed for fast identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) by DNA hybridization. This plastic biochip offers benefits of low fabrication cost and parallel processing...

  9. 重视我国眼整形眼眶病专业的发展%Pay attention to development of ophthalmic plastics and orbital diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范先群

    2011-01-01

    眼整形眼眶病是一门年轻而发展迅猛的眼科学分支专业,包括眼整形、眼美容和眼眶外科.近年来,眼整形眼眶病领域的新技术和新手术不断涌现,技术创新和学科交叉使其对眼睑和眼眶等疾病的治疗力求达到功能重建及形态修复的完美结合.我国眼整形眼眶病专业起步较晚,但立足于创新性研究,积极开展学科交叉、医工合作和国际学术交流,取得了快速发展.针对目前我国眼整形眼眶外科发展中存在的问题,必须规范专业化人才培养、加强国内外多渠道交流、重视基础与临床转化研究,进一步促进眼整形眼眶病专业的发展.%Ophthalmic plastics and orbital diseases have developed rapidly as a young branch of ophthalmology in recent years. The current situation and development of ophthalmic aesthetics,plastics and orbital surgery are discussed in this paper. The functional reconstruction and appearance rehabilitation are both important to the ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although the ophthalmic plastics and orbital surgery started late in China,it developmented rapidly. The development of this branch is based on innovative research,active interdisciplinary,medical-engineering cooperation and academic exchange. However,there are still some problems about ophthalmic plastics and orbital surgery in China. To promote the development of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery,we should regulate the training of ophthalmic plastic surgeons,and pay attention to the clinical translational research.

  10. Mechanisms of Long Non-coding RNAs in Mammalian Nervous System Development, Plasticity, Disease, and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James A; Wolvetang, Ernst J; Mattick, John S; Rinn, John L; Barry, Guy

    2015-12-02

    Only relatively recently has it become clear that mammalian genomes encode tens of thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). A striking 40% of these are expressed specifically in the brain, where they show precisely regulated temporal and spatial expression patterns. This begs the question, what is the functional role of these many lncRNA transcripts in the brain? Here we canvass a growing number of mechanistic studies that have elucidated central roles for lncRNAs in the regulation of nervous system development and function. We also survey studies indicating that neurological and psychiatric disorders may ensue when these mechanisms break down. Finally, we synthesize these insights with evidence from comparative genomics to argue that lncRNAs may have played important roles in brain evolution, by virtue of their abundant sequence innovation in mammals and plausible mechanistic connections to the adaptive processes that occurred recently in the primate and human lineages.

  11. Postnatal development and plasticity of specialized muscle fiber characteristics in the hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, D J; Bassel-Duby, R S; Richardson, J A; Grayson, J; Neufer, P D; Williams, R S

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in defining molecular components of pathways controlling early stages of myogenesis has been substantial, but regulatory factors that govern the striking functional specialization of adult skeletal muscle fibers in vertebrate organisms have not yet been identified. A more detailed understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns by which specialized fiber characteristics arise may provide clues to the identity of the relevant regulatory factors. In this study, we used immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot analyses to examine the time course and spatial characteristics of expression of myoglobin protein and mRNA during development of the distal hindlimb in the mouse. In adult animals, myoglobin is expressed selectively in oxidative, mitochondria-rich, fatigue-resistant myofibers, and it provides a convenient marker for this particular subset of specialized fibers. We observed only minimal expression of myoglobin in the hindlimb prior to the second day after birth, but a rapid and large (50-fold) induction of this gene in the ensuing neonatal period. Myoglobin expression was limited, however, to fibers located centrally within the limb which coexpress myosin isoforms characteristic of type I, IIA, and IIX fibers. This induction of myoglobin expression within the early postnatal period was accompanied by increased expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, and exhibited a time course similar to the upregulation of myoglobin and mitochondrial proteins, and exhibited a time course similar to the upregulation of myoglobin and mitochondrial protein expression that can be induced in adult muscle fibers by continuous motor nerve stimulation. This comparison suggests that progressive locomotor activity of neonatal animals may provide signals which trigger the development of the specialized features of oxidative, fatigue-resistant skeletal muscle fibers.

  12. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  13. Postnatal lead exposure and the cholinergic system: effects on cholinergically mediated behaviors and cholinergic development and plasticity in the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    A review of previous evidence suggested the possibility of a functional association between the behavioral effect of early lead (Pb) exposure, hippocampal damage and cholinergic deficiency. To further assess this possibility, Long-Evans hooded rat pups were exposed to Pb for the first 25 postnatal days via the maternal milk. Beginning at 65 days of age, animals were tested on behavioral tasks sensitive to both Pb exposure and cholinergic deficiency. Exposure to both levels of Pb impaired passive avoidance acquisition and produced lower rates of spontaneous alternation. The anticholinergic scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) impaired passive avoidance acquisition, lowered the rate of spontaneous alternation and decreased open field activity scores in control animals. At 30 days of age, the brains of High Pb and control animals were processed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. Morphometric evaluation of the molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus indicated no effects of Pb on the development of the cholinergic innervation of this brain region. The results provide strong evidence for the involvement of deficient cholinergic functioning in the behavioral changes observed following postnatal Pb exposure. Further, these findings indicate that a decrease in neuroanatomical plasticity may be a critical brain mechanism underlying the learning deficits observed following exposure to Pb.

  14. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste containers for storage at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA)

    1989-04-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B & W`s role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Kentaro, E-mail: ueken@spring8.or.jp; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan synchrotron radiation research institute, JASRI/SPring-8 Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 Japan (Japan); Uesugi, Masayuki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hamada, Hiroshi [NTT Advanced technology Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0124 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  16. Cortical plasticity within and across lifetimes: How can development inform us about phenotypic transformations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Dooley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is the part of the mammalian brain that is involved in perception, cognition, and volitional motor control. It is a highly dynamic structure that is dramatically altered within the lifetime of an animal and in different lineages throughout the course of evolution. These alterations account for the remarkable variations in behavior that species exhibit. Of particular interest is how these cortical phenotypes change within the lifetime of the individual and eventually evolve in species over time. Because we cannot study the evolution of the neocortex directly we use comparative analysis to appreciate the types of changes that have been made to the neocortex and the similarities that exist across taxa. Developmental studies inform us about how these phenotypic transitions may arise by alterations in developmental cascades or changes in the physical environment in which the brain develops. Both genes and the sensory environment contribute to aspects of the phenotype and similar features, such as the size of a cortical field, can be altered in a variety of ways. Although both genes and the laws of physics place constraints on the evolution of the neocortex, mammals have evolved a number of mechanisms that allow them to loosen these constraints and often alter the course of their own evolution.

  17. Significance of the plasma membrane for the nerve cell function, development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourek, Jindrich; Langmeier, Milos; Pokorny, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Lipoid character of plasma membrane namely the presence of polyenic fatty acids enables to interact with membrane proteins and in certain extent also to modulate their function. During the development, molecules of membrane fatty acids become more and more complex, and the ratio of polyenic fatty acids/saturated fatty acids in the brain rises, while the concentration of monoenic fatty acids remained relatively stable. This phenomenon is apparent also in the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids OMEGA-3 in plasma of newborns which correlates with the birth weight. Plasma membrane reflects local specializations of nerve cells. Its composition varies in functionally specialized regions called domains. Specialized domains of nerve cells determine the function of dendrites, soma, axon, axon hillock ect. Premature weaning of laboratory rats results in structural changes and in the increase of excitability of neuronal circuits in hypothalamus, septum and hippocampus which indicate the possibility of membrane composition changes. In synapses, transport proteins of synaptic vesicles, act together with the specific proteins of the presynaptic membrane. Membrane proteins determine the release of neurotransmitter at different conditions of synaptic activity, and they can contribute to the recovery of neurotransmitter content after the repeated hyperactivity. In the model of experimental kindling, repeated seizures bring about decreases and distribution changes of synaptic vesicles.

  18. Digital media, the developing brain and the interpretive plasticity of neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; McKinney, Kelly A

    2013-04-01

    The use and misuse of digital technologies among adolescents has been the focus of fiery debates among parents, educators, policy-makers and in the media. Recently, these debates have become shaped by emerging data from cognitive neuroscience on the development of the adolescent brain and cognition. "Neuroplasticity" has functioned as a powerful metaphor in arguments both for and against the pervasiveness of digital media cultures that increasingly characterize teenage life. In this paper, we propose that the debates concerning adolescents are the meeting point of two major social anxieties both of which are characterized by the threat of "abnormal" (social) behaviour: existing moral panics about adolescent behaviour in general and the growing alarm about intense, addictive, and widespread media consumption in modern societies. Neuroscience supports these fears but the same kinds of evidence are used to challenge these fears and reframe them in positive terms. Here, we analyze discourses about digital media, the Internet, and the adolescent brain in the scientific and lay literature. We argue that while the evidential basis is thin and ambiguous, it has immense social influence. We conclude by suggesting how we might move beyond the poles of neuro-alarmism and neuro-enthusiasm. By analyzing the neurological adolescent in the digital age as a socially extended mind, firstly, in the sense that adolescent cognition is distributed across the brain, body, and digital media tools and secondly, by viewing adolescent cognition as enabled and transformed by the institution of neuroscience, we aim to displace the normative terms of current debates.

  19. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  20. Plasticity in developing rat uterine sensory nerves: the role of NGF and TrkA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalar, C; Richeri, A; Viettro, L; Chávez-Genaro, R; Bianchimano, P; Marmol, N M; Crutcher, K; Burnstock, G; Cowen, T; Brauer, M M

    2003-11-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of infantile/prepubertal chronic oestrogen treatment, chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine and combined sympathectomy and chronic oestrogen treatment on developing sensory nerves of the rat uterus. Changes in sensory innervation were assessed quantitatively on uterine cryostat tissue sections stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Uterine levels of NGF protein, using immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and mRNA, using Northern blots and in situ hybridization, were also measured. Finally, levels of TrkA NGF receptor in sensory neurons of T13 and L1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which supply the uterus, were assessed using densitometric immunohistochemistry. These studies showed that: (1) chronic oestrogen treatment led to an 83% reduction in the intercept density of CGRP-immunoreactive nerves; (2) sympathectomy had no effect on the density of uterine sensory nerves or on the pattern of oestrogen-induced changes; (3) NGF mRNA and protein increased following sympathectomy or chronic oestrogen treatment; and (4) oestrogen produced increased intensity of labelling (28%) for TrkA receptors in small-diameter sensory neurons, but decreased labelling (13%) in medium-sized neurons, which represent the large majority of the DRG neurons supplying the upper part of the uterine horn. Contrary to expectations, increased levels of NGF after sympathectomy and oestrogen treatment did not lead to increased sensory innervation of the uterus. The possibility that alterations in neuronal levels of TrkA contribute to the lack of response of uterine sensory nerves to the oestrogen-induced increase in NGF levels is discussed.

  1. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic

  2. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, F. M.; Teleki, A.; Krumeich, F.; Büchel, R.; Hurrell, R. F.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2009-11-01

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  3. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilty, F M; Hurrell, R F; Zimmermann, M B [Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Teleki, A; Buechel, R; Pratsinis, S E [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Krumeich, F, E-mail: michael.zimmermann@ilw.agrl.ethz.c [Electron Microscopy Center (EMEZ), ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  4. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  5. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  6. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  7. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  8. Development of a hydrogen diffusion gothic model of MARK III-containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Zhen-Yu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Dept. of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-Kai; Pei, Bau-Shei [National Tsing Hua Univ., Inst. of Nuclear Engineering Science, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Sheng [National Tsing Hua Univ., Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Shu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Nuclear Engineering Div., Taiyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is a reminder of the danger of hydrogen explosion within a reactor building. Sufficiently high hydrogen concentration may cause an explosion that could damage the structure, resulting in the release of radioisotopes into the environment. In the first part of this study, a gas diffusion experiment was performed, in which helium was used as the working fluid. An analytical model was also developed using the GOTHIC code and the model predictions of the helium distribution were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured data. In the second part of the study, a model of the Mark III containment of the Kuosheng Plant in Taiwan was developed, and was applied to a long-term station blackout (SBO) accident similar to that of the Fukushima plant. The hydrogen generation was calculated using the Modular Accident Analysis Program and was used as the boundary condition for the GOTHIC containment model. The simulation results revealed that the hydrogen concentration at the first floor of the wetwell in the containment reached 4 % 9.7 h after the accident. This indicated the possibility of dangerous conditions inside the containment. Although active hydrogen ignitors are already installed in the Kuosheng plant, the findings of this study indicate that it may be necessary to add passive recombiners to prolong an SBO event.

  9. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  10. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  11. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight Rate Indices for U.S. Agricultural... received from some large U.S. exporters and intermediaries to develop and release container freight indices... Containerized Freight Index (SCFI, 2009), Container Trade Statistics Index (CTS Index, 2009), the...

  12. Performance Enhancement at the Cost of Potential Brain Plasticity: Neural Ramifications of Nootropic Drugs in the Healthy Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Urban

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate, amphetamine, but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil and glutamate activators (ampakine are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits - dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation, and/or norepinephrine - stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as methylphenidate and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

  13. The Development of Nanofibrous Media Filter Containing Nanoparticles for Removing Particles from Air Stream

    OpenAIRE

    S. Farhang Dehghan; B Maddah; F Golbabaei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The goal of the present study was to develop nanofibrous media filters containing MgO nanoparticles for future application in removing particles from gas stream. Materials and Methods: Electrospun nanofibers were fabricated using experimental design prepared by Response Surface Methodology. Optimization of electrospinning parameters was conducted for achieving the desired filter properties including fiber diameter, porosity, and bead number. ...

  14. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic...

  15. Shaping development through mechanical strain: the transcriptional basis of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M; Fan, Shaohua; Xiong, Fan; Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Meyer, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an organism to change its phenotype to match local environments, is increasingly recognized for its contribution to evolution. However, few empirical studies have explored the molecular basis of plastic traits. The East African cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi displays adaptive phenotypic plasticity in its pharyngeal jaw apparatus, a structure that is widely seen as an evolutionary key innovation that has contributed to the remarkable diversity of cichlid fishes. It has previously been shown that in response to different diets, the pharyngeal jaws change their size, shape and dentition: hard diets induce an adaptive robust molariform tooth phenotype with short jaws and strong internal bone structures, while soft diets induce a gracile papilliform tooth phenotype with elongated jaws and slender internal bone structures. To gain insight into the molecular underpinnings of these adaptations and enable future investigations of the role that phenotypic plasticity plays during the formation of adaptive radiations, the transcriptomes of the two divergent jaw phenotypes were examined. Our study identified a total of 187 genes whose expression differs in response to hard and soft diets, including immediate early genes, extracellular matrix genes and inflammatory factors. Transcriptome results are interpreted in light of expression of candidate genes-markers for tooth size and shape, bone cells and mechanically sensitive pathways. This study opens up new avenues of research at new levels of biological organization into the roles of phenotypic plasticity during speciation and radiation of cichlid fishes.

  16. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  17. Mechanism of plasticity development for ceramic dough (5). Influence of the deformability of buffer domain on plasticity; Seramikku nendo no kasakusei hatsugen mekanizumu (5). Kanshoryoiki no henkeino no kasakusei eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, S. [Wet Forming of Ceramics Technology Research Association, Aichi (Japan); Ishida, H. [INAX Corporation, Aichi (Japan). Space Design Research Center; Shibasaki, Y; Oda, K. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Plasticity of ceramic dough is determined by the deformation of the buffer domain that consists of aggregate or gel. Effect of the deformability of each buffer domain on the plasticity of alumina dough, in presence of various additives, was investigated. Those additives were konjak, agar, curdlan and super-absorbent polymer. Moderately deformable additives such as konjak and agar worked as buffer domains, and plasticity was generated. However, soft and brittle additives such as curdlan and super-absorbent polymer could not improve plasticity because of their lower ability in generating the buffer domains. It was clarified that the deformability of buffer domain directly influences plasticity. (author)

  18. 塑料表面载银微凝胶层层组装膜的制备及抗菌活性%Layer-by-layer Assembled Microgel Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Coatings on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王旭; 叶开其; 裘令瑛; 沈家骢

    2011-01-01

    以载银聚烯丙基胺盐酸盐-葡聚糖微凝胶与聚苯乙烯磺酸钠为构筑基元,利用层层组装技术制备了一种可直接沉积在疏水的塑料基底表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜.研究结果表明,该载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有很好的抗菌能力,并且其抗菌活性可以通过控制载银微凝胶膜的组装层数进行调控.这种沉积在塑料表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有良好的稳定性和基底黏附力,能够保障其长效抗菌性.%Antimicrobial coatings on hydrophobic plastic surfaces were directly fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of cross-linked poly( allylamine hydrochloride) and dextran microgels containing silver nanoparticles ( Ag@ PAH-D) with poly ( sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The as-prepared Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are effective in prohibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of the coatings can be easily controlled by tailoring the number of coating deposition cycles. The antimicrobial coatings of Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are stable and have satisfactory adhesion to the underlying plastic substrates,which guarantee the long-term application of the coatings.

  19. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  20. Phenotypic plasticity with instantaneous but delayed switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, Margarete; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Loeschcke, Volker; Gabriel, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, allowing organisms to better adapt to changing environments. Most empirical and theoretical studies are restricted to irreversible plasticity where the expression of a specific phenotype is mostly determined during development. However, reversible pl

  1. Development of O/W emulsions containing Euterpe oleracea extract and evaluation of photoprotective efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cecilio Daher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleraceaMart. is a palm tree popularly known as açai, which is primarily found in northern Brazil. The açai's fruits contain anthocyanins, a class of polyphenols to which antioxidant properties have been attributed. The aim of this work was to develop O/W sunscreens emulsions containing açai glycolic extract (AGE and to evaluate both their physical stability and photoprotective efficacy. Emulsions containing AGE and sunscreens were formulated using different types and concentrations of polymeric surfactant (acrylates/C 10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer and sodium polyacrylate. The influence of two rheology modifiers (polyacrylamide (and C13-14/isoparaffin (and Laureth-7 and Carbomer on the stability was also investigated. Physical stability was evaluated by preliminary and accelerated studies. Emulsions with 1.0% sodium polyacrylate were stable and exhibited non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy. Photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by in vivo Sun Protection Factor (SPF and determination of Protection Factor of UVA (PF-UVA. When AGE was added to the sunscreen emulsion, no significant increase in the in vivo SPF value was observed. The emulsion containing AGE showed PF-UVA = 14.97, 1.69 of the SPF/PF-UVA ratio and a critical wavelength value of 378 nm, and may therefore be considered a sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection.

  2. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendels, Sophie; Chavez, Thiebault; Bonnet, Martin; Salmeia, Khalifah A; Gaan, Sabyasachi

    2017-07-11

    Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010) in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis-Arbuzov, Friedels-Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose) or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes) during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase). Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C). Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable polymers such as

  3. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  4. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  5. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, Liu; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  6. Method Development for Container Closure Integrity Evaluation via Headspace Gas Ingress by Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Ken G; Levac, Lauren; Timmins, Michael; Veale, James

    2017-07-20

    development of container closure integrity tests. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  7. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  8. Development of a multiparticulate system containing enteric-release mini-tablets of omeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Jose Tondo Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of omeprazole formulated with an enteric polymer with pH-dependent solubility. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production ofhigh quality mini-tablets. The mini-tablets were coated in a fluidized bed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose /Eudragit(r L30D55 and packed into hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profile showed gastro-resistance and zero-order kinetics. The dissolution profile for the formulation containing lactose as the diluent and coated with 12% (tablet weight gain of polymer was similar to that ofthe reference drug.

  9. Development and evaluation of a hydrophilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Cristina Wypych

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the development and evaluation of a hydrolphilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium. Eleven formulations were prepared containing the following bioadhesive polymers: hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, polycarbophil, guar gum and xanthan gum individually and in combination. All the formulations were evaluated for the swelling index, adhesive index, and the time of adhesive and drug release profile (%. The results showed that the formulations that presented the most swelling index were the F3 (PAA/GX and F6 (GG/GX. The smaller index swelling was for F1 (PAA/CM and F10 (HPCMC/CM. The F4 (PAA/HPMC formulation presented the best adhesive index and F10 (HPMC/CM the worst. F1 (PAA/CM was the best matrix hydrophilic adhesive for controlled release. The hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, guar and xanthan gum when used individually presented low adhesiveness.

  10. Development of a parametric containment event tree model for a severe BWR accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T. [OTO-Consulting Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-04-01

    A containment event tree (CET) is built for analysis of severe accidents at the TVO boiling water reactor (BWR) units. Parametric models of severe accident progression and fission product behaviour are developed and integrated in order to construct a compact and self-contained Level 2 PSA model. The model can be easily updated to correspond to new research results. The analyses of the study are limited to severe accidents starting from full-power operation and leading to core melting, and are focused mainly on the use and effects of the dedicated severe accident management (SAM) systems. Severe accident progression from eight plant damage states (PDS), involving different pre-core-damage accident evolution, is examined, but the inclusion of their relative or absolute probabilities, by integration with Level 1, is deferred to integral safety assessments. (33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.).

  11. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  12. The Development of a SPME-GC/MS Method for the Analysis of VOC Emissions from Historic Plastic and Rubber Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, K.; Underhill, M.; Gibson, L. T.; Strlic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of VOC emissions from historic plastic and rubber materials using SPME-GC/MS. Parameters such as analysis temperature, sampling time and choice of SPME fibre coating were investigated and sampling preparation strategies explored, including headspace sampling in vials and in gas sampling bags. The repeatability of the method was evaluated. It was found that a 7 d accumulation time at room temperature, followed by sampling using a DVB/CAR/...

  13. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior

    2014-09-01

    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  14. Continued work to develop a low-cost sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of cotton from plastic trash that collects in cotton fields or introduced at the gin or due to mishandling at the warehouse is one of the most significant threats to US cotton world market share. For U.S. cotton to maintain its status as “contamination-free”, the industry must strive t...

  15. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Development of a parametric containment event tree model of a severe PWR accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T. [OTO-Consulting Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-06-01

    The study supports the development project of STUK on `Living` PSA Level 2. The main work objective is to develop review tools for the Level 2 PSA studies underway at the utilities. The SPSA (STUK PSA) code is specifically designed for the purpose. In this work, SPSA is utilized as the Level 2 programming and calculation tool. A containment event tree (CET) model is built for analysis of severe accidents at the Loviisa pressurized water reactor (PWR) units. Parametric models of severe accident progression and fission product behaviour are developed and integrated in order to construct a compact and self-contained Level 2 PSA model. The model can be easily updated to include new research results, and so it facilitates the Living PSA concept on Level 2 as well. The analyses of the study are limited to severe accidents starting from full-power operation and leading to core melting at a low primary system pressure. Severe accident progression from five plant damage states (PDSs) is examined, however the integration with Level 1 is deferred to more definitive, integrated, safety assessments. (34 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.).

  17. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics.

  18. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, And Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Silva, Camila M G; Bilesky-José, Natalia; Guilger, Mariana; Troost, Johann; Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; de Lima, Renata

    2017-07-19

    In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active. The nanocapsules containing neem oil did not affect the soil microbiota during 300 days of exposure compared to the control. Phytotoxicity studies indicated that NC_20 (200 mg of neem oil) did not affect the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants, whereas use of NC_10 (100:100 of neem:oleic acid) and NC_15 (150:50 of neem:oleic acid) led to negative effects on these physiological parameters. Hence, the use of oleic acid as a complement in the nanocapsules was not a good strategy, since the nanocapsules that only contained neem oil showed lower toxicity. These results demonstrate that evaluation of the toxicity of nanopesticides is essential for the development of environmentally friendly formulations intended for applications in agriculture.

  19. The Use of Waste Plastic as a Partial Substitution Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Aschuri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, Indonesia faces serious problems managing solid waste such as plastic. Annually, Indonesia produces approximately 5.4 million tons of waste plastic, accounting for 14% of the country’s total solid waste production. Using waste plastic as a partial substitution aggregate in asphalt concrete pavement would be one of solutions for reducing environmental problems from the high volume of waste plastic. Previous studies show that it may be possible to use waste plastic in road pavement to improve the engineering performance of road pavement and increase its service life. This study investigates the performance of asphalt concrete mixtures containing varying amounts of waste plastic as a partial aggregate substitution as compared to that of conventional mixtures. The waste plastic used in this study was chopped into small pieces of approximately passing sieve number 30 and retained sieve number 40, which would replace (by weight a portion of the mineral aggregates. All mixtures were prepared using 5.82% optimum bitumen content. The performance of asphalt concrete characteristics was studied using the Marshall test, The Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test, The Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM test, and the Cantabro Loss (CL test in terms of strength, stiffness modulus, and durability characteristics. In general, laboratory results showed that asphalt concrete mixtures containing waste plastic have higher performance than conventional asphalt concrete mixtures.

  20. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  1. Developing Prospect Analysis of Composite Plastics Construct Framework%浅析复合塑料建筑模板发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the writer analyzes the disadvantage of traditional framework in producing and applying process, summarizes characteristics of building templates market, gives a introduction to the characteristics of composite plastic framework, compares its advantage with wood, steel and bamboo plywood framework, and summarizes the developing prospect of composite plastic framework.%通过对建筑模极市场发展的综述,分析了传统建筑模板在生产和使用过程中存在的弊病,介绍复合塑料模板的特点,比较了相对木模板、钢模板、竹胶模板的优势,总结出复合塑料模板的发展前景.

  2. Evaluation of Lumicyano™ cyanoacrylate fuming process for the development of latent fingermarks on plastic carrier bags by means of a pseudo operational comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Deacon, Paul; Fraser, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. This study is a pseudo operational trial to compare an example of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate product, Lumicyano™, with the two recommended techniques for plastic carrier bags; cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 (BY40) dyeing and powder suspensions. 100 plastic carrier bags were collected from the place of work and the items were treated as found without any additional fingermark deposition. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique (average of 300 fingermarks). The items treated with Lumicyano™ were sequentially processed with BY40 and an additional 43 new fingermarks were detected. Lumicyano™ appears to be a suitable technique for the development of fingermarks on plastic carrier bags and it can help save lab space and time as it does not require dyeing or drying procedures. Furthermore, contrary to other one-step cyanoacrylate products, existing cyanoacrylate cabinets do not require any modification for the treatment of articles with Lumicyano™. To date, there is little peer reviewed articles in the literature on trials related to Lumicyano™ and this study aims to contribute to fill this gap.

  3. Development of cell technologies for design of cell contained vascular grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. С. Захарова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new protocol for production of functional endothelial and mural cells from human cardiac explants has been developed. The endothelial cells are characterized by the presence of mature endothelial markers: CD 31, VE-cadherin and VEGFR2. Functionally they could take up ac-LDL, form tube-like structure in matrigel, contains functional cytoplasmic microvesicles Weibel-Palade bodies, in cytoplasm microvesicles – metabolized form of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and produces extracellular matrix. The smooth muscle cells expressed a specific marker aSMA and produces extracellular matrix. The derived cell populations exhibit functional properties in hindlimb ischemia model. It was shown that the endothelial and the smooth muscle cells retain their specific surface antigens and the ability to produce an extracellular matrix on polycaprolactone and polylactide-co-glycolide surfaces. These cells can be used to develop a vascular tissue-graft.

  4. Development and evaluation of an emulsion containing lycopene for combating acceleration of skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caramori Cefali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a carotenoid and potent antioxidant is found in large quantities in tomatoes. Lycopene combats diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and different types of cancer, including prostate cancer. However, its topical use in emulsion form for the combat of skin aging is under-explored. The aim of the present study was to develop an emulsion containing lycopene extracted from salad tomatoes and evaluate its cytotoxicity, stability, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and phytocosmetic permeation. The developed cosmetic comprised an oil phase made up of shea derivatives and was evaluated in terms of its physiochemical stability, spreadability, thermal analysis, rheological behavior, microbiological quality, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, cutaneous permeation and retention. The results demonstrate that this phytocosmetic is stable, exhibits satisfactory rheological behavior for a topical formula and is a promising product for combating skin aging.

  5. Development of Decision Making Algorithm for Control of Sea Cargo Containers by ``TAGGED'' Neutron Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ev, A. A.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bogolyubov, E. P.; Bochkarev, O. V.; Petrov, E. V.; Polishchuk, A. M.; Udaltsov, A. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    Nowadays in Russia and abroad there are several groups of scientists, engaged in development of systems based on "tagged" neutron method (API method) and intended for detection of dangerous materials, including high explosives (HE). Particular attention is paid to possibility of detection of dangerous objects inside a sea cargo container. Energy gamma-spectrum, registered from object under inspection is used for determination of oxygen/carbon and nitrogen/carbon chemical ratios, according to which dangerous object is distinguished from not dangerous one. Material of filled container, however, gives rise to additional effects of rescattering and moderation of 14 MeV primary neutrons of generator, attenuation of secondary gamma-radiation from reactions of inelastic neutron scattering on objects under inspection. These effects lead to distortion of energy gamma-response from examined object and therefore prevent correct recognition of chemical ratios. These difficulties are taken into account in analytical method, presented in the paper. Method has been validated against experimental data, obtained by the system for HE detection in sea cargo, based on API method and developed in VNIIA. Influence of shielding materials on results of HE detection and identification is considered. Wood and iron were used as shielding materials. Results of method application for analysis of experimental data on HE simulator measurement (tetryl, trotyl, hexogen) are presented.

  6. 塑料在灯具中的应用演变及发展浅析%PlasticIn the Lighting Application Evolution And Development Of Elementary Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚瑞

    2012-01-01

    Demand for larger lamps in modem life, however, for lack of modem resources, enhance the environmental consciousness of consumers and aesthetic improvement of the manufacturers product processing costs can be reduced to lower the status quo. Based on the plastic has a strong ahernative, low cost, and the diversity of texture and color, a high degree of recycling of thermoplastics, strong shape diversity. Advantage of the many aspects of the plastic, plastic lighting materials of modern applications and future development has a larger space for development, the advantages of following plastic aspects of lighting material.%灯具在现代生活中需求量较大,然而针对现代资源缺乏,消费者环保意识增强及审美性的提高,制造商也要求产品加工成本可以降得更低的现状。基于塑料有很强的替代性,成本的低廉性,肌理和色彩的多样性,热塑性塑料高度的回收性,很强的塑造样性。以上诸多方面的优点,说明了塑料在灯具材料的现代应用和未来发展中都有较大的发展空间,以下就塑料这几方面优点的来进行对灯具材质的探讨。

  7. 食品包装材料生态化发展下的非石油基降解塑料%Non-Petroleum Based Biodegradable Plastic with the Development of Ecologicalization in Food Packaging Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏民; 戴佩燕

    2015-01-01

    目前常用的非石油基降解塑料可分为全淀粉型、化学(人工)合成型和天然高分子(以淀粉为主)与合成高分子共混型3种类型。淀粉基生物降解塑料能完全生物降解,制成的薄膜具有良好的透明度、柔韧性、抗张强度,不溶于水,无毒,故市场占有率高,被广泛应用于食品包装、食品容器和一次性餐饮具等;聚乳酸生物降解塑料力学性能与聚丙烯相似,并具有与聚苯乙烯相似的光泽度、清晰度和加工性,同时具有无毒、无刺激性、强度高、易加工成型和优良的生物相容性等特点,是一种能够真正实现生态和经济双重效益的、发展速度最快的生物降解塑料;聚丁二酸丁二醇酯生物降解塑料综合性能优良,性价比合理,故在食品包装、一次性餐具、药品包装瓶、生物医用高分子材料以及汽车零部件等领域均具有良好的应用前景。非石油基降解塑料作为包装材料是必然趋势,其得到广泛应用的关键在于提高材料的改性技术与控制成本,同时须保证其对人体无毒无害,强调个性化,并注重提高市场接受度。%The current non-petroleum based biodegradable plastics could be divided into three types of starch, chemical (artificial) synthetic and natural polymers (based on starch), and synthetic polymer blend. Starch based biodegrad-able plastics could be completely biodegradable and be made into thin film with the advantages of good transparency, flexibility, tensile strength, water-insoluble and non-toxic features. Therefore the market share of starch based biodegrad-able plastics is big, and it is widely used in food packaging as food containers and disposable tableware. The biodegradable plastic mechanical property of polylactic acid is similar to that of polypropylene, and it has the glossiness, clarity and workability similar to those of poly propylene with characteristics of non

  8. The advent of the restorative plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Matthew J; Pribaz, Julian J; Talbot, Simon G; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery is presently typified by the existence of discrete clinical identities, namely that of the cosmetic plastic surgeon and the reconstructive plastic surgeon. The emergence of vascularized composite allotransplantation has been accompanied by the development of a third distinct clinical identity, that of the restorative plastic surgeon. The authors describe the core competencies that characterize this new identity, and discuss the implications of the advent of this new professional paradigm.

  9. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  10. Development of design, qualification, screening, and application requirements for plastic encapsulated solid-state devices for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Test data were collected on 1035 plastic encapsulated devices and 75 hermetically scaled control group devices that were purchased from each of five different manufacturers in the categories of (1) low power Schottsky TTL (bipolar) digital circuits; (2) CMOS digital circuits; (3) operational amplifier linear circuits; and (4) NPN transistors. These parts were subjected to three different initial screening conditions, then to extended life testing, to determine any possible advantages or trends for any particular screen. Several tests were carried out in the areas of flammability testing, humidity testing, high pressure steam (auroclave) testing, and high temperature storage testing. Test results are presented. Procurement and application considerations for use of plastic encapsulated semiconductors are presented and a statistical analysis program written to study the log normal distributions resulting from life testing is concluded.

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Isabel A; Golsteijn, Laura; Hendriks, A Jan

    2016-12-15

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingested. In order to assess their risk, the contaminant concentration in the plastics needs to be estimated and differences understood. We collected from literature plastic water partition coefficients of various organic chemicals for seven plastic types: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), high-density, low-density and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most data was available for PDMS (1060) and LDPE (220), but much less for the remaining plastics (73). Where possible, regression models were developed and the partitioning was compared between the different plastic types. The partitioning of chemicals follows the order of LDPE≈HDPE≥PP>PVC≈PS. Data describing the impact of weathering are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on Long-term Potentiation in Developing Rat Visual Cortex during the Critical Period of Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfen Gao; Zhengqin Yin; Yingbing Liu; Shijun Wang; Huimin Fan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the property of LTP in layers Ⅱ~Ⅳof the rats visual cortex at different postnatal days induced by pairing low-frequency stimulation at layer Ⅳ with post synaptic depolarization in order to explore the synaptic and cellular mechanism of experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex.Methods: Postsynaptic currents (PSCs) of layers Ⅱ~Ⅳ in visual cortex slices of Wistar rats aged P0-29 d were recorded by patch-clamp whole cell recording method. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) at 1Hz for 60~90 s.Each pulse of the LFS paired with depolarization of post-synaptic neurons to -20 mV.100μM APV, a kind of competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, was both applied to some slices to test the property of LTP.Results: 1. The LTP incidence was very low before P10d (5/34), and increased rapidly to the top at P15-24 d (17/28), then decreased sharply to 1/5 at P25-29 d, coinciding well with the critical period of plasticity of rat visual cortex. The LTP incidence of P15-29d (after eye opening, 18/33) was significantly higher than that of P0-14 d (before eye opening, 12/43, P < 0.05). 2. Compared with non-APV applied group (30/76), LTP incidence of APV applied group (4/33) was significantly decreased (P < 0.01 ). There were 4 Ⅳ-Ⅳ horizontal synapses. APV application could not block the LTP induction.Conclusions: 1. LTP was a reflection of naturally occurring, experience-dependent plasticity in rat visual cortex. The patterned visual stimuli received after eye opening might be an activation factor of the synaptic plasticity. 2. LTP of visual cortex induced by LFS in layer Ⅳ paired with postsynaptic depolarization was NMDA receptor dependent during the critical period of visual plasticity. However, there were LTP existed in Ⅳ-Ⅳ horizontal synapses which could not be blocked by 100μM APV.

  15. Determination of dibutyl phthalate in plastic bucket containing bulk liquor%盛装散装白酒的塑料桶中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 李明元

    2012-01-01

    According to the survey that rural market to hold bulk liquor extensively use of plastic bucket. Hexane was used to extraction solvent,extract dibutyl phthalate(DBP) from the plastic buckets containing bulk liquor by ultrasound-assisted extraction as well as dibutyl phthalate quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Extraction time,material/liquid ratio and extraction temperature were investigated with single-factor test. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken experimental desigen was used for process optimization. The optimal extraction conditions determined were extraction time of 52min, material/liquid ratio of 1:40,extraction temperature of 49℃. Under these conditions,the extraction volume of DBP was up to 32.21mg/kg,which was consistent with the prediction value. In the scope of 0.5~50.0mg/L, dibutyl phthalate had good linear relationship(R2=0.9998),lowest detectable limit was 0.017mg/L. The relative standard deviation of standard experimental precision was 0.40%,the recovery of dibutyl phthalate was 99.68% and the relative standard deviation was 0.85% ,the result showed that this extract method was accurate and reliable. This provided the basic data for food safety and the risk assessment of plasticizer.%摘要:据调查,农村市场广泛使用塑料桶盛装散装白酒。以正己烷作为提取溶剂.采用超声波辅助提取盛装散装白酒的塑料桶中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP),高效液相(HPLC)测定其含量。以提取时间、料液比、提取温度进行单因素实验,采用响应曲面Box—Behnken设计分析方法对其最佳提取条件进行优化。结果表明.邻苯二甲酸二丁酯最佳的提取条件为:提取时间为52min、料液比为1:40、提取温度为49℃,在此条件下,DBP提取量为32.21mg/kg.与理论预测值基本吻合。在0.5~50.0mg/L范围内邻苯二甲酸二丁酯具有良好的线性关系(R2=0.9998

  16. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  17. Reclamation of post-consumer plastics for development of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene based nanocomposites with nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Saldabola, Ruuta; Maksimov, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Suitability of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (R-ABS) and recycled polycarbonate (R-PC) for the development of polymer matrix nanocomposites with organically modified nanoclay (OMMT) is evaluated in comparison to virgin polymers (V-ABS and V-PC) based systems. The influence of OMMT content on the structure as well as calorimetric, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polymers containing systems is revealed. Increase in stiffness and strength of virgin and recycled polymers based systems is observed along with rising nanoclay content. However, it is observed that reinforcing efficiency of clays on the R-ABS containing systems is reduced to certain extent in comparison to those, based on virgin polymers. It is shown, that in the presence of OMMT approximation of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric components is observed, which can testify about certain improvement of compatibility between PC and ABS. Increment of the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of the nanocomposites is associated with anisodiametric shape of OMMT, as well as with intercalation of polymer within the interlaminar space of the clay nanoparticles. It is also demonstrated that addition of nanoclay improves thermogravimetric behavior of the investigated compositions. Consequently, it is suggested that nanoclays can be used as promising functional additives and replace halogenated flame-retardants, without reducing mechanical properties of the composites.

  18. Development and characterization of novel hydrogel containing antimicrobial drug for treatment of burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Vaishali; Korat, Vaishali; Baldaniya, Lalji; Gohel, Mukesh; Gandhi, Tejal; Patel, Nirav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of burn management and therapy is fast healing and epithelisation to prevent infection. The present study is concerned with the development and characterization of a novel nanaoparticulate system; cubosomes, loaded with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and Aloe vera for topical treatment of infected burns. Methods: Cubosome dispersions were formulated by an emulsification technique using different concentrations of a lipid phase Glyceryl Monooleate (GMO) and Poloxamer 407. The optimum formulae were incorporated in an aloe vera gel containing carbopol 934, to form cubosomal hydrogels (cubogels). The cubogels were characterized by in vitro release of SSD, rheological properties, pH, bioadhesion, Transmission Electron Microscopy and in-vivo Wound Healing Study. Results: The results show that the different concentration of GMO had significant effect on particle size, % EE and in vitro drug release. From the in-vitro drug release pattern and similarity factor (f2), it was concluded that batch CG3 (15% GMO and 1% P407) exhibited complete and controlled drug release within 12 hour (i.e. 98.25%), better bio adhesion and superior burn healing as compared to the marketed product. Conclusion: The in vivo burns healing study in rats revealed that the prepared optimized cubogel containing SSD and aloe vera has superior burns healing rate than cubogel with only SSD and marketed preparation so, it may be successfully used in the treatment of deep second degree burn. PMID:27606259

  19. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  20. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  1. Development of low-fat mayonnaise containing polysaccharide gums as functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hou-Pin; Lien, Chuang-Ping; Lee, Tan-Ang; Ho, Jou-Hsuan

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a low-fat (LF) mayonnaise containing polysaccharide gums as functional ingredients. Xanthan gum (XG, 15 g kg(-1)), citrus fiber (CF, 100 g kg(-1)) and variable concentration of guar gum (GG) were used to formulate the optimum ratios of polysaccharide gums as fat replacers. The fat content in LF mayonnaise was reduced to 50% if compared with full-fat (FF) mayonnaise, and the products still maintained ideal rheological properties. The rheological parameters showed that there were no (P > 0.05) differences in yield stress, viscosity and flow behavior index between XG + 10 g kg(-1) GG, CF + 5 g kg(-1) GG and FF control. LF mayonnaises had lower caloric values and higher dietary fiber content than the FF counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs illustrated that the network of aggregated droplets in LF treatments contained a large number of interspaced voids of varying dimensions. Furthermore, in a comparison of sensory evaluation of LF treatments with commercial and our FF mayonnaises, there were no (P > 0.05) differences in any sensory scores among XG + 10 g kg(-1) GG control. This study shows that XG + 10 g kg(-1) GG and CF + 5 g kg(-1) GG could be used in LF mayonnaise formulations based on its multiple functions on processing properties. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kornhauser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  3. Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.

  4. Histidine-containing peptide catalysts developed by a facile library screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Kengo; Sakai, Nobutaka; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2015-02-02

    Although peptide catalysts have a high potential for the use as organocatalysts, the optimization of peptide sequences is laborious and time-consuming. To address this issue, a facile screening method for finding efficient aminocatalysts from a peptide library has been developed. In the screening for the Michael addition of a malonate to an enal, a dye-labeled product is immobilized on resin-bound peptides through reductive amination to visualize active catalysts. This procedure allows for the monitoring of the reactivity of entire peptides without modifying the resin beads beforehand. Peptides containing histidine at an appropriate position were identified by this method. A novel function of the histidyl residue, which enhances the binding of a substrate to the catalyst by capturing an iminium intermediate, was indicated.

  5. Development of Magnesium and Siloxane-containing Vaterite and its Composite Materials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eYamada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel biomaterials with Mg2+, Ca2+ and silicate ions releasability for bone regeneration is now in progress. Several inorganic ions have been reported to stimulate bone-forming cells. We featured Ca2+, silicate and especially Mg2+ ions as growth factors for osteoblasts. Various biomaterials, such as ceramic powders and organic-inorganic composites, releasing the ions have been developed and investigated in their cytocompatibilities in our previous work. Through the investigation, providing the three ions was found to be effective to activate osteogenic cells. Mg and siloxane-containing vaterite (MgSiV was prepared by a carbonation process as an inorganic particles, which can provide simultaneously releasing ability of Ca2+, silicate and Mg2+ ions to biodegradable polymers. Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA- and bioactive PLLA-based composites containing vaterite coatings were discussed on their degradability and cytocompatibility using a metallic Mg substrate as Mg2+ ion source. PLLA/SiV composite film, which has a releasability of silicate ions besides Ca2+ ion, was coated on a pure Mg substrate to be compared with the PLLA/V coating. The degradability and releasability of inorganic ions were morphologically and quantitatively monitored in a cell culture medium. The bonding strength between the coatings and Mg substrates was one of the key factors to control Mg2+ ion release from the substrates. The cell culture tests were conducted using mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells; cellular morphology, proliferation and differentiation on the materials were evaluated. The PLLA/V and PLLA/SiV coatings on Mg substrates were found to enhance the proliferation; especially the PLLA/SiV coating possessed a higher ability of inducing the osteogenic differentiation of the cells.

  6. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Dan Chen,1 Zhong-Yuan Liang,1 Yan-Yan Cen,1 He Zhang,2 Mei-Gui Han,2 Yun-Qiao Tian,2 Jie Zhang,2 Shu-Jun Li,2 Da-Sheng Yang2 1College of Pharmacy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 2Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101, lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS. The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT, in vitro drug release (DR, thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. Keywords: asthma, superdisintegrant, prednisolone, oral tablets, MCC, CCS, factorial design, ANOVA

  7. Development of oral lyophilisates containing meloxicam nanocrystals using QbD approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Sonia; Bogdan, Cătălina; Tomuță, Ioan; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Chvatal, Anita; Leucuța, Sorin E; Moldovan, Mirela; Ambrus, Rita

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop oral lyophilisates with improved meloxicam (MEL) dissolution, optimizing each step of the preparation by design of experiments. First, meloxicam nanosuspensions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization (HPH), using PVP, Poloxamer or PEG as stabilizers and were subjected to freeze-drying using mannitol as cryoprotectant. The effects of the stabilizers and cryoprotectant were assessed and an optimal formulation was generated within the Design Space where the particle sizes and the PDIs are at their lowest values. The optimal formulation was used at the preparation of oral lyophilisates. Sodium alginate (SA) and croscarmellose sodium (CCS) were tested as matrix forming agents and three different freezing regimes were applied. The formulation was optimized, choosing the polymer that yielded both high mechanical strength and fast MEL dissolution. Poloxamer led to particle size reduction down to 10.27% of the initial size, meaning 477.6±7.5nm, with a slight increase during freeze-drying process. PEG showed lower nanonizing capacity during HPH, but freeze-drying produced further diminution of the particle size. Since Poloxamer provided advanced size reduction while preserving MEL crystallinity, it was used for the optimized formulation containing 1% Poloxamer and 5% mannitol added before freeze-drying. SA showed good structural properties when compared to CCS and allowed fast MEL dissolution at low ratios. The optimal formulation contained 1.157% of SA was subjected to thermal treatment during freeze-drying. It disintegrated in 3.33s and released 77.14% of the MEL after 2min. The quality by design (QbD) approach for the development of pharmaceutical products ensured high quality of the dosage form and good understanding of the preparation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Joint use of developed collagen-containing complexes and cell cultures in creating new tissue equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Kulakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of applying the integrated module as the basis of a celltissue equivalent for treatment of wounds of skin and soft tissues. In the frame of the set task the following problems were being solved: research of the spatial structure and architectonics of the surface of the developed base collagen-containing materials and their biocompatibility with cell cultures.Materials and methods. The study of a material which is a two-layer complex film, consisting of collagen and polysaccharide components was carried out. The collagen was separated from the dermis and was then impregnated with particulate demineralized bone matrix (DCM according to the original methodology. For the purposes of the study the dehydrated material was created in the form of a film. Electron microscopic examination of surfaces was performed on scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-IT300LV in high vacuum and at low values of probe current (< 0,1 nА. Studies to assess the viability of the cells cultivated on films of collagen material (tested for cytotoxicity and the adhesive capacity were performed in vitro using strains of diploid human fibroblasts 4–6 passage. The culture condition was visually assessed using an inverted Leica microscope DM IL (Carl Zeiss, Austria, equipped with a computerizes program of control of culture growth (Leica IM 1000.Results. The data obtained in the study of the surface structure of the developed complex module showed that it seems to be promising as a basic component of the cellular-tissue system with its large number of structural formations for fixation of the cells and a well-organized barrier layer capable of vapor - permeability. Experiments in vitro confirmed the absence of toxicity of the material being studied in relation to the culture of dermal human fibroblasts, suggesting the possibility of creation on its basis of cell-tissue complex and further experimental studies in vivo

  9. Finite deformation analysis of continuum structures with time dependent anisotropic elastic plastic material behavior (LWBR/AWBA Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutula, D.N.

    1980-03-01

    A finite element procedure is presented for finite deformation analysis of continuum structures with time-dependent anisotropic elastic-plastic material behavior. An updated Lagrangian formulation is used to describe the kinematics of deformation. Anisotropic constitutive relations are referred, at each material point, to a set of three mutually orthogonal axes which rotate as a unit with an angular velocity equal to the spin at the point. The time-history of the solution is generated by using a linear incremental procedure with residual force correction, along with an automatic time step control algorithm which chooses time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution.

  10. [Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenova, B A; Aslaliev, A D; Danilov, M B; Badmaeva, T M; Vtorushina, I A

    2015-01-01

    blood of control animals and was seven fold higher than that in blood of animals kept on selenium deficient diet (35.57 ± 3.36 µmol/g per 1 min) A similar dependence was established when studying the activity of glutathione reductase. It has been revealed thatthe oxidative-antioxidative status of animals from experimental groups 1 and 3 was lower than from control group and group 2. Thus, blood antioxidant activity in animals receiving diet with selenium deficiency and high dose of this trace element, was less than in the control group by 43.1 and 25.4%, respectively. Liver MDA level in animals kept on a diet with selenium deficiency exceeded the value of this indicator in the group 2 more than 1.5 fold (110.5 ± 10.70 vs. 72.5 ± 4.30 nmol/mg). When using selenium-containing supplement, this parameter decreased to the control level. In blood plasma of the animals of group 2 total antioxidant activity increased by about five times as compared with the indicators of animals kept on selenium-deficient diet, and was 25% higher than in control. Thus, the introduction of a selenium supplements in the deficient diet contributes to the development of endogenous antioxidants that suppress lipid oxidation. High biological effectiveness of supplements containing organic form of selenium has been proved.

  11. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors contribute to the beneficial effects of hydrogen sulfide on cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Jian; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bin; Xu, Guo-Gang; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jin-Qiong; Tang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Ting; Wei, Bo

    2016-10-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of clinical dementia. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is implicated with the pathology of AD, and exogenous H2S attenuates spatial memory impairments in AD animal models. However, the molecular mechanism by which H2S improves cognition in AD has not been fully explored. Here, we report that chronic administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) elevated hippocampal H2S levels and enhanced hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and novel object recognition in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice. In parallel with these behavioral results, treating transgenic mice with NaHS reversed impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), which is deemed as the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. At the molecular level, we found that treatment with NaHS did not affect the expression of the GluN1 and GluN2A subunits of NMDA receptor (NMDAR), but did prevent the downregulation of GluN2B subunit and restored its synaptic abundance, response and downstream signaling in the hippocampus in transgenic mice. Moreover, applying Ro 25-6981, a specific GluN2B antagonist, abolished the beneficial effects of NaHS on cognitive performance and hippocampal LTP in transgenic mice. Collectively, our results indicate that H2S can reverse cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in AD model mice by restoring surface GluN2B expression and the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs.

  12. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  13. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Stability of a Gel Formulation Containing the Monoterpene Borneol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Gabriela Belarmino Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol commonly used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. It is extracted from the essential oil of various medicinal plants. It has antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory action proven in studies that used oral and intraperitoneal applications of this monoterpene in mice. The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol using carbopol as gel base and to evaluate its stability. The prepared formulation was subjected to physical characterization and physical-chemistry assessment. The gel was prepared from carbopol and 5% of borneol. The prepared gel was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as its pH, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, centrifugation, and accelerated stability with freezing-thaw cycle. The borneol was successfully incorporated into the carbopol formulation. Borneol gel (BG5 showed good stability after eight months of its development and after 12 days in the freeze-thaw cycle, not showing statistical difference in pH value, conductivity, and viscosity before and after test. Furthermore, the formulation showed a good spreadability. Therefore, it was concluded that the formulation could be very promising alternative for the topical or transdermal treatment of skin diseases.

  15. Characteristics of developed granules containing selected decolourising bacteria for the degradation of textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Z; Amin, M F M; Yahya, A; Aris, A; Muda, K

    2010-01-01

    Textile wastewater, one of the most polluted industrial effluents, generally contains substantial amount of dyes and chemicals that will cause increase in the COD, colour and toxicity of receiving water bodies if not properly treated. Current treatment methods include chemical and biological processes; the efficiency of the biological treatment method however, remains uncertain since the discharged effluent is still highly coloured. In this study, granules consisting mixed culture of decolourising bacteria were developed and the physical and morphological characteristics were determined. After the sixth week of development, the granules were 3-10 mm in diameter, having good settling property with settling velocity of 70 m/h, sludge volume index (SVI) of 90 to 130 mL/g, integrity coefficient of 3.7, and density of 66 g/l. Their abilities to treat sterilised raw textile wastewater were evaluated based on the removal efficiencies of COD (initial ranging from 200 to 3,000 mg/L), colour (initial ranging from 450 to 2000 ADMI) of sterilised raw textile wastewater with pH from 6.8 to 9.4. Using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment cycle with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h, maximum removal of colour and COD achieved was 90% and 80%, respectively.

  16. Development of Alginate Microspheres Containing Chuanxiong for Oral Administration to Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM by patients is the common way to treat health problems. Zebrafish emerges as an excellent animal model for the pharmacology investigation. However, the oral delivery system of TCM in zebrafish has not been established so far. This issue was addressed by development of alginate microparticles for oral delivery of chuanxiong, a TCM that displays antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects on hepatocytes. The delivery microparticles were prepared from gelification of alginate containing various levels of chuanxiong. The chuanxiong-encapsulated alginate microparticles were characterized for their solubility, structure, encapsulation efficiency, the cargo release profile, and digestion in gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Encapsulation of chuanxiong resulted in more compact structure and the smaller size of microparticles. The release rate of chuanxiong increased for alginate microparticles carrying more chuanxiong in simulated intestinal fluid. This remarkable feature ensures the controlled release of encapsulated cargos in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Moreover, chuanxiong-loaded alginate microparticles were moved to the end of gastrointestinal tract after oral administration for 6 hr and excreted from the body after 16 hr. Therefore, our developed method for oral administration of TCM in zebrafish is useful for easy and rapid evaluation of the drug effect on disease.

  17. Hair care formulations containing argan oil: development, stability and texture profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia Duz Delsin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop hair care cosmetic formulations containing argan oil to evaluate the stability and texture profile of these formulations. Shampoos, conditioners and leave-in formulations were developed with or without (vehicle argan oil in concentrations of 0.1, 2.0 and 2.0% (w/w respectively. The formulations were stored at room temperature (25°C, 37°C and 45°C for a period of 28 days and submitted to spreadability and texture tests using the Texture Analyser. For this purpose, work of shear and consistency parameters were determined. The results have shown that all formulations were stable and the argan oil-based formulations had a better spreadability when compared with the vehicle. This is a desirable effect, once cosmetic formulations which presents a lower values of work of shear are better accepted by cosmetic sensory panels. In addition, no difference was found between conditioners with or without argan oil in terms of texture profile, and leave-informulation with argan oil showed an increased consistency when compared with the vehicle. Finally, formulations with argan oil showed better the texture profile, therefore, it is a potential ingredient for use in hair care formulations.

  18. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  19. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  20. FORMULATION AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL PHENOLIC BIOPOLYMER-CONTAINING FILMS FOR BURN TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokadze, S; Barbakadze, V; Mulkijanyan, K; Bakuridze, A; Bakuridze, L

    2017-06-01

    Application of phytofilms based on biosolublepolymers is considered as a prospectivemethod for burn treatment . Herbal remedies contain biologically active substances, that are relatively less toxic, do not cause skin irritation or allergic reactions and, importantly, affectstrains of the microorganisms and viruses resistant to antibiotics and synthetic drugs. Nowadays, the advantages are given to such burn healing drugs, which along with high specific efficacy, have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and don't irritate the tissues. The mentioned peculiarities are characteristic for a new herbal phenolic biopolymer poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid](PDGA), isolated from the roots and stems of different comfrey species . The aim of the study was the development of the formulation and technology of biosoluble films for burn treatment on the basis of PDGA. The optimal content of phytofilm for burn healing was selected on the basis of the biopharmaceutical study results. The impact of the film-former on the quality, adhesion and moisture absorption of the phytofilmhas been studied. The optimal degree of the phytofilm moisture, determining its high adhesive properties,was established. The film prepared on the basis of sodium alginate, with 30.4% humidity, demonstrated the greatest adhesion strength. After investigation of the PDGA release it was found, that the hydrophilic bases such as: sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (69.2%) andsodium alginate (78,65%) appeared to be optimal among the others. At the same time, taking into consideration the disadvantages of sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (tautening effect on burnt surface, relatively low stability), a film based on sodium alginate has been chosen. The manufacturing technology for obtaining PDGA-containing phytofilm by casting is proposed. Theshelf-lifeofproposedPDGA-containingphytofilmis 2 years.

  1. Waste Plastics Recycling and Reuse Technology Situation and Development Trend in China%我国废旧塑料的资源再利用现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 张承龙

    2014-01-01

    通过对当前我国废旧塑料资源再利用现状的研究,分析和对比了不同废旧塑料资源再利用方法的工艺和特点,并且对废旧塑料处理的发展趋势做出了预测。%Through the study of the current status of waste plastic recycling, the processes and characteristics of different methods of recycling waste plastics are analyzed and compared, and the development trend of waste plastics processing is forecast.

  2. NMDA受体与听觉发育可塑性及学习记忆研究的进展%Development of study on NMDA receptor with auditory plasticity and learning memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建红; 王淑玉; 李晓明

    2012-01-01

    Neural plasticity is one of the most important research area of developmental neurobiology. NM-DA(N-Methyl-D-aspartale) receptor is one of the glulamate receptors in nervous system, which palys an important role in many biological and pathological changes, such as development of neural network, neural plasticity, learning and memory, degeneration of the neurons and so on. The studies on NMDA receptor with auditory plasticity and learning and memory were reviewed in order to make early intervention for hearing impaired children and provide a theoretical basis.

  3. Development and industry prospect of Straw-Plastic Composites%秸塑复合材料研究及其产业前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文涛; 陈集双

    2016-01-01

    The history and industrial development of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) were analyzed, pointing out the present demands of"straw instead of wood"and"straw instead of plastic". Straw, as a kind of abundant renewable biomass resources, has the potential to be developed as a new environmentally friendly material. The concept of Straw- Plastic Composite (SPC) was creatively proposed in this paper. The characteristics of straw biomass fibers were dissected and the bio-based minerals in the straw may be one of the important factors, led to SPC is superior to WPC. Moreover, the conditions for the development of SPC were elaborated, which pointed out SPC is a typical model for the full-price and high-value industrialization of straw biomass. The feasible solution that pioneered the development of SPC has been put forward under the existing conditions in the country.%通过分析木塑复合材料的发展历程和产业现状,指出了当前"以秸代木"和"以秸代塑"的新需求.秸秆作为一种丰富的可再生生物质资源,具备开发为新型环保材料的潜力.本文创造性地提出了秸塑复合材料(Straw-Plastic Composites,SPC)的概念,剖析了秸秆生物质纤维的特性,秸秆中富含的生物基矿物质可能是秸塑作为新材料形成优于木塑材料的重要因素,同时阐述了秸塑产业发展的条件,指出了SPC是秸秆生物质全价工业化、高值化利用的典范,并提出现有条件下,在我国率先开发SPC的可行方案.

  4. A study of effect of shift work, sex, and smoking on development of ONIHL in plastic weavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh D Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to Occupational noise is the major avoidable cause of permanent hearing loss that is preventable by protective measures. Present study evaluated hearing profile and effects of shift, sex, and smoking on hearing loss in plastic weavers working in textile industry exposed to impact type of noise. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of hearing threshold of various shift workers of plastic weaving industries (18 males, 32 females at various frequencies was done and effect of various factors was tested at low and high frequencies and compared at 4 kHz, 6 kHz, and 8 kHz statistically. Results: Hearing thresholds were significantly higher at high frequencies than speech frequencies, in day shift workers than night shift workers and within day shift workers more with continuous type of shift work than interrupted type. Females showed better hearing than males and for non-smokers than smokers, but the difference observed in both instances proved statistically insignificant. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of alternate day and night shift, interrupted day shift may be used to prevent hearing loss and for further confirmation few more studies are warranted. Being female and non smoking also proved an advantage. Comparatively, mild to moderate degree of hearing loss further reinforces the scope of prevention by hearing protective devices and interrupted shift design of work.

  5. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  6. Development of a test system to evaluate procedures for decontamination of respirators containing viral droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Rengasamy, Samy; Shaffer, Ronald

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test system to evaluate the effectiveness of procedures for decontamination of respirators contaminated with viral droplets. MS2 coliphage was used as a surrogate for pathogenic viruses. A viral droplet test system was constructed, and the size distribution of viral droplets loaded directly onto respirators was characterized using an aerodynamic particle sizer. The sizes ranged from 0.5 to 15 mum, and the sizes of the majority of the droplets were the range from 0.74 to 3.5 mum. The results also showed that the droplet test system generated similar droplet concentrations (particle counts) at different respirator locations. The test system was validated by studying the relative efficiencies of decontamination of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and UV irradiation with droplets containing MS2 virus on filtering facepiece respirators. It was hypothesized that more potent decontamination treatments would result in corresponding larger decreases in the number of viable viruses recovered from the respirators. Sodium hypochlorite doses of 2.75 to 5.50 mg/liter with a 10-min decontamination period resulted in approximately 3- to 4-log reductions in the level of MS2 coliphage. When higher sodium hypochlorite doses (> or =8.25 mg/liter) were used with the same contact time that was used for the dilute solutions containing 2.75 to 5.50 mg/liter, all MS2 was inactivated. For UV decontamination at a wavelength of 254 nm, an approximately 3-log reduction in the level of MS2 virus was achieved with dose of 4.32 J/cm(2) (3 h of contact time with a UV intensity of 0.4 mW/cm(2)), while with higher doses of UV irradiation (> or =7.20 J/cm(2); UV intensity, 0.4 mW/cm(2); contact times, > or =5 h), all MS2 was inactivated. These findings may lead to development of a standard method to test decontamination of respirators challenged by viral droplets.

  7. Cortical plasticity induced by transplantation of embryonic somatostatin or parvalbumin interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunshuo; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian

    2014-12-23

    GABAergic inhibition has been shown to play an important role in the opening of critical periods of brain plasticity. We recently have shown that transplantation of GABAergic precursors from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the source of neocortical parvalbumin- (PV(+)) and somatostatin-expressing (SST(+)) interneurons, can induce a new period of ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) after the endogenous period has closed. Among the diverse subtypes of GABAergic interneurons PV(+) cells have been thought to play the crucial role in ODP. Here we have used MGE transplantation carrying a conditional allele of diphtheria toxin alpha subunit and cell-specific expression of Cre recombinase to deplete PV(+) or SST(+) interneurons selectively and to investigate the contributions of each of these types of interneurons to ODP. As expected, robust plasticity was observed in transplants containing PV(+) cells but in which the majority of SST(+) interneurons were depleted. Surprisingly, transplants in which the majority of PV(+) cells were depleted induced plasticity as effectively as those containing PV(+) cells. In contrast, depleting both cell types blocked induction of plasticity. These findings reveal that PV(+) cells do not play an exclusive role in ODP; SST(+) interneurons also can drive cortical plasticity and contribute to the reshaping of neural networks. The ability of both PV(+) and SST(+) interneurons to induce de novo cortical plasticity could help develop new therapeutic approaches for brain repair.

  8. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. H. Song; R. J. Murphy; R. Narayan; G. B. H. Davies

    2009-01-01

    .... Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality...

  9. Development of electric currents in a magnetic field configuration containing a magnetic null point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. C.; Büchner, J.; Otto, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context. In the past the role of magnetic null points in the generation of electric currents was investigated mainly in the close vicinity of the null, with perturbations being applied at nearby boundaries, or for a magnetic null configuration with a dome-shaped fan. In the solar atmosphere, however, electric currents are generated by perturbations originating at the photosphere, far away from coronal 3D nulls, and the occurence of magnetic nulls with a dome-shaped fan is apparently not common. Aims: We investigate the consequences of photospheric motion for the development of electric currents in a coronal magnetic field configuration containing a null, located far away from the boundaries, and the influence of topological structures on the spatial distribution of the currents. Methods: We use a 3D resistive MHD code to investigate the consequences of photospheric plasma motion for the generation of currents in a coronal magnetic field containing a null. The plasma is considered fully compressible and is initially in hydrostatic equilibrium. The initial magnetic field is potential (current free). Results: The photospheric plasma motion causes magnetic field perturbations that propagate to the corona along the field lines at the local Alfvén speed. The Alfvénic wave perturbations correspond to a propagating current directed mainly parallel to the magnetic field. Perpendicular currents connect to return currents to close the current system. The magnetic perturbations eventually reach the vicinity of the null. However, the currents forming in and around the null, near the fan surface or near the spine field lines, are not always the strongest currents developing in the simulation box. In our simulation, the strongest currents develop close to the bottom boundary, where the plasma is moved, and below the null point, in a region where field line connectivity considerably changes. Conclusions: Our simulation shows that the presence of a magnetic null point does not

  10. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  11. Development of Liposome containing sodium deoxycholate to enhance oral bioavailability of itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance oral bioavailability of itraconazole (ITZ by developing Liposome containing sodium deoxycholate (ITZ-Lip-NaDC. The liposome, consisting of egg yolk lecithin and sodium deoxycholate, was prepared by thin-film dispersion method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC results indicated an amorphous state in the liposome. The physicochemical characteristics including particle size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, dissolution properties were also investigated. The performance of single-pass intestinal infusion exhibited that the transport order of intestinal segment was jejunum, duodenum, colon and ileum, and that all the segments participated in the absorption of ITZ in intestinal tract. The bioavailability study in rats showed that the AUC0-72 of the liposome was nearly 1.67-fold higher than that of commercial capsules (SPORANOX in terms of oral administration, and the RSD of AUC0-72 of ITZ-Lip-NaDC was also decreased. Our results indicated that ITZ-Lip-NaDC liposome was facilitated to improve dissolution efficiency, augment transmembrane absorption, and then enhance the oral bioavailability of ITZ, successfully.

  12. Development of fluorous lipid-based nanobubbles for efficiently containing perfluoropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo; Mori, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hideyo; Natsugari, Hideaki; Omata, Daiki; Unga, Johan; Uruga, Hitoshi; Sugii, Mutsumi; Kawakami, Shigeru; Higuchi, Yuriko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2015-06-20

    Nano-/microbubbles are expected not only to function as ultrasound contrast agents but also as ultrasound-triggered enhancers in gene and drug delivery. Notably, nanobubbles have the ability to pass through tumor vasculature and achieve passive tumor targeting. Thus, nanobubbles would be an attractive tool for use as ultrasound-mediated cancer theranostics. However, the amounts of gas carried by nanobubbles are generally lower than those carried by microbubbles because nanobubbles have inherently smaller volumes. In order to reduce the injection volume and to increase echogenicity, it is important to develop nanobubbles with higher gas content. In this study, we prepared 5 kinds of fluoro-lipids and used these reagents as surfactants to generate "Bubble liposomes", that is, liposomes that encapsulate nanobubbles such that the lipids serve as stabilizers between the fluorous gas and water phases. Bubble liposome containing 1-stearoyl-2-(18,18-difluoro)stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine carried 2-fold higher amounts of C3F8 compared to unmodified Bubble liposome. The modified Bubble liposome also exhibited increased echogenicity by ultrasonography. These results demonstrated that the inclusion of fluoro-lipid is a promising tool for generating nanobubbles with increased efficiency of fluorous gas carrier.

  13. Development and Validation of a Discriminating In Vitro Dissolution Method for Oral Formulations Containing Satranidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ashok Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a meaningful dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility has been a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. Satranidazole (BCS Class II drug is a new nitroimidazole derivative with potent antiamoebic action. There is no official dissolution medium available in the literature. In the present study, parameters such as saturation solubility in different pH medium, dissolution behavior of formulations, influence of sink conditions, stability, and discriminatory effect of dissolution testing were studied for the selection of a proper dissolution medium. Results of solubility data revealed that solubility of Satranidazole decreases with an increase in pH. Satranidazole showed better sink condition in 0.1 N HCl as compared to other media. The drug and marketed formulations were stable in the dissolution media used. An agitation speed of 75 rpm showed a more discriminating drug release profile than 50 rpm. Using optimized dissolution parameters (paddle at 75 rpm, 900 mL 0.1 N HCl greater than 80% of the label amount is released over 60 minutes. UV-spectroscopic method used was validated for the specificity, linearity, precision, robustness, and solution stability. The method was successfully applied to granular formulations and also to marketed tablets containing 300 mg Satranidazole.

  14. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated.

  15. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  16. Thioreductase containing epitopes inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin eMalek Abrahimians

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoreactive CD4+ T cells recognizing islet-derived antigens play a primary role in type 1 diabetes. Specific suppression of such cells therefore represents a strategic target for the cure of the disease. We have developed a methodology by which CD4+ T cells acquire apoptosis-inducing properties on antigen-presenting cells after cognate recognition of natural sequence epitopes. We describe here that inclusion of a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (thioreductase motif within the flanking residues of a single MHC class II-restricted GAD65 epitope induces GAD65-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells (cCD4+ T. The latter, obtained either in vitro or by active immunization, acquire an effector memory phenotype and lyse APCs by a Fas-FasL interaction. Further, cCD4+ T cells eliminate by apoptosis activated bystander CD4+ T cells recognizing alternative epitopes processed by the same APC. Active immunization with a GAD65 class II-restricted thioreductase-containing T cell epitope protects mice from diabetes and abrogates insulitis. Passive transfer of in vitro-elicited cCD4+ T cells establishes that such cells are efficient in suppressing autoimmunity. These findings provide strong evidence for a new vaccination strategy to prevent type 1 diabetes.

  17. Scaffolds Containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass: Development, Characterization and Evaluation of In Vitro Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Daiane Angelica; Uebel, Livia Da Silva; Kuntzler, Suelen Goettems; Dora, Cristiana Lima; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers are nanomaterials that can be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate the in vitro degradation of a biomaterial consisting of nanofibers produced from biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with potential applications as a scaffold for tissue regeneration and containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass as the bioactive compound. The polymers used were poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and polycaprolactone. The polymeric solutions exhibited sufficiently high viscosity to produce uniform nanofibers with diameters between 335 and 617 nm. The applied conditions were as follows: a voltage of 25 kV, a distance from the capillary to the collector of 120 mm, a capillary diameter of 0.80 mm, and 12% polycaprolactone and a blend of 5% polycaprolactone and 10% poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The biomass was incorporated into the nanofibers at a concentration of 3%, and the incorporation was confirmed using confocal microscopy. The nanofibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which showed that the addition of biomass did not alter the thermal properties of the biomaterial. The addition of biomass improved the tensile strength and elongation of the scaffolds compared with those produced with polymers alone. A biodegradation assay showed enzymatic action toward the biomaterial, simulating the behavior of natural tissue. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the scaffolds that were produced have the potential to be applied in the field of tissue regeneration as biomaterials with pharmacological properties.

  18. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS CONTAINING NON- SEDATING ANTIHISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various formulations of Loratadine Chewable tablets containing different pharmaceutical compositions with simple manufacturing procedures were developed by using different excipients. The excipients used here are Lactose, Mannitol, Ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, Maize Starch, Citric Acid, Aspartame, Colloidal silicon dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, D & C Yellow No 10 and Raspberry flavour. Oral chewable tablets are the most preferred among the conventional dosage forms due to its aesthetic appeal and ease of administering to children, which has entered the market. Loratadine is formulated into chewable tablets by wet granulation method using suitable excipients as mentioned earlier, which are evaluated by using simple analytical equipments. The chewable tablet was better presented using artificial sweetener Aspartame and Raspberry flavour as flavouring agent. The chewable tablets are prepared to ensure that they are easily crushed by chewing. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability; drug content and mouth feel along with in-vitro dissolution. As per monograph, the chewable tablets are not required to comply with disintegration test. Wet granulation process using Mannitol, Lactose, Micro crystalline cellulose (Avicel-CE 15, Ethyl cellulose and Sweeteners and Flavors were found to be simple and robust method to prepare chewable tablets.

  19. Influence of Curing on the Strength Development of Calcium-Containing Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Jiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the curing effects on the mechanical properties of calcium-containing geopolymer mortar. Three precursors are used: Class C fly ash, Class F fly ash plus calcium hydroxide and Class F fly ash plus slag. Curing conditions included: (1 standard curing at 20 ± 3 °C and RH 95% (C; (2 steam curing at 60 °C for 24 h (S; (3 steam curing at 60 °C for 6 h (S6; and (4 oven curing at 60 °C for 24 h (O, then the latter three followed by the standard curing. Under the standard conditions, the flexural strength and compressive strength of Class C fly ash geopolymer mortars developed quickly until the age of 7 days, followed by a gradual increase. Specimens with Class F fly ash plus Ca(OH2 showed slow increase till the age of 28 days. Under these non-standard conditions (2–4, all specimens showed higher 3-day strength, while later strengths were either higher or lower than those in standard conditions, depending on the type of the precursor.

  20. Development of liquid scintillator containing a zirconium complex for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: fukuda@staff.miyakyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845 (Japan); Moriyama, Shigetaka [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, Izumi [Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    An organic liquid scintillator containing a zirconium complex has been developed for a new neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. In order to produce a detector that has good energy resolution (4% at 2.5 MeV) and low background (0.1counts/(t·year)) and that can monitor tons of target isotope, we chose a zirconium β-diketone complex having high solubility (over 10 wt%) in anisole. However, the absorption peak of the diketone ligand overlaps with the luminescence of anisole. Therefore, the light yield of the liquid scintillator decreases in proportion to the concentration of the complex. To avoid this problem, we synthesized a β-keto ester complex introducing –OC{sub 3}H{sub 7} or –OC{sub 2}H{sub 5} substituent groups in the β-diketone ligand, which shifted the absorption peak to around 245 nm, which is shorter than the emission peak of anisole (275 nm). However, the shift of the absorption peak depends on the polarity of the scintillation solvent. Therefore we must choose a low polarity solvent for the liquid scintillator. We also synthesized a Zr–ODZ complex, which has a high quantum yield (30%) and good emission wavelength (425 nm) with a solubility 5 wt% in benzonitrile. However, the absorption peak of the Zr–ODZ complex was around 240 nm. Therefore, it is better to use the scintillation solvent which has shorter luminescence wavelength than that of the aromatic solvent.

  1. Development of volatile compounds during storage at various conditions of different lipid containing lip balm products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Horn, A. F.; Hyldig, Grethe

    Many lip balms contain various lipids to care and soften the lips. However, the content of these lipids even in small amounts increases the risk of oxidation when exposed to heat, light or other conditions with a pro-oxidative effect. The progress of oxidation can be affected by several factors...... volatile compounds with off-odours. This presentation will include results from a storage experiment on four lip balms stored between 14 and 84 days, under different conditions. The samples were exposed to heat (20°C, 40°C and 50°C), light (samples at 20°C) and iron (samples at 40°C). Samples were analysed......; the degree of unsaturation, the content of antioxidants and the quality of the raw materials. When stored in the homes of consumers the lip balms may be exposed to relatively high temperatures and light. Hence, especially lip balms sold in countries with a warm climate can undergo lipid oxidation and develop...

  2. Development and characterization of in-situ gel for ophthalmic formulation containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, S B; Patel, V A; Parmar, S J

    2016-01-01

    In situ gels are systems which are applied as solutions or suspensions and are capable of undergoing rapid sol-to-gel transformation triggered by external stimulus such as temperature, pH etc. on instillation. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pH responsive in-situ gel for ophthalmic delivery. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is popularly used as a broad spectrum antibiotic in the treatment of corneal ulcers of ocular infections. However, rapid dilution on instillation, wash out, poor retention of drug concentration delimit the therapeutic benefits of the drug when used in form of conventional eye drops. Sodium alginate, an ophthalmic gel forming mucoadhesive polymer was chosen as polymer which undergoes instantaneous gel formation due to formation of calcium alginate by virtue of its interaction with divalent cation (Ca(+2)) present in lachrymal fluid. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and E5 0LV) was further incorporated as a viscosity enhancer in order to achieve the desired consistency so as to facilitate sustained drug release. The developed formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH measurement, gelling capacity, drug content, rheological study, and in vitro drug release. Thus, in situ gel based systems containing gums can be a valuable approach for ophthalmic drug delivery when compared to conventional systems.

  3. Recent Developments in Niobium Containing Austenitic Stainless Steels for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mariana Perez; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hongyao; Bao, Hansheng; Xie, Xishan

    The challenge of growing continuously in a sustainable way is the main driver to improve efficiency in the use of natural resources. The increasing demand for energy has made thermal power based countries to set audacious programs to increase efficiency of thermal power generation. In China, coal-burning accounts nowadays for approximately 65% of the total primary energy supply being responsible for around 25% of the countries' CO2 emission, this coal-based energy supply scenario is believed to continue until 2020. Therefore, the country has invested strongly in the last years in the construction of more efficient power plants. To attend higher operating temperatures and steam pressures, the application of higher performance materials is mandatory, presenting improved mechanical resistance — to stand the higher pressures applied — and having sufficient high temperature and corrosion resistance with the best cost-benefit relation possible. The present work addresses some research developments made in niobium containing austenitic stainless steels for super heaters and re-heater tubes in the past years as a joint effort between industry and academia to understand mechanisms and optimize the steel chemical composition, improving its performance. Niobium role has been studied in detail in heat resistant stainless steels TP347H, Super 304 and HR3C, a summary of such studies is presented in this paper. Niobium improves high temperature properties as it precipitates as nano-size MX and NbCrN, well dispersed in the matrix, hindering dislocation movement, increasing precipitation strengthening and creep resistance.

  4. A Lesson Plan to Develop Structured Discussion of the Benefits and Disadvantages of Selected Plastics Using the Product-Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    People use many different products made from plastics every day. But conventional plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) do not always have a good reputation in society at large. Bioplastics such as thermoplastic starch (TPS) promise to be better alternatives but are they really better than conventional plastics? This article presents a new…

  5. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  6. Business Education for Plastic Surgeons: A Systematic Review, Development, and Implementation of a Business Principles Curriculum in a Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Bahar; Burce, Karen K; Seal, Stella M; Lifchez, Scott D; Redett, Richard J; Frick, Kevin D; Dorafshar, Amir H; Cooney, Carisa M

    2017-05-01

    Rising health care costs, decreasing reimbursement rates, and changes in American health care are forcing physicians to become increasingly business-minded. Both academic and private plastic surgeons can benefit from being educated in business principles. The authors conducted a systematic review to identify existing business curricula and integrated a business principles curriculum into residency training. The authors anonymously surveyed their department regarding perceived importance of business principles and performed a systematic literature review from 1993 to 2013 using PubMed and Embase to identify residency training programs that had designed/implemented business curricula. Subsequently, the authors implemented a formal, quarterly business curriculum. Thirty-two of 36 physicians (88.9 percent; 76.6 percent response rate) stated business principles are either "pretty important" or "very important" to being a doctor. Only 36 percent of faculty and 41 percent of trainees had previous business instruction. The authors identified 434 articles in the systematic review: 29 documented formal business curricula. Twelve topics were addressed, with practice management/administration (n = 22) and systems-based practice (n = 6) being the most common. Four articles were from surgical specialties: otolaryngology (n = 1), general surgery (n = 2), and combined general surgery/plastic surgery (n = 1). Teaching formats included lectures and self-directed learning modules; outcomes and participant satisfaction were reported inconsistently. From August of 2013 to June of 2015, the authors held eight business principles sessions. Postsession surveys demonstrated moderately to extremely satisfied responses in 75 percent or more of resident/fellow respondents (n = 13; response rate, 48.1 percent) and faculty (n = 9; response rate, 45.0 percent). Business principles can be integrated into residency training programs. Having speakers familiar with the physician audience and a

  7. 聚酚醚模塑料的研制%Development and Preparation of Poly Phenol Ether Molding Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 李谦; 张志平; 胡卫东

    2012-01-01

    With poly phenol ether resin as matrix resin, hexamethylenetetramine as cross-linking agent, by adding high temperature binder, quartz powder, glass fiber as filler, blending under certain conditions, poly phenol ether plastics were prepared. The effects of different content of cross-linking agents, high temperature binder on the mechanical properties and high temperature resistance of poly phenol ether molding plastic were studied. Results showed that the properties of the prepared poly phenol ether resin were the best when the amount of hexamethylenetetramine was 4% ~ 12% as that of poly phenol ether, the mass fraction of the filler was 60%~75% , and the mass fraction of high temperature binder was 15%~20%.%以聚酚醚树脂为基体树脂、六次甲基四胺为交联剂,再添加高温黏结剂、石英粉、玻纤等填料,在一定的工艺条件下共混,制得聚酚醚模塑料.研究了不同含量的交联剂、高温黏结剂等成分对聚酚醚模塑料力学性能和耐高温性能的影响.结果表明,六次甲基四胺的用量控制在聚酚醚树脂质量的4%~12%之间,填料的质量分数为60%~75%,其中高温黏结剂的质量分数为15%~20%,所制备的聚酚醚模塑料的各项性能较佳.

  8. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials suggest that providing grape seed and perhaps other CTs via drinking water may be a practical way to introduce CTs into sheep and cattle diets.

  9. Development of Nanofiber Sponges-Containing Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binbin; Zhou, Zifei; Wu, Tong; Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Hao; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei; Yu, Yinxian

    2017-08-16

    In the study of hollow nerve guidance conduit (NGC), the dispersion of regenerated axons always confused researchers. To address this problem, filler-containing NGC was prepared, which showed better effect in the application of nerve tissue engineering. In this study, nanofiber sponges with abundant macropores, high porosity, and superior compressive strength were fabricated by electrospinning and freeze-drying. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin (PLCL/SF) nanofiber sponges were used as filler to prepare three-dimensional nanofiber sponges-containing (NS-containing) NGC. In order to study the effect of fillers for nerve regeneration, hollow NGC was set as control. In vitro cell viability studies indicated that the NS-containing NGC could enhance the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) due to the macroporous structure. The results of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunofluorescence staining confirmed that SCs infiltrated into the nanofiber sponges. Subsequently, the NS-containing NGC was implanted in a rat sciatic nerve defect model to evaluate the effect in vivo. NS-containing NGC group performed better in nerve function recovery than hollow NGC group. In consideration of the walking track and triceps weight analysis, NS-containing NGC was close to the autograft group. In addition, histological and morphological analyses with HE and toluidine blue (TB) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were conducted. Better nerve regeneration was observed on NS-containing NGC group both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, the results of three indexes' immuno-histochemistry and two indexes' immunofluorescence all indicated good nerve regeneration of NS-containing NGC as well, compared with hollow NGC. The results demonstrated NS-containing NGC had great potential in the application of peripheral nerve repair.

  10. Development of a constitutive model for the plastic deformation and creep of copper and its use in the estimate of the creep life of the copper canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Kjell [Matsafe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A previously developed model for the plastic deformation and creep of copper (included as an Appendix to the present report) has been used as the basis for a discussion on the possibility of brittle creep fracture of the copper canister during long term storage of nuclear waste. Reported creep tests on oxygen free (OF) copper have demonstrated that copper can have an extremely low creep ductility. However with the addition of about 50 ppm phosphorus to the copper it appears as if the creep brittleness problem is avoided and that type of copper (OFP) has consequently been chosen as the canister material. It is shown in the report that the experiments performed on OFP copper does not exclude the possibility of creep brittleness of OFP copper in the very long term. The plasticity and creep model has been used to estimate creep life under conditions of intergranular creep cracking according to a model formulated by Cocks and Ashby. The estimated life times widely exceed the design life of the canister. However the observations of creep brittleness in OF copper indicate that the Cocks-Ashby model probably does not apply to the OF copper. Thus additional calculations have been done with the plasticity and creep model in order to estimate stress as a function of time for the probably most severe loading case of the canister with regard to creep failure, an earth quake shear. Despite the fact that the stress in the canister will remain at the 100 MPa level for thousands of years after an earth quake the low temperature, about 50 deg C or less, will make the solid state diffusion process assumed to control the brittle cracking process, too slow to lead to any significant brittle creep cracking in the canister.

  11. Rate and time to develop first central line-associated bloodstream infections when comparing open and closed infusion containers in a Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Vilins

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from an open (glass or semi-rigid plastic infusion container to a closed, fully collapsible plastic infusion container (Viaflex® on rate and time to onset of central lineassociated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. An open-label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in three intensive care units in Brazil. The CLABSI rate using open infusion containers was compared to the rate using a closed infusion container. Probability of acquiring CLABSI was assessed over time and compared between open and closed infusion container periods; three-day intervals were examined. A total of 1125 adult ICU patients were enrolled. CLABSI rate was significantly higher during the open compared with the closed infusion container period (6.5 versus 3.2 CLABSI/1000 CL days; RR=0.49, 95%CI=0.26- 0.95, p=0.031. During the closed infusion container period, the probability of acquiring a CLABSI remained relatively constant along the time of central line use (0.8% Days 2-4 to 0.7% Days 11-13 but increased in the open infusion container period (1.5% Days 2-4 to 2.3% Days 11-13. Combined across all time intervals, the chance of a patient acquiring a CLABSI was significantly lower (55% in the closed infusion container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.45, p= 0.019. CLABSIs can be reduced with the use of full barrier precautions, education, and performance feedback. Our results show that switching from an open to a closed infusion container may further reduce CLABSI rate as well as delay the onset of CLABSIs. Closed infusion containers significantly reduced CLABSI rate and the probability of acquiring CLABSI.

  12. Rate and time to develop first central line-associated bloodstream infections when comparing open and closed infusion containers in a Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Vilins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from an open (glass or semi-rigid plastic infusion container to a closed, fully collapsible plastic infusion container (Viaflex® on rate and time to onset of central lineassociated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. An open-label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in three intensive care units in Brazil. The CLABSI rate using open infusion containers was compared to the rate using a closed infusion container. Probability of acquiring CLABSI was assessed over time and compared between open and closed infusion container periods; three-day intervals were examined. A total of 1125 adult ICU patients were enrolled. CLABSI rate was significantly higher during the open compared with the closed infusion container period (6.5 versus 3.2 CLABSI/1000 CL days; RR=0.49, 95%CI=0.26- 0.95, p=0.031. During the closed infusion container period, the probability of acquiring a CLABSI remained relatively constant along the time of central line use (0.8% Days 2-4 to 0.7% Days 11-13 but increased in the open infusion container period (1.5% Days 2-4 to 2.3% Days 11-13. Combined across all time intervals, the chance of a patient acquiring a CLABSI was significantly lower (55% in the closed infusion container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.45, p= 0.019. CLABSIs can be reduced with the use of full barrier precautions, education, and performance feedback. Our results show that switching from an open to a closed infusion container may further reduce CLABSI rate as well as delay the onset of CLABSIs. Closed infusion containers significantly reduced CLABSI rate and the probability of acquiring CLABSI.

  13. Determining the bio-based content of bio-plastics used in Thailand by radiocarbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploykrathok, T.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-06-01

    Presently, there is an increased interest in the development of bio-plastic products from agricultural materials which are biodegradable in order to reduce the problem of waste disposal. Since the amount of modern carbon in bio-plastics can indicate how much the amount of agricultural materials are contained in the bio-plastic products, this research aims to determine the modern carbon in bio-plastic using the carbon dioxide absorption method. The radioactivity of carbon-14 contained in the sample is measured by liquid scintillation counter (Tri-carb 3110 TR, PerkinElmer). The percentages of bio-based content in the samples were determined by comparing the observed modern carbon content with the values contained in agricultural raw materials. The experimental results show that only poly(lactic acid) samples have the modern carbon content of 97.4%, which is close to the agricultural materials while other bio-plastics types are found to have less than 50% of the modern carbon content. In other words, most of these bio-plastic samples were mixed with other materials which are not agriculturally originated.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity and diversity in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Moczek, Armin P.

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in general and polyphenic development in particular are thought to play important roles in organismal diversification and evolutionary innovation. Focusing on the evolutionary developmental biology of insects, and specifically that of horned beetles, I explore the avenues by which phenotypic plasticity and polyphenic development have mediated the origins of novelty and diversity. Specifically, I argue that phenotypic plasticity generates novel targets for evolutionary pr...

  15. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web.

  16. 加强筋地膜加工装置的设计与试验%Development of Reinforced Plastic Processing Device to Strengthen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建云; 王旭峰; 胡灿; 孟祥营; 陈超

    2014-01-01

    为了防治地膜受风沙作用破损及提高残膜回收率,研制成功一种加强筋塑料地膜和加工机械。为了提高效率,降低成本,设计了一种加强筋地膜加工装置,与现有棉花覆膜播种机配套使用。同时,对该装置和加强筋地膜加工机械进行加工试验对比分析,结果表明,该装置结构简单、便于维修,有效提高了加强筋加工效率,降低了成本,并能正常进行棉花覆膜播种,且残膜回收率高,达到95.3%。经过棉花种植成本计算分析,加强筋地膜有很好的经济效益,可以大面积推广。%For prevention and control of mulch sand damage and residual film recovery ,our previous successfully devel-oped a kind of reinforced plastic film and processing machinery ,in order to improve efficiency ,reduce cost , this paper de-signed a kind of reinforced plastic processing equipment ,with the existing cotton coated machine supporting the use .And on the device and reinforced plastic processing machinery processing experiment was carried out comparative analysis , the results show that the device has simple structure ,easy maintenance ,effective reinforcement processing efficiency ,reduces the cost, at the same time,it can be carried out as normal and cotton coated seed .After membrane recycling residue test , residual film recovery rate is high ,at 95.3%, after cotton cultivation cost calculation and analysis ,reinforced plastic has good economic benefit ,can large area promotion .

  17. Interaction between vegetable oil based plasticizer molecules and polyvinyl chloride, and their plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Triwulandari, Evi; Jiang, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Plasticizer molecules are low molecular weight compounds that are widely used in polymer industries especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. As an additive in PVC resin, the important role of plasticizer molecules is to improve the flexibility and processability of PVC by lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg). However, the commercial plasticizer like di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known to cause liver cancer, at least in laboratory rats. DEHP can leach out from PVC into blood, certain drug solutions and fatty foods, which has been detected in the bloodstream of patients undergoing transfusion. Vegetable oil based plasticizers have some attractive properties such as non-toxic, bio-degradable, good heat and light stability, renewable resources, and environmentally friendly. Here we discussed the main results and development of vegetable oil based plasticizer, and especially palm oil based plasticizer. The interaction between plasticizer and polymer was discussed from the properties of the plasticized polymeric material.

  18. The Future of Plastic Surgery: Surgeon's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin; Zor, Fatih

    2015-11-01

    Since the days of Sushruta, innovation has shaped the history of plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons have always been known as innovators or close followers of innovations. With this descriptive international survey study, the authors aimed to evaluate the future of plastic surgeons by analyzing how plastic surgery and plastic surgeons will be affected by new trends in medicine. Aesthetic surgery is the main subclass of plastic surgery thought to be the one that will change the most in the future. Stem cell therapy is considered by plastic surgeons to be the most likely "game changer." Along with changes in surgery, plastic surgeons also expect changes in plastic surgery education. The most approved assumption for the future of plastic surgery is, "The number of cosmetic nonsurgical procedures will increase in the future." If surgeons want to have better outcomes in their practice, they must at least be open minded for innovations if they do not become innovators themselves. Besides the individual effort of each surgeon, international and local plastic surgery associations should develop new strategies to adopt these innovations in surgical practice and education.

  19. A development and biological safety evaluation of novel PVC medical devices with surface structures modified by UV irradiation to suppress plasticizer migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Isama, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Chie; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the chemical, physicochemical, and biological properties of PVC sheets treated with UV irradiation on their surfaces to suppress the elution of a plasticizer, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), for developing novel polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices. The PVC sheets irradiated under conditions 1 (52.5 μW/cm(2), 136 J/cm(2)) and 2 (0.45 mW/cm(2), 972 J/cm(2)) exhibited considerable toxicity in cytotoxicity tests and chromosome aberration tests due to the generation of DEHP oxidants, but no toxicity was detected in the PVC sheet irradiated under condition 3 (8.3 mW/cm(2), 134 J/cm(2)). The release of DEHP from the surface irradiated under condition 3 was significantly suppressed, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) converted from a portion of DEHP could be easily removed from the surface by washing with methanol. The physicochemical properties of the surface regarding the suppression of DEHP elution remained stable through all sterilizations tested, but MEHP elution was partially recrudesced by the sterilizations except for gamma irradiation. These results indicated that UV irradiation using a strong UV-source over a short time (condition 3) followed by methanol washing and gamma sterilization may be useful for preparing novel PVC products that did not elute plasticizers and do not exhibit toxicity originating from UV irradiation.

  20. 木塑复合材料托盘的研究%Study on Development Prospect of the Wood-Plastic-Composite Pallet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 肖生苓

    2011-01-01

    在对目前国内外托盘材料和产品研究技术综述的基础上,比较木塑复合材料托盘与实木托盘、塑料托盘及钢制托盘的使用性能及特点,论述木塑复合材料托盘的研制工艺和技术难点并指出,以废弃塑料作为基体材料,以木质剩余物纤维作为增强材料,利用挤出方法制作的新型复合材料托盘将成为托盘家族的主力军.%The paper compares the performance and characteristics of the wood-plastic- composite pallet with that of the solid wood, plastic and steel pallets, introduces the processes and technological difficulties in the development of such pallet and points out that this innovated composite material pallet will be the future's most popular type.

  1. Research cooperation project on the development of easy injection molding control technology for engineering plastics; Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to enhance the industries which supply assembly parts to Japan`s assembly industries in Thailand, research cooperation project on the plastic parts production technology has started. For the research cooperation, the mold design is effectively conducted using simulation technique of CAE (computer aided engineering), and an international easy injection molding control system is made using the molding support software for injection molding machines. In FY 1996, actual situations of plastic parts and assembly industries in Thailand have been investigated through the cooperation with the counterpart of Thailand. Demand and supply of engineering plastics, receive and inspection of parts, and current circumstances of molding processing makers in Thailand have been grasped. Based on the results of this investigation, proposal of basic plan, time schedule, and delivery plan of molding machines and testing equipment have been discussed, to make the basic plan. 18 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Formulation development of sunscreen lotion containing jackfruit starch and the lotion acceptance evaluation in volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitropas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, a 23 full factorial design was used for optimization of the sunscreen lotions containing mucilage from jackfruit (JK, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC and Carbopol 940 as the thickening agents. The optimized sunscreen lotion containing JK, control and benchmark product were tested for acceptance by 44 volunteers using randomized controlled study. To optimize the formulation, the changes of physical properties before and after freeze-thaw cycling of sunscreen lotion, which were pH, conductivity, viscosity as well as stability of emulsions, were investigated. It was found that any formulation containing SCMC was unstable. After undergoing 6 freeze-thaw cycles, pH and conductivity of all formulations had changed but with no significant difference. In addition, the viscosity of all formulations increased after 6 cycles. The formulation containing low and high levels of JK as well as containing JK in combination with Carbopol 940 showed a good signs of emulsion stability. In conclusion, the formulation containing high levels of JK in combination with Carbopol 940 exhibited the greatest physical stability of lotion. Using JK alone in formula gave a stable physical properties and good texture but the viscosity of the lotion was practically low. As a result, in order to obtain the stable lotion and high viscosity, it is important to use in combination with other viscosity-inducing agents. When the lotion containing JK alone was tested for acceptance in volunteers, it was found that the JK lotion texture and odor needed to be improved. However, its penetration, stickiness and moisturizing properties, as well as its feeling after use, were acceptable more or less the same as the benchmark product.

  3. Simulation of the drop impact test for moulded thermoplastic containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, P.E.; Breedveld, G.; Lim, B.C.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is made of the drop impact test for moulded plastics containers, as a first step towards the simulation of the impact event for design and development purposes. Experimental data are analysed from instrumented base drop impact testing of water-filled blow-moulded bottles, 20 and 210 l dr

  4. The Effects of Feeding Pollen Cake Containing Royal Jelly on Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colony Development

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Fehmi; GÖSTERİT, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding pollen cake containing honeybee royal jelly on Bombus terrestris colony development. In total, 125 bumblebee queens, 68 of which were fed pollen cake containing 10% royal jelly and 57 of which were fed normal pollen cake, were used. We found that 84% of the queens fed pollen cake containing royal jelly and 82% of those fed normal pollen cake laid eggs; 56% of the queens fed normal pollen cake established colonies, whereas queens fed...

  5. Developing scandium and zirconium containing aluminum boron carbide metal matrix composites for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jing

    The study presented in this thesis focuses on developing castable, precipitation-strengthened Al--B4C metal matrix composites (MMCs) for high temperature applications. In the first part, B4C plates were immersed in liquid aluminum alloyed with Sc, Zr and Ti to investigate the interfacial reactions between B4C and liquid aluminum The influences of Sc, Zr and Ti on the interfacial microstructure in terms of individual and combined additions were examined. Results reveal that all three elements reacted with B4C and formed interfacial layers that acted as a diffusion barrier to limit the decomposition of B4C in liquid aluminum. The interfacial reactions and the reaction products in each system were identified. With the combined addition of Sc, Zr and Ti, most of the Ti was found to enrich at the interface, which not only offered appropriate protection of the B4C but also reduced the consumption of Sc and Zr at the interface. In the second part, Sc and Zr were introduced into Al-15vol.% B 4C composites presaturated by Ti, and eight experimental composites with different Sc and Zr levels were prepared via a conventional casting technique. It was found that Sc was involved in the interfacial reactions with B 4C that partially consume Sc. The Sc addition yielded considerable precipitation strengthening in the as-cast and peak aged conditions. To achieve an equivalent strengthening effect of Sc in binary Al-Sc alloys, approximately double the amount of Sc is required in Al-B4C composites. On the contrary, no major Zr reaction products were found at the interfaces and the major part of Zr remained in the matrix for the precipitation strengthening. The combination of Sc and Zr enhanced sthe precipitation strengthening. Two kinds of nanoscale precipitates, Al3Sc and Al3(Sc, Zr), were found in the as-cast microstructure and contributed to the increase in the matrix hardness. In the third part, all the experimental composites were isothermally aged at 300, 350, 400 and 450

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium field. Second year report. Development of the technology to combine plastic and metal using biodegradable natural polymer; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium bun'ya. Seibunkaisei tennen plastic to kinzoku no fukugoka gijutsu no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the electromagnetic wave shielding technology composed of plastic body, chitosan containing biodegradable coating and electroless metal plating layer. Key technologies are for formation of biodegradable electroless plating use coating using chitosan as chemical adsorption carrier of Pd and for separation of the body and the metal thin film by the environment-harmony method for recovery of the material. Studies were made in the following 5 fields: 1) method to produce low molecular chitin and chitosan; 2) application of biodegradable materials to electromagnetic wave shielding; 3) evaluation of physical properties and function of a new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 4) R and D of the degradation method of the new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, in 1), conditions for production of chitosan degrading enzymes were determined, and also the scale of bio-reactor was increased up to 20L. Further, chitosan was so re-synthesized that it disperses to the electroless plating use primer. (NEDO)

  7. Development and validation of THM coupling model of methane-containing coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Yunqi; Xu; Jiang; Liu; Dong; Liang; Yongqing

    2012-01-01

    Based on nine necessary basic assumptions for THM coupling model,this research comprehensively applied the theories of elastic mechanics,seepage mechanics and heat transfer,and established a real three-field and two-way coupled mathematical model to reveal the connections among seepage field,deformation field and temperature field within the system of methane-containing coal.In comparison between numerical and analytical solutions,the coupling modeling for THM of methane-containing coal was proved to be correct by model application in the physical simulation experiment of coal and gas outburst.The model established in this paper was the improvement of traditional seepage theory of methane-containing coal and fluid-solid coupled model theory,which can be widely used in prevention of coal and gas outburst as well as exploitation of coal bed methane.

  8. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18degrees C to 22degrees C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  9. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18° C to 22° C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  10. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab; Rykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; /NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-11-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here.

  11. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  12. Increased phenotypic plasticity to climate may have boosted the invasion success of polyploid Centaurea stoebe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Min A; van Kleunen, Mark; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with altered environmental conditions as e.g. after the introduction into a new range. In particular polyploid organisms, containing more than two sets of chromosomes, may show high levels of plasticity, which could in turn increase their environmental tolerance and invasiveness. Here, we studied the role of phenotypic plasticity in the invasion of Centaurea stoebe (Asteraceae), which in the native range in Europe occurs as diploids and tetraploids, whereas in the introduced range in North America so far only tetraploids have been found. In a common garden experiment at two sites in the native range, we grew half-sibs of the three geo-cytotypes (native European diploids, European tetraploids and invasive North American tetraploids) from a representative sample of 27 populations. We measured the level and the adaptive significance of phenotypic plasticity in eco-physiological and life-history traits in response to the contrasting climatic conditions at the two study sites as well as three different soil conditions in pots, simulating the most crucial abiotic differences between the native and introduced range. European tetraploids showed increased levels of phenotypic plasticity as compared to diploids in response to the different climatic conditions in traits associated with rapid growth and fast phenological development. Moreover, we found evidence for adaptive plasticity in these traits, which suggests that increased plasticity may have contributed to the invasion success of tetraploid C. stoebe by providing an advantage under the novel climatic conditions. However, in invasive tetraploids phenotypic plasticity was similar to that of native tetraploids, indicating no evolution of increased plasticity during invasions. Our findings provide the first empirical support for increased phenotypic plasticity associated with polyploids, which may contribute to their success as invasive species in novel environments.

  13. Final LDRD report : advanced plastic scintillators for neutron detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; O' Bryan, Greg; Mrowka, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year, feasibility-scale LDRD project that was conducted with the goal of developing new plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for neutron detection. Copolymers composed of matrix materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and blocks containing trans-stilbene (tSB) as the scintillator component were prepared and tested for gamma/neutron response. Block copolymer synthesis utilizing tSBMA proved unsuccessful so random copolymers containing up to 30% tSB were prepared. These copolymers were found to function as scintillators upon exposure to gamma radiation; however, they did not exhibit PSD when exposed to a neutron source. This project, while falling short of its ultimate goal, demonstrated the possible utility of single-component, undoped plastics as scintillators for applications that do not require PSD.

  14. Developing the Reconfiguration Method to Increase Life Expectancy of Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network in Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays control and management logistics solutions that are used in terminals apply sensor based technologies to identify and localize containers in the yard. Nevertheless, because of the limits in the existing sensor technical specification, the position of nodes is still affected by some errors or sometimes it cannot be determined in real-time systems due to battery fall.

  15. Weather-Based forecasting of Rhizoctonia web blight development on container-grown azalea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides are the only approach currently used to control Rhizoctonia web blight on container-grown azalea. The most reliable criterion for timing fungicides has been a fixed calendar date with adjustment for year-to-year differences in disease progression made by monitoring early-season increase o...

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF OCULAR INSERT CONTAINING ERYTHROMYCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaul Shweta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocular drug delivery is one of the most fascinating and challenging tasks being faced by the Pharmaceutical researchers. The challenges to the formulator are to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage, maintain a therapeutic level at the site of action for prolonged period of time. The eye drop dosage form is easy to instill but suffers the drawback of getting the medication immediately diluted in the tear film as soon it is instilled into the cul-de-sac and is rapidly drained away, therefore, only a very small fraction of the instilled dose is absorbed into the target tissues. The frequent periodic instillation of eye drops becomes necessary to maintain a continuous sustained level of medication, which may lead to systemic side effects. Frequent dosing of large doses of drug becomes necessary to achieve the therapeutic objective which often results in corresponding increase in local and systemic side effects. So research on Novel ophthalmic drug delivery systems is in progress to overcome all these disadvantages of conventional ophthalmic dosage forms. In the present study, efforts were made for designing and evaluating Erythromycin ocular inserts. Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic is highly useful for the treatment of trachoma, conjunctivitis and keratitis. Erythromycin suffered the disadvantage of instillation as it is available as 0.5% w/w ointment to be placed in eye 6 times a day and hence maximized patient non compliance, leading to ineffective therapy. Various batches of Erythromycin ocular inserts were prepared by solvent casting method using HPMC- K4M, PVP K30 and MC as polymers and PEG-400 as plasticizer. The formulated ocuserts were then evaluated for their average weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, swelling index, drug content, in-vitro drug release.

  17. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  18. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  19. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  20. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process. PMID:25419675