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Sample records for plastic containers developed

  1. Development of rubidium and niobium containing plastic foams. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botham, R.A.; McClung, C.E.; Schwendeman, J.I.

    1978-01-01

    Rubidium fluoride and niobium metal-containing foam samples (rods and sheets) were prepared using two foam sytems: (1) hydrophilic polyurethanes prepared from W.R. Grace Co.'s Hypol prepolymers and (2) polyimides prepared from Monsanto Company's Skybond polyimide resin. The first system was used only for preparation of rubidium fluoride-containing foams while the second was used for both rubidium fluoride and niobium-containing foams. The niobium metal could readily be incorporated into the polyimide foam during molding, to produce foam sheets of the required dimensions and density. The rubidium fluoride-containing polyimide foams were preferably prepared by first rendering the molded polyimide foam hydrophilic with a postcuring treatment, then absorbing the rubidium fluoride from water solution. Similarly, rubidium fluoride was absorbed into the hydrophilic polyurethanes from water solution. Since the high reactive rubidium metal could not be employed, rubidium fluoride, which is very hygroscopic, was used instead, primarily because of its high rubidium content (approximately 82 weight percent). This was important in view of the low total densities and the high weight percentage rubidium required in the foam samples. In addition, at the later request of LLL, a block of rigid Hypol hydrophilic polyurethane foam (with a density of approximately 0.04 g/cm 3 and cell sizes = or <0.2 mm) was prepared without any metal or metal compounds in it. Two shipments of foam samples, which met or closely approximated the project specifications, were submitted to LLL during the course of this project. Information on these samples is contained in Table 1. A complete description of their preparation is given in the Experimental Results and Discussion Section

  2. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija Đ

    2015-01-01

    Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  4. Development of a composite polyethylene--fiberglass-reinforced-plastic high-integrity container for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenberg, H.; Shaw, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a program to develop a high-integrity container (HIC) for handling, transportation, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The HIC, made of a composite material, consists of an inner layer of polyethylene bonded to an outer casing of fiberglass-reinforced plastic. Preliminary handmade prototype units containing about 0.22 m 3 , called HIC-7, have been fabricated and exposed to some of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state tests. The HICs withstood over twice the external pressure from maximum burial conditions and twice the Type A package internal pressure requirements. In addition, freedrops on compacted soil and an unyielding surface showed no deleterious effects

  5. Neuromodulation, development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehring, R C; Lorenzon, N M

    1999-03-01

    We discuss parallels in the mechanisms underlying use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neocortical synapses. Neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine have also been implicated in regulating both developmental plasticity and LTP/LTD. There are many potential levels of interaction between neuromodulators and plasticity. Ion channels are substrates for modulation in many cell types. We discuss examples of modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and the consequences for neocortical pyramidal cell firing behaviour. At the time when developmental plasticity is most evident in rat cortex, the substrate for modulation is changing as the densities and relative proportions of various ion channels types are altered during ontogeny. We discuss examples of changes in K+ and Ca2+ channels and the consequence for modulation of neuronal activity.

  6. Stability and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mixture Containing Waste Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kader Siti Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC for every percentage added of waste plastics in asphalt mixtures and to investigate the stability properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic. Marshall stability and flow values along with density, air voids in total mix, voids in mineral aggregate, and voids filled with bitumen were determined to obtain OBC at different percentages of waste plastic, i.e., 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen as additive. Results showed that the OBC for the plastic-modified asphalt mixtures at 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% are 4.98, 5.44, 5.48, and 5.14, respectively. On the other hand, the controlled specimen’s shows better volumetric properties compared to plastic mixes. However, 4% additional of waste plastic indicated better stability than controlled specimen.

  7. Device for treating plastic counting vials containing radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidhart, B.; Brindoepke, H.W.; Flocke, W.; Kringe, K.P.; Lippmann, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment consists of separating the radioactive contents of the counting vial from its plastic components. The apparatus consists of a device for continuously supplying the counting vials to be treated, a means for crushing the vials into chips of plastic and a facility by means of which the radioactive contents of the counting vial and the separated plastic chips are collected separately from one another. A stirring assembly with a motor-driven stirrer and an alignment device are also provided. The radioactive substances pass through a sieve while the plastic chips slide down the sieve chute and into another container. All the metal parts of the facility are of stainless steel. The plastic chips collected in the sieve holder are washed and, after drying, are removed as negligibly radioactive solids. The weakly radioactive wash liquid is separated and collected. (orig./PW)

  8. Reclosure Efficiency of Plastic Container Used for Multidose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the suitability of packaging aspirin tablets in one thousand tablet packs that require reclosure after dispensing each dose. The reclosure efficiency of the push-fit type closure of a plastic container in preventing moisture entry was determined and compared to a control container. Aspirin ...

  9. Strength analyses of containment steel liner at the plasticity instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyashchitskij, V.I.; Golyakov, V.I.; Kostylev, V.I.; Margolin, B.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The steel liner of NPP containment plays the important role of a leak-tight contour preventing the possible releases of radioactive substances beyond the boundaries of the reactor building. However, so far in many cases an assessment of strain-stress state of the liner having initial imperfections of the shape was made with approximate methods. A new methodology for the analysis of the liner at the plasticity instability was developed at Atomenergoproekt institute in cooperation with specialists from other agencies. The methodology is based on code 'Termit'. Assessment of the critical strain was made taking into account possible presence of one or two defects: construction undercut or crack-like defect in a weld. On the base of the real structure analyses under any combinations of quasi-static loads the algorithm was developed for the computation of the liner. (author)

  10. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on or...

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana

    2011-08-01

    Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.

  13. Analysis of phthalate migration to food simulants in plastic containers during microwave operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany A; André, Leiliane C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2013-12-30

    Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  14. Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriany A. Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  16. Development of a Plastic Recycling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Daniyan,

    2017-01-01

    Plastics are not degradable materials, therefore improper disposal after use constitute environmental problem. The developed plastic recycler was fabricated using 1.5 mm mild metal sheet punched and rolled into cylindrical form. The outer peeling drum was punched inward and fixed to the machine frame while the inner peeling drum was punched outward. The inner drum was constructed using 1.5 mm galvanized metal sheet while the die was constructed using carbon steel. It has an outer diameter of ...

  17. Neural plasticity of development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Adriana

    2010-06-01

    Development and learning are powerful agents of change across the lifespan that induce robust structural and functional plasticity in neural systems. An unresolved question in developmental cognitive neuroscience is whether development and learning share the same neural mechanisms associated with experience-related neural plasticity. In this article, I outline the conceptual and practical challenges of this question, review insights gleaned from adult studies, and describe recent strides toward examining this topic across development using neuroimaging methods. I suggest that development and learning are not two completely separate constructs and instead, that they exist on a continuum. While progressive and regressive changes are central to both, the behavioral consequences associated with these changes are closely tied to the existing neural architecture of maturity of the system. Eventually, a deeper, more mechanistic understanding of neural plasticity will shed light on behavioral changes across development and, more broadly, about the underlying neural basis of cognition. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Experimental analysis of plastic materials containing radionuclides for decontamination viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Nakano, Mikio; Takehara, Teruaki; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March, 2011, the high radioactive dosage was found in polluted water for agriculture use at Baba, Haramachi, Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Field experiment for decontamination of water had been studied by using commercial plastic materials. The agricultural water comes from Tetsuzan dam is full of radioactive-contaminated water. Experimental analysis showed that the plastic materials can take up radioactive elements for several months soaked in the polluted agricultural water. The quantitative analyses using X-ray fluorescence analysis, Ge semiconductor and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), revealed the detection of the radionuclides on the plastic materials with diatom and clays. The results suggest the adsorption of radionuclides on the surface of plastic materials due to FDNPP accident. The plastic materials associated with clays and diatoms could be stronger carriers of radionuclides in the polluted water. Adherence of diatoms to the plastic fiber in the water for 7 months suggested that some plastic materials were taking up heavy metals (Zn, Ba, Pb, Sb) with radioactive elements (Cs etc.). Mechanisms by which radioactive pollutants and microorganisms are adsorbed onto and desorbed from clays at aqueous interface can be understood by combining chemical analysis with electron microscopy observation. (author)

  19. Elastic-plastic behaviour of thick-walled containers considering plastic compressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, J.; Frosch, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the elastic-plastic behaviour of thick-walled pressure vessels with internal and external pressure is studied. To describe the mechanical behaviour of isotropic, plastic compressible materials we use a plastic potential which is a single-valued function of the principle stresses. For cylinders and spheres an analytic expression for the computation of stresses and residual stresses is specified. Afterwards the strains are calculated by using the finite difference method. Some examples will high-light the influence of the plastic compressibility on the behaviour of pressure vessels. (orig.) [de

  20. Association between Phthalate Exposure and the Use of Plastic Containers in Shanghai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui Hua; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Mei Ru; Chen, Jing Si; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang; Chen, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Consuming phthalates may be due to the presence of food contact materials, such as plastic containers. In this study, we investigated the association between plastic container use and phthalate exposure in 2,140 Shanghai adults. Participants completed a questionnaire on the frequency of using plastic containers in different scenarios in the previous year (e.g., daily, weekly) and on the consumption of plastic-packaged foods in the previous three days (yes or no). Urinary phthalate metabolites were used to assess the association between phthalate exposure and the use of plastic containers. The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most frequently detected in urine. The results revealed that phthalate exposure was associated with consumption of plastic-packaged breakfast or processed food items in the previous three days. The consumption of these two food items had strong synergistic effects on increasing urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites. Our results of plastic-packaged breakfast and processed food may be explained by the use of flexible plastic containers, indicating the importance of risk assessment for the application of flexible plastic containers. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of solute-binding properties of plastic materials used as pharmaceutical product containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Couch, Tom; Gillum, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Material/water equilibrium binding constants (E(b)) were determined for 11 organic solutes and 2 plastic materials commonly used in pharmaceutical product containers (plasticized polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin). In general, solute binding by the plasticized polyvinyl chloride material was greater, by nearly an order of magnitude, than the binding by the polyolefin (on an equal weight basis). The utilization of the binding constants to facilitate container compatibility assessments (e.g., drug loss by container binding) for drug-containing products is discussed.

  2. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Development of in-situ radon sensor using plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitashima, Kiminori

    2009-01-01

    Underwater in-situ radon measurement is important scientific priority for oceanography, especially for survey and monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge (SDG). The high sensitivity and lightweight underwater in-situ radon sensor using NaI(Tl) doped plastic scintillator was developed for application to SDG research. Because NaI(Tl) doped plastic scintillator contacts seawater directly, the plastic scintillator can expect high sensitivity in comparison with NaI(Tl) crystal sealed in a container. In order to improve condensation efficiency of scintillation, the plastic scintillator was processed in funnel form and coated by light-resistant paint. This sensor consists of plastic scintillator, photomultiplier tube, preamplifier unit, high-voltage power supply, data logger and lithium-ion battery, and all parts are stored in a pressure housing (200φx300L). The newly developed underwater in-situ radon sensor was tested at hydrothermal area (underwater hot springs) that the hydrothermal fluid containing high concentration of radon is discharged into seawater. The sensor was operated by a diver, and sensitivity tests and mapping survey for estimation of radon diffusion were carried out. The signals of the radon sensor ranged from 20 to 65 mV, and these signals corresponded with radon concentration of 2 to 12 becquerels per liter. The sensor was able to detect radon to 20 m above the hydrothermal point (seafloor). Since the sensor is small and light-weight, measurement, monitoring and mapping can perform automatically by installing the sensor to an AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). Furthermore, underwater in-situ radon sensor is expected an application to earthquake prediction and volcanic activity monitoring as well as oceanography and hydrology. (author)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of simultaneous recovery of chlorine contained in waste plastics and alkali contained in waste glass bottles; 2000 nendo shinki recycle seihin nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hai plastic gan'yu enso to hai glass bin gan'yu alkali no doji kaishu ni kakawaru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on a technology to have alkali contained in waste glass bottles reacted with chlorine contained in waste plastics to separate and remove salt, and reuse the residues as a resource for cement raw material. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research, glass powder pulverized to 5 to 10 {mu} m, calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and alumina were used to prepare raw material for the ordinary Portland cement. Vinyl chloride pulverized to 3 mm was added into this cement raw material so that chlorine-alkali equivalent ration will be 1.0, and the material was sintered in a rotary kiln at 800 to 1,400 degrees C. As a result, it was discovered that salt is produced from the alkali in glass and the chlorine in vinyl chloride, whereas the produced salt volatilizes when heated to 1,200 degrees C or higher, and clinker containing low chlorine and alkali can be produced. The test result reveals that the control range of the chlorine and alkali ratio is from 1.0 to 1.1. The remaining problems are measures against carbon monoxide and dioxin contained in the exhaust gas, and treatment of dust containing salt. (NEDO)

  5. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  6. Crystallization-induced plasticity of Cu-Zr containing bulk amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok-Woo; Huh, Moo-Young; Fleury, Eric; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the parameter governing the plasticity observed in various Cu-Zr containing monolithic amorphous alloys. All the alloys were fully amorphous in their as-cast condition but exhibited different plastic strains. Microscopic observations of the quasi-statically compressed alloys showed abundant nanocrystallites in the amorphous matrices in the alloys that exhibited pronounced plasticity. On the other hand, insignificant changes in the microstructure were observed in the alloy that did not show plasticity. The mechanism for the formation of these deformation-induced nanocrystallites was examined from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and kinetics. The role of the deformation-induced nanocrystallites on the plasticity of the amorphous alloy was examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that compressive loading facilitates nanocrystallization in monolithic Cu-Zr containing amorphous alloys, resulting in plasticity. The parameter governing the plasticity in these monolithic Cu-Zr containing amorphous alloys lies in the activation energy for the overall crystallization process

  7. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  8. Track treeing mechanism and plastic zone in solid Part 1: Initial development of plastic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Boyang

    2008-01-01

    After neutron exposure and chemical etching in advance, latent tracks of recoil nucleon develop into pits on CR39 surface. During electrochemical etching, plastic zone is formed at top of pits. Some pits develop into tree cracks in the initial stage of plastic zone development. Physical and mathematical model of crack and plastic zone is proposed; parameter of development free path of plastic zone is presented. Based on integration of elementary theories the stress analysis is build up; based on analyses of measured parameters, a set of common relations between parameters is obtained. Integrate parameter analysis and stress analysis, depth of plastic zone development, law and phenomenon in experimental data can be interpreted completely

  9. Accumulation of organic compounds leached from plastic materials used in biopharmaceutical process containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis R; Zietlow, David; Garber, Mary Jo; Sadain, Salma; Reiber, Duane; Terbush, William

    2007-01-01

    Plastic materials are widely used in medical items, such as solution containers, transfusion sets, transfer tubing, and devices. An emerging trend in the biotechnology industry is the utilization of plastic containers to prepare, transport, and store an assortment of solutions including buffers, media, and in-process and finished product. The direct contact of such containers with the product at one or more points in its lifetime raises the possibility that container leachables may accumulate in the finished product. The interaction between several commercially available container materials and numerous model test solutions (representative of buffers and media used in biopharmaceutical applications) was investigated. This paper summarizes the identification of leachables associated with the container materials and documents the levels to which targeted leachables accumulate in the test solutions under defined storage conditions.

  10. Do single-use medical devices containing biopolymers reduce the environmental impacts of surgical procedures compared with their plastic equivalents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Scott R; Hottle, Troy A; Hobbs, Shakira R; Thiel, Cassandra L; Campion, Nicole; Bilec, Melissa M; Landis, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background While petroleum-based plastics are extensively used in health care, recent developments in biopolymer manufacturing have created new opportunities for increased integration of biopolymers into medical products, devices and services. This study compared the environmental impacts of single-use disposable devices with increased biopolymer content versus typically manufactured devices in hysterectomy. Methods A comparative life cycle assessment of single-use disposable medical products containing plastic(s) versus the same single-use medical devices with biopolymers substituted for plastic(s) at Magee-Women's Hospital (Magee) in Pittsburgh, PA and the products used in four types of hysterectomies that contained plastics potentially suitable for biopolymer substitution. Magee is a 360-bed teaching hospital, which performs approximately 1400 hysterectomies annually. Results There are life cycle environmental impact tradeoffs when substituting biopolymers for petroplastics in procedures such as hysterectomies. The substitution of biopolymers for petroleum-based plastics increased smog-related impacts by approximately 900% for laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomies, and increased ozone depletion-related impacts by approximately 125% for laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomies. Conversely, biopolymers reduced life cycle human health impacts, acidification and cumulative energy demand for the four hysterectomy procedures. The integration of biopolymers into medical products is correlated with reductions in carcinogenic impacts, non-carcinogenic impacts and respiratory effects. However, the significant agricultural inputs associated with manufacturing biopolymers exacerbate environmental impacts of products and devices made using biopolymers. Conclusions The integration of biopolymers into medical products is correlated with reductions in carcinogenic impacts, non-carcinogenic impacts and respiratory effects; however, the significant agricultural inputs associated

  11. Influence of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures on the Development of Plastic Shrinkage Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Pease, Bradley Justin; Mazzotta, Guy

    2007-01-01

    The term plastic shrinkage cracking is generally used to describe cracks that form between the time when concrete is placed and the time when concrete sets. This paper discusses how the evaporation of water causes concave menisci to form on the surface of fresh concrete. These menisci cause both...... settlement of the concrete and tensile stress development in the surface of the concrete, which increase the potential for development of plastic shrinkage cracks. Specifically, this paper studies the development of plastic shrinkage cracks in mortars containing a commercially available shrinkage-reducing...... admixture (SRA). Mortars containing SRA show fewer and narrower plastic shrinkage cracks than plain mortars when exposed to the same environmental conditions. It is proposed that the lower surface tension of the pore fluid in the mortars containing SRA results in less evaporation, reduced settlement...

  12. Development and plasticity of meningeal lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Salli; Karaman, Sinem; Nurmi, Harri; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Mathivet, Thomas; Chilov, Dmitri; Li, Zhilin; Koppinen, Tapani; Park, Jun-Hee; Fang, Shentong; Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Saarma, Mart; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-12-04

    The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect. Surprisingly, in adult mice, the LVs showed regression after VEGF-C or VEGFR3 deletion, administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, or expression of VEGF-C/D trap, which also compromised the lymphatic drainage function. Conversely, an excess of VEGF-C induced meningeal lymphangiogenesis. The plasticity and regenerative potential of meningeal LVs should allow manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage and neuropathological processes in the CNS. © 2017 Antila et al.

  13. Stability of color in Spanish-style green table olives pasteurized and stored in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; López-López, Antonio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; de Castro, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of pasteurizable plastic packaging by the olive industry. In order to investigate the change from traditional glass or varnished can containers to plastic packaging, the proper plastic material that is compatible with fermented olives while maintaining color quality during pasteurization treatment and storage must be selected. This work is focused on color stability in two distinct pasteurizable plastic containers with different oxygen permeability. In PET + MDPE/EVOH (polyethylene terephthalate + medium-density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol) pouches, pasteurization provoked severe browning which drastically decreased their color shelf life ( 6.5 months). The plastic material had a significant effect on the retention of color of the pasteurized product. The use of AlOx-coated PET + MDPE pouches could be an alternative to traditional packaging for the pasteurization and storage of Spanish-style green olives from a color quality standpoint. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Experimental investigation on the properties of concrete containing post-consumer plastic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zasiah TAFHEEM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of various forms of plastic has been increased in recent days due to the boost in industrialization and other human activities. Most of the plastic wastes are abandoned and require large landfill area for storage. More importantly, the low biodegradability of plastic poses a serious threat to environment protection issue. Various methods have been followed for the disposal of plastic in an attempt to reduce the negative impact of the plastic on the environment. Recently, various types of plastic have been incorporated in concrete to minimize the exposure of plastic to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of concrete containing polyethylene terephthalate (PET, and high density polyethylene (HDPE plastic that were used as partial replacement of coarse aggregate (CA. In this study, four compositions of stone aggregate(S: plastic waste ratios have been used by volume basis: 100% S: 0% Plastic (control concrete, 90% S: 10% PET, 90% S: 10% HDPE, and 90% S: 5% PET+5% HDPE. The effects of waste plastic addition on the mechanical properties of concrete are presented in this paper. Test results reveal that minimum reduction in compressive strength has been found 35% in case of 10% PET plastic replaced concrete whereas splitting tensile strength for 10% PET replaced concrete has been increased by 21% while compared to control concrete. In addition, fresh unit weight of concrete containing plastic waste has been decreased by 4% in comparison to control concrete.

  15. Modeling of the solution interaction properties of plastic materials used in pharmaceutical product container systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Couch, Tom; Gillum, Amy; Sadain, Salma

    2009-01-01

    Material/water equilibrium binding constants (Eb) were determined for 14 organic solutes and 17 plastic raw materials that could be used in pharmaceutical product container systems. Correlations between the measured binding constants and the organic solute's octanol/water and hexane/water partition coefficients were obtained. In general, while the materials examined exhibited a wide range of binding characteristics, the tested materials by and large fell within two broad classes: (1) those that were octanol-like in their binding characteristics, and (2) those that were hexane-like. Materials of the same class (e.g., polypropylenes) generally had binding models that were very similar. Rank ordering of the materials in terms of their magnitude of drug binding (least binding to most binding) was as follows: polypropylene < polyethylene < polyamide < styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene < copolyester ether elastomer approximately equal to amine-terminated poly fatty acid amide polymer. The utilization of the developed models to estimate drug loss via sorption by the container is discussed.

  16. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  17. Reduction of non-specific adsorption of drugs to plastic containers used in bioassays or analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tominaga; Yamazaki, Yuri; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of drugs to plastic or glass containers used in clinical use is well known, but methods for reducing NSA have been rarely reported. We assessed the NSA to various containers and then investigated methods to reduce NSA. Probe drugs (methotrexate, warfarin, chloroquine, propranolol, verapamil, digoxin and paclitaxel) dissolved in water were incubated in conventional or low-adsorption containers for 4h at 4 degrees C and the NSA was determined by HPLC. They were also dissolved in aqueous methanol or acetonitrile and the NSA to a conventional polypropylene microplate was determined. Finally, tissue culture microplates were coated with silane coupling agents and the effects of the coatings were evaluated. Hydrophobic drugs (paclitaxel, verapamil and digoxin) were highly adsorbed to conventional plastic microplates, but in addition to hydrophobic drugs, positively charged drugs were well adsorbed to the tissue culture microplate. Low-adsorption microplates could reduce NSA below 15%, but positively charged or neutral hydrophobic drugs showed relatively higher adsorption. Acetonitrile showed stronger NSA inhibition than that of methanol, but the peak shapes of methotrexate and chloroquine were broadened and split. Among the silane coupling agents, GPTMS suppressed the NSA below 10%. Also, AATMS resembled the NSA pattern of GPTMS, but it increased the adsorption of methotrexate to 29%. On conventional plastic microplates, NSA is mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions, but on tissue culture microplates and low-adsorption microplates, in addition to hydrophobic interactions, ionic interactions play a role in the NSA. Therefore, to reduce the NSA to plastic containers, both hydrophobic and ionic interactions should be reduced using amphiphilic organic solvents or neutral and hydrophilic coatings. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of thermo-plastic heating and compaction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Hak; Lim, Suk Nam

    1998-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes consist of spent resin, spent filter, concentrated waste and dry active waste(DAW) and they are solidified or packaged into drums or high integrated containers(HICs). DAWs occupy 50 percent of all low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear power plants in Korea. Incinerable wastes in the DAWs are about 60 percent. Therefore, it is very important for us to reduce the volume of incinerable wastes in DAWs. Experience of supercompaction turned out that thermo-plastic wastes have a swelling effect after supercompaction process due to their repulsive power. And the thermo-plastic heating and compaction facility has been developed by KEPCO. In conclusion, heating and compaction facility can reduce the volume of DAWs as well as upgrade the quality of treated wastes, because the swelling effect by repulsive power after compaction is removed, final wastes form the shape of block and they have no free-standing water in the wastes. Plan for practical use is that this facility will be installed in other nuclear power plants in Korea in 1999. (Cho, G. S.). 1 tab., 2 figs

  19. Hazardous and other element characterization of new and used domestic plastic food containers using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) methodology was developed to characterize the inorganic trace element constituents in new and used domestic plastic food containers. INAA was employed through the variation of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols for the determination of Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Th, Ti, V and Zn while FAAS was used to quantify toxic inorganic elements such as Cd, Pb and Cu. These elements are thought to originate from the polymer manufacturing processes. It was found that there was gradual increase in the concentration of most of these elements from new to used plastic samples. Moreover it was also observed that these inorganic elements are present in higher concentrations in the lower grade containers as compared to the high quality containers. It was also observed that the good quality containers even with the long usage do not degrade to such an extent as the low quality containers. (Orig./A.B.)

  20. Hazardous and other element characterization of new and used domestic plastic food containers using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy methodology was developed to characterize the hazardous and other inorganic trace element constituents in new and used domestic plastic food containers. INAA due to its non destructive, highly sensitive, multielement and low detection limits characteristics was found to be a good technique for the characterization of polymeric products. Through the variation of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Th, Ti, V and Zn were determined, while Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used as complementary technique to quantify toxic inorganic elements such as Cd, Pb and Cu. These elements are thought to originate from the polymer manufacturing processes. It was found that there was gradual increase in the concentration of most of these elements from new to used plastic samples. Moreover it was also observed that these inorganic elements are present in higher concentrations in the lower grade containers as compared to the high quality containers. It was also observed that the good quality containers even with the long usage do not degrade to such an extent as the low quality containers. (author)

  1. adaptation of plastic waste to energy development in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Plastic wastes, Energy, Sustainable development, Environment, ... countries to be rationalising energy supply to their people. .... Managing waste in Lagos is may be a herculean task in ..... uncertainties in a life cycle perspective.

  2. Drug adsorption to plastic containers and retention of drugs in cultured cells under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgrén, Joni J; Mönkkönen, Jukka; Korjamo, Timo; Hassinen, Anssi; Auriola, Seppo

    2006-11-01

    Loss of drug content during cell culture transport experiment can lead to misinterpretations in permeability analysis. This study analyses drug adsorption to various plastic containers and drug retention in cultured cells under in vitro conditions. The loss of various drugs to polystyrene tubes and well plates was compared to polypropylene and glass tubes both in deionised water and buffer solution. In cellular uptake experiments, administered drugs were obtained from cultured cells by liquid extraction. Samples were collected at various time points and drug concentrations were measured by a new HPLC-MS/MS method. Acidic drugs (hydrochlorothiazide, naproxen, probenicid, and indomethacin) showed little if any sorption to all tested materials in either water or buffer. In the case of basic drugs, substantial loss to polystyrene tubes and well plates was observed. After 4.5 h, the relative amount remaining in aqueous test solution stored in polystyrene tubes was 64.7 +/- 6.8%, 38.4 +/- 9.1%, 31.9 +/- 6.7%, and 23.5 +/- 6.1% for metoprolol, medetomidine, propranolol, and midazolam, respectively. Interestingly, there was no significant loss of drugs dissolved in buffer to any of the tested materials indicating that buffer reduced surficial interaction. The effect of drug concentration to sorption was also tested. Results indicated that the higher the concentration in the test solution the lower the proportional drug loss, suggesting that the polystyrene contained a limited amount of binding sites. Cellular uptake studies showed considerable retention of drugs in cultured cells. The amounts of absorbed drugs in cellular structures were 0.45%, 4.88%, 13.15%, 43.80%, 23.57% and 11.22% for atenolol, metoprolol, medetomidine, propranolol, midazolam, and diazepam, respectively. Overall, these findings will benefit development and validation of further in vitro drug permeation experiments.

  3. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...... days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles...... was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed...

  4. Development of integrated metallic container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, B.

    1985-01-01

    Several alternative designs of the integrated metallic container are being investigated in an effort to obtain an optimal integrated system for transportation, storage and disposal of used fuel from CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations. Three specific designs having thin-wall, medium and thick-walls are being proposed in more detail. A novel, simplified closure system is introduced. Some economic consideration is also presented. Many ideas presented in the report deviate from the currently pursued methodology. They are presented here as an alternative for future considerations

  5. [Development of injection containers for patient and medical staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yoichi; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a transition from glass to plastic injection containers in Japan. In our previous study, we suggested that plastic containers had less impurity contamination than glass containers. However, the use of some plasticizers has been limited because of their endocrine disrupting effects. Therefore, contamination has been a concern due to chemicals in injection solution packed with plastic containers. Indeed, in our recent study, photoinitiators were detected in an injection solution coming from plastic containers. Photoinitiators mainly exist in ink. We therefore speculated that ink originating from a photoinitiator directly printing on plastic containers had migrated into the injection solutions. In a clinical setting, plastic containers are very tractable because they are lightweight and less breakable. On the other hand, from a safety view point, these containers may be hazardous because of permeation by steam, ambient air or photoinitiators. In the present symposium, we will discuss the risk of photoinitiators leaking into injection solution packed with plastic containers, and countermeasures to avoid this risk.

  6. Development of container failure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    In order to produce a complete performance assessment for a Canadian waste vault some prediction of container failure times is required. Data are limited; however, the effects of various possible failure scenarios on the rest of the vault model can be tested. For titanium and copper, the two materials considered in the Canadian program, data are available on the frequency of failures due to manufacturing defects; there is also an estimate on the expected size of such defects. It can be shown that the consequences of such small defects in terms of the dose to humans are acceptable. It is not clear, from a modelling point of view, whether titanium or copper are preferable

  7. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm 2 after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances

  8. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm{sup 2} after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  9. Migration of Phthalates from Plastic Containers into Soft Drinks and Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Bošnir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of phthalate migration from plastic containers to soft drinks and mineral water and to identify a possible relationship between the amount and type of phthalate migration, type of preservative used, and the pH of the sample. The analysis included 45 samples of products packed in containers made from polyethylene terephthalate. The samples were divided into 5 groups: group 1 (N=9, soft drinks preserved with orthophosphoric acid; group 2 (N=14, soft drinks preserved with Na-benzoate; group 3 (N=5, soft drinks preserved with K-sorbate; group 4 (N=8, soft drinks preserved with a combination of Na-benzoate and K-sorbate; and group 5 (N=9, mineral water without preservatives. The samples were analyzed by the method of gas chromatography, with a detection limit of 0.005 μg/L. The mean pool phthalate level and mean pH value were 91.67 μg/L and 2.82±0.30 in group 1; 116.93 μg/L and 2.75±0.32 in group 2; 819.40 μg/L and 2.88±0.15 in group 3; 542.63 μg/L and 2.82±0.54 in group 4; and 20.22 μg/L and 5.82±1.26 in group 5, respectively. The highest rate of migration to soft drinks was recorded for dimethyl phthalate, ranging from 53.51 to 92.73 %, whereas dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate showed highest rate of migration to the mineral water (56.04 and 43.42 %, respectively. The highest level of phthalate migration from plastic containers to soft drinks was found in the products preserved with K-sorbate. The rate of phthalate migration appears to be influenced also by the drink pH, i.e. the lower the pH value, the greater the phthalate migration. Dimethyl phthalate showed highest migration to preserved drinks as an acidic medium, which might stimulate modification in the composition of plastic containers according to the type and composition of the product. Additional studies in a greater number of samples are needed. Although the phthalate levels measured in these samples pose no risk for

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLES CONTAINERS FOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Poggio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of biodegradable containers for crops that could be transplanted directly and act as fertilizers is proposed. Bovine gelatin was chosen as the base material, which was processed in a mini-injector mixer with a concentrated urea solution acted as a plasticizer. Rheological and tensile tests were performed in order to evaluate the injection of gelatin based formulations and mechanical properties related to the proposed application. Taking into account that biodegradable materials have a low water resistance, the increment of container stability was proposed using a surface coating. In addition, the influence of moisture content, the soluble matter and swelling were studied and analyzed. It was observed that coated samples were significantly more stable than the control ones, which guarantees the feasibility of the selected system and its potential development of biodegradable containers.

  11. Application of IAEA TECDOC 717 to the assessment of brittle fracture in transport containers with plastic flow shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Cardwell, S.; Donelan, P.

    1995-01-01

    UK Nirex is developing re-usable shielded transport containers (RSTCs) in a range of shielding thicknesses (from 70 mm to 285 mm) to transport immobilised intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) to a deep repository. The RSTCs are being designed to meet the requirements of the IAEA Transport Regulations for Type B packages, including the requirement to maintain shielding and containment following a drop of 9 m onto an unyielding surface. The RSTCs are essentially monolithic in construction and the heaviest version weighs up to 65 tonnes when loaded with contents. They rely principally on plastic flow of the material of construction to absorb the high energies involved in impact events. Specific features of the designs, such as the solid metal corner shock absorbers and side ribs have been optimised for this purpose. Nirex has investigated the feasibility of manufacturing the RSTCs from ductile cast iron (DCI) or cast steel instead of from forgings, since this would bring advantages of reduced manufacturing time and costs. In this paper the methodology set out in IAEA-TECDOC-717 is applied to the Nirex RSTC, including the application of elastic plastic fracture mechanics methods. (author)

  12. Trends in the development of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turricchia, A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the technical developments which the containment systems of BWRs, PWRs and HWRs have undergone in the USA, Europe and Canada. The great variety of existing containment systems have been classified for each type of reactor, according to: principle of operation (i.e. dry containment; pressure suppression containment; containment with vacuum building; sub-atmospheric containment; etc.); type and number of the physical barriers provided against the dispersion of fission products to the environment (single containment, double containment, single containment with local collection of the leaks from the most probable leakage paths, or with pressurization of the potential leakage paths, etc.); and structural characteristics of the containment barriers (reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, metal containment, liners). In the framework of this classification the main features of the various containment systems are illustrated, with special emphasis on the most modern designs. The difference in trend among various countries and various designers are highlighted. A review is also made of the various containment auxiliary systems which would operate in accident conditions (isolation systems, heat removal system, atmosphere control system, etc.). Also for these systems the main design criteria are set forth and present trends are described. Finally, a brief survey is also made of the present trends with regards to the design of containment structures against external events be they of natural origin (earthquake, tornadoes, etc.) or connected with human activities (airplane crash, explosions, etc.) [fr

  13. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete Containing Waste Plastic as Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader Ismail Al-Hadithi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The world's population growth and the increasing demand for new infrastructure facilities and buildings , present us with the vision of a higher resources consumption, specially in the form of more durable concrete such as High Performance Concrete (HPC . Moreover , the growth of the world pollution by plastic waste has been tremendous. The aim of this research is to investigate the change in mechanical properties of HPC with added waste plastics in concrete. For this purpose 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% in volume of natural fine aggregate in the HPC mixes were replaced by an equal volume of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET waste , got by shredded PET bottles. The mechanical properties (compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength evaluated at the ages of (7 ,28, 56 and 91 days while the static modulus of elasticity tested at (28 and 91 days . The results indicated that HPC containing PET-aggregate presented lower compressive strength and static elasticity . The splitting strength displayed an arising trend at the initial stages, however, they have a tendency to decrease after a while. On the other hand, flexural strength results gave better modulus of rapture at all ages of curing , as compared with reference concrete specimens.

  14. Recent developments in plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, N. P.; Glenn, A. M.; Mabe, A. N.; Carman, M. L.; Hurlbut, C. R.; Inman, J. W.; Payne, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reports results of studies conducted to improve scintillation performance of plastic scintillators capable of neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). Compositional modifications made with the polymer matrix improved physical stability, allowing for increased loads of the primary dye that, in combination with selected secondary dyes, provided enhanced PSD especially important for the lower energy ranges. Additional measurements were made with a newly-introduced PSD plastic EJ-276, that replaces the first commercially produced EJ-299. Comparative studies conducted with the new materials and EJ-309 liquids at large scale (up to 10 cm) show that current plastics may provide scintillation and PSD performance sufficient for the replacement of liquid scintillators. Comparison to stilbene single crystals compliments the information about the status of the solid-state materials recently developed for fast neutron detection applications.

  15. Combinatorial chemistry approach to development of molecular plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godovsky, Dmitri; Inganäs, Olle; Brabec, Christoph J.; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A.J.; Prato, M.; Maggini, M.; Segura, Jose; Martin, Nazario

    1999-01-01

    We used a combinatorial chemistry approach to develop the molecular plastic solar cells based on soluble fullerene derivatives or solubilized TCNQ molecules in combination with conjugated polymers. Profiles, formed by the diffusion of low molecular weight component in the spin-cast polymer host were

  16. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  17. Liquid, urea group-containing polyisocyanate mixtures and plastics derived therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buethe, I.; Marx, M.; Schoenleben, W.

    1988-04-05

    The invention relates to urea group-containing polyisocyanate mixtures which are liquid at room temperature and have an isocyanate group content of from 15 to 30 weight percent and a diphenylmethane diisocyanate content of from 55 to 90 weight percent. These mixtures are obtained through the reaction of polyoxyalkylene polyamines having a functionality of from 2 to 5 and an amine number from 20 to 250 with a polyisocyanate selected from the group consisting of: a mixture of diphenylmethane diisocyanates and polyphenyl polymethylene polysocyanates having a diphenylmethane diisocyanate content of from 55 to 90 wt%, or at least one diphenylmethane diisocyanate isomer. The polyisocyanate mixtures claimed in the invention are used to prepare dense or cellular polyurethane and/or polyisocyanurate plastics, in particular, flexible polyurethane foams.

  18. Pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate containing real waste plastics using Ni loaded zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-asadi, M.; Miskolczi, N.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containing real waste plastic was investigated using different Ni loaded catalysts: Ni/ZSM-5, Ni/y-zeolite, Ni/β-zeolite and Ni/natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Raw materials were pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor between 600 and 900°C using 10% of catalysts. It was found, that both temperature increasing and catalysts presence can increase the gas yields, however owing to gasification reactions, the pyrolysis oil yield decreased with increasing temperature. Ni/y-zeolite catalyst had the most benefit in gas yield increasing at low temperature; however Ni/ZSM-5 showed advanced property in gas yield increasing at high temperature. Gases contained hydrogen, carbon oxides and hydrocarbons, which composition was significantly affected by catalysts. Ni loaded zeolites favoured to the formation of hydrogen and branched hydrocarbons; furthermore the concentrations of both CO and CO2 were also increased as function of elevated temperature. That phenomenon was attributed to the further decomposition of PET, especially to the side chain scission reactions. Owing to the Boudouard reaction, the ratio of CO2/CO can increased with temperature. Pyrolysis oils were the mixtures of n-saturated, n-unsaturated, branched, oxygen free aromatics and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Temperature increasing has a significant effect to the aromatization and isomerization reactions, while the catalysts can efficiently decreased the concentration of oxygen containing compounds.

  19. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified 'nuclear safety'. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends

  20. The plasticity of intellectual development: insights from preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J

    1984-10-01

    Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.

  1. Development of a metallic high integrity container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Packaging, a Pacific Nuclear Company, developed a metallic high integrity container (HIC) for the burial of low level radioactive waste. This class of container has received the most extensive review of any burial container licensed in the United States. It is also the first container that has been licensed to meet the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations 10CFR61. The design and subsequent review considered 300 years corrosion at a depth of 55 feet with no degradation of container structural integrity. The design also included a technical requirement that the container possess a positive vent that would exclude moisture. The alloy that was selected, allows for significant flexibility in container size and configuration which is essential to accommodating the various waste forms. This allowed the development of containers in various sizes and with a variety of closures, that accommodate the internal dimensions of various shipping shields and help minimize radiation exposure during packaging operations. The material used in the metallic container is high corrosion resistant which reduces the need for strict chemical controls at the waste generating facility. This acts to ease the operational requirements in the treatment of several waste streams. The design result is a family of metallic High Integrity Containers (HIC)s that meet all the performance criteria imposed by the regulations, as well as provide a disposable waste container with good transportation efficiency and minimum operational constraints

  2. Incidence of hypertriglyceridemia in critically ill neonates receiving lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic containers: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Camilia R; Dumas, Gregory J; Shoaie, Claire; Zheng, Zheng; Mackinnon, Brenda; Al-Aweel, Issa; Bistrian, Bruce R; Pursley, DeWayne M; Driscoll, David F

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate plasma clearance of lipid injectable emulsions packaged in either glass or plastic containers in neonates from 2 7-month periods, 1 year apart. Clinical records from June 1 to December 31, 2003 (glass [G] period) and the same months in 2004 (plastic [P] period) were assessed. Neonates who received lipid injectable emulsions were studied. Lipid container (glass vs plastic) was the independent variable. Of the 197 patients studied, 122 (G, 50/81; P, 72/116) had evaluable triglyceride (TG) levels, for an overall rate of 62%. Only birth weight (G, 1.09 +/- 0.32 kg vs P, 1.23 +/- .45 kg) and birth length (G, 36.4 +/- 3.5 cm vs P, 37.9 +/- 3.5 cm) were significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .047 and .028, respectively). There were no differences in the day of life on which lipid injection was started, the lipid dose, or the timing of TG measurements. The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in the P period (G, 3/50 vs P, 19/72; P = .004). Administration of the same lipid formulation in plastic bags compared with glass containers is associated with higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia. The poorer clearance of lipids could be due to a higher proportion of large-diameter fat globules in plastic bags compared with those in glass containers.

  3. Impact of container material on the development of Aedes aegypti larvae at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Singh, R K; Pande, Veena; Dhiman, R C

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue generally breeds in intradomestic and peridomestic containers made up of different materials, i.e. plastic, iron, rubber, earthen material etc. The material of container is likely to affect the temperature of water in container with variation in environmental temperature. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of different container materials on larval development of Ae. aegypti at different temperatures. Newly hatched I instar larvae (2-4 h old) were used in the study and experiments were conducted using three different containers made up of plastic, iron and earthen material. Three replicates for each type of container at 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 40, and 42°C were placed in environmental chamber for the development of larvae. At temperatures >22°C, 50% pupation was completed in earthen pot within 4.3±0.6 to 6.3±0.6 days followed by plastic containers (5±0 to 8±0 days) and iron containers (6±0 to 9±0 days). Developmental time for 50% pupation in the three containers differed significantly (p containers (p containers resulted in significant variations in the developmental period of larvae. More than 35°C temperature of water was found inimical for pupal development. The results revealed the variation in temperature of water in different types of containers depending on the material of container, affecting duration of larval development. As the larval development was faster in earthen pot as compared to plastic and iron containers, community should be discouraged for storing the water in earthen pots. However, in view of containers of different materials used by the community in different temperature zones in the country, further studies are required for devising area-specific preventive measures for Aedes breeding.

  4. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    constituents such as humidity/ moisture/dew formation and localized environmental constituents (ozone, smog, acid rain, etc.). Although this approach...acceptable degree of durability in excess of 12 years. 31 STUDY OF THE AGEING RESISTANCE UNDER NATURAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF POLYMETHACRYLATE ...polymerized from a mixture of unsatu- rated and saturated acids or anhydrides. The unsaturates provide sites for reaction with the monomer, while the

  5. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  6. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  7. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hai Yen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDPE PLASTIC FILM FOR HERBICIDE CONTAINER USING FLY ASH CLASS F AS FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic plays an important role in various applications, for example, it can be used as a container (bottle. Petrokimia Kayaku Company, a branch of Petrokimia Company of Gresik, produces herbicides using HDPE plastic bottles as their container. Those plastic bottles undergo degradation (kempot for certain period of time. The aim of this research is to characterize and to synthesize the HDPE plastic film with class F fly ash as filler. The results expected from this research are producing the plastic with a better properties and durability. This research was initiated by taking the sample of HDPE plastic bottle and herbicides (containing Gramakuat, on active material parakuat dichloride at Petrokimia Kayaku Company. Both the initial HDPE and the degraded bottles was analyzed their tensile strength and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR spectral. The next step was to synthesize the HDPE plastic film using class F fly ash as filler and a coupling agent. The filler concentrations were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20wt %. The best result was 5% filler concentration with tensile strength of 27.7 lbs. This HDPE film was then subjected to degradation test using pyridine solution with various concentrations (1%, 3% and 5% for two weeks, thermal degradation at 100 °C for two weeks and chemical resistance by xylene with soak time variation of 24 h, 98 h and 168 h. The result of degradations test show that the value of tensile strength was decreased with the increase of filler consentration. The chemical resistance, however, was increased.   Keywords: degradation, filler, fly ash, HDPE, Herbicide

  9. Development of water radiocontamination monitor using a plastic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Madi Filho, T.; Hamada, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    An alpha, beta and gamma radiation water monitor was developed using a plastic scintillator detector with a sensitivity level of 15 bplastic scintillator detector with a sensitivity level of 15 Bq.L -1 and a counting efficiency of 25% for 131 I. It was proposed to be used in the radiation monitoring program of the research reactor swimming-pool of Sao Paulo. A simplified design and some properties of this monitor are presented. (author) [pt

  10. Emotion Processing by ERP Combined with Development and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Emotions important for survival and social interaction have received wide and deep investigations. The application of the fMRI technique into emotion processing has obtained overwhelming achievements with respect to the localization of emotion processes. The ERP method, which possesses highly temporal resolution compared to fMRI, can be employed to investigate the time course of emotion processing. The emotional modulation of the ERP component has been verified across numerous researches. Emotions, described as dynamically developing along with the growing age, have the possibility to be enhanced through learning (or training) or to be damaged due to disturbances in growth, which is underlain by the neural plasticity of emotion-relevant nervous systems. And mood disorders with typical symptoms of emotion discordance probably have been caused by the dysfunctional neural plasticity. PMID:28831313

  11. Development of plastic media blasting device for stud bolt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihisa, Y.; Miyashita, T.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic media blasting is a mechanical cleaning method for removing paint, rust and/or anti-galling material etc on the surface of metal without damaging the metal surface. The method is suitable for cleaning the surface of reusable elements and parts such as bolts and nuts. Anti-galling material such as molybdenum disulfide is applied to fastening stud bolts used for the steam turbine rotor casing. It is necessary to remove this material when new anti-galling material is to be applied. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Co., and Morikawa Industries Corp., have developed a plastic media blasting device to clean the surface of stud bolt screw threads installed in the facility such as lower casing of the turbine. This paper reports the outline of the results. (author)

  12. Development and test of a plastic deep-well pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q H; Gao, X F; Xu, Y; Shi, W D; Lu, W G; Liu, W

    2013-01-01

    To develop a plastic deep-well pump, three methods are proposed on structural and forming technique. First, the major hydraulic components are constructed by plastics, and the connection component is constructed by steel. Thus the pump structure is more concise and slim, greatly reducing its weight and easing its transportation, installation, and maintenance. Second, the impeller is designed by maximum diameter method. Using same pump casing, the stage head is greatly increased. Third, a sealing is formed by impeller front end face and steel end face, and two slots are designed on the impeller front end face, thus when the two end faces approach, a lubricating pair is formed, leading to an effective sealing. With above methods, the pump's axial length is greatly reduced, and its stage head is larger and more efficient. Especially, the pump's axial force is effectively balanced. To examine the above proposals, a prototype pump is constructed, and its testing results show that the pump efficiency exceeds the national standard by 6%, and the stage head is improved by 41%, meanwhile, its structure is more concise and ease of transportation. Development of this pump would provide useful experiences for further popularity of plastic deep-well pumps

  13. Kinetic Modeling of the Release of Ethylene Oxide from Sterilized Plastic Containers and its Interaction with Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bryan Lei; Han, Jun; Hammond, Matthew; Wang, Xuemei; Zhang, Qingchun; Clausen, Andrew; Forster, Ronald; Eu, Mingda

    Ethylene oxide (ETO) is commonly used to sterilize plastic containers, but the effects of residual amounts left after sterilization on protein therapeutics are still not well understood. Here we focus primarily on the factors that influence concentrations of ETO migrating from ETO-treated plastic containers into aqueous solution. A study was designed to investigate the kinetics of this process at various temperatures, and the kinetic data could be fit with a model based on a combination of Fickean diffusion and first-order chemical reaction (to account for observed hydrolysis of ETO). The diffusion and reaction rate constants thus obtained obey Arrhenius-like temperature dependence. These results indicate that for analytical methods involving extraction into water, measurements of residual ETO in a container must account for the effects of ETO hydrolysis. Further, the effects of salt concentration and pH of the fluid in the container on accumulated ETO levels were explored. Finally, interactions of ETO with anti-streptavidin (AntiSA) Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 antibodies were studied, with ETO adducts found on all methionine residues when incubated in solutions spiked with ETO at concentrations that could be reached (based on the kinetic studies) in ETO-treated plastic vials. Overall, the likelihood of observable ETO-protein modifications upon storage in ETO-sterilized containers will depend on a complex interplay of protein properties, formulation details, storage conditions, and amount of residual ETO initially in the container. Ethylene oxide (ETO) is commonly used to sterilize plastic containers, but the effects of residual amounts left after sterilization on protein therapeutics are still not well understood. Here we describe experiments exploring the factors that influence concentrations of ETO migrating from ETO-treated plastic containers into aqueous solution over time. Additionally, interactions of ETO with model antibodies were studied, with ETO

  14. Thermoelastic/plastic analysis of waste-container sleeve. II. Influence of large displacements on sleeve loading. Technical memorandum report RSI-0017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariseau, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the thermoelastic/plastic finite element program to account for large displacements possibly associated with the development of an extensive plastic zone about a radioactive waste container emplaced in a typical repository room (SALT-4/T model) has been completed. Comparisons of radial stresses acting on the waste container and borehole wall displacements computed by the modified and conventional analyses techniques reveal little difference between the two sets of results over a 10 year heating period for salt strengths 25 percent of original values. Because no significant differences in results arise even under these exaggerated conditions, the more costly large displacement option need be used only sparingly as an occasional control check on the conventional procedure. As a consequence, economy of computer run time can be maintained without sacrifice of accuracy

  15. Development and optimization of containment structure concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, H.R.; Whitcraft, J.S. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The development of prestressed concrete containment structures for nuclear power plants designed, constructed, and tested by Bechtel Power Corporation has been divided into three general stages or generations. The distinctions that characterize these generations are: the shape of the dome, the number of buttresses, the size and arrangement of the post-tensioning tendons, and the design level of the prestressing forces. (author)

  16. Development of metallic high integrity containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.; Porter, S.A.; Kent, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the development program for metallic high integrity containers (HIC's). The need for a high strength, thin walled HIC became apparent with the implementation of 10 CFR 61 in late 1983. The existing containers that were in use at that time were made of either low strength material (polyethylene) or bulky, heavy material (concrete). Neither of these materials met the need for a high strength, volume and weight efficient container that could survive the deep burial environment of sites such as Hanford, Washington. Various alloys were considered for corrosion resistance for a 300 year life, high strength and toughness, and elastic stability to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The alloy allowed for great flexibility in design to accommodate various waste forms. The containers were developed in various sizes with several different closures designed to minimize operator exposure during the loading operation. These design features provide the industry with efficient, disposable packages for a wide variety of waste forms. The paper describes the analytical methodology and prototype test program. The analytical methods included finite element modeling of the burial conditions, prediction of drop performance,and elastic stability analysis. Prototype testing included leak tests and drop tests at various container orientations from heights of up to 25 feet

  17. Development of Severe Accident Containment Analysis Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min; Seo, Jea-Uk; Lee, Dea-Young; Park, Soon-Ho; Lee, Jae-Gwon; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Byung-Chul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In safety viewpoint, the pressure and temperature of the containment is the important parameters, of course, the local hydrogen concentration is also the parameter of the major concern because of its flammability and the risk of the detonation. In addition, there are possibilities of occurrence of other relevant phenomena following the reactor core melting such as DCH(direct containment heating) due to HPME(high pressure melt ejection), steam explosion due to fuel-coolant interaction in the reactor cavity and molten core concrete interaction at the late stage. It is important to predict the containment responses during a severe accident by a reasonable accuracy for establishing of effective mitigation strategies and preparation of the safety features required. In this paper, the overview of the SACAP development status is presented. SACAP is developed so as to be able to analyze, so called, Ex-Vessel severe accident phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, combustible gas burn, direct containment heating, steam explosion and molten core-concrete interaction. At the parallel time, SACAP and In-Vessel analysis module named CSPACE are processed for integration through MPI communication coupling. Development of the integrated severe accident analysis code system will be completed in following one year to make the code revision zero to be released.

  18. Development of a synthetic pathway for a sustainable plasticizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle

    monooleate originating from sunflower oil. Sunflower oil is less expensive and more accessible compared to castor oil and the SNS-A has been tested to have the same plasticizing effect and non-toxic effects as SNS. However, a sustainable and cheap way of synthesizing SNS-A has not been developed. The aim...... and three different catalysts, known to be efficient in CTH reactions. However, no satisfying results were obtained using CTH as a hydrogenation method. Using molecular hydrogen gas for hydrogenation also resulted in problems. The hydrogenation of the epoxide obtained from epoxidation with peracetic acid...

  19. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  20. Development of a plastic fracture methodology for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, T.U.; Jones, R.L.; Kanninen, M.F.; Mowbray, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes research conducted to develop a fundamental basis for flaw tolerance assessment procedures suitable for components exhibiting ductile behavior. The research was composed of an integrated combination of stable crack growth experiments and elastic-plastic analyses. A number of candidate fracture criteria were assembled and investigated to determine the proper basis for plastic fracture mechanics assessments. The results demonstrate that many different fracture criteria can be used as the basis of a resistance curve approach to predicting stable crack growth and fracture instability. While all have some disadvantages, none is completely unacceptable. On balance, the best criteria were found to be the J-integral for initiation and limited amounts of stable crack growth and the local crack-tip opening angle for extended amounts of stable growth. A combination of the two, which may preserve the advantages of each while reducing their disadvantages, also was suggested by these results. The influence of biaxial and mixed flat/shear fracture behavior was investigated and found to not alter the basic results. Further work in the development of simplified ductile fracture analyses for routine engineering assessments of nuclear pressure vessels and piping evolving from this research is also described

  1. Strain gradient crystal plasticity analysis of a single crystal containing a cylindrical void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Kysar, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    to one another. Finite element simulations are performed using a strain gradient crystal plasticity formulation with an intrinsic length scale parameter in a non-local strain gradient constitutive framework. For a vanishing length scale parameter the non-local formulation reduces to a local crystal...... plasticity formulation. The stress and deformation fields obtained with a local non-hardening constitutive formulation are compared to those obtained from a local hardening formulation and to those from a non-local formulation. Compared to the case of the non-hardening local constitutive formulation......, it is shown that a local theory with hardening has only minor effects on the deformation field around the void, whereas a significant difference is obtained with the non-local constitutive relation. Finally, it is shown that the applied stress state required to activate plastic deformation at the void is up...

  2. New developments in ophthalmic coatings on plastic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, H. P.; Lobsiger, W.; Suter, R.

    1998-02-01

    The origin of vision aids such as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes and so forth lies in the distant past and cannot be dated with precision. However, such aids certainly came into use at different times in different cultures. Early portraits and other pictures prove to a certainty, however, that remarkable well-made spectacles were in use by the end of the Middle Ages. Glass was employed for optical lenses from the very beginning, and quality improved continuously with advances in glassmaking and polishing techniques. Starting around 1970, this continuing development received new impetus from the introduction of plastics as a new material for ophthalmic lenses. Rapid progress in plastics chemistry had epoch-making effects on lens technology, and today a wide variety of materials such as CR39, PMMA and polycarbonates, with refractive indices ranging from 1.52 to 1.65, are used for this purpose. Eyeglasses have long been important on other grounds than vision correction; people wear them as adornment, because they are fashionable, to express their personality, and for other reasons. This dramatic history shows no signs of coming to an end, and more innovations are definitely ahead.

  3. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, M; Asim, T; Sushil, M; Shanta, C

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path. (paper)

  4. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, M.; Shanta, C.; Asim, T.; Sushil, M.

    2015-04-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path.

  5. Rapid purification and plasticization of D-glutamate-containing poly-γ-glutamate from Japanese fermented soybean food natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Oike, Shota; Hakuba, Hirofumi; Shibatani, Shigeo; Oka, Nogiho; Wakamatsu, Taisuke

    2015-12-10

    Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA) is a major component of mucilage derived from natto, a Japanese fermented food made from soybeans, and PGAs obtained under laboratory's conditions contain numerous d-glutamyl residues. Natto foods are thus promising as a source for nutritionally safe d-amino acids present in intact and digested polymers, although there is little information on the stereochemistry of PGA isolated directly from natto. Here, we describe the development of a new process for rapid purification of PGA using alum and determined the D-glutamate content of natto PGA by chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Further, using hexadecylpyridinium cation (HDP(+)), which is a compound of toothpaste, we chemically transformed natto PGA into a new thermoplastic material, called DL-PGAIC. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and calorimetric measurements indicate that DL-PGAIC is a stoichiometric complex of natto PGA and HDP(+) with glass transition points of -16.8 °C and -3.1 °C. Then, DL-PGAIC began decomposing at 210°C, suggesting thermal stability suitable for use as a supramolecular soft plastic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  7. Assessment of stress-strain data suitable for finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.; Knorovsky, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    Stress-strain data which describes the influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical response of materials presently being used for light water reactor fuel shipping containers have been assembled. Selection of data has been limited to that which is suitable for use in finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers (e.g., they must include complete material history profiles). Based on this information, recommendations have been made for further work which is required to complete the necessary data base

  8. Overview of Facial Plastic Surgery and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jessica; Barnes, Christian; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Facial plastic surgery is a multidisciplinary specialty largely driven by otolaryngology but includes oral maxillary surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. It encompasses both reconstructive and cosmetic components. The scope of practice for facial plastic surgeons in the United States may include rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, facelifts, microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck, craniomaxillofacial trauma reconstruction, and correction of defects in the face after skin cancer resection. Facial plastic surgery also encompasses the use of injectable fillers, neural modulators (e.g., BOTOX Cosmetic, Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Westport, Ireland), lasers, and other devices aimed at rejuvenating skin. Facial plastic surgery is a constantly evolving field with continuing innovative advances in surgical techniques and cosmetic adjunctive technologies. This article aims to give an overview of the various procedures that encompass the field of facial plastic surgery and to highlight the recent advances and trends in procedures and surgical techniques. PMID:28824978

  9. Alternative plasticizer, 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester, for blood containers with protective effects on red blood cells and improved cold resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yuki; Nomura, Yusuke; Fukui, Chie; Fujisawa, Ayano; Watanabe, Kayo; Fujimaki, Hideo; Kumada, Hidefumi; Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Takahashi, Miwa; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Mukai, Tomokazu; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Inamura, Ken-Ichi; Tanoue, Akito; Miyazaki, Ken-Ichi; Chung, Ung-Il; Ogawa, Kumiko; Yoshida, Midori; Haishima, Yuji

    2018-04-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted from PVC-made blood containers and protects against red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis. However, concerns have arisen regarding the reproductive and developmental risks of DEHP in humans, and the use of alternative plasticizers for medical devices has been recommended worldwide. In this study, we propose that the use of a novel plasticizer, 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester (DL9TH), could help produce more useful and safe blood containers. PVC sheet containing DL9TH and di (2-ethylhexyl) 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate (DOTH) provides comparable or superior protective effects to RBCs relative to PVC sheet containing DEHP or di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH ® , an alternative plasticizer that has been used in PVC sheets for blood containers). The total amount of plasticizer eluted from DOTH/DL9TH-PVC sheets is nearly the same as that eluted from DEHP-PVC sheets. In addition, DOTH/DL9TH-PVC has better cold resistance than DEHP- and DINCH ® -PVC sheets. In vitro and in vivo tests for biological safety based on International Organization for Standardization guidelines (10993 series) suggest that the DOTH/DL9TH-PVC sheet can be used safely. Subchronic toxicity testing of DL9TH in male rats in accordance with the principles of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 408 showed that DL9TH did not induce adverse effects up to the highest dose level tested (717 mg/kg body weight/day). There were no effects on testicular histopathology and sperm counts, and no indications of endocrine effects: testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and 17β-estradiol were unchanged by the treatment, compared with the control group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1052-1063, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Development of an automated informatic system, for the evaluation of damage in plastics and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo V, V.; Lopez G, A.D.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Segovia R, A.; Balcazar, M.

    2008-01-01

    A computer system of pattern recognition to evaluate automatically the damages registered by positive ions in minerals and plastics was developed. In the case of minerals the apatite in which was achievement to recognize and to count the damages by spontaneous fission of the uranium contained in her was selected. The selected plastic was the CR39, in which was possible to obtain the distribution of the diameters of the you give you taken place by slight ions in this plastic. In both cases, the recognition of patterns you bases on Ision for Computer, using the methodology described by Gonzalez and Woods [6]. The technique consists in: Acquisition of the Image, Pre-prosecution, Segmentation, Description and Classification; the computer system you development making use of the software Matlab version 7. The Apatita you selects for their importance in the one dated geologic and the determination of the thermal history, both of importance in the oil prospecting. In the case of the CR39 their importance resides in its wide and massive use as dosimetro of neutrons, determination of environmental Radon and detection of nuclear reactions of low section. (Author)

  11. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The pharmacopeial evolution of intralipid injectable emulsion in plastic containers: from a coarse to a fine dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F

    2009-02-23

    On December 1, 2007, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) adopted Chapter 729 entitled Globule Size Distribution in Lipid Injectable Emulsions that contains two globule sizing methods and criteria to measure the mean droplet diameter (MDD) and the large-diameter tail of the globule size distribution to meet pharmacopeial specifications. The first of these measures, as the intensity-weighted MDD expressed in nanometers, must be less than 500 nm. The second measure, as the volume-weighted percentage of fat greater than 5 microm or PFAT(5), must be less than 0.05%. These limits were first suggested in 2001 based on an analysis of 16 lipid injectable emulsions available worldwide. In 2004, the packaging of the innovator lipid emulsion product Intralipid was changed from conventional glass bottles to plastic containers in the U.S. A subsequent analysis of the emulsion in its new container showed it to be more coarse than its previous glass counterpart and now failed the PFAT(5) limit. In 2007, it was announced that Intralipid in plastic containers was reformulated to meet the pharmacopeial limits. To track the time course of its transition from a coarse to a fine dispersion, 31 lots of Intralipid with expiration dates spanning five years were investigated.

  13. Development status of compact containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Mori, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Kuroki, M.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, increase of nuclear plant unit capacity has been promoted to take advantage of economies of scale while further enhancing safety and reliability. As a result, more than 50 units of nuclear power plants are playing important role in electric power generation. However, the factors, such as stagnant growth in the recent electricity demand, limitation in electricity grid capacity and limited in initial investment avoiding risk, will not be in favor of large plant outputs. The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response

  14. Development of Improved Chemicals and Plastics from Oilseeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Patricia A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2006-11-09

    The overall objective of this program was to develop technology that can be applied to the production of various chemicals and plastics from seed oils. This research and development program included activities in all four key barrier areas identified in the US DOE Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources, namely Plant Science, Production, Processing, and Utilization. Participants in the project included The Dow Chemical Company, Castor Oil, Inc., and the USDA Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). The objective of this production task was to evaluate and develop metathesis catalyst technology as a means of utilizing seed oils as feedstocks for the chemical industry. Specifically, ethenolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME’s, leads to functionalized derivatives. These serve as valuable starting points for materials which cascade into a variety of applications, many of which have a current market presence. The relatively recent discovery and commercial availability of a family of metathesis catalysts which are tolerant of polar functional groups and the acquisition and implementation of high throughput synthesis and screening infrastructure led to a prime opportunity to investigate this project area.

  15. Studies of Plasticized-Polymer Electrolytes Containing Mixed Zn(II) and Li(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-12

    iIIIII1iIIII!I 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. tdUMnnrri . 9 poly(ethylene glycol) ( PEG ), poly(ethylene glycol dimethyl ether) (PEGDME), 16. PRICE CODE...glycol) ( PEG ) and poly(ethylene glycol dimethyl ether) (PEGDME). The addition of salts to either PEO or plasticized-PEO strongly influences the...were found to depend on salt concentration. Td varied from 385 to 3350 C as the zinc content was increased from 0 to 100%. Thus the overall thermal

  16. The development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Hernandez, Belinda J.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Narvaez del Pilar, Odemaris; Vila-Ellis, Lisandra; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Evans, Scott E.; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Chen, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover >95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal development is required for alveolar angiogenesis. Notably, a majority of AT1 cells proliferate upon ectopic SOX2 expression and undergo stage-dependent cell fate reprogramming. These results provide evidence that AT1 cells have both structural and signaling roles in alveolar maturation and can exit their terminally differentiated non-proliferative state. Our findings suggest that AT1 cells might be a new target in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases associated with premature birth. PMID:26586225

  17. Knowledge and Behavior Assessment about the Use of Disposable Plastic Containers amongst Medical Sciences Students in Northeastern Iran in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nourbakhsh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disposable Plastic Containers (DPCs are widely in use in our daily life in many locations and times. Despite their great advantages including low cost, easy access, convenient transferring and no need to clean up, the indiscriminate use of them can be a concern, if they are not applied in the correct way of usage. This study aimed to assess the students' knowledge, and behavior regarding the correct use of DPCs. A questionnaire was designed using scientific literatures and health expert consultation. The resulting 26-item scale which included questions for sample characteristics (N=4, knowledge (N=19, and behavior (N=3 was approved in terms of reliability regarding Cronbach's alpha score of 0.8. Developed instrument was administered to a cross section of 200 students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in mid-2016. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results indicated that 59.3% of the individuals had used DPCs more than once. Only 5.8% of the respondents were familiar with safety codes on the bottom of DPCs. The differences in the mean score of knowledge were not statistically significant in terms of gender, marriage status, level of education, and college. Considering total knowledge score of 18 on the designed scale, the maximum score of knowledge was observed in men (5.88±2.26, in married ones (6.11±2.55, in PhD students (6.5±2.39, and in dental college (6.31±2.65. According to the results, the students’ knowledge regarding the safe use of DPCs was very low (less than one third of the ideal knowledge and their usage behavior was also relatively false.

  18. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  19. Disposal/storage container development experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Fowler, E.; Barreira, D.G.; Emmett, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental work is currently underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design and manufacture a radioactive waste container suitable for both storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. The container is designed to fulfill the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for on-site storage, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for high integrity containers. The project also involves meeting the strict design and manufacturing ANSI/ASME NQA-1 guidelines. Special provisions of the container include a double containment system, with the inner barrier being corrosion resistant, the capability to monitor the internal cavity of the container, and off-gas venting capability. Further, yet related developmental work includes evaluating the cask for other varied uses, such as a processing cask, an ALARA shield, and even the possibility of Department of Transportation approval for an over-the-road transport cask

  20. An Analysis of the Advantages of Reusable Plastic Containers in Strawberry Logistics : A Case Study of the Japan Agricultural Cooperative YOICHI

    OpenAIRE

    尾碕, 亨; 樋元, 淳一

    2014-01-01

    This article undertook a comparative analysis of cardboard boxes and reusable plastic containers and their impact on production logistics costs and the receipt prices of producers. The results showed that reusable plastic containers shortened logistical working hours, reduced production logistics costs and increased the receipt prices of the producer. However, exchange-value cannot realized if the quality of the farm product is not maintained, even if it is transported in superior packing con...

  1. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic with balsa wood cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with balsa cores. Containers of this type are commonly used on tank trailers for the transport of hazardous chemicals. 1.2 This practice is limited to cylindrical shape containers, 0.5 m [20 in.] to 3 m [120 in.] in diameter, of sandwich construction with balsa wood core and over 30 % glass (by weight) FRP skins. Reinforcing material may be mat, roving, cloth, unidirectional layers, or a combination thereof. There is no restriction with regard to fabrication technique or method of design. 1.3 This practice is limited to containers that are designed for less than 0.520 MPa [75.4 psi] (gage) above static pressure head due to contents. 1.4 This practice does not specify a time interval between examinations for re-qualification of a pressure container. 1.5 This practice is used to determine if a container is suitable for service or if follow-up NDT is needed before that...

  2. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  3. Presynaptic Active Zone Density during Development and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Chen, Jie; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density) during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS), active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  4. Radiation properties of two types of luminous textile devices containing plastic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selm, Bärbel; Rothmaier, Markus

    2007-05-01

    Luminous textiles have the potential to satisfy a need for thin and flexible light diffusers for treatment of intraoral cancerous tissue. Plastic optical fibers (POF) with diameters of 250 microns and smaller are used to make the textiles luminous. Usually light is supplied to the optical fiber at both ends. On the textile surface light emission occurs in a woven structure via damaged straight POFs, whereas the embroidered structure radiates the light out of macroscopically bent POFs. We compared the optical properties of these two types of textile diffusers using red light laser for the embroidery and light emitting diode (LED) for the woven structure as light sources, and found efficiencies for the luminous areas of the two samples of 19 % (woven) and 32 % (embroidery), respectively. It was shown that the efficiency can be greatly improved using an aluminium backing. Additional scattering layers lower the fluence rate by around 30 %. To analyse the homogeneity we took a photo of the illuminated surface using a 3CCD camera and found, for both textiles, a slightly skewed distribution of the dark and bright pixels. The interquartile range of brightness distribution of the embroidery is more than double as the woven structure.

  5. Experimental investigation on the properties of concrete containing post-consumer plastic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Zasiah TAFHEEM; Rakibul Islam RAKIB; MD. ESHARUHULLAH; S.M. REDUANUL ALAM; Md. MASHFIQUL ISLAM

    2018-01-01

    The consumption of various forms of plastic has been increased in recent days due to the boost in industrialization and other human activities. Most of the plastic wastes are abandoned and require large landfill area for storage. More importantly, the low biodegradability of plastic poses a serious threat to environment protection issue. Various methods have been followed for the disposal of plastic in an attempt to reduce the negative impact of the plastic on the environment. Recently, vario...

  6. Development of the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor- Design and Fabrication of the Half-Scale Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John

    2005-01-01

    A half scale version of a device called the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to deal with plastic based wastes that are expected to be encountered in future human space exploration scenarios such as Lunar or Martian Missions. The Plastic Melt Waste Compactor design was based on the types of wastes produced on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab missions. The half scale prototype unit will lead to the development of a full scale Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype that is representative of flight hardware that would be used on near and far term space missions. This report details the progress of the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Development effort by the Solid Waste Management group at NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. The Synaptic Proteome during Development and Plasticity of the Mouse Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlhaus, M.; Li, K.W.; van der Schors, R.C.; Saiepour, M.H.; van Nierop, P.; Heimel, J.A.; Hermans, J.M.; Loos, M.; Smit, A.B.; Levelt, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    During brain development, the neocortex shows periods of enhanced plasticity, which enables the acquisition of knowledge and skills that we use and build on in adult life. Key to persistent modifications of neuronal connectivity and plasticity of the neocortex are molecular changes occurring at the

  8. Development of radiophotometric dosemeters with high sensitivity using plastic scintillators as a light intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rectangular plates of plastic scintillators are developed and their effect as light converter evaluated, when used as film-holder in conventional photography dosemeters. In this dosemeter, the radiation that not interacts in the photographic film can be detected by light photons generation in the plastic scintillators, sensitizing the film. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - Development of the precise analysis method for plastic materials by the use of NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Sim, Sang Kwan; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The demand for inorganic analysis of plastics has significantly increased in the fields of microelectronic, environmental, nuclear and resource recycling. The difficulties of chemical analysis methods have led to the application of NAA which has great advantages of non-destructivity, freedom from blank, high sensitivity. The goal of the present work is to optimize and to develop the NAA procedures for the inorganic analysis of plastics. Even though NAA has unique advantages, it has two problems for plastics. One is the contamination by metallic utensils during sample treatment and the other is destruction of sample ampule due to pressure build-up by hydrogen and methane gas formed from oxyhydrogenation reaction with neutrons. For the first problem, large plastics were cut to pieces after immersion in liquid nitrogen. And the second problem has been solved by making an aperture on top side of sample ampule. These research results have been applied to analysis of various plastic materials which were used in food, drug containers and toys for children. Moreover, korean irradiation rabbit could be produced by the application of the results and standard reference materials of plastics which were used for the analysis in XRF and ICP could be produced. 36 refs., 6 figs., 37 tabs (Author)

  10. Development of prestressed concrete containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuji, Hideo; Kuniyoshi, Mutsumu; Nagata, Kaoru

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of evaluations for the selection of the structural and prestressing system type to be employed for the first domestic Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) in Japan. This paper also discusses characteristic features in the design of the liner plate system provided on the PCCV inner surface to assure its leak-tight integrity. Prestressed concrete containment vessels so far constructed in foreign countries are to a considerable extent of different structural types, depending on differences in dome shapes, prestressing systems and number of buttresses. These differences are caused not only by differences in design philosophy and construction practices, but also by difference in the level of technology of the times when the individual containment vessels are being constructed. In the investigation reported herein, the most suitable types of PCCV and Prestressing Systems were determined as the results of an overall comparative evaluation of data and information obtained from PCCV's so far constructed from the design, construction and cost aspects, taking into consideration the seismic criteria, available technology, construction practices, regulations and technical standards in Japan. The function of the liner plate system requires the liner to have enough deformability so that the liner deformation can be consistent with the PCCV concrete deformation. Therefore, in the design of the liner plate system a method for evaluating liner deformability was employed, instead of the stress evaluation method which is widely used in the design of ordinary structures. (author)

  11. Japan. Wood-Plastic Composites [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T. [Central Research Laboratory, Showa Denko K.K., Ota-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1968-10-15

    Radiation chemistry research has made rapid progress in Japan over the last ten years, and many encouraging results have been obtained with radiation polymerization and graft-polymerization as well as in other fields. Several papers on wood-plastic composites (WPC) have been published in Japanese journals, but very little work on actual applications has been reported. This general review of basic studies and studies of the application of WPC in Japan is divided into three parts: radiation methods, chemical methods (catalyst-heat treatment) and the scope of future research and development.

  12. Data on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a cementitious mortar containing end-of-waste plastic aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio, Luciano; Coppola, Bartolomeo; Courard, Luc; Michel, Frédéric; Incarnato, Loredana; Scarfato, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Hygro-thermal and durability properties of a lightweight mortar made with foamed plastic waste aggregates ” (Coppola et al., 2018). This article focuses the attention on thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability and water absorption of a lightweight cementitious mortar containing foamed end-of-waste plastic aggregates, produced via foam extrusion process. Thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability ...

  13. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  14. Development of starch biofilms using different carboxylic acids as plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Santos, W.J. dos; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Oliveira, J.C.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable films have become a widely exploited issue among scientists because of their positive environmental impact, besides their potential to promote better food conservation and an increase in shelf life. Starch has been studied in this field due to its availability, low cost and biodegradability. However, starch films tend to be brittle and they need addition of a plasticizer to enable their usage. In this work, starch films were synthesized with different carboxylic acids as plasticizers, aiming to observe the effect of the acids chain size in the final films properties. The acids used were: oxalic, succinic and adipic. The materials were produced by casting and characterized by DSC, TG, DRX e FTIR. It was observed that the acids chain size influenced on the thermal and structural properties of the films. (author)

  15. The primary research for the development of the plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bing; Li Wei; Yang Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, We adopted the theory of the polymerism to synthesize the scintillator, and we composed the scintillating material (2, 5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1, 4-bis-(2-(5-phenyloxazolyl))-benzene (POPOP)) to the plastic (PMMA) successfully by the polymerization. We found that the scintillating material (PPO and POPOP) spread well into the plastic and the scintillator could be well seasoned with many different environmental condition through the spectroanalysis and the mechanical testing. We also found that the scintillator was well responded to the γ-ray testing which we did. According to the increase of the content for the PPO, the radiant efficiency of the γ-ray testing was increase too. (authors)

  16. Development of a plastic fracture methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanninen, M.F.; Hahn, G.T.; Broek, D.; Stonesifer, R.B.; Marschall, C.W.; Abou-Sayed, I.S.; Zahoor, A.

    1981-03-01

    A number of candidate fracture criteria were investigated to determine the basis for plastic fracture mechanics assessments of nuclear pressure vessels and other components exhibiting fully ductile behavior. The research was comprised of an integrated combination of stable crack growth experiments and elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The results demonstrated that many different fracture criteria can be used as the basis of a resistance curve approach to predicting stable crack growth and fracture instability. All have some disadvantages and none is completely unacceptable. On balance, the best criteria were found to be the J-integral for initiation and limited amounts of stable crack growth and the local crack tip opening angle for extended amounts of stable growth. A combination of the two, which may preserve the advantages of each while reducing their disadvantages, was also suggested by these results

  17. Development of a plastic fracture methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanninen, M.F.; Hahn, G.T.; Broek, D.; Stonesifer, R.B.; Marschall, C.W.; Abou-Sayed, I.S.; Zahoor, A.

    1981-03-01

    A number of candidate fracture criteria were investigated to determine the basis for plastic fracture mechanics assessments of nuclear pressure vessels and other components exhibiting fully ductile behavior. The research was comprised of an integrated combination of stable crack growth experiments and elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The results demonstrated that many different fracture criteria can be used as the basis of a resistance curve approach to predicting stable crack growth and fracture instability. All have some disadvantages and none is completely unacceptable. On balance, the best criteria were found to be the J-integral for initiation and limited amounts of stable crack growth and the local crack tip opening angle for extended amounts of stable growth. A combination of the two, which may preserve the advantages of each while reducing their disadvantages, was also suggested by these results.

  18. Development of extruded resistive plastic tubes for proportional chamber cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon mixed plastic tubes with resistivity of 10 3 approx. 10 4 Ωcm have been molded with an extrusion method and used for the d.c. cathode of a proportional counter and a multi-wire proportional chamber. The signal by gas multiplication was picked up from a strip r.f. cathode set outside the tube. The characteristics of the counter in the proportional and limited streamer modes have been studied

  19. Development of Safety Enhancement Technology Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This study is to develop the nondestructive testing method for the detection of internal defects and thickness of concrete using IE(Impact Echo)-SASW(Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave). (author). 20 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Silver speciation and characterization of nanoparticles released from plastic food containers by single particle ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, K; Gómez-Gómez, M M; Cámara, C; Ramos, L

    2016-05-01

    Silver migration from a commercial baby feeding bottle and a food box containing AgNPs, as confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis, was evaluated using food simulant solutions [i.e., water, 3% (v/v) acetic acid, and 10% and 90% (v/v) ethanol]. Silver release was investigated at temperatures in the 20-70°C range using contact times of up to 10 days. Migration of silver from the food box was in all cases 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for the baby bottle, although the total silver content in the original box material was half of that found in the baby bottle. As expected, for both food containers, silver migration depended on both the nature of the tested solution and the applied conditions. The highest release was observed for 3% acetic acid at 70°C for 2h, corresponding to 62ngdm(2) and 1887ngdm(-2) of silver for the baby bottle and the food box, respectively. Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS) was used to characterise and quantify AgNPs in the food simulants extracts. Sample preparation was optimized to preserve AgNPs integrity. The experimental parameters affecting AgNPs detection, sizing and quantification by SP-ICPMS were also optimised. Analyses of water and acidic extracts revealed the presence of both dissolved silver and AgNPs. Small AgNPs (in the 18-30nm range) and particle number concentrations within the 4-1510 10(6)L(-1) range were detected, corresponding to only 0.1-8.6% of the total silver released from these materials. The only exception was AgNPs migrated into water at 40°C and 70°C from the food box, which accounted for as much as 34% and 69% of the total silver content, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of mathematical models for automation of strength calculation during plastic deformation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steposhina, S. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    Dependencies that make it possible to automate the force calculation during surface plastic deformation (SPD) processing and, thus, to shorten the time for technological preparation of production have been developed.

  2. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  3. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  4. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  5. Preparation and properties of thermoplastic poly(caprolactone) composites containing high amount of esterified starch without plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Hu, Qiongen; Qian, Jiangtao; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Shi, Dongjian; Dong, Weifu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-03-30

    Based on stearyl chloride and native starch, esterified starch were prepared and the chemical structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR. It was found that stearyl chloride was an efficient agent to fabricate esterified starch with high degree of substitution (DS). During the melt blending of esterified starch (80 wt%) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 20 wt%), it was shown the torque of PCL/esterified starch was much lower than that of PCL/native starch without any plasticizer, and further decreased with increasing DS. Compared with PCL/native starch, the tensile properties of PCL/esterified starch composites were significantly enhanced. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased from 2.7 MPa to 56% for PCL/native starch composites to 9.1 MPa and 626% for PCL/esterified starch ones with DS of 1.50, respectively. SEM observation revealed the esterified starch particles in matrix became smaller and more uniform. In addition, the water resistance and hydrophobic character of PCL/esterified starch composites were improved. PCL composites containing 80 wt% esterified starch with favorable mechanical properties would have great potential applications in broad areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of safety enhancement technology of containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Y. S.; Choi, I. K.

    2002-04-01

    This study consists of four research areas, (1) Seismic safety assessment, (2) Aging assessment of a containment building, (3) Prediction of long-term behavior and analysis of a containment building, (4) Performance verification of a containment building. In the seismic safety assessment area, responses of a containment building were monitored and the analysis method was verified. Also performed are the identification of earthquake characteristics and improvement of the seismic fragility analysis method. In the area of aging assessment of a containment building, we developed aging management code SLMS and database. Aging tests were performed for containment building materials and aging models were developed. Techniques for investigation, detection, and evaluation of aging were developed. In the area of prediction of long-term behavior and analysis of a containment building, we developed a non-linear structural analysis code NUCAS and material models. In the area of performance verification of a containment building, we analyzed the crack behavior of a containment wall and the behavior of the containment under internal pressure. We also improved the ISI methods for prestressed containment

  7. Development on design methodology of PWR passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Wook

    1998-02-01

    The containment is the most important barrier against the release of radioactive materials into the environment during accident conditions of nuclear power plants. Therefore the development of a reliable containment cooling system is one of key areas in advanced reactor development. To enhance the safety of the containment system, many new containment system designs have been proposed and developed in the world. Several passive containment cooling system (PCCS) concepts for both steel and concrete containment systems are overviewed and assessed comparatively. Major concepts considered are: (a) the spray of water on the outer surface of a steel containment from an elevated tank, (b) an external moat for a steel containment, (c) a suppression pool for a concrete containment, and (d) combination of the internal spray and internal or external condensers for a concrete containment. Emphasis is given to the heat removal principles, the required heat transfer area, system complexity and operational reliability. As one of conceptual design steps of containment, a methodology based on scaling principles is proposed to determine the containment size according to the power level. The AP600 containment system is selected as the reference containment to which the scaling laws are applied. Governing equations of containment pressure are set up in consideration of containment behavior in accident conditions. Then, the dimensionless numbers, which characterize the containment phenomena, are derived for the blowdown dominant and decay heat dominant stage, respectively. The important phenomena in blowdown stage are mass and energy sources and their absorption in containment atmosphere or containment structure, while heat transfer to the outer environment becomes important in decay heat stage. Based on their similarity between the prototype and the model, the containment sizes are determined for higher power levels and are compared with the SPWR containment design values available

  8. Development of thermoplastic starch blown film by incorporating plasticized chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2015-01-22

    The objective of the present work was to improve blown film extrusion processability and properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) film by incorporating plasticized chitosan, with a content of 0.37-1.45%. The effects of chitosan on extrusion processability and melt flow ability of TPS, as well as that on appearance, optical properties, thermal properties, viscoelastic properties and tensile properties of the films were investigated. The possible interactions between chitosan and starch molecules were evaluated by FTIR and XRD techniques. Chitosan and starch molecules could interact via hydrogen bonds, as confirmed from the blue shift of OH bands and the reduction of V-type crystal formation. Although the incorporation of chitosan caused decreased extensibility and melt flow ability, as well as increased yellowness and opacity, the films possessed better extrusion processability, increased tensile strength, rigidity, thermal stability and UV absorption, as well as reduced water absorption and surface stickiness. The obtained TPS/chitosan-based films offer real potential application in the food industry, e.g. as edible films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A development of containment performance analysis methodology using GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. C.; Yoon, J. I. [Future and Challenge Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, C. S.; Lee, J. Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In a circumstance that well-established containment pressure/temperature analysis code, CONTEMPT-LT treats the reactor containment as a single volume, this study introduces, as an alternative, the GOTHIC code for an usage on multi-compartmental containment performance analysis. With a developed GOTHIC methodology, its applicability is verified for containment performance analysis for Korean Nuclear Unit 1. The GOTHIC model for this plant is simply composed of 3 compartments including the reactor containment and RWST. In addition, the containment spray system and containment recirculation system are simulated. As a result of GOTHIC calculation, under the same assumptions and conditions as those in CONTEMPT-LT, the GOTHIC prediction shows a very good result; pressure and temperature transients including their peaks are nearly the same. It can be concluded that the GOTHIC could provide reasonable containment pressure and temperature responses if considering the inherent conservatism in CONTEMPT-LT code.

  10. A development of containment performance analysis methodology using GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. C.; Yoon, J. I.; Byun, C. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    In a circumstance that well-established containment pressure/temperature analysis code, CONTEMPT-LT treats the reactor containment as a single volume, this study introduces, as an alternative, the GOTHIC code for an usage on multi-compartmental containment performance analysis. With a developed GOTHIC methodology, its applicability is verified for containment performance analysis for Korean Nuclear Unit 1. The GOTHIC model for this plant is simply composed of 3 compartments including the reactor containment and RWST. In addition, the containment spray system and containment recirculation system are simulated. As a result of GOTHIC calculation, under the same assumptions and conditions as those in CONTEMPT-LT, the GOTHIC prediction shows a very good result; pressure and temperature transients including their peaks are nearly the same. It can be concluded that the GOTHIC could provide reasonable containment pressure and temperature responses if considering the inherent conservatism in CONTEMPT-LT code

  11. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE LASER SCANNER FOR GEOMETRICAL VERIFICATION OF METALLIC AND PLASTIC PARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Fisker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    and plastic parts. A first prototype of the novel measuring system has been developed, using laser triangulation. The system, besides ensuring the automatic reconstruction of complete surface models, has been designed to guarantee user-friendliness, versatility, reliability and speed. The paper focuses mainly...... on the metrological aspects of the system development. Details are given on procedures and artefacts developed for metrological performance verification and traceability establishment. Experimental results from measurements on metallic and plastic parts show that the system prototype is capable of performing...

  13. Investigation into the use of ductile cast iron and cast steel for transport containers with plastic flow shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.S.; Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Miles, J.C.; Egid, B.; Donelan, P.

    1993-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is responsible for the development of facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste in the United Kingdom, including the development of the transport facilities for this waste. As part of the development programme Nirex is examining the feasibility of manufacturing these transport containers by means of casting instead of the more usual forging process, as this would bring advantages of lower cost and shorter manufacturing time. This paper describes the programme of work to date which has been aimed at establishing the feasibility of utilizing casting as the manufacturing method for the ILW transport containers and selecting one of the materials for further development work. (J.P.N.)

  14. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Wang

    Full Text Available Disrupting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the developing brain has been causally linked with intellectual disability (ID and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Excitatory synapse strength is regulated in the central nervous system by controlling the number of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs. De novo genetic mutations of the synaptic GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP are associated with ID and ASD. SynGAP is enriched at excitatory synapses and genetic suppression of SynGAP increases excitatory synaptic strength. However, exactly how SynGAP acts to maintain synaptic AMPAR content is unclear. We show here that SynGAP limits excitatory synaptic strength, in part, by suppressing protein synthesis in cortical neurons. The data presented here from in vitro, rat and mouse cortical networks, demonstrate that regulation of translation by SynGAP involves ERK, mTOR, and the small GTP-binding protein Rheb. Furthermore, these data show that GluN2B-containing NMDARs and the cognitive kinase CaMKII act upstream of SynGAP and that this signaling cascade is required for proper translation-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity of excitatory synapses in developing cortical networks.

  15. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  16. The development of ISO freight containers as IP-2 packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicki, M.C.; Vaughan, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Design specifications were developed for ISO freight containers to meet the requirements of the transport regulations in the 1985 Edition of IAEA SS6, and to maximize the technical and commercial benefits offered to consignors by this type of container for the transport and handling of bulk LSA/SCO materials. A range of IP-2 ISO freight containers have been designed and built to these specifications and are in use in the UK. This paper discusses the regulatory considerations which had to be reviewed and interpreted in developing freight containers as Industrial Package Type 2 (IP-2) packagings and the development of performance standards to meet the regulatory requirements. Outline details of the packages developed are indicated together with examples of handling equipment developed to facilitate loading and unloading. (J.P.N.)

  17. Development and application of free pretreatment container steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Han, B.; Wei, B.; Wang, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Due to economic and environmental advantages pre-treatment containers have good big development prospects, which can avoid shot blasting processes, and decrease the noise and dust pollution. By analyzing requirements of the container steel surface quality, target oxide scale structure of free pretreatment container steel has been determined. Trial process was carried out, and test results showed that the oxide scale achieved the desired objects, oxide scale with outer thin Fe3O4 layer and inner eutectoid α-Fe+Fe3O4. Salt spray test, second adhesion test, and modeling performance basically corroborated the container feasibility.

  18. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Key textbooks in the development of modern american plastic surgery: the first half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Nicholas T; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2013-07-01

    A number of historical texts published during the first half of the twentieth century played a pivotal role in shaping and defining modern plastic surgery in the United States. Blair's Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws (1912), John Staige Davis's Plastic Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1919), Gillies's Plastic Surgery of the Face (1920), Fomon's Surgery of Injury and Plastic Repair (1939), Ivy's Manual of Standard Practice of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Surgery Manuals (1943), Padgett and Stephenson's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1948), and Kazanjian and Converse's The Surgical Treatment of Facial Injuries (1949) were reviewed. These texts were published at a time when plastic surgery was developing as a distinct specialty. Each work represents a different point in this evolution. All were not inclusive of all of plastic surgery, but all had a lasting impact. Four texts were based on clinical experience from World War I; one included experience from World War II; and two included experience from both. One text became a military surgical handbook in World Wars I and II, playing an important role in care for the wounded. History has demonstrated that times of war spark medical/surgical advancements, and these wars had a dramatic impact on the development of reconstructive plastic surgery. Each of these texts documented surgical advancements and provided an intellectual platform that helped shape and create the independent discipline of plastic surgery during peacetime. For many future leaders of plastic surgery, these books served as their introduction to this new field.

  20. Development of suitable plastic standards for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mans, Christian [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: c.mans@fh-muenster.de; Hanning, Stephanie [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: hanning@fh-muenster.de; Simons, Christoph [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: simons@fh-muenster.de; Wegner, Anne [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: awegner@fh-muenster.de; Janssen, Anton [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: janssena@fh-muenster.de; Kreyenschmidt, Martin [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: martin.kreyenschmidt@fh-muenster.de

    2007-02-15

    For the adoption of the EU directive 'Restriction on use of certain Hazardous Substances' and 'Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment' using X-ray fluorescence analysis suitable standard materials are required. Plastic standards based on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, containing the regulated elements Br, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb were developed and produced as granulates and solid bodies. The calibration materials were not generated as a dilution from one master batch but rather the element concentrations were distributed over nine independent calibration samples. This was necessary to enable inter-elemental corrections and empirical constant mass absorption coefficients. The produced standard materials are characterized by a homogenous element distribution, which is more than sufficient for X-ray fluorescence analysis. Concentrations for all elements except for Br could be determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy after microwave assisted digestion. The concentration of Br was determined by use of Neutron Activation Analysis at Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin, Germany. The correlation of the X-ray fluorescence analysis measurements with the values determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Neutron Activation Analysis showed a very good linearity.

  1. The wiring of developing sensory circuits - from patterned spontaneous activity to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Helen Leighton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately process incoming sensory stimuli, neurons must be organized into functional networks, with both genetic and environmental factors influencing the precise arrangement of connections between cells. Teasing apart the relative contributions of molecular guidance cues, spontaneous activity and visual experience during this maturation is on-going. During development of the sensory system, the first, rough organization of connections is created by molecular factors. These connections are then modulated by the intrinsically generated activity of neurons, even before the senses have become operational. Spontaneous waves of depolarisations sweep across the nervous system, placing them in a prime position to strengthen correct connections and weaken others, shaping synapses into a useful network. A large body of work now supports the idea that, rather than being a mere side-effect of the system, spontaneous activity actually contains information which readies the nervous system so that, as soon as the senses become active, sensory information can be utilized by the animal. An example is the neonatal mouse. As soon as the eyelids first open, neurons in the cortex respond to visual information without the animal having previously encountered structured sensory input (Cang et al., 2005a; Ko et al., 2013; Rochefort et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012. In vivo imaging techniques have advanced considerably, allowing observation of the natural activity in the brain of living animals down to the level of the individual synapse. New (optogenetic methods make it possible to subtly modulate the spatio-temporal properties of activity, aiding our understanding of how these characteristics relate to the function of spontaneous activity. Such experiments have had a huge impact on our knowledge by permitting direct testing of ideas about the plasticity mechanisms at play in the intact system, opening up a provocative range of fresh questions. Here, we

  2. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  3. Plasticity-related genes in brain development and amygdala-dependent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, D E; Josselyn, S A

    2016-01-01

    Learning about motivationally important stimuli involves plasticity in the amygdala, a temporal lobe structure. Amygdala-dependent learning involves a growing number of plasticity-related signaling pathways also implicated in brain development, suggesting that learning-related signaling in juveniles may simultaneously influence development. Here, we review the pleiotropic functions in nervous system development and amygdala-dependent learning of a signaling pathway that includes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), extracellular signaling-related kinases (ERKs) and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Using these canonical, plasticity-related genes as an example, we discuss the intersection of learning-related and developmental plasticity in the immature amygdala, when aversive and appetitive learning may influence the developmental trajectory of amygdala function. We propose that learning-dependent activation of BDNF, ERK and CREB signaling in the immature amygdala exaggerates and accelerates neural development, promoting amygdala excitability and environmental sensitivity later in life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  5. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  6. Experience during development triggers between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Nagy, Gergely; Hettyey, Attila; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2018-05-12

    1.Behavioural consistency within and across behaviours (animal personality and behavioural syndrome, respectively) have been vigorously studied in the last decade, leading to the emergence of 'animal personality' research. It has been proposed recently that not only mean behaviour (behavioural type), but the environmentally induced behavioural change (behavioural plasticity) might also differ between individuals within populations. 2.While case studies presenting between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity have started to accumulate, the mechanisms behind its emergence are virtually unknown. We have recently demonstrated that ecologically relevant environmental stimuli during ontogeny are necessary for the development of animal personality and behavioural syndromes. However, it is unknown whether between-individual variation in behavioural plasticity is hard-wired or induced. 3.Here, we tested whether experience with predation during development affected predator-induced behavioural plasticity in Rana dalmatina tadpoles. We ran a common garden experiment with two ontogenetic predation treatments: tadpoles developed from hatching in either the presence or absence of olfactory predator stimuli. Then, we assayed all tadpoles repeatedly for activity and risk-taking both in the absence and presence of olfactory predator stimuli. 4. We found that (i) between-individual variation in predator-induced behavioural plasticity was present only in the group that developed in the presence of olfactory stimuli from predators and (ii) previous experience with predatory stimuli resulted in lower plastic response at the group-level. The latter pattern resulted from increased between-individual variation and not from universally lower individual responses. We also found that experience with predation during development increased the predictability (i.e. decreased the within-individual variation unrelated to environmental change) of activity, but not risk-taking. In line

  7. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  8. PCCS model development for SBWR using the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tills, J.; Murata, K.K.; Washington, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    The General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) employs a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to maintain long-term containment gas pressure and temperature below design limits during accidents. This system consists of a steam supply line that connects the upper portion of the drywell with a vertical shell-and-tube single pass heat exchanger located in an open water pool outside of the containment safety envelope. The heat exchanger tube outlet is connected to a vent line that is submerged below the suppression pool surface but above the main suppression pool horizontal vents. Steam generated in the post-shutdown period flows into the heat exchanger tubes as the result of suction and/or a low pressure differential between the drywell and suppression chamber. Operation of the PCCS is complicated by the presence of noncondensables in the flow stream. Build-up of noncondensables in the exchanger and vent line for the periods when the vent is not cleared causes a reduction in the exchanger heat removal capacity. As flow to the exchanger is reduced due to the noncondensable gas build-up, the drywell pressure increases until the vent line is cleared and the noncondensables are purged into the suppression chamber, restoring the heat removal capability of the PCCS. This paper reports on progress made in modeling SBWR containment loads using the CONTAIN code. As a central part of this effort, a PCCS model development effort has recently been undertaken to implement an appropriate model in CONTAIN. The CONTAIN PCCS modeling approach is discussed and validated. A full SBWR containment input deck has also been developed for CONTAIN. The plant response to a postulated design basis accident (DBA) has been calculated with the CONTAIN PCCS model and plant deck, and the preliminary results are discussed

  9. GTA Welding Research and Development for Plutonium Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of two welding systems that are used to contain actinide metals and oxides for long term storage. The systems are termed the bagless transfer system (BTS) and the outer container welder (OCW) system. The BTS is so named because it permits the containment of actinides without a polymeric package (i.e., bag). The development of these two systems was directed by Department of Energy Standard 3013, hereafter referred to as DOE 3013. This document defines the product and container requirements. In addition, it references national codes and standards for leak rates, ANSI N14.5, and design, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII (BandPVC)

  10. Recent developments in the CONTAIN-LMR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    Through an international collaborative effort, a special version of the CONTAIN code is being developed for integrated mechanistic analysis of the conditions in liquid metal reactor (LMR) containments during severe accidents. The capabilities of the most recent code version, CONTAIN LMR/1B-Mod.1, are discussed. These include new models for the treatment of two condensables, sodium condensation on aerosols, chemical reactions, hygroscopic aerosols, and concrete outgassing. This code version also incorporates all of the previously released LMR model enhancements. The results of an integral demonstration calculation of a sever core-melt accident scenario are given to illustrate the features of this code version. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  12. New developments in containment in-service inspection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffiera, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Section 11 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code contains requirements for inservice inspection of nuclear power plant components. Development of ASME Code requirements for containment inservice inspection was begun in 1977, and in 1979 the first such requirements were published in the form of Code Case N-236. Formal inclusion of these requirements in Section 11 of the ASME Code occurred with publication of Subsection IWE, ''Rules for inservice Inspection of Class MC Components of Nuclear Power Plants,'' in the 1980 Edition, Winter 1981 Addenda. At that time, inspection emphasis on nuclear power construction and operation activities was placed on welds and welding processes associated with steel containments and metallic liners of concrete containments. The need for repair-welding requirements was necessitated by containment design modifications for conditions not considered in several original plant designs. Welds in steel containments and metallic liners of concrete containments have not required significant amounts of repair, however, degradation of base metal in containments has become a major concern. Various degradation mechanisms have been identified as potential causes of damage to containment surfaces, including fatigue, corrosion and material embrittlement due to long-term radiation exposure. As a result of these concerns, and in response to comments generated by the Committee to Review Generic Requirements (CRGR) of the NRC in its review of Subsection IWE, emphasis on weld-based inservice inspection was redirected toward a containment-surface inservice inspection program. Significant changes were made to accommodate this re-emphasis. The majority of these changes were published in the 1992 Edition, with the 1992 Addenda, of Subsection IWE. The NRC Proposed Rulemaking was issued for a 75-day public comment period in January, 1994. This period was extended at the request of nuclear industry organizations to allow for meaningful evaluation

  13. Mass extraction container closure integrity physical testing method development for parenteral container closure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Yil; Sagi, Hemi; Goldhammer, Craig; Li, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) is a critical factor to ensure that product sterility is maintained over its entire shelf life. Assuring the CCI during container closure (C/C) system qualification, routine manufacturing and stability is important. FDA guidance also encourages industry to develop a CCI physical testing method in lieu of sterility testing in a stability program. A mass extraction system has been developed to check CCI for a variety of container closure systems such as vials, syringes, and cartridges. Various types of defects (e.g., glass micropipette, laser drill, wire) were created and used to demonstrate a detection limit. Leakage, detected as mass flow in this study, changes as a function of defect length and diameter. Therefore, the morphology of defects has been examined in detail with fluid theories. This study demonstrated that a mass extraction system was able to distinguish between intact samples and samples with 2 μm defects reliably when the defect was exposed to air, water, placebo, or drug product (3 mg/mL concentration) solution. Also, it has been verified that the method was robust, and capable of determining the acceptance limit using 3σ for syringes and 6σ for vials. Sterile products must maintain their sterility over their entire shelf life. Container closure systems such as those found in syringes and vials provide a seal between rubber and glass containers. This seal must be ensured to maintain product sterility. A mass extraction system has been developed to check container closure integrity for a variety of container closure systems such as vials, syringes, and cartridges. In order to demonstrate the method's capability, various types of defects (e.g., glass micropipette, laser drill, wire) were created in syringes and vials and were tested. This study demonstrated that a mass extraction system was able to distinguish between intact samples and samples with 2 μm defects reliably when the defect was exposed to air, water

  14. Development of bio based plastic materials for packaging from soybeans waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Roslan, A.; Idris, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Demands of plastic material which increase with the increasing of human population encourage researchers to find alternative solution to replace petro based plastic. Thus, in the present study, a novel "green bioplastic" packaging was developed using soybean waste which is a major waste in soy sauce food industry. The evaluation of the effect of ratio of starch, soy waste and plasticizer in this bioplastic production was studied and their characteristics were compared with available bioplastics. Characteristics study was done in terms of burning test, water absorption capacity, thermal and tensile strength measurement and the result obtained were analyzed. The glass transition temperature (Tg) for soy waste bioplastic is 117˚C. The water absorption test shows that an increase in mass up to 114.17% which show large amount of water uptake capacity of this bioplastics. And about 38% of percentage loss was observed when compared with other novel bioplastics. The results clearly show that the amount of glycerol as a plasticizer had an inversely proportional relationship with the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg). The average maximum force value for tensile strength test is 6.71 N. The burning test show that the soy wastes bioplastic release a very faint smell of soy and glue-like substance. The flame ignited a Yellowish-Orange colour and released some sparks. Based on the overall results, soy-based have been proven to become an excellent bio-based packaging materials.

  15. Effects of plasticization and shear stress on phase structure development and properties of soy protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinwen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was used as a plastic component to blend with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Effects of SPC plasticization and blend composition on its deformation during mixing were studied in detail. Influence of using water as the major plasticizer and glycerol as the co-plasticizer on the deformation of the SPC phase during mixing was explored. The effect of shear stress, as affected by SPC loading level, on the phase structure of SPC in the blends was also investigated. Quantitative analysis of the aspect ratio of SPC particles was conducted by using ImageJ software, and an empirical model predicting the formation of percolated structure was applied. The experimental results and the model prediction showed a fairly good agreement. The experimental results and statistic analysis suggest that both SPC loading level and its water content prior to compounding had significant influences on development of the SPC phase structure and were correlated in determining the morphological structures of the resulting blends. Consequently, physical and mechanical properties of the blends greatly depended on the phase morphology and PBAT/SPC ratio of the blends.

  16. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on the radiation resistance, dielectric and mechanical properties of polyvinylchloride containing plasticizer and stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.H.; Lee, J.I.; Kang, D.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To investigate the properties of radiation resistance together with dielectric and mechanical relaxation behaviors of polyvinylchloride exposed to several different doses under the gamma ray of cobalt-60 source, experiments were carried out using the specimens prepared by mixing dibutyl-tin-dilaurate and dibutyl-tin-dimaleate as stabilizers with or without adding dioctylphthalate as a plasticizer. The origin of the absorption band at 1540-1640 cm -1 on infrared spectrum seemed to be RCOO - ion obtained from the ionization of the stabilizer, and this peak could be useful as a measure of radiation resistance on polyvinylchloride. Addition of increasing plasticizer to polyvinylchloride exhibited increasing radiation resistance and the reason for the result might be attributable to aromatic resonance adsorption of radiation energy by the dioctylphthalate. On dose dependent dielectric characteristics, nonplastized specimen showed peak at about 10 Mrad and that the peak disappeared on the plastification of specimens. Such phenomena might be explainable in considering the statistical distribution of scissored chain molecular segments as well as the plastification process of the plasticizer to polyvinylchloride chain molecules. (author)

  17. Development of Wolsong Unit 2 Containment Analysis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon, Choi [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Ko Bong; Chan, Park Young [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To be prepared for the full scope safety analysis of Wolsong unit 2 with modified fuel, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2b(QA), are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. A detailed nodalization of 39 control volumes and 92 flow paths is constructed to determine the differential pressure across internal walls or hydrogen concentration and distribution inside containment. A lumped model with 15 control volumes and 74 flow paths has also been developed to reduce the computer run time for the assessments in which the analysis results are not sensitive to detailed thermal hydraulic distribution inside containment such as peak pressure, pressure dependent signal and radionuclide release. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the containment building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various containment subsystems. The parameter values are based on best estimate or design values for that parameter. The analysis values are determined by conservatism depending on the analysis objective and may be different for various analysis objectives. Basic input decks of Wolsong unit 2 were developed for the various analysis purposes with GOTHIC 7.2b(QA). Depend on the analysis objective, two types of models are prepared. Detailed model models each confined room in the containment as a separate node. All of the geometric data are based on the drawings of Wolsong unit 2. Developed containment models are simulating the steady state well to the designated initial condition. These base models will be used for Wolsong unit 2 in case of safety analysis of full scope is needed.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  19. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production of bleomycin by Streptomyces mobaraensis ATCC 15003 using response surface methodology. Hesham H Radwan, Fars K Alanazi, Ehab I Taha, Hamdy A Dardir, Ihab M Moussa, Ibrahim A Alsarra ...

  20. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  1. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  2. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate. PMID:23967057

  3. Development of plastic pulley by injection molding; Shashutsu keisei ni yoru jushi pulley no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, F; Funatsu, A; Yazawa, H [Sumitomo Bakelite Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We developed plastic pulley for automobile manufactured by injection molding which will reduce manufacturing cost. We have developed product design, injection molding technology especially to improve mechanical strength and phenolic molding compound with good wear resistance and high mechanical strength. We have established `Injection Compression molding` technology to improve mechanical strength of weld portion. We also developed phenolic molding compound which is composed of one step resin and long organic fiber to obtain good wear resistance and high mechanical strength. Manufacturing cost will be reduced by using injection molding combined with lower material cost of the newly developed compound. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, Jose F; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-08-01

    Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially "escape" hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more developmentally plastic than strictly water breathing larval fishes remains unknown. Consequently, developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology was determined in two air-breathing anabantid fishes ( Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus ). Larvae of both species experienced an hypoxic exposure that mimicked their natural environmental conditions, namely chronic nocturnal hypoxia (12 h at 17 kPa or 14 kPa), with a daily return to diurnal normoxia. Chronic hypoxic exposures were made from hatching through 35 days postfertilization, and opercular and heart rates measured as development progressed. Opercular and heart rates in normoxia were not affected by chronic nocturnal hypoxic. However, routine oxygen consumption M˙O2 (~4  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour in normoxia in larval Betta ) was significantly elevated by chronic nocturnal hypoxia at 17 kPa but not by more severe (14 kPa) nocturnal hypoxia. Routine M˙O2 in Trichopodus (6-7  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour), significantly higher than in Betta , was unaffected by either level of chronic hypoxia. P Crit , the PO 2 at which M˙O2 decreases as ambient PO 2 falls, was measured at 35 dpf, and decreased with increasing chronic hypoxia in Betta , indicating a large, relatively plastic hypoxic tolerance. However, in contrast, P Crit in Trichopodus increased as rearing conditions grew more hypoxic, suggesting that hypoxic acclimation led to lowered hypoxic resistance. Species-specific differences in larval physiological developmental plasticity thus emerge between the relatively closely related Betta and Trichopodus Hypoxic rearing increased hypoxic tolerance in

  5. Theoretical Development of an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Generalized Composite Material Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert; Carney, Kelly; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Harrington, Joseph; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within LSDYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corporation), there are several features that have been identified that could improve the predictive capability of a composite model. To address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed and is being implemented into LS-DYNA as MAT_213. A key feature of the improved material model is the use of tabulated stress-strain data in a variety of coordinate directions to fully define the stress-strain response of the material. To date, the model development efforts have focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic yield function with a nonassociative flow rule. The coefficients of the yield function, and the stresses to be used in both the yield function and the flow rule, are computed based on the input stress-strain curves using the effective plastic strain as the tracking variable. The coefficients in the flow rule are computed based on the obtained stress-strain data. The developed material model is suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA for use in analyzing the nonlinear response of polymer composites.

  6. Development of an accident management expert system for containment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Sebo, D.E.; Haney, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRSC) is sponsoring a program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop an accident management expert system. The intended users of the system are the personnel of the NRC Operations Center in Washington, D.C. The expert system will be used to help NRC personnel monitor and evaluate the status and management of the containment during a severe reactor accident. The knowledge base will include severe accident knowledge regarding the maintenance of the critical safety functions, especially containment integrity, during an accident. This paper summarizes the concepts that have been developed for the accident management expert system, and the plans that have been developed for its implementation

  7. Thermoelastic/plastic analysis of waste-container sleeve: IV. Air gap influence on hole closure. Technical memorandum report (RSI-0019)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariseau, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    A thermoelastic/plastic finite element analysis of the influence of an air-gap on hole closure about a waste-container/sleeve assembly emplaced in a typical repository room (SALT/4T Model) indicates that hole closure would be of the order of hundredths of an inch. Acceptable air-gap width is thus governed by the hole size required for emplacement efficiency. A refined mesh analysis and laboratory testing is suggested in order to further explore the possibility of eliminating the engineering necessity of the sleeve

  8. Development and assessment of the CONTAIN hybrid flow solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.K.; Stamps, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A new gravitational head formulation for the treatment of stratified conditions has been developed for CONTAIN 1.2, a control volume code used primarily for the analyses of postulated accidents in nuclear power plants. The new CONTAIN formulation of gravitational heads, termed the hybrid formulation, is described. This method of calculating stratified conditions is compared with the old, average-density formulation used in code versions prior to CONTAIN 1.2. Both formulations are assessed in this report with experimental data from three large-scale experiments in which stratified conditions formed by injection of a buoyant gas were observed. In general, the hybrid formulation gives a substantially higher degree of stratification than the old formulation. For stable, fully developed stratifications, the hybrid formulation also gives much better agreement with the measured degree of stratification than the old formulation. In addition, the predicted degree of stratification is robust and not sensitive to nodalization, provided a set of nodalization guidelines are followed. However, for stratification behavior controlled by special physics not modeled in CONTAIN, such as momentum convection, plume entrainment, or bulk molecular diffusion, one should not expect good agreement with experiment unless special measures to accommodate the missing physics are taken

  9. Development of a temperature-dependent cyclic plasticity constitutive model for SUS304 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    Development of an accurate inelastic constitutive model is required to improve the accuracy of inelastic analysis for structural components used in the inelastic region. Based on two fundamental assumptions derived from physical interpretation of temperature dependency of the plastic deformation behavior of type 304 stainless steel, a temperature-dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model is constructed here. Particular emphasis is placed on the modeling of enhanced hardening caused by the dynamic strain aging effect observed in some temperature regimes. Constants and functions involved in the model are determined based on the deformation characteristics observed in the low-cycle fatigue tests conducted at room temperature through 600degC. Several comparisons of model predictions with experimental data show the effectiveness of the present model in non-isothermal condition as well as in isothermal condition between room temperature and 600degC. (author)

  10. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Effect of concentrations of plasticizers on the sol-gel properties developed from alkoxides precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Longhi, Marielen; Zini, Lucas Pandolphi [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (CCET/UCS), Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia; Beltrami, Lilian Vanessa Rossa; Boniatti, Rosiana; Cardoso, Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio; Vega, Maria Rita Ortega; Malfatti, Célia de Fraga, E-mail: lvrossa@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Corrosão

    2017-07-01

    Coatings developed through sol-gel method is presented as an interesting replacement to chromium coating. Sol-gel method present advantages as high purity and excellent distribution of the components. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize a film obtained by sol-gel route. The film was prepared with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSPMA), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and cerium nitrate, using water and ethanol as solvents. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) plasticizer was added at four different concentrations. The sol was characterized by techniques of viscosity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that tetrafunctional alkoxides condensation was retarded by the plasticizer, forming a compact film. The film with 20 g.L-1 of PEG showed the best electrochemical behavior. (author)

  12. Effect of concentrations of plasticizers on the sol-gel properties developed from alkoxides precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Raquel Kunst

    Full Text Available Abstract Coatings developed through sol-gel method is presented as an interesting replacement to chromium coating. Sol-gel method present advantages as high purity and excellent distribution of the components. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize a film obtained by sol-gel route. The film was prepared with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPMA, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and cerium nitrate, using water and ethanol as solvents. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG plasticizer was added at four different concentrations. The sol was characterized by techniques of viscosity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The results showed that tetrafunctional alkoxides condensation was retarded by the plasticizer, forming a compact film. The film with 20 g.L-1 of PEG showed the best electrochemical behavior.

  13. Evaluation of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet detector for surface radioactive contamination monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, R.M.; Chaudhary, H.S.; Mahala, V.K.; Senwar, K.R.; Meena, J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Radioactive contamination may be caused by release of radioactivity in the environment due to accident at nuclear plant/reactor or spillage of loose radioactive materials in a laboratory. The protection of workers from potentially hazardous radiations emitted by the contaminants is a matter of prime concern. The detection of such radiations requires a monitoring system capable of measuring the level of radioactivity at the contaminated site. Plastic scintillators are widely used for large area radiation monitoring due to the ease of preparation in different shape and sizes. These detectors are sensitive to beta and gamma radiation therefore can be used for monitoring of beta and gamma contamination. In this paper, performance results of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet of area 800 cm 2 are reported

  14. Development of a framework for sustainable uses of resources: more paper and less plastics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Chiang

    2006-05-01

    Taiwan's EPA has implemented a new guideline called the "Plastic Products Restriction Policy", prohibiting some industries to use plastics as packaging materials for the sake of sustainable use of resources. The significant effect resulting from this policy is the substitution of plastic products with paper products. Is this policy beneficial to achieve future sustainability? I attempt to analyze the resource choice between renewable resources and exhaustible resources for production of final products and services in case of exhaustion of natural resources. In this paper, I develop a framework to examine the dynamic responsiveness of a socio-economical system in facing a continual depletion of natural resources provided by an environmental system. In this framework, the status of an environmental system in terms of carrying capacity is affected by the cumulative impacts caused from human activities, including environmental pollution and resource exploitation. Conversely, it also affects the growth of renewable resources. This framework can serve as a guideline to construct indicators to measure the status of the environmental system and the socio-economical system in order to support a policy planner that formulates an appropriate environmental policy. Based on this framework, I also develop a mathematical model to determine the optimal ratio of resources choice between renewable resources and exhaustible resources.

  15. Development of crayfish bio-based plastic materials processed by small-scale injection moulding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Cordobes, Felipe; Guerrero, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Protein has been investigated as a source for biodegradable polymeric materials. This work evaluates the development of plastic materials based on crayfish and glycerol blends, processed by injection moulding, as a fully biodegradable alternative to conventional polymer-based plastics. The effect of different additives, namely sodium sulfite or bisulfite as reducing agents, urea as denaturing agent and L-cysteine as cross-linking agent, is also analysed. The incorporation of any additive always yields an increase in energy efficiency at the mixing stage, but its effect on the mechanical properties of the bioplastics is not so clear, and even dampened. The additive developing a greater effect is L-cysteine, showing higher Young's modulus values and exhibiting a remnant thermosetting potential. Thus, processing at higher temperature yields a remarkable increase in extensibility. This work illustrates the feasibility of crayfish-based green biodegradable plastics, thereby contributing to the search for potential value-added applications for this by-product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  17. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Mapping plastic greenhouse with medium spatial resolution satellite data: Development of a new spectral index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dedi; Chen, Jin; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Xuehong; Cao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Plastic greenhouses (PGs) are an important agriculture development technique to protect and control the growing environment for food crops. The extensive use of PGs can change the agriculture landscape and affects the local environment. Accurately mapping and estimating the coverage of PGs is a necessity to the strategic planning of modern agriculture. Unfortunately, PG mapping over large areas is methodologically challenging, as the medium spatial resolution satellite imagery (such as Landsat data) used for analysis lacks spatial details and spectral variations. To fill the gap, the paper proposes a new plastic greenhouse index (PGI) based on the spectral, sensitivity, and separability analysis of PGs using medium spatial resolution images. In the context of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, the paper examines the effectiveness and capability of the proposed PGI. The results indicate that PGs in Landsat ETM+ image can be successfully detected by the PGI if the PG fraction is greater than 12% in a mixed pixel. A kappa coefficient of 0.83 and overall accuracy of 91.2% were achieved when applying the proposed PGI in the case of Weifang District, Shandong, China. These results show that the proposed index can be applied to identifying transparent PGs in atmospheric corrected Landsat image and has the potential for the digital mapping of plastic greenhouse coverage over a large area.

  19. Some recent developments in the endochronic theory of plasticity - The concept of internal barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valanis, K.C.

    1977-01-01

    In 1971 we proposed the endochronic theory of plasticity. We subsequently demonstrated that the theory can predict complex aspects of plastic material response without recourse to the existence of a yield surface. We further showed that the rate independent form of the endochronic theory of nonelastic behavior does not rely for its development on precepts of plastic strain and constitutive constraints such as the normality of plastic strain relative to the yield surface, but is based on the thermodynamic theory of internal variables. This we regarded as a step forward because of the extensive experimental difficulties associated with the determination of the geometric configuration of the yield surface, and the evolution of such a configuration with the history of stress. For an extensive discussion of these difficulties the reader is referred to previous references. It will be shown in this paper that yield can be encompassed by the endochronic theory, in a fashion which is more akin, yet basically and fundamentally different, to Mroz's concept of multiple yield surfaces, whose mode of motion must be specified. Moreover, a single yield event is replaced by a sequence of yield events, where such a sequence may be made continuous, in a limiting sense, if so desired. In this paper the analytical representation of successive yielding events is accomplished by the introduction of the concept of INTERNAL BARRIERS. These ensure that an internal variable qsub(r) will not become activated until a barrier of magnitude u has been overcome. The resulting theory is shown to describe with remarkable accuracy loading, unloading and cross behavior of common metals

  20. Physicochemical stability of carfilzomib (Kyprolis®) containing solutions in glass vials, ready-to-administer plastic syringes and infusion bags over a 28-day storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Krämer, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Centralized aseptic preparation of ready-to-administer carfilzomib containing parenteral solutions in plastic syringes and polyolefine (PO) infusion bags needs profound knowledge about the physicochemical stability in order to determine the beyond-use-date of the preparations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of carfilzomib solution marketed as Kyprolis® powder for solution for infusion. Reconstituted solutions and ready-to-administer preparations of Kyprolis® stored under refrigeration (2-8℃) or at room temperature (25℃) were analyzed at predetermined intervals over a maximum storage period of 28 days. Chemical stability of carfilzomib was planned to be determined with a stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Physicochemical stability was planned to be determined by visual inspection of clarity and color as well as pH measurement. The study results show that reconstituted carfilzomib containing parenteral solutions are stable in glass vials as well as diluted solutions in plastic syringes and PO infusion bags over a period of at least 28 days when stored light protected under refrigeration. When stored at room temperature, reconstituted and diluted carfilzomib solutions are physicochemically stable over 14 days and 10 days, respectively. The physicochemical stability of carfilzomib infusion solutions allows cost-saving pharmacy-based centralized preparation of ready-to-administer preparations.

  1. Considerations in the development of subsurface containment barrier performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, S.; Zdinak, A.P.; Lodman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting subsurface barriers as an alternative remedial option for management of contamination problems at their facilities. Past cleanup initiatives have sometimes proven ineffective or extremely expensive. Economic considerations coupled with changing public and regulatory philosophies regarding remediation techniques makes subsurface barriers a promising technology for future cleanup efforts. As part of the initiative to develop subsurface containment barriers as an alternative remedial option, DOE funded MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to conduct a comprehensive review to identify performance considerations for the acceptability of subsurface barrier technologies as a containment method. Findings from this evaluation were intended to provide a basis for selection and application of containment technologies to address waste problems at DOE sites. Based on this study, the development of performance standards should consider: (1) sustainable low hydraulic conductivity; (2) capability to meet applicable regulations; (3) compatibility with subsurface environmental conditions; (4) durability and long-term stability; (5) repairability; and (6) verification and monitoring. This paper describes the approach for determining considerations for performance standards

  2. Fiscal 2000 report on results. Development of technology for intermediate processing system for recycling mixed waste plastics; 2000 nendo kongo haipra saishohinka no tame no chukan shori system gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted concerning intermediate processing technology for recycling mixed waste plastics, a technology for processing household waste plastics such as plastic containers and packaging into plastic pellets of suitable grain sizes, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the development of the element technologies, an air clutch structure was added that generates rotor slip when foreign matters were engaged, thereby unnecessitating pre-sorting work for locating and removing metallic foreign matters. Addition of an air separator and a sieving machine also helped to achieve a useful-plastics recovery rate of 75% or more in the PVC separation equipment. In the operation of a demonstration plant, a continuous operation was carried out in a three-shift 24-hour system for five days, with the data obtained. Further, waste plastics to which the Containers and Packaging Recycling Law was applicable were treated, resulting in the processing capacity of 0.51 t/h and the production capacity of 0.38 t/h, which both exceeded the target. In the evaluation of the intermediate processing system, the cost of waste plastics treatment turned out to be about 50,000 yen per ton in the case of a plant having a processing capacity of 6,000 tons per year and about 30,000 yen per ton in the case of a plant of 24,000 tons per year. (NEDO)

  3. Development of fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Kurata, Masaki; Koyama, Tadafumi; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Rondinella, Vincenzo V.

    2011-01-01

    Fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides (MAs) Np, Am, and Cm and rare earths (REs) Y, Nd, Ce, and Gd are being developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in the METAPHIX project. The basic properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys containing MA (and RE) were characterized by performing ex-reactor experiments. On the basis of the results, test fuel pins including U-Pu-Zr-MA(-RE) alloy ingots in parts of the fuel stack were fabricated and irradiated up to a maximum burnup of ∼10 at% in the Phenix fast reactor (France). Nondestructive postirradiation tests confirmed that no significant damage to the fuel pins occurred. At present, detailed destructive postirradiation examinations are being carried out at ITU. (author)

  4. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors blockade rescues bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  5. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  6. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  7. Process development for treatment of fluoride containing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahesh; Kanvinde, V Y [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Many chemical and metallurgical industries generate liquid wastes containing high values of fluorides in association of nitrates and other metals. Due to harmful effects of fluorides these type of wastes can not be disposed off in the environment without proper treatment. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to develop a process scheme to fix the fluorides as non-leachable solid waste and fluoride free treated liquid waste for their disposal. To optimize the important parameters, simulated synthetic and actual wastes were used. For this study, three waste streams were collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. (author). 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. The development of a Type B sample container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a package to support chemical agent sampling for the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention. The package is designed to prevent the release of lethal chemical agents during international transport of chemical agents. The package is being designed to meet the IAEA requirements for Type B container. The configuration of the packaging working from the exterior to the interior is as follows. The outer shell provides a sacrificial boundary which will provide protection against the thermal and structural assaults of the hypothetical accident sequence. This shell provides all of the lifting and tie-down attachments. The closure is provided with a v-clamp. The cylindrical shell is austenitic stainless steel with standard pressure vessel heads. Internal to this shell is approximately 7 cm of ceramic fiber insulation to provide protection for the containment boundary against the all-engulfing fire. The containment vessel consists of a stainless steel cylindrical shell with pressure vessel heads at each end. The closure includes an o-ring test port to sample between an elastomeric double o-ring seal. The interior of the package can hold various teflon inserts which are machined to accept samples. The package has a mass of 35 kg and external dimension of 33 cm in length and 30 cm in diameter. The internal cavity is 10 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter. An insert can be machined to accept multiple samples of any configuration within that envelope. This paper describes the design and testing of the Type B sample container. (author)

  9. Implications of recent developments in the plastic fracture mechanics field to the PCI stress corrosion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1980-01-01

    Fractographic observations on irradiated Zircaloy cladding stress corrosion fracture surfaces are considered against the background of recent developments in the plastic fracture mechanics field. Dimples have been observed on the fracture surfaces of failed cladding, even though the cracks in metallographic sections are tight, i.e., crack propagation is associated with a low crack tip opening angle. This result is interpreted as providing evidence for an environmentally assisted ductile mode of fracture. The presence of this fracture mode forms the basis of an argument, which adds further support for the view that power ramp stress corrosion cladding failures are caused by stress concentrations that produce stress gradients in the cladding. (orig.)

  10. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  11. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Species-Specific Mechanisms of Neuron Subtype Specification Reveal Evolutionary Plasticity of Amniote Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nomura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Highly ordered brain architectures in vertebrates consist of multiple neuron subtypes with specific neuronal connections. However, the origin of and evolutionary changes in neuron specification mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that regulatory mechanisms of neuron subtype specification are divergent in developing amniote brains. In the mammalian neocortex, the transcription factors (TFs Ctip2 and Satb2 are differentially expressed in layer-specific neurons. In contrast, these TFs are co-localized in reptilian and avian dorsal pallial neurons. Multi-potential progenitors that produce distinct neuronal subtypes commonly exist in the reptilian and avian dorsal pallium, whereas a cis-regulatory element of avian Ctip2 exhibits attenuated transcription suppressive activity. Furthermore, the neuronal subtypes distinguished by these TFs are not tightly associated with conserved neuronal connections among amniotes. Our findings reveal the evolutionary plasticity of regulatory gene functions that contribute to species differences in neuronal heterogeneity and connectivity in developing amniote brains. : Neuronal heterogeneity is essential for assembling intricate neuronal circuits. Nomura et al. find that species-specific transcriptional mechanisms underlie diversities of excitatory neuron subtypes in mammalian and non-mammalian brains. Species differences in neuronal subtypes and connections suggest functional plasticity of regulatory genes for neuronal specification during amniote brain evolution. Keywords: Ctip2, Satb2, multi-potential progenitors, transcriptional regulation, neuronal connectivity

  13. Thermoelastic/plastic analysis of waste-container sleeve: III. Influence of salt strength on sleeve loading. Technical memorandum report (RSI-0018)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariseau, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    Three combinations of salt tensile, compressive and shear strength in linear and nonlinear yield conditions used in the axially symmetric, large displacement thermoelastic/plastic waste-container/sleeve loading estimates show no influence on the analysis. The salt remains elastic throughout the excavation and subsequent 10 year heating period. Tensile stresses are not observed, tensile strength is thus not important to the analysis even at 10 percent of the compressive strength value. Although strictly applicable only to the conditions of the analyses reported here, the capability for incorporating arbitrary strength combinations in linear or non-linear yield conditions is demonstrated. Computer plots of principal stresses and displacement fields at various stages of the excavation and heating simulation aid in the visualization of repository concept mechanics and show the possible need for additional mesh refinement for more precise stress information

  14. Radiation induced change in the affinity of a plastic resin to chlorine contained in artificial tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sawamura, Sadashi; Katayama, Meiseki

    1985-01-01

    γ-Radiation curing of a polyacetal resin was attempted in order to eliminate the unsuitable property for the joints of tap water pipes. In the case of non-irradiated resin, almost all available chlorine (AC) contained in usual tap water disappeared. γ-Irradiation of the resin showed an indirect effect on eliminating such a property; that is, a decrease in the amount of AC from artificial tap water (test solution) showed a decrease to JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) level of requirement at certain absorption doses. However, it was also found that the decrease in the amount of AC from the test solution increased with time after γ-irradiation. (author)

  15. Nano-twin mediated plasticity in carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bei, H., E-mail: beih@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. The effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. The materials can be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (∼70% at 77 K and ∼40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys. - Highlights: • Interstitial atom C was successfully added into FeNiCoCrMn high entropy alloys. • The strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced in the C-containing alloy. • The increased strain-hardening and strength are caused by the nano-twinning.

  16. Stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in single-dose plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, D D; Crews, J C; Grummich, K W; Stirm, E J; Sue, C A

    1991-03-01

    The stability of methadone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers was studied. Commercially available methadone hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and 25-mL single-dose bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were used. Six samples each were prepared at methadone hydrochloride concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL. The solutions were stored at room temperature and were not protected from light. Immediately after preparation and after two, three, and four weeks of storage, each of the 18 samples was divided into three aliquots, each of which was analyzed in duplicate for methadone hydrochloride concentration by gas chromatography. There was less than 10% change in methadone hydrochloride concentration in any sample throughout the four-week study period. Methadone hydrochloride at concentrations of 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL prepared in commercially available flexible polyvinyl chloride containers of 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature without deliberate protection from light is stable for at least four weeks.

  17. Effects of Ethanol Exposure during Distinct Periods of Brain Development on Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Christie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders occur when a mother drinks during pregnancy and can greatly influence synaptic plasticity and cognition in the offspring. In this study we determined whether there are periods during brain development that are more susceptible to the effects of ethanol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, we evaluated how the ability to elicit long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG was affected in young adult rats that were exposed to ethanol during either the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd trimester equivalent. As expected, the effects of ethanol on young adult DG LTP were less severe when exposure was limited to a particular trimester equivalent when compared to exposure throughout gestation. In males, ethanol exposure during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd trimester equivalent did not significantly reduce LTP in the DG. In females, ethanol exposure during either the 1st or 2nd trimester equivalents did not impact LTP in early adulthood, but following exposure during the 3rd trimester equivalent alone, LTP was significantly increased in the female DG. These results further exemplify the disparate effects between the ability to elicit LTP in the male and female brain following perinatal ethanol exposure (PNEE.

  18. Recent developments in the use of plastic optical fiber for an embedded wear sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Edward I.; Mastro, Stephen A.; Nemarich, Christopher P.; Korczynski, Joseph F., Jr.; Jarrett, Andrew W.; Jones, Wayne C.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes recent developments of a practical, low cost embedded plastic optical fiber (POF) wear sensor system for the condition based maintenance of external outboard water lubricated bearings aboard U.S. Navy Ships. The benefit of this measurement system over the status quo is the ability to remotely monitor bearing wear. The Embedded Wear Sensor system (Navy invention disclosure #78,570) features a sacrificial wear fiber embedded into the nitrile rubber bearing. This fiber may also act as a conduit for the transmission of pressure and temperature data that may be resolved into alignment data. The authors selected a commercially-off-the- shelf plastic fiber for the sensor because of its material compatibility with the nitrile rubber bearing staves in terms of flexural modulus and wear properties. Presented herein is a description of the system concept, the results of non-linear finite element analysis, market survey of POF, mold studies, small scale prototyping and abrasive wear testing. A description of the sensor concept and the results of the preliminary finite element analysis of the bearing stave geometry are presented. Preliminary results of molding and glue bonding POF in nitrile rubber and then abrasive wear testing indicate that this is a viable concept.

  19. Development of a plastic rotary heat exchanger for room-based ventilation in existing apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    The existing building stock will likely undergo widespread energy renovations to meet future emissions targets. Single-room ventilation may enable the process due to its simple installation, low fan power, and potential for local heat recovery. A short plastic rotary heat exchanger is developed...... for single-room ventilation based on thermal design theory. Performance is predicted from correlations of dimensionless groups for regenerative heat exchangers, and this guides the selection of a polycarbonate honeycomb with small circular channels. Experiments quantify flows and determine temperature...... efficiencies at several ventilation rates while accounting for heat gains from motors and air leakage. The measured and modelled temperature efficiencies show adequate agreement and exceed 80% for a balanced nominal ventilation rate of 28m3/h. This result meets the development criteria but cannot validate...

  20. Development of Technology for Enrichment of Silver Containing Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekiladze, Asmati; Kavtelashvili, Otari; Bagnashvili, Mamuka

    2016-10-01

    The progress of Georgian economics is substantially associated with a development of new deposits of mineral resources. Among them is the David-Gareji deposit where at present the intensive searching geological works are performed. The work goal involves the elaboration of the technology for processing of silver-containing quartz-barite ores. Without its development the mining of more valuable gold-polymetallic ores is impossible. Because of ore complexity silver and barite are considered in a common technological aspect. The investigations were carried out on the representative samples of quartz-barite ores containing 78-88 g/ton of silver and 27-29 % of silver is a nugget in the form of the simple sulphides and chlorides. The ore is characterized by fine coalescence of barite and ore-generating minerals. Non-ferrous metals haven't any industrial value because of their very low content. Therefore, for the processing of the ores under study the direct selective scheme of flotation enrichment was chosen and the formula of optimal reagent regime was elaborated. Potassium xanthogenate is used as a collector for flotation of silver minerals and pine oil- as a foaming agent. The effect of the pulp - pH and medium temperature on silver flotation was studied. It was established that the silver is actively floats in neutral medium. For barite flotation the various collectors were tested: sulfidezid cotton oil-soap stock, soaps of fatty acids and alkyl sulphates of C12 - C16 row, among the “Baritol” is the most efficient one. Depression of the barren rock was carried out by liquid glass in alkaline medium. The effect of pulp pH on barite flotation has been investigated. The best results were obtained at pH=8.5. The increase of the pulp alkalinity has no essential effect on the indexes of the barite enrichment. Conditional concentrate of the barite is obtained by two fold purification of the main flotation concentrate by the addition of the liquid glass to the re

  1. Analysis of stress-strain relationship in materials containing voids by means of plastic finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Haruki; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    Applying the finite element method in two dimensions, an analysis is performed to derive the stress-strain relationship of material containing voids in matrix, and which is subjected to large deformation. The conditions assumed for the analysis are applicability of continuum body mechanics, Mises yield criterion, J2 flow theory, power work-hardening, plane stress in two-dimensional system and uniform cyclically recurring void distribution. Taking as example a case of material presenting 0.3 work-hardening, it is indicated from the analysis that: With voids arrayed in square lattice, total elongation would be little affected by change in void size; With a void spacing in lattice of 10 μ m, a uniform elongation 12-14% should be obtained in a wide range of void sizes from 0.01 to 8.0 μm; Tensile strength should start to lower at a void areal fraction of around 1%; A sharply lowered uniform elongation of a level far below 1% should be presented by material of low work-hardening exponent. The severe decline of ductility seen with 316 stainless steel upon neutron irradiation at temperatures around 600 K is interpreted as resulting from a combination of low work-hardening and the presence of voids in matrix. (author)

  2. Coupling an aVLSI neuromorphic vision chip to a neurotrophic model of synaptic plasticity: the development of topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Terry; Kramer, Jörg

    2002-10-01

    We couple a previously studied, biologically inspired neurotrophic model of activity-dependent competitive synaptic plasticity and neuronal development to a neuromorphic retina chip. Using this system, we examine the development and refinement of a topographic mapping between an array of afferent neurons (the retinal ganglion cells) and an array of target neurons. We find that the plasticity model can indeed drive topographic refinement in the presence of afferent activity patterns generated by a real-world device. We examine the resilience of the developing system to the presence of high levels of noise by adjusting the spontaneous firing rate of the silicon neurons.

  3. Development of high-flexible triboelectric generators using plastic metal as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen-Yeu; Shih, Jian-Fu; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Yang, Chii-Rong

    2017-02-01

    A triboelectric generator is a device that harvests energy through the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this work, two polymer materials (PDMS and PET) were selected as triboelectric layers in conjunction with plastic metal (PM) films as conductive layers to produce an electrode with high flexibility. The PDMS film was fabricated with a microstructural array to enhance friction. The proposed PM material was prepared by mixing gallium-indium liquid metal and a glaze powder with excellent coating ability, extensibility, and conductivity. Results demonstrate the superior characteristics of the PM flexible electrodes, including large bending angle (≥180°), small curvature radius (≤1 mm), and stable conductivity. This PM-based triboelectric generator can achieve average output voltage of 80 V and current of 37.2 μA. The proposed flexible electrode with a PM conductive layer could be expected to make a notable contribution to the development of wearable devices.

  4. ApoE-containing HDL and the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zdrojewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state of knowledge about the role of high density lipoproteins (HDL indicates that their anti-atherogenic function is mainly related to the effectiveness of their actions (mostly to the participation in reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to liver rather than the concentration of HDL itself. HDLs are highly heterogeneous in their structure, lipid and protein composition and metabolic pathways and individual HDL subpopulations differ in their biological activity and effectiveness of anti-atherogenic actions. Apolipoproteins play a key role in HDL metabolism, therefore their presence in lipoproteins is one of the main criterion for HDL classification. According to this criterion HDLs containing apolipoprotein E, called HDL-apoE, are distinguished. Although the anti-atherogenic role of apo E has been demonstrated in many scientific reports, understanding of the mechanisms of formation, transformation and the role of HDL-apoE is still the aim of intense research. The results of epidemiological studies are inconclusive; some of them have demonstrated that high HDL- -apoE concentration has been associated with lower risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD, while other studies have shown that high levels of HDL-apoE has been an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and positively correlated with other risk factors for CHD.

  5. A computer-supported management of photographic documentation in plastic surgery - System development and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Karol; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Niedźwiedziński, Marian; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-07-01

    Photographic documentation is very important for plastic, reconstructive, and especially aesthetic surgery procedures. It can be used to improve patient care as well as to carry out scientific research. The results of our previous studies confirmed a strong demand for Information Technology (IT) systems dedicated to plastic surgery. Unfortunately, most of the solutions of this type are not suited to the actual needs. For this reason we decided to develop a reliable system for photographic documentation storage. The Plastic Reconstructive Esthetic Surgery Photo System (PRESsPhoto) was developed and finally deployed in the Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic of the Medical University in Łódź (Poland). Preliminary single-center performance tests proved that the PRESsPhoto system is easy to use and provides, inter alia, rapid data search and data entry as well as data security. In the future the PRESsPhoto system should be able to cooperate with Hospital Information Systems (HIS). The process of development and deployment of the PRESsPhoto system is an example of good cooperation between health care providers and the informatics, which resulted in a system that meets the expectations of plastic surgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  7. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  8. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  9. Development and Plasticity of Cognitive Flexibility in Early and Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, Frances; Karbach, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility, the ability to flexibly switch between tasks, is a core dimension of executive functions (EFs) allowing to control actions and to adapt flexibly to changing environments. It supports the management of multiple tasks, the development of novel, adaptive behavior and is associated with various life outcomes. Cognitive flexibility develops rapidly in preschool and continuously increases well into adolescence, mirroring the growth of neural networks involving the prefrontal cortex. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in children in order to support the many developmental outcomes associated with cognitive flexibility. This article provides a brief review of the development and plasticity of cognitive flexibility across early and middle childhood (i.e., from preschool to elementary school age). Focusing on interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in typically developing children, we report evidence for significant training and transfer effects while acknowledging that current findings on transfer are heterogeneous. Finally, we introduce metacognitive training as a promising new approach to promote cognitive flexibility and to support transfer of training.

  10. Development of a container failure function for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    A simple approach to the modeling of failure rates for a copper container under Canadian waste disposal conditions is presented. Both uniform corrosion and pitting must be considered. Short-term failures due to fabrication defects must be taken into account. The model allows for short-term sorption of copper by the clay buffer material, and assumes a steady-state condition for uniform corrosion. Using worst-case assumptions, a container penetration time of 3300 years can be predicted

  11. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  12. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, M., E-mail: kuramoto@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nakamori, T., E-mail: nakamori@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M. [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kataoka, J. [Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  13. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  14. Development of Wireless System for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Oh, Eung-Se; Yang, Seung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    The containment system leakage rate should be estimated periodically with reliable test equipment. In light-water reactor nuclear power plants, ANSI/ANS- 56.8 is a basis for determining leakage rates. Two types of data acquisition system, centralized type and networked type, has been used. In centralized type, all sensors are connected directly from sensors in the containment to the measuring equipment outside the building. The other hand, the networked type has several branch chains which connect one group of the network-sensors together. To test leakage rate, more than 20 temperature sensors and 6 humidity sensors, which are different for each plant, should be installed on a specific level in the containment. A wireless technology gives the benefits such as reducing installation efforts, making pretest easy, so it is widely used more and more in the plant monitoring. As the containment system has many kinds of complex barriers to the radio frequency, the radio power and frequency band for better transmission rate as well as the interference by the radio frequency should be considered. The overview of the wireless sensor system for the containment leakage rate test is described here and the test results on Yonggwang unit 4 PWR plant is presented

  15. Storage of Buffy-coat-derived platelets in additive solutions: in vitro effects on platelets prepared by the novel TACSI system and stored in plastic containers with different gas permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, P; Hild, M; Sjödin, A; Gulliksson, H

    2010-11-01

    The novel TACSI system is designed for automated preparation of platelets (PLTs) from pooled buffy coats (BCs). One TACSI device will handle 6 units at the same time. The aim of our in vitro study is to investigate the effects of using this automated equipment with subsequent storage in two different plastic containers and to compare these results with PLTs prepared by the OrbiSac system. Buffy-coat-derived PLTs (n=8) were prepared by using the TACSI system, including storage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based plastic containers with di, n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) (TACSI R) and BTHC (TACSI T)-based plasticizers. As a reference, the OrbiSac System was used to prepare PLTs (n=8) with subsequent storage in a PVC plastic container with a citrate-based plasticizer (BTHC). In total, 16 TACSI and eight reference units, supplied by approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+, were analysed for various in vitro variables during the 7-day storage period. No significant difference in PLT counts, LDH, mean platelet volume (MPV) and adenosine triphosphate between the groups was detected. Glucose was lower (P6·8 (day 7) and swirling remained at the highest level (score=2) for all units throughout storage. Platelets prepared by the TACSI system with subsequent storage in two different PVC-based plastic containers were equivalent to reference PLTs with regard to in vitro characteristics during 7 days of storage. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Development and analysis of vent-filtered containment conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Walling, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual filtered-vented containment systems have been postulated for a reference large, dry, pressurized water reactor containment, and the systems have been analyzed to determine design parameters, actuation/operation requirements, and overall feasibility. The primary design challenge has been found to emanate from pressure spikes caused by core debris bed interactions with water and by hydrogen deflagrations. Circumvention of the pressure spikes may require a more complicated actuation logic than has previously been considered. Otherwise, major reductions in consequences for certain severe accidents appear to be possible with relatively simple systems. A probabilistic assessment of competing risks remains to be performed

  17. History of plastic surgery: Art, philosophy, and rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macionis, Valdas

    2018-03-23

    The 200th anniversary of K. F. Graefe's "Rhinoplasty," E. Zeis' naming of the specialty of plastic surgery in 1838, and the continuing discussion on what is plastic surgery have prompted this historical-conceptual review with a semantic insight into the meaning of the word "plastic." A literature search has revealed that this term contains dual aspects: artistic and philosophical. The progressive development of these two connotations can be traced from their origin in the ceramics and the myths of ancient Greeks to their metamorphoses in fine arts, science, and philosophy of plasticity of the modern day. Although the names of plastic procedures and the title of the specialty carry both the artistic and philosophical features, the philosophical notion is less evident. This article underlines the importance of etymology in the interpretation of the concept of plastic surgery. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasticity of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane composition under different growth conditions and during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSandoval-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor is a model actinomycete that is well known for the diversity of its secondary metabolism and its complex life cycle. As a soil inhabitant, it is exposed to heterogeneous and frequently changing environmental circumstances. In the present work, we studied the effect of diverse growth conditions and phosphate depletion on its lipid profile and the relationship between membrane lipid composition and development in S. coelicolor. The lipid profile from cultures grown on solid media, which is closer to the natural habitat of this microorganism, does not resemble the previously reported lipid composition from liquid grown cultures of S. coelicolor. Wide variations were also observed across different media, growth phases, and developmental stages indicating active membrane remodeling. Ornithine lipids (OL are phosphorus-free polar lipids that were accumulated mainly during sporulation stages, but were also major components of the membrane under phosphorus limitation. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine, which had been reported as one of the major polar lipids in the genus Streptomyces, is almost absent under these conditions. We identified one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of OL (SCO0921 and found that its inactivation causes the absence of OL, precocious morphological development and actinorhodin production. Our observations indicate a remarkable plasticity of the membrane composition in this bacterial species, reveal a higher metabolic complexity than expected, and suggest a relationship between cytoplasmic membrane components and the differentiation programs in S. coelicolor.

  19. Development and implementation of a fast neutron monitoring system based on plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.P.; Ryan, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiation and Medical devices has provided neutron dosimetry services for Canadian industrial and research applications since the late 1960's. The program used a nuclear emulsion film, Kodak NTA, as the personal dosimeter. Despite its two principle shortcomings, that of a relatively high energy threshold, approximately 700 keV, and highly labor intensive analysis technique, there was little else conveniently available for use. For quite a number of years we pursued, as did many laboratories, the possibilities of developing an albedo dosimeter based on paired thermoluminescent elements in some form of cadmium and plastic encapsulation. Some promise has been shown by this method and several major laboratories have designed and are currently using albedo dosimeters. At the first symposium on Personnel Radiation Dosimetry held in Knoxville in 1984, Dale Hankins of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, in his paper entitled, Improvements in the Etching of CR-39 for Large Scale Neutron Dosimetry, reported on his laboratories work with the polycarbonate, CR-39. Using this paper as a start and following up on similar work by W. G. Cross at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, we have developed a replacement dosimeter. This paper will describe the principle features of the system introduced into routine use in Canada in October 1987

  20. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  1. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  2. Development and radiation evaluation of mobile station for personnel monitoring system based on indigenous plastic scintillator sensor rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, H.S.; Parihar, A.; Senwar, K.R.; Prakash, V.; Rathore, A.S.

    2018-01-01

    The Mobile Station for Personnel Monitoring (MSPM) system has been designed and developed for rapid screening of personnel with respect to radiation contamination during nuclear or radiological emergency; it can also be used for prevention of illicit movement of radioactive sources. The objective was to develop a modular, transportable and easily deployable gamma portal monitoring system based on indigenous DLJ developed plastic scintillator sensors. The Gamma radiation response of the system is presented here

  3. Development of radiophotometric dosemeters of high sensitivity using plastic scintillators as light intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of rectangular plates of plastic scintillators as film holders in conventional photographic dosemeters is reported. The efficiency of their use as light converters for increase the sensitivity of these dosemeters are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Development of plastic scintillators for use in the field of radioprotection and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    A plastic scintillator detector based on available know how, for applications in radiological protection - whole body counting, continuous monitoring of air and measurement of low level alpha and beta radioactivity environmental samples is described. Results of method of preparation of the plastic scintillator using styrene monomer and PPO (scintillator), POPOP (wave lenght shifter) are described. For measurement of gamma radiation point sources of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 125 I were used and detected with plastic scintillator detectors prepared with various concentrations (% by weight) of PPO. The data of relative pulse heights are presented. For measurement of alpha and beta radioactivity in environmental samples, thin discs of plastic detector were machined and polished. (Author) [pt

  5. Emergency air cleaning system development for LMFBR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating the various types of Emergency Air Cleaning Systems which may be used in LMFBR plants have been established for both single containment and containment-confinement arrangements. These two plant arrangements have quite different air cleaning requirements for postulated design base accident conditions. Work is currently in progress to select from a list of candidate air cleaning systems those which best meet the criteria requirements. By means of a weighted rating system, areas of strength or weakness can be found and the conceptual system design then optimized. The final system arrangements will be ranked and several of the most promising systems selected for large-scale tests in the former CSE vessel at Hanford. 8 references. (U.S.)

  6. Development of a container failure function for titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Any prediction of container failure times will be based on measurements of crevice corrosion rates under conditions that simulate those anticipated in a waste vault. Since there is a good mechanistic understanding of crevice corrosion in titanium alloys, this is a reasonable approach. Some containers are assumed to fail immediately because of undetected fabrication defects. Experiments designed to measure corrosion penetration rates are under way. Uniform corrosion rates will be determined from weight-gain measurements and estimated from measurements of oxide thickness using Auger spectroscopy. Crevice corrosion can be estimated by counting the number of pits and corroded areas within the crevice using an image analyzer. By performing such analyses on a wide range of specimens under a variety of conditions the authors hope to determine the susceptibilities of titanium alloys to crevice corrosion; measure the uniform and crevice corrosion rates as a function of temperature and chloride concentration; measure the extent of hydrogen pickup as a function of temperature and chloride concentration; and predict the lifetime of containers under Canadian waste vault conditions

  7. Plasticity in developing brain: active auditory exposure impacts prelinguistic acoustic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benasich, April A; Choudhury, Naseem A; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P

    2014-10-01

    A major task across infancy is the creation and tuning of the acoustic maps that allow efficient native language processing. This process crucially depends on ongoing neural plasticity and keen sensitivity to environmental cues. Development of sensory mapping has been widely studied in animal models, demonstrating that cortical representations of the sensory environment are continuously modified by experience. One critical period for optimizing human language mapping is early in the first year; however, the neural processes involved and the influence of passive compared with active experience are as yet incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that, while both active and passive acoustic experience from 4 to 7 months of age, using temporally modulated nonspeech stimuli, impacts acoustic mapping, active experience confers a significant advantage. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we show that active experience increases perceptual vigilance/attention to environmental acoustic stimuli (e.g., larger and faster P2 peaks) when compared with passive experience or maturation alone. Faster latencies are also seen for the change discrimination peak (N2*) that has been shown to be a robust infant predictor of later language through age 4 years. Sharpening is evident for both trained and untrained stimuli over and above that seen for maturation alone. Effects were also seen on ERP morphology for the active experience group with development of more complex waveforms more often seen in typically developing 12- to 24-month-old children. The promise of selectively "fine-tuning" acoustic mapping as it emerges has far-reaching implications for the amelioration and/or prevention of developmental language disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413349-15$15.00/0.

  8. Plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru

    1981-01-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BACLOFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Janardhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier. Free flowing solid dispersion granules were prepared by adsorbing the melt of the drug and carriers onto the surface of an adsorbent, Carbopol 934P followed by direct compression with HPMC K4M and HPMC K100 to obtain an solid dispersion loaded sustained release tablets. FTIR studies confirmed that the compatibility of drug and carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed partially amorphous structures of the drug in solid dispersion granules. The solid dispersion granules dissolved completely within 30 min, which was much faster than that of pure drug baclofen. The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2 and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8. A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BACLOFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Janardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier. Free flowing solid dispersion granules were prepared by adsorbing the melt of the drug and carriers onto the surface of an adsorbent, Carbopol 934P followed by direct compression with HPMC K4M and HPMC K100 to obtain an solid dispersion loaded sustained release tablets. FTIR studies confirmed that the compatibility of drug and carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed partially amorphous structures of the drug in solid dispersion granules. The solid dispersion granules dissolved completely within 30 min, which was much faster than that of pure drug baclofen. The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2 and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8. A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  11. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  12. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A S; O'Day, D H; Kraemer, G W

    1999-05-01

    The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and responses to cues that characterize the other. Among many mammalian species, new mothers are attracted to their infants' odors and some recognize them based on their odors; they also respond to their infants' vocalizations, thermal properties, and touch qualities. Together these cues ensure that the mother will nurse and protect the offspring and provide them with the appropriate physical and stimulus environment in which to develop. The young, in turn, orient to the mother and show a suckling pattern that reflects a sensitivity to the mothers odor, touch, and temperature characteristics. This article explores the sensory, endocrine, and neural mechanisms that underlie this early mother-young relationship, from the perspective of, first, the mother and, then, the young, noting the parallels between them. It emphasizes the importance of learning and plasticity in the formation and maintenance of the mother-young relationship and mediation of these experience effects by the brain and its neurochemistry. Finally, it discusses ways in which the infants' early experiences with their mothers (or the absence of these experiences) may come to influence how they respond to their own infants when they grow up, providing a psychobiological mechanism for the inter-generational transmission of parenting styles and responsiveness.

  13. Development of a formalism of movable cellular automaton method for numerical modeling of fracture of heterogeneous elastic-plastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Psakhie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A general approach to realization of models of elasticity, plasticity and fracture of heterogeneous materials within the framework of particle-based numerical methods is proposed in the paper. It is based on building many-body forces of particle interaction, which provide response of particle ensemble correctly conforming to the response (including elastic-plastic behavior and fracture of simulated solids. Implementation of proposed approach within particle-based methods is demonstrated by the example of the movable cellular automaton (MCA method, which integrates the possibilities of particle-based discrete element method (DEM and cellular automaton methods. Emergent advantages of the developed approach to formulation of many-body interaction are discussed. Main of them are its applicability to various realizations of the concept of discrete elements and a possibility to realize various rheological models (including elastic-plastic or visco-elastic-plastic and models of fracture to study deformation and fracture of solid-phase materials and media. Capabilities of particle-based modeling of heterogeneous solids are demonstrated by the problem of simulation of deformation and fracture of particle-reinforced metal-ceramic composites.

  14. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  15. Etodolac Containing Topical Niosomal Gel: Formulation Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyati Shilakari Asthana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1 ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96.72%. TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomal formulation (N2 displayed high percentage of drug release after 24 h (94.91 at (1 : 1 ratio of cholesterol : surfactant. Further selected niosomal formulation was used to formulate topical gel and was characterized with respect to its various parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, ex vivo study, and in vivo potential permeation. Ex vivo study showed that niosomal gel possessed better skin permeation study than the plain topical gel. Further in vivo study revealed good inhibition of inflammation in case of topical niosomal gel than plain gel and niosomal formulation. The present study suggested that topical niosomal gel formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug.

  16. Development and evaluation of transdermal organogels containing nicorandil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, J R; Sagar, Banode; Chellappan, Dinesh K; Dua, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate a transdermal product containing Nicorandil as a model drug, because it has been first drug of choice to treat angina and hypertension. A further objective was to reduce its side effects. The transdermal product was prepared using various synthetic and natural gelling agents such as Carbopol 934p, Carbopol 974p, HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M. Various penetration enhancers were incorporated to enhance the diffusion across the rat skin. A further objective was to formulate organogels and minimize the concentration of penetration enhancer to 50% of the concentration used in gels and yet to achieve the maximum drug release. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their physical appearance, viscosity, spreadability, drug content and freeze thaw cycle. Based on in vitro studies across rat skin and human cadaver skin it was concluded that Nicrorandil transdermal organogel formulation using HPMC K100M with 2% w/w Transcutol-P shows increase in cumulative diffusion of Nicorandil amongst all other formulations.

  17. Nanoparticles containing curcuminoids (Curcuma longa: development of topical delivery formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Zamarioli

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles incorporating Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae, curcuminoids were produced by the hot melt emulsion method. A Box–Behnken factorial design was adopted to study the nanoparticles production at different levels of factors such as the percentage of curcuminoids, time of homogenization and surfactant ratio. The optimized nanoparticles were incorporated into hydrogels for stability, drug release and skin permeation tests. The average nanoparticle sizes were 210.4 nm; the zeta potential of −30.40 ± 4.16; the polydispersivity was 0.222 ± 0.125. The average encapsulation efficiency of curcumin and curcuminoids was 52.92 ± 5.41% and 48.39 ± 6.62%, respectively. Solid lipid nanocapsules were obtained with curcumin load varying from 14.2 to 33.6% and total curcuminoids load as high as 47.7%. The topical formulation containing SLN-Curcuminoids showed good spreadability and stability when subjected to mechanical stress test remained with characteristic color, showed no phase separation and no significant change in pH. As a result of slow release, the nanoparticles were able to avoid permeation or penetration in the pig ear epidermis/dermis during 18 h. The topical formulation is stable and can be used in further in vivo studies for the treatment of inflammatory reactions, in special for radiodermitis.

  18. Development of lamivudine containing multiple emulsions stabilized by gum odina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Jena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multiple emulsion (W/O/W of lamivudine was developed using a new biopolymer, gum odina (GOd to increase bioavailability and patient compliances. GOd was employed to stabilize both the interfaces of liquid membrane in both the external and internal aqueous phases. The developed W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine was characterized by analyzing droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI, sedimentation, viscosity, rheological properties, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and stability at various storage conditions. The results obtained were also compared with W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine prepared using Tween 80 (a standard emulsion stabilizer. The drug entrapment efficiency of W/O/W multiple emulsion stabilized using GOd was measured as 91.60 ± 3.66% with sustained lamivudine release over a period of 6 h. Rheological and microscopic examinations indicated long term stability of the developed emulsion prepared using GOd. The results of the current study provide a promising scope to attain sustained drug release through the W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by GOd in antiviral therapies. Keywords: Gum odina, Lamivudine, Multiple emulsions

  19. Development of a prototype sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    US cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. That reputation is expected by foreign and domestic mills. Despite this reputation, U.S. spinners have recently experienced some serious contamination issues with US cotton. Of particular concern are plastic con...

  20. Developments in Processing by Severe Plastic Deformation at the 3rd Pan American Materials Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Roberto B.; Kawasaki, Megumi; Langdon, Terence G.

    2017-10-01

    The 3rd Pan American Materials Congress in San Diego, California, February 26-March 2, 2017, provided an opportunity to bring together many participants working in the field of severe plastic deformation. This article provides a brief review of these activities.

  1. Dr. J. F. S. Esser and his influence on the development of plastic and reconstructive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Haeseker (Barend)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractJan F.S. Esser (1877-1946) was a remarkable and gifled Dutch surgeon whose contributions to plastic and reconstructive surgery, made long befare this specialty was recognised as a branch of surgery, are part of our surgical heritage. His interest in the bloodsupply of skin flaps was the

  2. Development of north sea coastal plankton communities in separate plastic bags under identical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1977-01-01

    In two experiments lasting 4 to 6 weeks, communities of North Sea coastal plankton kept in separate plastic bags (of about 1400 l) and exposed to the same environmental conditions showed very similar patterns of growth and decline. This result means that the method is suitable for the evaluation of

  3. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)

  4. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  5. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Pitfalls in new artemisinin-containing antimalarial drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambou, Ronan; Le Bras, Jacques; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2011-02-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) paves the way for new opportunities to eliminate malaria in the tropics. However, the huge increase of ACT consumption raises major concerns about their availability over the next few years. At the same time a decrease in their efficacy has already been reported. Alongside the deployment of multifocal control programs, the process ranging from artemisia crop production to accreditation of new ACT combinations urgently needs to be strengthened to supply sufficient quantities of high-quality drugs. New suppliers will have the opportunity to enter this market to develop new formulations, and bioequivalence studies are required to validate these new formulations. It is thus crucial for national malaria control teams to be able to better scrutinize the dossier of these new formulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of design method of nuclear piping system supported by elasto-plastic support structures (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, R.; Murota, M.; Kawabata, J-I.; Hirose, J.; Nekomoto, Y.; Takayama, Y.; Kobayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional seismic design method of nuclear piping system is very conservative because of the accumulation of various safety factors in the design process, and nuclear piping systems are thought to have a large safety margin. Considering this situations, research program was promoted to furthermore rationalize nuclear power plants by reducing the amount of support structures and reducing the piping's seismic response through vibration energy absorption resulting from the elasto-plastic behavior of piping support structures. The research had the following three stages. In the first stage, we selected conventional piping support structures in light-water reactors that exhibited elasto-plastic behavior, and studied the effect of displacement and the vibration frequency on the stiffness and on the energy absorption by testing these models. In the second stage, vibration tests were performed using piping models with support structures on shaking tables. The piping vibration characteristics were clarified by sinusoidal sweep tests and the piping response characteristics by seismic wave vibration tests when the support structures were in an elasto-plastic condition. In the third stage, a general method was developed to evaluate the characteristics of a variety of support structures in the tests. A simplified analysis method was also developed to evaluate the piping seismic response using the piping model test result. To expand the results mentioned above, we also established a new seismic design method of piping systems that allowed support structures to have elasto-plastic behavior. This paper reports the newly developed seismic design method based on the results of experiments conducted under the joint research program of Japanese electric power companies (The Japan Atomic Power Co., Hokkaido EPC, Tohoku EPC, Tokyo EPC, Chubu EPC, Hokuriku EPC, Kansai EPC, Chugoku EPC, Shikoku EPC, Kyushu EPC) and nuclear plant makers (Hitachi Ltd., Toshiba Co., MHI Ltd., HEC Ltd

  8. The development of the design method of nuclear piping system supported by elasto-plastic support structures (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, R.; Murota, M.; Kawahata, J.-I.; Sato, T.; Mekomoto, Y.; Takayama, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Hirose, J.

    1993-01-01

    The conventional aseismic design method of nuclear piping system is very conservative because of the accumulation of various safety factors in the design process, and nuclear piping systems are thought to have a large safety margin. Considering this situation, we promoted research to further rationalize nuclear power plants by reducing the amount of support structures and reducing the piping seismic response through vibration energy absorption resulting from the elasto-plastic behavior of piping support structures. The research has the following three stages. In the first stage, we select conventional piping support structures in Japanese light-water reactors that exhibit elasto-plastic behavior, and study the displacement dependency and the vibration frequency dependency on the stiffness and the energy absorption by testing their model. In the second stage, we make a piping test model with support structures whose characteristics have already been obtained, and perform vibration tests on a shaking table. In this way, we analyze the piping vibration characteristics by sinusoidal wave sweep tests and the piping response characteristics by seismic wave vibration tests, when the support structures are in an elasto-plastic condition. In the third stage, a general method is developed to evaluate the characteristics of the support structures obtained in the tests and it is applied to the evaluation of the characteristics of general support structures. A simplified analysis method is developed to evaluate the piping seismic response using the piping model test result. To expand the results mentioned above, we are developing a seismic design method of piping systems that allows support structures to have elasto-plastic behaviour. This paper reports the results of experiments conducted under the joint research program of Japanese electric power companies with support elements in the first stage and those with piping models in the second stage

  9. The development of an on-site container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Jones, P.L.; McKinney, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the development of a packaging designed for on-site transportation of chemical munitions. The criteria for the package were patterned after the requirements for Type B packagings, but were modified to take credit for the operational controls that could be applied on-site. The design phase has been completed and a contract has been placed for fabrication of 165 units. In addition to the tests completed during the design phase, a complete sequence of verification tests will be performed on the first fleet unit. This sequence will consist of: (1) a 22,700-kg load placed on the packaging for 24 hours, (2) the flat side free drop, (3) the center-of-gravity over closure joint puncture test, and (4) a 15-min all-engulfing JP-4 pool-fire test. At the completion of the test sequence, the package will be required to meet the less than 1 x 10 -1 std cc/s leak test. (J.P.N.)

  10. The development of an on-site container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Jones, P.L.; McKinney, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a package for the on-site transport of chemical munitions for the US Army. This package was designed to prevent the release of lethal quantities of chemical agents during transportation of munitions to the demilitarization facilities on-site. The packaging prevents auto-ignition of the munitions by limiting the thermal and structural assault on the munitions during an accident. This package, with some modifications to account for contents, may be suitable for the on-site transport of mixed wastes at United States Department of Energy facilities. This paper discusses the design and verification testing of the package. The safety criteria for the package were modeled after the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hypothetical accident sequence and modified to take credit for operational controls. The modified accident sequence consisted of drop, puncture, and thermal events. The post-accident leak rate was established to prevent harm to an exposed worker. The packaging has a mass of 8600 kg and can accommodate up to 3600 kg of contents. The interior of the package is 188 cm in diameter and 232 cm long. Two sample ports can be used to sample the interior of the package prior to opening the closure and an o-ring test port can be used to determine the leak rates prior to and after transport

  11. Development of fast reactor containment safety analysis code, CONTAIN-LMR. (3) Improvement of sodium-concrete reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    A computer code, CONTAIN-LMR, is an integrated analysis tool to predict the consequence of severe accident in a liquid metal fast reactor. Because a sodium-concrete reaction behavior is one of the most important phenomena in the accident, a Sodium-Limestone Concrete Ablation Model (SLAM) has been developed and installed into the original CONTAIN code at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the U.S. The SLAM treats chemical reaction kinetics between the sodium and the concrete compositions mechanistically using a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer (B/L) and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region, the application is limited to the reaction between sodium and limestone concrete. In order to apply SLAM to the reaction between sodium and siliceous concrete which is an ordinary structural concrete in Japan, the chemical reaction kinetics model has been improved to consider the new chemical reactions between sodium and silicon dioxide. The improved model was validated to analyze a series of sodium-concrete experiments which were conducted in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). It has been found that relatively good agreement between calculation and experimental results is obtained and the CONTAIN-LMR code has been validated with regard to the sodium-concrete reaction phenomena. (author)

  12. Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60 min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics.

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of an interim processing technology to re-commercialize mixed waste plastics; 1998 nendo kongo haipura saishohinka no tame no chukan shori system gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The container and package recycling law is fully enforced starting fiscal 2000. Recycling obligation is placed also on plastic containers and packages discharged from households, excepting PET bottles for beverages and soy sauce. Therefore, it is required to establish an interim processing technology to process these materials into shapes easy for re-utilization and transportation, that is a technology to manufacture granules with adequate diameters. The purpose of this research is to develop the interim processing system technology. Design, fabrication and installation were performed on an interim processing system plant (a mixed waste plastic granule manufacturing facility) that can process annually waste plastics of 3,000 tons (0.5 t/h). The plant consists of the following four pieces of equipment: (1) a pulverizer, (2) a PVC sorting device, (3) a granulating device, and (4) a sizer. After the installed interim processing system demonstration plant has been trially operated and adjusted by each device, the whole plant was given the trial operation and adjustment to have verified that all the devices function normally. In addition, in order to evaluate economy of the waste plastics interim processing, the processing cost was calculated and the economic performance was evaluated preliminarily by using the rated electric power setting and trial operation data of each device. (NEDO)

  14. Micro-structural evolution in plastically deformed crystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christopher

    predictions for the two models to be obtained. Application of the two models to the pure shear boundary value problem is used to characterize plastic behavior, which also allows for the identification of inherent properties through closed form expressions. Single crystal Monazite containing a void is studied......Two rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity models are developed and applied in numerical studies designed to identify the properties inherent to model predictions of plastic deformation. The two models incorporate gradients of slip into the framework of conventional crystal plasticity...... in order to model size-dependent plasticity effects. This gradient dependence is achieved by relating a slip measure which combines both slip and their gradients to a shear hardening curve, as commonly done in conventional plasticity theories. Finite element codes are implemented which allow for numerical...

  15. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  16. A study on the development of engineering plastic piston used in the shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Bae, Won-Byong; Lim, Dong-Ju; Suh, Yun-Soo

    1998-08-01

    A piston is an important component of the shock absorber which determines comfortable riding and handling. Conventional piston is made of metal powder that is pressed in a mold, and then sintered at high temperatures below the melting point before machining processes such as drilling, sizing and teflon banding. This study aims at cutting down cost and weight, and improving the process by replacing the traditional sintering process used for manufacturing the shock absorber with the injection molding process adopting engineering plastics as raw material. To analyze the injection molding process, we used the commercial program, MOLDFLOW, and obtained an optimal combination of the process parameters. In addition, by comparing the engineering plastic piston with the metal powder piston through the formability and the performance experiments, we confirmed the availability of this alternative process suggested.

  17. Development of metallic molds for the large volume plastic scintillator fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Vieira, Jose M.; Rela, Paulo R.; Bruzinga, Wilson A.; Araujo, Eduardo P.; Costa Junior, Nelson P.; Hamada, Margarida M.

    1997-01-01

    The plastic scintillators are radiation detectors made of organic fluorescent compounds dissolved in a solidified polymer matrix. The manufacturing process of large volume detectors (55 liters) at low cost, by polymerization of the styrene monomer plus PPO and POPOP scintillators, was studied in this paper. Metallic molds of ASTM 1200 aluminum and AISI 304 stainless steel were produced by TIG welding process since the polymerization reaction is very exothermic. The measurements of transmittance, luminescence, X-ray fluorescence and light output were carried out in the plastic scintillators made using different metallic molds. The characterization results of the detectors produced in an open system using ASTM 1200 aluminum mold show that there is not quality change in the scintillator, even with aluminum being considered as unstable for styrene monomer. Therefore, the ASTM 1200 aluminum was found to be the best alternative to produce the detector by an open system polymerization. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  19. NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is indispensable for adipose tissue plasticity and development of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nørgaard Nielsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ability of adipose tissue to expand and contract in response to fluctuations in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Given the nutrient scarcity that mammals faced for millions of years, programs involved in this adipose plasticity were likely evolved to be highly efficient in promoting lipid storage. Ironically, this previously advantageous feature may now represent a metabolic liability given the caloric excess of modern society. We speculate that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ biosynthesis exemplifies this concept. Indeed NAD+/NADH metabolism in fat tissue has been previously linked with obesity, yet whether it plays a causal role in diet-induced adiposity is unknown. Here we investigated how the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT supports adipose plasticity and the pathological progression to obesity. Methods: We utilized a newly generated Nampt loss-of-function model to investigate the tissue-specific and systemic metabolic consequences of adipose NAD+ deficiency. Energy expenditure, glycemic control, tissue structure, and gene expression were assessed in the contexts of a high dietary fat burden as well as the transition back to normal chow diet. Results: Fat-specific Nampt knockout (FANKO mice were completely resistant to high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. This was driven in part by reduced food intake. Furthermore, HFD-fed FANKO mice were unable to undergo healthy expansion of adipose tissue mass, and adipose depots were rendered fibrotic with markedly reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Yet, surprisingly, HFD-fed FANKO mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance compared to control littermates. Removing the HFD burden largely reversed adipose fibrosis and dysfunction in FANKO animals whereas the improved glucose tolerance persisted. Conclusions: These findings indicate that adipose NAMPT plays an essential role in

  20. Plastic, Fantastic? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information about plastics, focusing on the uses of plastic bags in particular. Topic areas considered include: (1) making plastic bags; (2) transparency of plastic bags; (3) plastic bags and food odors; (4) food containers (before and since plastics); and (5) disposing of plastic bags and other plastic products. The text is…

  1. Hydraulic pressure pulses with elastic and plastic structural flexibility: test and analysis (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirian, R.E.

    1978-03-01

    Pressure pulse tests were conducted with a flexible test section in a test vessel filled with room temperature water. The pressure pulses were generated with a drop hammer and piston pulse generator and were of a sufficient magnitude to cause plastic deformation of the test section. Because of the strong pressure relief effect of the deforming test section, pressure pulse magnitudes were below 265 psig in magnitude and had durations of 50 to 55 msecs. Calculations performed with the FLASH-35 bi-linear hysteresis model of structural deformation show good agreement with experiment. In particular, FLASH 35 adequately predicts the decrease in peak pressure and the increase in pulse duration due to elastic and plastic deformation of the test section. Predictions of flexible member motion are good, but are less satisfactory than the pressure pulse results due to uncertainties in the values of yield point and beyond yield stiffness used to model the various flexible members. Coupled with this is a strong sensitivity of the FLASH 35 predictions to the values of yield point and beyond yield stiffness chosen for the various flexible members. The test data versus calculation comparisons presented here provide preliminary qualification for FLASH 35 calculations of transient hydraulic pressures and pressure differentials in the presence of flexible structural members which deform both elastically and plastically

  2. Critical mass for the development of a new container port in Vlissingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.; Konings, J.W.; Priemus, H.

    2009-01-01

    The economic importance of accommodating container transport and the increasing demand for container-handling capacity are major triggers for conventional ports to develop container terminals. The port of Vlissingen, located between Rotterdam and Antwerp, is aspiring to gain a position in deep-sea

  3. Absence of IL-1β positively affects neurological outcome, lesion development and axonal plasticity after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boato Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precise crosstalk between the nervous and immune systems is important for neuroprotection and axon plasticity after injury. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-1β acts as a potent inducer of neurite outgrowth from organotypic brain slices in vitro, suggesting a potential function of IL-1β in axonal plasticity. Here, we have investigated the effects of IL-1β on axon plasticity during glial scar formation and on functional recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord compression injury (SCI. We used an IL-1β deficiency model (IL-1βKO mice and administered recombinant IL-1β. In contrast to our hypothesis, the histological analysis revealed a significantly increased lesion width and a reduced number of corticospinal tract fibers caudal to the lesion center after local application of recombinant IL-1β. Consistently, the treatment significantly worsened the neurological outcome after SCI in mice compared with PBS controls. In contrast, the absence of IL-1β in IL-1βKO mice significantly improved recovery from SCI compared with wildtype mice. Histological analysis revealed a smaller lesion size, reduced lesion width and greatly decreased astrogliosis in the white matter, while the number of corticospinal tract fibers increased significantly 5 mm caudal to the lesion in IL-1βKO mice relative to controls. Our study for the first time characterizes the detrimental effects of IL-1β not only on lesion development (in terms of size and glia activation, but also on the plasticity of central nervous system axons after injury.

  4. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N. M.

    2003-07-14

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments.

  5. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments

  6. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 1. Method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Mats; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    In Part 1 of this three-part research series, a leak test performed using high-voltage leak detection (HVLD) technology, also referred to as an electrical conductivity and capacitance leak test, was developed and validated for container-closure integrity verification of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution for injection. The sterile parenteral product is the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®, by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark). The aseptically filled and sealed package is designed to preserve product sterility through expiry. Method development and validation work incorporated positive control packages with a single hole laser-drilled through the laminate film of each bag. A unique HVLD method characterized by specific high-voltage and potentiometer set points was established for testing bags positioned in each of three possible orientations as they are conveyed through the instrument's test zone in each of two possible directions-resulting in a total of six different test method options. Validation study results successfully demonstrated the ability of all six methods to accurately and reliably detect those packages with laser-drilled holes from 2.5-11.2 μm in nominal diameter. Part 2 of this series will further explore HVLD test results as a function of package seal and product storage variables. The final Part 3 will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product physico-chemical stability. In this Part 1 of a three-part research series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, called high voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with an insulin pharmaceutical solution for human injection by Novo Nordisk A/S (Bagsværd, Denmark). To perform the test, the package is electrically grounded while being conveyed past an electrode linked to a high-voltage, low-amperage transformer. The instrument measures the current that passes

  7. Research and development strategy on the behavior of containments during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, C.

    1990-06-01

    In case of an hypothetical severe accident leading to core melting, the last barrier preventing radionucleide release in the environnment is the containment of the main reactor building. The French research and development programmes aimed at understanding the containment behavior during severe accidents relate to several domains; some of them are: - assessment of hydrogen behavior - corium behavior and coolability - ultimate resistance of the containments and leaktightness - caracterization of filtered venting procedure. All these aspects are covered by code calculations and experimental developments

  8. Elasto-Plastic 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Australian Air Force (RAAF) airframes. An aluminium - alloy fatigue test coupon (see Figure 1) has been designed and applied in support of the validation of...manufactured from aerospace aluminium alloy material (see Section 4 for further details). Unloaded close-fit fasteners of small diametric clearance were...Abaqus elasto–plastic input data requirements The aluminium and titanium alloys used in the coupon and fastener material display linear- elastic

  9. INFLUENCE RESEARCH OF COLD PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON DIFFUSION SATURATION PROCESS BY CARBON AND BORON OF THE LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Filonenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of influence of cold prestrain with degree of deformation within the range 0…40 % on diffusion saturation with boron and carbon for low-carbon and boron steels. It is determined that the plastic prestrain with degree of deformation 20 % at temperature 750 °С for the low-carbon steel promote increasing of boron-cementation layer thickness by 25 % and microhardness of perlite layer by 20 %.

  10. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  11. Development of Bake Hardening Effect by Plastic Deformation and Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvačkaj, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classification of steel sheets for automotives industry on the basis of strength and structural characteristics. Experimental works were aimed to obtain the best possible strengthening parameters as well as work hardening and solid solution ferrite hardening, which are the result of thermal activation of interstitial carbon atoms during paint-baking of auto body. Hardening process coming from interstitial atoms is realized as two-step process. The first step is BH (bake hardening effect achieved by interaction of interstitial atoms with dislocations. The Cottrels atmosphere is obtained. The second step of BH effect is to produced the hardening from precipitation of the carbon atoms in e-carbides, or formation of Fe32C4 carbides. WH (work hardening effect is obtained as dislocation hardening from plastic deformations during sheet deep drawing. Experimental works were aimed at as to achieve such plastic material properties after cold rolling, annealing and skin-pass rolling, which would be able to classify the material ZStE220BH into the drawing categories at the level of DQ – DDQ. As resulting from the experimental results, the optimal treatment conditions for the maximal sum (WH+BH = 86 MPa are as follows: total cold rolling deformation ecold = 65 %, annealing temperature Tanneal. = 700 °C.

  12. Potential environmental benefits of improving recycling of polyolefines – LCA of Magnetic density separation (MDS) developed in the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Bonou, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    identify eco-design criteria for the development and secondly to document the potential environmental improvement of polyolefin recycling using the MDS technology. A preliminary study focusing solely on the carbon footprint benefits of recycling plastic waste compared to virgin production of polymers...... showed that there are large benefits to recycling. However, including other uses of the waste illustrates that the benefits to a large extent depend on that the recycled plastic have such high quality that it can actually replace virgin plastic and also to some extent depends on which energy systems e.......g. energy recovery from incineration substitutes....

  13. Program to develop analytical tools for environmental and safety assessment of nuclear material shipping container systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes a program for developing analytical techniques to evaluate the response of nuclear material shipping containers to severe accidents. Both lumped-mass and finite element techniques are employed to predict shipping container and shipping container-carrier response to impact. The general impact problem is computationally expensive because of its nonlinear, three-dimensional nature. This expense is minimized by using approximate models to parametrically identify critical cases before more exact analyses are performed. The computer codes developed for solving the problem are being experimentally substantiated with test data from full-scale and scale-model container drop tests. 6 figures, 1 table

  14. Development of Plastic Gear for Power Transmission : Abnormal Wear on the Tooth Root and Tooth Fracture near Pitch Point

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Kenichi; Tsukamoto, Naohisa; Nishida, Noriteru; Shi, Jiasun

    1986-01-01

    Plastic gears have many excellent characteristics which are locking in metallic gears, such as corrosion resistance, self-lubrication, quiet running, and so forth. The meshing behavior of plastic gears is very different from that of metallic gears. Therefore, the life estimation is very difficult for plastic gears. In this paper, generating and growing mechanisms of abnormal wear which appears fatally near the root of plastic tooth are analyzed, and then it is clarified that tooth fractures w...

  15. Supporting the development process for building products by the use of research portfolio analysis: A case study for wood plastics composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Daniel; Luible, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Today’s plastics are increasingly compounded using renewable fibres. Such composites raised the interest of the massively bulk-plastics consuming building industry. However, “green” products are still rare and their development constitutes a challenge particularly for small companies. Our study evaluated European scientific projects in composites from which we derived a Research Portfolio serving as future matrix for ideation. It was found that research databanks can serve as basis for str...

  16. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  17. Focal Stroke in the Developing Rat Motor Cortex Induces Age- and Experience-Dependent Maladaptive Plasticity of Corticospinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Mariangela; Mattiello, Alessandro; Mazziotti, Raffaele; Antonelli, Camilla; Gherardini, Lisa; Guzzetta, Andrea; Berardi, Nicoletta; Cioni, Giovanni; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21. We compared long-term motor outcome with changes in axonal sprouting of contralesional CST at red nucleus and spinal cord level using anterograde tracing. We found that P14 stroke caused a more severe long-term motor impairment than at P21, and induced a strong and aberrant contralesional CST sprouting onto denervated spinal cord and red nucleus. The mistargeted sprouting of CST, and the worse motor outcome of the P14 stroke rats were reversed by an early skilled motor training, underscoring the potential of early activity-dependent plasticity in modulating lesion outcome. Thus, changes in the mechanisms controlling CST plasticity occurring during the third postnatal week are associated with age-dependent regulation of the motor outcome after stroke.

  18. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  19. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRELIMINARY PLASTIC DEFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF DISSOLUTION DURING TEMPERING OF LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yu. Filonenko; S. B. Piliaieva

    2009-01-01

    In the paper the influence of preliminary deformation on disintegration of martensite in boron-containing and carbonic alloy is explored. It is shown that at the small degree of deformation (7 per cent) both in low-carbonic and boron-containing alloys the process of martensite disintegration takes place less intensively. The increase of degree of preliminary deformation in a boron-containing alloy is instrumental in more even distribution of boron-cementite particles appearing as a result of ...

  20. Development of methodology for certification of Type B shipping containers using analytical and testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R.; Varley, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    The use of multidisciplinary teams to develop Type B shipping containers improves the quality and reliability of these reusable packagings. Including the people involved in all aspects of the design, certification and use of the package leads to more innovative, user-friendly containers. Concurrent use of testing and analysis allows engineers to more fully characterize a shipping container's responses to the environments given in the regulations, and provides a strong basis for certification. The combination of the input and output of these efforts should provide a general methodology that designers of Type B radioactive material shipping containers can utilize to optimize and certify their designs. (J.P.N.)

  1. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Isabel A.; Golsteijn, Laura; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingested. In order to assess their risk, the contaminant concentration in the plastics needs to be estimated and differences understood. We collected from literature plastic water partition coefficients of various organic chemicals for seven plastic types: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), high-density, low-density and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most data was available for PDMS (1060) and LDPE (220), but much less for the remaining plastics (73). Where possible, regression models were developed and the partitioning was compared between the different plastic types. The partitioning of chemicals follows the order of LDPE ≈ HDPE ≥ PP > PVC ≈ PS. Data describing the impact of weathering are urgently needed. - Highlights: • Comparison of organic chemicals partitioning into seven plastic types • Linear correlation between plastic-water partition coefficient K pw and K ow • More data is needed for polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. • In all plastic types, most K pw were similar to/smaller than the corresponding K ow .

  2. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  3. Development of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Modified by Nano-Structured Polyaniline for Detecting the Plasticizer in Gaseous State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM modified by a film of nano-structured polyaniline (nano-PANI is developed as a gas sensor for detecting the presence of the plasticizer, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP in the ambient. Nano-PANI is prepared using a non-template method and the films are deposited using physical coating method. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the nano-PANI film. The sensor response towards DBP is tested in a sealed gas chamber. The QCM resonant frequency shift is measured due to the absorption of DBP with different concentration ranging from 0.04 to 1.2 ppm. The experiment results show that the variation of the frequency is a linear function of DBP concentration and the sensitivity up to 54 Hz/ppm could be achieved by using the researched nano-PANI on QCM. To investigate the selectivity, the potential interfering analytes such as acetone, ethanol, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are tested. And the mechanism hypothesis of the nano-PANI sensitive to the plasticizer is analyzed.

  4. Development of plastic elongation in nanocrystalline and amorphous Ni–W dual phase alloys by brushing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, S.; Adachi, H.; Yamasaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel agitation technique called the brushing technique is proposed. • A homogeneous material can be obtained with the brushing technique. • The brushed material exhibits large plastic elongation with work hardening. - Abstract: A novel agitation technique, referred to as the “brushing technique” is proposed to treat the surface of a Ni–W alloy film during electrodeposition. This technique was developed to directly remove hydrogen bubbles on the film surface and to apply Ni ions to the interfacial layer with the substrate. The intrinsic mechanical properties of the Ni–W electrodeposits are then evaluated with respect to application. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that both treated and untreated films have nanocrystallites of approximately 5 nm in diameter and an amorphous phase. There was a compositional difference of about. 1.4 at% W between the face side and the reverse side of the film that was not subjected to the brushing technique, whereas this difference was absent in the film subjected to the brushing technique. In addition, the brushing technique reduced the surface roughness of the film and decreased the number of defects. As a result, a large plastic strain of about. 2.9% was observed with work hardening under tensile testing

  5. Some recent developments in the endochronic theory of plasticity - the concept of internal barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valanis, K.C.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the author introduces to the field of irreversible thermodynamics the concept of internal barriers. The concept is usually associated with physical events at the atomic level. The introduction of barriers at the phenomenological level lends another element of commonality between internal variables and molecular processes. Application to plasticity shows rewarding results, in terms of a realistic analytical representation of the mechanical response of metals to repeated loading-unloading histories. These results have been accomplished by assigning to each internal variable an intrinsic time scale which is exclusively defined in terms of the changes of the internal variable alone. Thus each internal variable is 'autonomous'. The author has named this version of the endochronic theory AUTOCHRONIC. It is shown that yield can be encompassed by the endochronic theory, in a fashion which is more akin, yet basically and fundamentally different, to Mroz's concept of multiple yield surfaces, whose mode of motion must be specified. Moreover, a single yield event is replaced by a sequence of yield events, where such a sequence may be made continuous, in a limiting sense, if so desired. In this paper the analytical representation of successive yielding events is accomplished by the introduction of the concept of INTERNAL BARRIERS. These ensure that an internal variable qsub(r) will not become activated until a barrier of magnitude μ has been overcome. The resulting theory is shown to describe with remarkable accuracy loading, unloading and cross behaviour of common metals. (Auth.)

  6. Proposed development programme for a temporary containment system for alpha active decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengelly, M.G.A.; Burnett, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    This report makes a proposal to design, develop and test a containment of modular construction under plutonium active conditions. While this proposal contemplates work with plutonium, the system, when fully developed, has obvious applications wherever a temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is required. The fundamental feature of the proposal is that strippable coatings are used to prevent the inner surfaces of the working area from becoming contaminated. It is envisaged that this method of protecting the surfaces will enable the modular containment structure to be disassembled and re-used. (author)

  7. Development of self-propelled measuring system for 2-dimensional distribution of radiation beam using plastic scintillation fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Shuji; Kitahara, Sigeo; Yamanishi, Akio; Nose, Hiroyuki; Tisaka, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Conventional 2-dimensional distribution of radiation beam is usually estimated from dose rates on a lot of dispersed spots, which has two problems. One is that it takes much time to measure distribution in a large area, and another problem is it is difficult to detect a localized hot spot from dispersed measurement results. To solve these problems we have developed a self-propelled measuring system adopting plastic scintillation fibers (PSF) as a detector. Estimating dose distribution in PSF and scanning PSF with self-propelled system give a 2-dimensional distribution of radiation beam in shorter measuring time and better spatial resolution than usual. A global positioning system was also installed to our system to know the absolute position of interest. With this system we have verified that we can estimate the 2-dimensional distribution in area of 2,000 m 2 in an hour. This report describes the overview of our newly developed system. (author)

  8. Evaluation Of Gas Diffusion Through Plastic Materials Used In Experimental And Sampling Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    . Calculations show that diffusion of oxygen through plastic tubing and reactors into anoxic water can be a serious problem for a series of plastic materials. Comparison of the method for turbulent and laminar flow in tubings shows that the difference is insignificant for most cases. Calculations show also......Plastic materials are often used in experimental and sampling equipment. Plastics are not gas tight, since gases are able to diffuse through the walls of tubing and containers made of plastic. Methods for calculating the significance of gas diffusion through the walls of containers and the walls...... of tubings for both turbulent and laminar flow conditions is presented. A more complex model for diffusion under laminar flow conditions is developed. A comprehensive review on gas diffusion coefficients for the main gases (O2, N2, CO2, CH4 etc.) and for a long range of plastic materials is also presented...

  9. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRELIMINARY PLASTIC DEFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF DISSOLUTION DURING TEMPERING OF LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Filonenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of preliminary deformation on disintegration of martensite in boron-containing and carbonic alloy is explored. It is shown that at the small degree of deformation (7 per cent both in low-carbonic and boron-containing alloys the process of martensite disintegration takes place less intensively. The increase of degree of preliminary deformation in a boron-containing alloy is instrumental in more even distribution of boron-cementite particles appearing as a result of martensite disintegration.

  10. Development of multi-purpose containers for managing LLW/VLLW from D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sol; Park, Jae Ho; Sung, Nak Hoon; Yang, Ge Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste container designs should comply with the requirements for safety (i.e., transportation, storage, disposal) and other criteria such as economics and technology. These criteria are also applicable to the future management of the large amount of LLW and VLLW to arise from decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear power plants, which have different features compared to that of wastes from operation and maintenance (O and M). This paper proposes to develop a set of standard containers of multi-purpose usage for transportation, storage and disposal. The concepts of the containers were optimized for management of D and D wastes in consideration of national system for radioactive waste management, in particular the Gyeongju Repository and associated infrastructures. A set of prototype containers were designed and built : a soft bag for VLLW, two metallic containers for VLLW/LLW (a standard IP2 container for sea transport and ISO container for road transport). Safety analyses by simulation and tests of these designs show they are in compliance with the regulatory requirements. A further development of a container with concrete is foreseen for 2016

  11. Development of multi-purpose containers for managing LLW/VLLW from D and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sol; Park, Jae Ho; Sung, Nak Hoon; Yang, Ge Hyung [KONES Corporation., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Radioactive waste container designs should comply with the requirements for safety (i.e., transportation, storage, disposal) and other criteria such as economics and technology. These criteria are also applicable to the future management of the large amount of LLW and VLLW to arise from decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear power plants, which have different features compared to that of wastes from operation and maintenance (O and M). This paper proposes to develop a set of standard containers of multi-purpose usage for transportation, storage and disposal. The concepts of the containers were optimized for management of D and D wastes in consideration of national system for radioactive waste management, in particular the Gyeongju Repository and associated infrastructures. A set of prototype containers were designed and built : a soft bag for VLLW, two metallic containers for VLLW/LLW (a standard IP2 container for sea transport and ISO container for road transport). Safety analyses by simulation and tests of these designs show they are in compliance with the regulatory requirements. A further development of a container with concrete is foreseen for 2016.

  12. Development of a fresh plutonium fuel container for a prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, T.; Takahashi, S.; Mishima, T.; Kurakami, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohuchi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Japan gives a good deal of encouragement to development of a fast breeder reactor (which is considered as the most likely candidate for nuclear power generation) to secure long-term energy source. And, following an experimental fast breeder reactor Joyo, a prototype fast breeder reactor Monju is now under vigorous construction. Related to development of the prototype fast breeder reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport container which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies from Plutonium Fuel Production Facility to the Monju power plant. Therefore, the container is now being developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, shipment and vibration tests, handling performance tests, shielding performance tests and prototype container tests are executed with prototype containers fabricated according to a final design, in order to experimentally confirm soundness of transport container and its contents, and propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this container and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package

  13. Development of a plastic membrane containing micro-hole(s) for a potential bio-sensing application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krikstolaityte, Vida; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Heiskanen, Arto

    2017-01-01

    electrodes placed on each side of the membrane, was adopted for monitoring the MH impedance (Fig. 1a). The setup was used to investigate, if EIS is suitable to sense the trapping of an analyte inside the MHs. Latex micro-beads with a diameter of 10 mu m were used to test clogging of the MHs. Additionally......, finite element model simulations were performed using Comsol Multiphysics software to theoretically evaluate the sensitivity field of the EIS measurement along the MHs. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  14. Life cycle of the plastics in the wastes. Energy development analysis of the PET disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.; Carlini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The work is directed to an energy-environmental evaluation, through the LCA methodology, of the life cycle of the containers for liquids in PET, particularly to the phase post use. Applied the italian decree with the force of law (Decreto Ronchi), the methodology LCA has been described in the basic points. Then such methodology has been applied to the containers for liquids in PET. Several disposal systems have been studied and it was found out the most suitable system from the energy and environmental point of view. The recycling turned out to be the best solution either from the energy point of view or environmental. The incineration with energy saving has found out better than the conferring in disposal (with biogas recovery) from the energy point of view, on the contrary the conferring in disposal has found out better than the environmental one [it

  15. The shielding properties of the newly developed container for transport of samples contaminated with CBRN substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Kares, J.

    2014-01-01

    A container for transport of environmental samples to the analytical laboratory is being developed as part of the development of system for collection and transport of samples contaminated with chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear (CBRN) substances after CBRN incidents. The proposed system corresponds with current requirements of NATO publication AEP-66. The proposed container will meet the requirements of mechanical stability and tightness for the packaging of the chemical, biological and radioactive substances. Verification of shielding properties and satisfaction of requirements of radiation protection during transport of potentially relatively high active samples was the aim of this part of research. The results, together with a wall thickness of the inner steel container, the inner lining and the outer transport package, give excellent assumption that the radiation protection requirements for the proposed container and transport package will be satisfied. (authors)

  16. Development of a double containment concept for the European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costaz, J.L.; Bonhomme, N.; L'Huby, Y.; Sidaner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of a double containment concept for the European Pressurized Water Reactor. Specification of containment leak tightness during severe hazards resulting from core melt scenarios is part of the safety goals defined for the EPR project. These safety goals include retention of molten core, mitigation of hydrogen deflagration or explosion risks and decay heat removal. The main new containment structural design loads which have been defined, including containment pressure and temperature conditions following possible postulated-core melt events, are recalled in the paper. The feasibility of a double containment with a prestressed concrete inner containment taking into account these new design loads but based upon experience gained within the well tested concept of concrete double wall containment used in 1400 MW nuclear power plants which have already been built in France, is presented. The main characteristics of such a prestressed inner containment are described. Limits and further possible optimization for even more severe design loads (including liner option) are indicated. Experimental works including a large scale mock up are already under way. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  17. Development and assessment of a fiber reinforced HPC container for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, A.; Pineau, F.; Chanut, S.; Thibaux, Th.

    2007-01-01

    As part of its research into solutions for concrete disposal containers for long-lived radioactive waste, Andra defined requirements for high-performance concretes with enhanced porosity, diffusion, and permeability characteristics. It is the starting point for further research into severe conditions of containment and durability. To meet these objectives, Eiffage TP consequently developed a highly fibered High Performance Concrete (HPC) design mix using CEM V cement and silica fume. Then, mockups were produced to characterize the performance various concepts of containers with this new concrete mix. These mockups helped to identify possible manufacturing problems, and particularly the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage. (authors)

  18. Development of an automated informatic system, for the evaluation of damage in plastics and minerals; Desarrollo de un sistema informatico automatizado, para la evaluacion de danos en plasticos y minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo V, V.; Lopez G, A.D.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Segovia R, A.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    A computer system of pattern recognition to evaluate automatically the damages registered by positive ions in minerals and plastics was developed. In the case of minerals the apatite in which was achievement to recognize and to count the damages by spontaneous fission of the uranium contained in her was selected. The selected plastic was the CR39, in which was possible to obtain the distribution of the diameters of the you give you taken place by slight ions in this plastic. In both cases, the recognition of patterns you bases on Ision for Computer, using the methodology described by Gonzalez and Woods [6]. The technique consists in: Acquisition of the Image, Pre-prosecution, Segmentation, Description and Classification; the computer system you development making use of the software Matlab version 7. The Apatita you selects for their importance in the one dated geologic and the determination of the thermal history, both of importance in the oil prospecting. In the case of the CR39 their importance resides in its wide and massive use as dosimetro of neutrons, determination of environmental Radon and detection of nuclear reactions of low section. (Author)

  19. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  20. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  1. An Example of Learning about Plastics and Their Evaluation as a Contribution to Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary School Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a secondary school lesson plan for chemistry education on the topic Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The lessons focus both on the chemistry of plastics and on learning about the societal evaluation of competing, chemistry-based industrial products. A specific teaching method was…

  2. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  3. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  4. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  5. The zebrafish tailbud contains two independent populations of midline progenitor cells that maintain long-term germ layer plasticity and differentiate in response to local signaling cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H.; Tsotras, Steve R.; Goto, Hana; Martin, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate body axis formation depends on a population of bipotential neuromesodermal cells along the posterior wall of the tailbud that make a germ layer decision after gastrulation to form spinal cord and mesoderm. Despite exhibiting germ layer plasticity, these cells never give rise to midline tissues of the notochord, floor plate and dorsal endoderm, raising the question of whether midline tissues also arise from basal posterior progenitors after gastrulation. We show in zebrafish that local posterior signals specify germ layer fate in two basal tailbud midline progenitor populations. Wnt signaling induces notochord within a population of notochord/floor plate bipotential cells through negative transcriptional regulation of sox2. Notch signaling, required for hypochord induction during gastrulation, continues to act in the tailbud to specify hypochord from a notochord/hypochord bipotential cell population. Our results lend strong support to a continuous allocation model of midline tissue formation in zebrafish, and provide an embryological basis for zebrafish and mouse bifurcated notochord phenotypes as well as the rare human congenital split notochord syndrome. We demonstrate developmental equivalency between the tailbud progenitor cell populations. Midline progenitors can be transfated from notochord to somite fate after gastrulation by ectopic expression of msgn1, a master regulator of paraxial mesoderm fate, or if transplanted into the bipotential progenitors that normally give rise to somites. Our results indicate that the entire non-epidermal posterior body is derived from discrete, basal tailbud cell populations. These cells remain receptive to extracellular cues after gastrulation and continue to make basic germ layer decisions. PMID:26674311

  6. Marine microplastics - Method development for detection of plastic particles from sea water down to 10 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Robin; Enders, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years and especially in 2014, plastic pollution has gained a lot of media attention and public awareness is rising. Management plans and policies start to adopt strategies for mitigating effects and reducing entry of marine litter and beached plastic. Strangled seals or plastic...... ingesting seabirds are perceived easily by the broad public through emotionally charged photographs and personal experiences on beaches all around the globe. Monitoring programs, beach clean-ups, source elimination, and societal changes such as local bans of single-use plastic bags or outphasing...... on the bottom of the food web, whose existence and importance we are rarely aware of. There are chances for severe impacts in plastic accumulating ocean gyres which are of oligotrophic nature and consequently low food availability. So far the concentrations, biological impact and the fate of disintegrating...

  7. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...

  8. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  9. Art and Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Julio Wilson; Metka, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    The roots of science and art of plastic surgery are very antique. Anatomy, drawing, painting, and sculpting have been very important to the surgery and medicine development over the centuries. Artistic skills besides shape, volume, and lines perception can be a practical aid to the plastic surgeons' daily work. An overview about the interactions between art and plastic surgery is presented, with a few applications to rhinoplasty, cleft lip, and other reconstructive plastic surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  10. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  11. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of

  12. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  13. Development of new testing methods for the numerical load analysis for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protz, C.; Voelzke, H.; Zencker, U.; Hagenow, P.; Gruenewald, H.

    2011-01-01

    The qualification of steel sheet containers as intermediate-level waste container for the final repository is performed by the BAM (Bundeasmt fuer Materialpruefung) according to the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) requirements. The testing requirements include the stacking pressure tests, lifting tests, drop tests thermal tests (fire resistance) and tightness tests. Besides the verification using model or prototype tests and transferability considerations numerical safety analyses may be performed alternatively. The authors describe the internal BAM research project ConDrop aimed to develop extended testing methods for the drop test of steel sheet containers for the final repository Konrad using numerical load analyses. A finite element model was developed using The FE software LS-PrePost 3.0 and ANSYS 12.0 and the software FE-Code LS-DYNA for the simulation of the drop test (5 m height). The results were verified by experimental data from instrumented drop tests. The container preserves its integrity after the drop test, plastic deformation occurred at the bottom plate, the side walls, the cask cover and the lateral uprights.

  14. Development of phosphate glass microspheres containing holmium for selective internal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, Eraldo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The selective internal radiotherapy is an alternative for some kinds of cancer as the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or primary liver cancer treatment. In this treatment, glass or polymer microspheres containing radionuclides inside their structure are introduced in the liver through hepatic artery and trapped at the arterioles that feed the tumor. In this work, the development of phosphate glasses containing holmium for production of microspheres and their application in Brazil are proposed. The developed glasses presented suitable chemical durability, density of 2,7(3) g/cm 3 , high thermal stability and the impurities contained therein do not preclude the treatment. The microspheres were produced by the flame method and the gravitational fall method, and were characterized by means of several techniques to evaluate shape, average particle size, activity and biocompatibility suitable for selective internal radiotherapy. Based in the main results, the submission to in vivo tests is proposed. (author)

  15. Development of assessment technology for hydrogen burn and fission product behavior in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Hong, S. W.; Song, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kang, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis tools for hydrogen burn was established to resolve the hydrogen issues in containment. To validate CFX commercial CFD(computational fluid dynamics) code, the hydrogen combustion experiments such as FLAME and ENACEFF for reactor containment were analyzed. And OpenFOAM hydrogen combustion code was developed and validated. Experiments for the flame propagation characteristics in IRWST and the run-up-distance for DDT(Deflagration to detonation transition) were performed and analytical model was evaluated to evaluation of the performance of hydrogen mitigation system, that is, PAR(Passive auto-catalistic re-combiner) To improvement of the fission product modelling in containment, separate analysis module for Iodine behavior and its application tool of K-IODIP (Korea IODIne Package) were developed. PHEBUS FPT-3 analysis was performed to validate MELCOR code. And also the characteristics of fission product behaviors in Future Reactors(GEN-IV) were compared

  16. Development of aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method for filtered containment venting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae bong; Kim, Sung Il; Jung, Jaehoon; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Fission products would be released from molten corium pools which are relocated into the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel, on the concrete pit and in the core catcher. In addition, steam, hydrogen and noncondensable gases such as CO and CO2 are generated during the core damage progression due to loss of coolant and the molten core-concrete interaction. Consequently, the pressure inside the containment could be increased continuously. Filtered containment venting is one action to prevent an uncontrolled release of radioactive fission products caused by an overpressure failure of the containment. After the Fukushima-Daiichi accident which was demonstrated the containment failure, many countries to consider the implementation of filtered containment venting system(FCVS) on nuclear power plant where these are not currently applied. In general evaluation for FCVS is conducted to determine decontamination factor on several conditions (aerosol diameter, submergence depth, water temperature, gas flow, steam flow rate, pressure, operating time,...). It is essential to quantify the mass concentration before and after FCVS for decontamination factor. This paper presents the development of the evaluation facility for filtered containment venting system at KAERI and an experimental investigation for aerosol removal performance. Decontamination factor for the FCVS is determined by filter measurement. The result of the aerosol size distribution measurement shows the aerosol removal performance by an aerosol size.

  17. Pax4 acts as a key player in pancreas development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Tiziana; Avolio, Fabio; Courtney, Monica; Vieira, Andhira; Druelle, Noémie; Ben-Othman, Nouha; Hadzic, Biljana; Navarro, Sergi; Collombat, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The embryonic development of the pancreas is orchestrated by a complex and coordinated transcription factor network. Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) initiates the endocrine program by activating the expression of additional transcription factors driving survival, proliferation, maturation and lineage allocation of endocrine precursors. Among the direct targets of Neurog3, Pax4 appears as one of the key regulators of β-cell specification. Indeed, mice lacking Pax4 die a few days postpartum, as they develop severe hyperglycemia due to the absence of mature pancreatic β-cells. Pax4 also directly regulates the expression of Arx, a gene that plays a crucial role in α-cell specification. Comparative analysis of Pax4 and Arx mutants, as well as Arx/Pax4 double mutants, showed that islet subtype destiny is mainly directed by cross-repression of the Pax4 and Arx factors. Importantly, the ectopic expression of Pax4 in α-cells was found sufficient to induce their neogenesis and conversion into β-like cells, not only during development but also in adult rodents. Therefore, differentiated endocrine α-cells can be considered as a putative source for insulin-producing β-like cells. These findings have clearly widened our understanding regarding pancreatic development, but they also open new research avenues in the context of diabetes research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasticity during Childhood and Adolescence: Innovative Approaches to Investigating Neurocognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Linden, David E. J.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of profound change, which holds substantial developmental milestones, but also unique challenges to the individual. In this opinion paper, we highlight the potential of combining two recently developed behavioural and neural training techniques (cognitive bias modification and functional magnetic neuroimaging-based…

  19. Endothelial plasticity in cardiovascular development : role of growth factors VEGF and PDGF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, Nynke Margaretha Sophie van den

    2008-01-01

    The central cell type within vascular development is the endothelial cell (EC). It forms during (lymph)vasculogenesis, proliferates during angiogenesis and instructs medial cells during arteriogenesis. The venous population also gives rise to a subset of the lymphatic endothelium and the endocardium

  20. Development of a coating technique for inertial confinement fusion plastic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, U.; Tsubakihara, H.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterated polystyrene as a target material offers several advantages over other polymers because of the following: (1) it is chemically and physically stable at ordinary conditions, (2) it can be easily formed into spherical shells, and (3) it has a very high fraction of D 2 /H 2 (above approx.99%). As in our previous studies, the fabrication method was basically a utilization of the emulsion technique. This method is well suited to mass-producing the polymer targets without microprocessing techniques. We have developed a fabrication method for single shell targets and an extension of this technique also enables us to fabricate double shell targets. This new method is faster and less labor intensive than previous techniques. The development of ICF experiments requires multilayer structure targets; we have developed, moreover, a new fabrication technique called the multicoating method. The polymer coating can be fabricated by the application of an emulsion technique. On the other hand, with metal coating, a nonelectroplating method was used, and nickel was employed as the coating metal. The thickness of the polymer coating layer can be controlled with the rotational speed of a stirrer in the emulsion. In the case of nickel coating, it is achieved by controlling the plating bath temperature and immersion time during the plating process. The experiment resulted in the development of a new technique for the fabrication of multilayer targets and low density, thick polymer-layer-coated targets

  1. Influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Jia, Z. Y.; Wang, F. J.; Fu, R.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, B. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Drilling is inevitable for CFRP components’ assembling process in the aviation industry. The exit damage frequently occurs and affects the load carrying capacity of components. Consequently, it is of great urgency to enhance drilling exit quality on CFRP components. The article aims to guide the reasonable choice of drill helical direction and effectively reduce exit damage. Exit observation experiments are carried out with left-hand helical, right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill drilling T800S CFRP laminates separately. The development rules of exit damage and delamination factor curves are obtained. Combined with loading conditions and fracture modes of push-out burrs, and thrust force curves, the influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development is derived. It is found that the main fracture modes for left-hand helical, right-hand helical, and straight one-shot drill are mode I, extrusive fracture, mode III respectively. Among them, mode III has the least effect on exit damage development. Meanwhile, the changing rate of thrust force is relative slow for right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill in the thrust force increasing phase of stage II, which is disadvantaged for exit damage development. Therefore, straight one-shot drill’s exit quality is the best.

  2. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects; Etude des performances du controle par emission acoustique de tubes en materiaux composites resine-fibre de verre contenant des defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified `nuclear safety`. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends.

  3. Development of the containment transient analysis code for the passive reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Bae, Yoon Young; Chang, Moon Hi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-05-01

    This study was performed to develop the analysis tools for the passively cooled steel containment and to construct the integrated code system which can analyze a thermal hydraulic behavior of the containment and reactor system during a loss of coolant accident. The computer code CONTEMPT4/MOD5/PCCS was developed by incorporating the passive containment cooling models to the containment pressure and temperature transient analysis computer code CONTEMPT4/MOD5. The integrated reactor thermal hydraulic analysis code system for passive reactor was constructed by coupling the best estimate thermal hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3 and CONTEMPT4/MOD5/PCCS through the process control method. In addition, to evaluate the applicability of the code the CONTEMPT4/MOD5/PCCS was applied to the SMART(System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). The pressure and temperature transient following the small break LOCA of SMART was analysed by modeling the safeguard vessel using both the newly added passive containment cooling model and existing pool model. (author). 16 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, Jessica R.; Davis, Stephen D.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10 10 histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an 125 I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function

  5. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  6. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Jessica R; Davis, Stephen D; Rivard, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10(10) histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an (125)I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function ratio between the current

  7. Development of plastic deformations in 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending of specimens of various length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Leonets, V.A.; Bega, N.D. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1983-08-01

    Effect of specimen length on intensity of plastic deformation development and cyclic strength is studied for annealed 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending. The intensity of microplastic deformations and cyclic strength of annealed 12Kh18N10T steel in the considered case is due to self-heating.

  8. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  9. Object-Oriented Programming in the Development of Containment Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Young; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Byun, Choong Sup

    2009-01-01

    After the mid 1980s, the new programming concept, Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), was introduced and designed, which has the features such as the information hiding, encapsulation, modularity and inheritance. These offered much more convenient programming paradigm to code developers. The OOP concept was readily developed into the programming language as like C++ in the 1990s and is being widely used in the modern software industry. In this paper, we show that the OOP concept is successfully applicable to the development of safety analysis code for containment and propose the more explicit and easy OOP design for developers

  10. Development and testing of a zero stitch MLI blanket using plastic pins for space use

    OpenAIRE

    畠中, 龍太; 宮北, 健; 杉田, 寛之; Saitoh, Masanori; Hirai, Tomoyuki; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Masanori; Hirai, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    New types of MLI blanket have been developed to achieve high thermal performance while maintaining production and assembly workability equivalent to the conventional type. Tag-pins, which are widely used in commercial applications to hook price tags to products, are used to fix the films in place and the pin material is changed to polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for use in space. Thermal performance is measured by using a boil-off calorimeter, in which a rectangular liquid nitrogen tank is used t...

  11. Development of high radiation-resistant glass fiber reinforced plastics with cyanate-based resin for superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idesaki, Akira, E-mail: idesaki.akira@qst.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Watanuki 1233, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nakamoto, Tatsushi [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shimada, Akihiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Watanuki 1233, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iio, Masami; Sasaki, Kenichi; Sugano, Michinaka [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Makida, Yasuhiro [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ogitsu, Toru [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • GFRPs for superconducting magnet systems were developed. • Cyanate-based resins were used for GFRPs as matrices. • Radiation resistance was evaluated based on gas evolution and mechanical properties. • GFRP with bismaleimide-triazine resin exhibited excellent radiation resistance. - Abstract: Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) with cyanate ester resin/epoxy resin, bismaleimide resin/epoxy resin, and bismaleimide-triazine resin as matrices were developed for the superconducting magnet systems used in high intensity accelerators. The radiation resistance of these GFRPs was evaluated based on their gas evolution and changes in their mechanical properties after gamma-ray irradiation with dose of 100 MGy in vacuum at ambient temperature. After irradiation, a small amount of gas was evolved from all of the GFRPs, and a slight decrease in mechanical properties was observed compared with the conventional epoxy resin-GFRP, G10. Among the GFRPs, the smallest amount of gas (6 × 10{sup −5} mol/g) was evolved from the GFRP with the bismaleimide-triazine resin, which also retained more than 88% of its flexural strength after 100 MGy irradiation; this GFRP is thus considered the most promising material for superconducting magnet systems.

  12. Involvement of the Helicobacter pylori plasticity region and cag pathogenicity island genes in the development of gastroduodenal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A R; Proença-Módena, J L; Sales, A I L; Fukuhara, Y; da Silveira, W D; Pimenta-Módena, J L; de Oliveira, R B; Brocchi, M

    2008-11-01

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of several gastroduodenal diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers), and gastric adenocarcinoma. Although a number of putative virulence factors have been reported for H. pylori, there are conflicting results regarding their association with specific H. pylori-related diseases. In this work, we investigated the presence of virB11 and cagT, located in the left half of the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), and the jhp917-jhp918 sequences, components of the dupA gene located in the plasticity zone of H. pylori, in Brazilian isolates of H. pylori. We also examined the association between these genes and H. pylori-related gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric and duodenal ulcers in an attempt to identify a gene marker for clinical outcomes related to infection by H. pylori. The cagT gene was associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric ulcers, whereas the virB11 gene was detected in nearly all of the samples. The dupA gene was not associated with duodenal ulcers or any gastroduodenal disease here analyzed. These results suggest that cagT could be a useful prognostic marker for the development of peptic ulcer disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. They also indicate that cagT is associated with greater virulence and peptic ulceration, and that this gene is an essential component of the type IV secretion system of H. pylori.

  13. Cell Death, Neuronal Plasticity and Functional Loading in the Development of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Research on the precise timing and regulation of neuron production and maturation in the vestibular and visual systems of Wistar rats and several inbred strains of mice (C57B16 and Pallid mutant) concentrated upon establishing a timing baseline for mitotic development of the neurons of the vestibular nuclei and the peripheral vestibular sensory structures (maculae, cristae). This involved studies of the timing and site of neuronal cell birth and preliminary studies of neuronal cell death in both central and peripheral elements of the mammalian vestibular system. Studies on neuronal generation and maturation in the retina were recently added to provide a mechanism for more properly defining the in utero' developmental age of the individual fetal subject and to closely monitor potential transplacental effects of environmentally stressed maternal systems. Information is given on current efforts concentrating upon the (1) perinatal period of development (E18 thru P14) and (2) the role of cell death in response to variation in the functional loading of the vestibular and proprioreceptive systems in developing mammalian organisms.

  14. Do more intelligent brains retain heightened plasticity for longer in development? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-06-01

    Twin studies indicate that the heritability of general cognitive ability - the genetic contribution to individual differences - increases with age. Brant et al. (2013) reported that this increase in heritability occurs earlier in development for low ability children than high ability children. Allied with structural brain imaging results that indicate faster thickening and thinning of cortex for high ability children (Shaw et al., 2006), Brant and colleagues argued higher cognitive ability represents an extended sensitive period for brain development. However, they admitted no coherent mechanistic account can currently reconcile the key empirical data. Here, computational methods are employed to demonstrate the empirical data can be reconciled without recourse to variations in sensitive periods. These methods utilized population-based artificial neural network models of cognitive development. In the model, ability-related variations stemmed from the timing of the increases in the non-linearity of computational processes, causing dizygotic twins to diverge in their behavior. These occurred in a population where: (a) ability was determined by the combined small contributions of many neurocomputational factors, and (b) individual differences in ability were largely genetically constrained. The model's explanation of developmental increases in heritability contrasts with proposals that these increases represent emerging gene-environment correlations (Haworth et al., 2010). The article advocates simulating inherited individual differences within an explicitly developmental framework. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. [Understanding and development strategy of health food containing Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yuan; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Chun; Wang, Jing-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Li; Wang, Jia; Gao, Xue-Min

    2016-11-01

    Health food containing Chinese materia medica (CMM) conforms to the development demands of the age of big health and the theory of preventive treatment. In the view of health care and improvement of resisting diseases, it plays an important role in the market. It is very necessary to have further study and discussion on health food containing CMM. First of all, by comparing, analyzing and summarizing, the health food containing CMM could be defined as the health food which is qualified in security and functionality evaluation, with the traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) within TCM standards as the main raw materials, and the formulation-composition is based on the theory of TCM. It is characterized by higher safety than medicines, stronger biological activities than common food, multiple forms, abundant raw materials and integrated supervision and management. Secondly, we discussed the research and development (R&D) strategies and rules of health food containing CMM, pointing out that the core tasks of R&D include the investigation of formula, technology and the standards of quality. The fundamental principles of declaration and production include scientificity, rationality, reality and uniformity. Three key requirements (security, functionality and controllability) in the review as well as the process management of R&D and the key-points of risks control were summarized in this paper. Finally, the dynamic trends of policies and regulations related to health food containing CMM were analyzed in the view of registration, recording, raw materials and functions, and then related suggestions were proposed. Therefore, this article will be helpful in overall understanding the health food containing CMM and play a guiding role for its research and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  17. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed [Department of Research and Development, Natural State Research Inc, Stamford, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS.

  18. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS

  19. Modular development mat reinforcing and liners containment/annulus building. Final report supplement. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainrib, J.

    1978-06-01

    The feasibility of developing a modular system approach for the construction of containment mats has been established. The investigative results obtained from a plant used for the modular study has determined that (1) modularization results in a 10-week reduction in the construction schedule critical path over that for the conventional approach, and (2) modularization is cost effective and could result in a savings of approximately $10,700,000. Accordingly, it is recommended that the modular system approach be adopted as standard practice for the construction of containment mats

  20. Recent developments in the use of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as markers for irradiated lipid-containing foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.M.; Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast; Moore, S.; Graham, W.D.; McRoberts, W.C.; Hamilton, J.T.G.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The use of 2-alkylcyclobutanones as markers for irradiated fat-containing foods has been well documented in the recent years. Initial development of the method concentrated on the detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in irradiated chicken meat with the methodology being subsequently modified to also detect 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB). The method has been validated by interlaboratory blind trials for chicken meat, pork and liquid whole egg, and was finally adopted as a European Standard (en1785) for the detection of irradiated fat-containing foods by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in 1996. Work has continued to further extend the applicability of this irradiation detection test to other fat-containing foods. Experimental work has shown that 2-DCB and 2-TCB can be used as markers for irradiated salmon meat, Camembert cheese, mango and papaya. The effects of irradiation dose and storage on the cyclobutanone concentration of Camembert cheese, mango and papaya have been studied while the effects of dose and temperature of irradiation were investigated for salmon meat. Other recent studies have included the investigation of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique as an alternative means of fat extraction from irradiated foods and, in addition, for extraction of the cyclobutanones directly from samples. Work is also progressing on the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of cyclobutanones with the view to developing a rapid screening test for irradiated fat-containing foods

  1. Excessive Sensory Stimulation during Development Alters Neural Plasticity and Vulnerability to Cocaine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, Shilpa; Donckels, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Julian S B; Christakis, Dimitri A; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Ferguson, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks, which can have a profound impact on brain function and behavior later in life. Previous work has shown that mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation during development are hyperactive and novelty seeking, and display impaired cognition compared with controls. In this study, we addressed the issue of whether excessive sensory stimulation during development could alter behaviors related to addiction and underlying circuitry in CD-1 mice. We found that the reinforcing properties of cocaine were significantly enhanced in mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation. Moreover, although these mice displayed hyperactivity that became more pronounced over time, they showed impaired persistence of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These behavioral effects were associated with alterations in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Together, these findings suggest that excessive sensory stimulation in early life significantly alters drug reward and the neural circuits that regulate addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity. These observations highlight the consequences of early life experiences and may have important implications for children growing up in today's complex technological environment.

  2. Development of a reactive burn model based upon an explicit visco-plastic pore collapse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Eric; Lefrançois, Alexandre; Belmas, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Our aim in this study is to develop a reactive burn model based upon a microscopic hot spot model to compute the initiation and shock to detonation of pressed TATB explosives. For the sake of simplicity, the hot spots are supposed to result from the viscoplastic collapse of spherical micro-voids inside the composition. Such a model has been incorporated in a lagrangian hydrodynamic code. In our calculations, 8 different pore diameters, ranging from 100 nm to 1.2 μm, have been taken into account and the porosity associated to each pore size has been deduced from the PBX-9502 void distribution derived from the SAXS. The last ingredient of our model is the burn rate that depends on two main variables. The first one is the shock pressure as proposed by the developers of the CREST model. The second one is the number of effective chemical reaction sites calculated by the microscopic model. Furthermore, the function of the reaction progress variable of the burn rate is similar to that in the SURF model proposed by Menikoff. Our burn rate has been calibrated by using pressure profile, material velocities wave forms obtained with embedded particle velocity gauges and run distance to detonation. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results is really good and sufficient to perform a wide variety of simulations including single, double shock waves and the desensitization phenomenon. In conclusion, future works are described.

  3. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  4. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  5. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of an Ion Chamber for Monitoring the Containment of a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae-Yung; Kim, Han-Soo; Park, Se-Hwan; Ha, Jang-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Nuclear power plants need many different types of radiation detectors for different purposes. Neutron detectors are installed inside and outside of the core to check the neutron flux. Scintillation detectors are used to check the fission products included in the liquids and gases of plant system. Geiger-Mueller counters are used for the area radiation monitoring. In addition to the above-mentioned detectors, ion chambers are installed to monitor radiation level of the containment. A few ion chambers are located within the reactor containment to monitor radiation level of an accident case. Therefore, the ion chamber should be capable of monitoring high level radiation dose up to 10{sup 7} R/h. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) developed an ion chamber for monitoring the radiation dose inside the containment.

  7. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Kentaro, E-mail: ueken@spring8.or.jp; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan synchrotron radiation research institute, JASRI/SPring-8 Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 Japan (Japan); Uesugi, Masayuki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hamada, Hiroshi [NTT Advanced technology Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0124 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  8. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste containers for storage at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.; Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B ampersand W's role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  9. Yucca mountain container fabrication, closure and non-destructive evaluation development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Container fabrication, closure, and non-destructive evaluation process development activities are described. The design parameters for a tuff environment are: no significant hydrostatic or lithostatic loading of the container; very small water flux; benign water, an oxidizing, dilute sodium bicarbonate solution of neutral pH; temperatures reaching 250 C over the first 50 to 100 years, then falling to about 97 C over the remainder of the 300-year container period. The materials under consideration are three austenitic alloys: AISI 304L, AISI 316L, and alloy 825; as well as three copper alloys: CDA 102, CDA 613, and CDA 715. Targets are controlled, uniform microstructures for the base metal, the weld and the heat affected zones of the weld; controlled microchemistry; low residual stresses; small welds and heat-affected zones; and reliable methods of flaw detection by surface and volumetric activities. The recommended procedures and processes for fabricating, closing and evaluating each of the candidate materials are reviewed

  10. Development and testing of a zero stitch MLI blanket using plastic pins for space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Masanori; Hirai, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    New types of MLI blanket have been developed to achieve high thermal performance while maintaining production and assembly workability equivalent to the conventional type. Tag-pins, which are widely used in commercial applications to hook price tags to products, are used to fix the films in place and the pin material is changed to polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for use in space. Thermal performance is measured by using a boil-off calorimeter, in which a rectangular liquid nitrogen tank is used to evaluate the degradation at the bending corner and joint of the blanket. Zero-stitch- and multi-blanket-type MLIs show significantly improved thermal performance (ɛeff is smaller than 0.0050 at room temperature) despite having the same fastener interface as traditional blankets, while the venting design and number of tag-pins are confirmed as appropriate in a depressurization test.

  11. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilty, F M; Hurrell, R F; Zimmermann, M B [Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Teleki, A; Buechel, R; Pratsinis, S E [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Krumeich, F, E-mail: michael.zimmermann@ilw.agrl.ethz.c [Electron Microscopy Center (EMEZ), ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  12. The development of the thermohydraulic analysis code for the passive containment cooling system: PCCSAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianyu; Zhang Shenru; Min Yuanyou

    1994-01-01

    To estimate the performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of the AC-600 nuclear power plant, the PCCSAC code is developed currently by the jointed efforts between Tsinghua University and NPIC. Different features on the passive behavior of the system and the main components of the containment are considered in the code which is needed by the further AC-600 R and D Program. With a brief description of the AC-600 passive containment cooling system and components, the main thermohydraulic models and numerical scheme used in the PCCSAC code are introduced and the selected results of the verification and the prediction for the performance of the AC-600 passive containment cooling system under LOCA and a steam line break accident are presented to preliminarily demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the PCCSAC model. The current PCCSAC model is conservative and a further 2-D PCCSAC version is under consideration in addition to provide the database for models from some tests associated with the components and systems unique to AC-600 nuclear power plant to meet the requirement of the more realistic modelization for the AC-600 passive containment cooling system. (author)

  13. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilty, F M; Hurrell, R F; Zimmermann, M B; Teleki, A; Buechel, R; Pratsinis, S E; Krumeich, F

    2009-01-01

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe 2 O 4 ) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  14. Development and optimization of iron- and zinc-containing nanostructured powders for nutritional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, F M; Teleki, A; Krumeich, F; Büchel, R; Hurrell, R F; Pratsinis, S E; Zimmermann, M B

    2009-11-25

    Reducing the size of low-solubility iron (Fe)-containing compounds to nanoscale has the potential to improve their bioavailability. Because Fe and zinc (Zn) deficiencies often coexist in populations, combined Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured compounds may be useful for nutritional applications. Such compounds are developed here and their solubility in dilute acid, a reliable indicator of iron bioavailability in humans, and sensory qualities in sensitive food matrices are investigated. Phosphates and oxides of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn-containing (primarily ZnFe2O4) nanostructured powders were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). Chemical composition and surface area were systematically controlled by varying precursor concentration and feed rate during powder synthesis to increase solubility to the level of ferrous sulfate at maximum Fe and Zn content. Solubility of the nanostructured compounds was dependent on their particle size and crystallinity. The new nanostructured powders produced minimal color changes when added to dairy products containing chocolate or fruit compared to the changes produced when ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate were added to these foods. Flame-made Fe- and Fe/Zn-containing nanostructured powders have solubilities comparable to ferrous and Zn sulfate but may produce fewer color changes when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. Thus, these powders are promising for food fortification and other nutritional applications.

  15. Effect of reversible hydrogen alloying and plastic deformation on microstructure development in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzinova, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen leads to degradation in fracture-related mechanical properties of titanium alloys and is usually considered as a very dangerous element. Numerous studies of hydrogen interaction with titanium alloys showed that hydrogen may be considered not only as an impurity but also as temporary alloying element. This statement is based on the following. Hydrogen stabilizes high-temperature β-phase, leads to decrease in temperature of β→α transformation and extends (α + β )-phase field. The BCC β-phase exhibits lower strength and higher ductility in comparison with HCP α -phase. As a result, hydrogen improves hot workability of hard-to-deform titanium alloys. Hydrogen changes chemical composition of the phases, kinetics of phase transformations, and at low temperatures additional phase transformation (β→α + TiH 2 ) takes place, which is accompanied with noticeable change in volumes of phases. As a result, fine lamellar microstructure may be formed in hydrogenated titanium alloys after heat treatment. It was shown that controlled hydrogen alloying improves weldability and machinability of titanium alloys. After processing hydrogenated titanium preforms are subjected to vacuum annealing, and the hydrogen content decreases up to safe level. Hydrogen removal is accompanied with hydrides dissolution and β→α transformation that makes possible to control structure formation at this final step of treatment. Thus, reversible hydrogen alloying of titanium alloys allows to obtain novel microstructure with enhanced properties. The aim of the work was to study the effect of hydrogen on structure formation, namely: i) influence of hydrogen content on transformation of lamellar microstructure to globular one during deformation in (α+β)-phase field; ii) effect of dissolved hydrogen on dynamic recrystallization in single α- and β- phase regions; iii) influence of vacuum annealing temperature on microstructure development. The work was focused on the optimization of

  16. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  17. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  18. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  19. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  20. Cortical plasticity within and across lifetimes: How can development inform us about phenotypic transformations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Dooley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is the part of the mammalian brain that is involved in perception, cognition, and volitional motor control. It is a highly dynamic structure that is dramatically altered within the lifetime of an animal and in different lineages throughout the course of evolution. These alterations account for the remarkable variations in behavior that species exhibit. Of particular interest is how these cortical phenotypes change within the lifetime of the individual and eventually evolve in species over time. Because we cannot study the evolution of the neocortex directly we use comparative analysis to appreciate the types of changes that have been made to the neocortex and the similarities that exist across taxa. Developmental studies inform us about how these phenotypic transitions may arise by alterations in developmental cascades or changes in the physical environment in which the brain develops. Both genes and the sensory environment contribute to aspects of the phenotype and similar features, such as the size of a cortical field, can be altered in a variety of ways. Although both genes and the laws of physics place constraints on the evolution of the neocortex, mammals have evolved a number of mechanisms that allow them to loosen these constraints and often alter the course of their own evolution.

  1. Experimental Analysis for Factors Affecting the Repeatability of Plastics Injection Molding Tests on the Self-developed Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugang Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 To improve the repeatability of the injection molding test result, the affecting factors were investigated by means of experiments. Besides the traditional processing parameter, the factors of test conditions were also considered. In order to focus on the molding process rather than the molded part, the curve measurement of the melt pressure at the entrance to the nozzle was used as the output characteristic. Experiments for polypropylene (PP showed that the injected volume was the key processing parameter. Within the test conditions, the injection number is the most important factor. According to the analysis the operating procedure was improved effectively. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.6-11 [How to cite this article: Huang, Y., Li, D., Liu, Y. (2013. Experimental Analysis for Factors Affecting the Repeatability of Plastics Injection Molding Tests on the Self-developed Apparatus. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(1,6-11. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.6-11]

  2. SynDIG4/Prrt1 Is Required for Excitatory Synapse Development and Plasticity Underlying Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1 encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1 modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology. Adult SynDIG4 KO mice show complete loss of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP, while mEPSC amplitude is reduced by only 25%. Furthermore, SynDIG4 KO mice exhibit deficits in two independent cognitive assays. Given that SynDIG4 colocalizes with the AMPAR subunit GluA1 at non-synaptic sites, we propose that SynDIG4 maintains a pool of extrasynaptic AMPARs necessary for synapse development and function underlying higher-order cognitive plasticity.

  3. Development of a three dimensional elastic plastic analysis system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Su; Im, Chang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Park, Chi Yong

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the integrity of nuclear power plant components, the analysis based on fracture mechanics is crucial. For this purpose, finite element method is popularly used to obtain J-integral. However, it is time consuming to design the finite element model of a cracked structure. Also, the J-integral should by verified by alternative methods since it may differ depending on the calculation method. The objective of this paper is to develop a three-dimensional elastic-plastic J-integral analysis system which is named as EPAS program. The EPAS program consists of an automatic mesh generator for a through-wall crack and a surface crack, a solver based on ABAQUS program, and a J-integral calculation program which provides DI (Domain Integral) and EDI (Equivalent Domain Integral) based J-integral calculation. Using the EPAS program, an optimized finite element model for a cracked structure can be generated and corresponding J-integral can be obtained subsequently

  4. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated

  5. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu; Yokota, Yasuhiro.

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  6. Development of CAP code for nuclear power plant containment: Lumped model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd., Heungdeok 1 ro 13, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-908 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd., Heungdeok 1 ro 13, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-908 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Company, Ltd., 70, 1312-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • State-of-art containment analysis code, CAP, has been developed. • CAP uses 3-field equations, water level oriented upwind scheme, local head model. • CAP has a function of linked calculation with reactor coolant system code. • CAP code assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities. - Abstract: CAP (nuclear Containment Analysis Package) code has been developed in Korean nuclear society for the analysis of nuclear containment thermal hydraulic behaviors including pressure and temperature trends and hydrogen concentration. Lumped model of CAP code uses 2-phase, 3-field equations for fluid behaviors, and has appropriate constitutive equations, 1-dimensional heat conductor model, component models, trip and control models, and special process models. CAP can run in a standalone mode or a linked mode with a reactor coolant system analysis code. The linked mode enables the more realistic calculation of a containment response and is expected to be applicable to a more complicated advanced plant design calculation. CAP code assessments were carried out by gradual approaches: conceptual problems, fundamental phenomena, component and principal phenomena, experimental validation, and finally comparison with other code calculations on the base of important phenomena identifications. The assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities of CAP.

  7. Development of a hydrogen diffusion gothic model of MARK III-containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Zhen-Yu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Dept. of Engineering and System Science, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-Kai; Pei, Bau-Shei [National Tsing Hua Univ., Inst. of Nuclear Engineering Science, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Sheng [National Tsing Hua Univ., Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Shu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Nuclear Engineering Div., Taiyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is a reminder of the danger of hydrogen explosion within a reactor building. Sufficiently high hydrogen concentration may cause an explosion that could damage the structure, resulting in the release of radioisotopes into the environment. In the first part of this study, a gas diffusion experiment was performed, in which helium was used as the working fluid. An analytical model was also developed using the GOTHIC code and the model predictions of the helium distribution were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured data. In the second part of the study, a model of the Mark III containment of the Kuosheng Plant in Taiwan was developed, and was applied to a long-term station blackout (SBO) accident similar to that of the Fukushima plant. The hydrogen generation was calculated using the Modular Accident Analysis Program and was used as the boundary condition for the GOTHIC containment model. The simulation results revealed that the hydrogen concentration at the first floor of the wetwell in the containment reached 4 % 9.7 h after the accident. This indicated the possibility of dangerous conditions inside the containment. Although active hydrogen ignitors are already installed in the Kuosheng plant, the findings of this study indicate that it may be necessary to add passive recombiners to prolong an SBO event.

  8. Development of a hydrogen diffusion gothic model of MARK III-containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Yu-Kai; Pei, Bau-Shei; Hsu, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Shu

    2015-01-01

    The accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is a reminder of the danger of hydrogen explosion within a reactor building. Sufficiently high hydrogen concentration may cause an explosion that could damage the structure, resulting in the release of radioisotopes into the environment. In the first part of this study, a gas diffusion experiment was performed, in which helium was used as the working fluid. An analytical model was also developed using the GOTHIC code and the model predictions of the helium distribution were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured data. In the second part of the study, a model of the Mark III containment of the Kuosheng Plant in Taiwan was developed, and was applied to a long-term station blackout (SBO) accident similar to that of the Fukushima plant. The hydrogen generation was calculated using the Modular Accident Analysis Program and was used as the boundary condition for the GOTHIC containment model. The simulation results revealed that the hydrogen concentration at the first floor of the wetwell in the containment reached 4 % 9.7 h after the accident. This indicated the possibility of dangerous conditions inside the containment. Although active hydrogen ignitors are already installed in the Kuosheng plant, the findings of this study indicate that it may be necessary to add passive recombiners to prolong an SBO event.

  9. Development of CAP code for nuclear power plant containment: Lumped model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • State-of-art containment analysis code, CAP, has been developed. • CAP uses 3-field equations, water level oriented upwind scheme, local head model. • CAP has a function of linked calculation with reactor coolant system code. • CAP code assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities. - Abstract: CAP (nuclear Containment Analysis Package) code has been developed in Korean nuclear society for the analysis of nuclear containment thermal hydraulic behaviors including pressure and temperature trends and hydrogen concentration. Lumped model of CAP code uses 2-phase, 3-field equations for fluid behaviors, and has appropriate constitutive equations, 1-dimensional heat conductor model, component models, trip and control models, and special process models. CAP can run in a standalone mode or a linked mode with a reactor coolant system analysis code. The linked mode enables the more realistic calculation of a containment response and is expected to be applicable to a more complicated advanced plant design calculation. CAP code assessments were carried out by gradual approaches: conceptual problems, fundamental phenomena, component and principal phenomena, experimental validation, and finally comparison with other code calculations on the base of important phenomena identifications. The assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities of CAP

  10. Development of methodology for certification of Type B shipping containers using analytical and testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R.; Varley, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Analysis and Testing Group (WX-11) of the Design Engineering Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing methodology for designing and providing a basis for certification of Type B shipping containers. This methodology will include design, analysis, testing, fabrication, procurement, and obtaining certification of the Type B containers, allowing usage in support of the United States Department of Energy programs. While all aspects of the packaging development are included in this methodology, this paper focuses on the use of analysis and testing techniques for enhancing the design and providing a basis for certification. This methodology is based on concurrent engineering principles. Multidisciplinary teams within LANL are responsible for the design and certification of specific Type B Radioactive Material Shipping Containers. These teams include personnel with the various backgrounds and areas of expertise required to support the design, testing, analysis and certification tasks. To demonstrate that a package can pass all the performance requirements, the design needs to be characterized as completely as possible. Understanding package responses to the various environments and how these responses influence the effectiveness of the packaging requires expertise in several disciplines. In addition to characterizing the shipping container designs, these multidisciplinary teams should be able to provide insight into improving new package designs

  11. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  12. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products. PMID:28788167

  13. Development of a Sealing-Bolt for the safeguarding of large containers such as multielement bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agraives, B.C.; Toornvliet

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary study on the development of a ''Sealing-Bolt'' is currently being carried out at JRC-Ispra. It is required for the safeguarding of large containers. A ''Sealing-Bolt'' would replace one - or more - of the conventional bolts, normally used for tightening a container's cover. It could not be removed - or unscrewed - without the knowledge of Inspectors. Thus, it has to meet the requirements of an Underwater Verifiable Seal and of a Threaded Stud-Bolt. It is proposed to derive the sealing feature from the VAK III seal, a LWR Fuel Assembly Ultrasonic Seal which has been developed by JRC-Ispra and is field tested at the Kahl Reactor Facility (FRG) since October 1983, while under evaluation for use by IAEA. The mechanical part asks for a specific study of a reliable system able to evidence that the bolt has been unscrewed during an opening of the lid

  14. Report on further development of the Winfrith Modular Containment System and associated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.J.; Pengelly, M.G.A.

    1987-12-01

    The Winfrith modular containment system was developed to enable redundant plutonium processing plant to be safely decommissioned. As a result of operational experience the need for a lifting aid to facilitate the decommissioning of tall plant, a 2-stage mobile ventilation system and an improved shower entry tunnel was identified. Improved plant and equipment has been designed, constructed and tested and the results are presented here. (author)

  15. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  16. Strategic Planning for Port Development: Improvement of Container Transit from the Iranian Southern Ports Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Yousefi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to highlight the significance of the Iranian southern ports development strategy planning which allows for the maximum container transit with minimum resources such as service capacities, human resources, and financial potential in order to expand the Iranian container transit. It should be noted that the strategic objectives, the business strategy and its implementation can be arranged only after the port vision and mission obviously delineated. For the purpose of improving the outcome of the ports operational management, it is recommended to concentrate on new strategies such as exploit of transit corridors for development of the Iranian South Ports. The main part of this paper is dedicated to evaluate the role of container transit from the Iranian south ports terminals from various transport corridors in order to improve Maritime Transport in Iran. The importance of defin¬ing the existing and potential competitors at the Persian Gulf and making a comparison between their and our own strengths and weaknesses is of utmost importance. Sometimes, the real business opportunities and threats are placed beyond one’s own line of indus¬try and business. It is therefore necessary to make a careful analysis of the port environment. After the port competition and environment have been analyzed, it would be possible to initiate the building of the SWOT analysis for the Iranian Southern Container Terminals such as Khoramshahr, Imam Khomani, Busher, Bandar Abbas and Chabahar port which have suitable strategic position as transit base in the region. The SWOT analysis method is therefore applied aiming at defining the weaknesses and strengths of the economic subjects as well as opportunities and threats coming from the environment. The next segment of this paper is dedicated to consider the role of dry ports and the International North-South Transit Corridor for the purpose of improving the Iranian container trade.

  17. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  18. Development of degradation D/B system for the containment building of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Song, Y. C.; Yim, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Lee, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Degradation D/B System is developed for digitalizing the history of the Containment building of nuclear power plant. It have 6 D/B which are consist of General, Design drawing, Material, Construction, ISI·SIT·ILRT D/B. For efficient operation of the system, utilities are also developed such as the aging and repair data management program for concrete and steel structures, the data search engine with various options helping users find what they want, and the data exchange program restoring and updating input data

  19. Development of O/W emulsions containing Euterpe oleracea extract and evaluation of photoprotective efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cecilio Daher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleraceaMart. is a palm tree popularly known as açai, which is primarily found in northern Brazil. The açai's fruits contain anthocyanins, a class of polyphenols to which antioxidant properties have been attributed. The aim of this work was to develop O/W sunscreens emulsions containing açai glycolic extract (AGE and to evaluate both their physical stability and photoprotective efficacy. Emulsions containing AGE and sunscreens were formulated using different types and concentrations of polymeric surfactant (acrylates/C 10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer and sodium polyacrylate. The influence of two rheology modifiers (polyacrylamide (and C13-14/isoparaffin (and Laureth-7 and Carbomer on the stability was also investigated. Physical stability was evaluated by preliminary and accelerated studies. Emulsions with 1.0% sodium polyacrylate were stable and exhibited non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy. Photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by in vivo Sun Protection Factor (SPF and determination of Protection Factor of UVA (PF-UVA. When AGE was added to the sunscreen emulsion, no significant increase in the in vivo SPF value was observed. The emulsion containing AGE showed PF-UVA = 14.97, 1.69 of the SPF/PF-UVA ratio and a critical wavelength value of 378 nm, and may therefore be considered a sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection.

  20. Development and application of a tool to assess laboratory hygiene in contained-use facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, S A; Lodder-Verschoor, F; Tijssen, J P; de Roda Husman, A M

    2011-02-01

    To gain information on laboratory hygiene in contained-use laboratories, a method was developed to study the presence of microorganisms on laboratory equipment. Focusing detection on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) containing the universal M13 primer binding sites enabled the detection of a broad range of GMOs using a single PCR. Swabbing surfaces in three different contained-use laboratories led to detection of M13-containing PCR products in 26 out of 34 swabs. Most sequences (up to five per sample) were detected in swabs from the centrifuge and sink, followed by swabs taken from the bin and incubator (up to four sequences per sample). The obtained sequences varied in length from 171 nucleotides (nt) to 878 nt. In most cases, sequences were only partially similar to sequences published in GenBank. The lengths of the regions with high similarity varied from 94 nt to 795 nt, and these similarities ranged from 81% to 100%. Similarities with more than one sequence were commonly found, complicating the identification of detected sequences. Nonetheless, 84% of the detected sequences were actually handled in the laboratory at the time of sampling. This demonstrates that the method may be used as a quality control tool to assess the efficacy of decontamination and cleaning of commonly used surfaces, such as laboratory benches, freezer doors, and centrifuge rotors, without prior knowledge of the identity or characteristics of the GMOs.

  1. Development and Application of a Tool To Assess Laboratory Hygiene in Contained-Use Facilities▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, S. A.; Lodder-Verschoor, F.; Tijssen, J. P.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    To gain information on laboratory hygiene in contained-use laboratories, a method was developed to study the presence of microorganisms on laboratory equipment. Focusing detection on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) containing the universal M13 primer binding sites enabled the detection of a broad range of GMOs using a single PCR. Swabbing surfaces in three different contained-use laboratories led to detection of M13-containing PCR products in 26 out of 34 swabs. Most sequences (up to five per sample) were detected in swabs from the centrifuge and sink, followed by swabs taken from the bin and incubator (up to four sequences per sample). The obtained sequences varied in length from 171 nucleotides (nt) to 878 nt. In most cases, sequences were only partially similar to sequences published in GenBank. The lengths of the regions with high similarity varied from 94 nt to 795 nt, and these similarities ranged from 81% to 100%. Similarities with more than one sequence were commonly found, complicating the identification of detected sequences. Nonetheless, 84% of the detected sequences were actually handled in the laboratory at the time of sampling. This demonstrates that the method may be used as a quality control tool to assess the efficacy of decontamination and cleaning of commonly used surfaces, such as laboratory benches, freezer doors, and centrifuge rotors, without prior knowledge of the identity or characteristics of the GMOs. PMID:21183638

  2. Development and validation of computer codes for analysis of PHWR containment behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandeya, S.G.; Haware, S.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1997-01-01

    In order to ensure that the design intent of the containment of Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWRs) is met, both analytical and experimental studies are being pursued at BARC. As a part of analytical studies, computer codes for predicting the behaviour of containment under various accident scenarios are developed/adapted. These include codes for predicting 1) pressure, temperature transients in the containment following either Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or Main Steam Line Break (MSLB), 2) hydrogen behaviour in respect of its distribution, combustion and the performance of proposed mitigation systems, and 3) behaviour of fission product aerosols in the piping circuits of the primary heat transport system and in the containment. All these codes have undergone thorough validation using data obtained from in-house test facilities or from international sources. Participation in the International Standard Problem (ISP) exercises has also helped in validation of the codes. The present paper briefly describes some of these codes and the various exercises performed for their validation. (author)

  3. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wendels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010 in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase. Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C. Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable

  4. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  5. Development of a container for the transportation and storage of plutonium bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.; Geinitz, R.; Thorp, D.; Rivera, M.

    1998-03-01

    There is a large backlog of plutonium contaminated materials at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, USA. The clean-up of this site requires this material to be packaged in such a way as to allow for efficient transportation to other sites or to a permanent geologic repository. Prior to off-site shipment of the material, it may be stored on-site for a period of time. For this reason, it is desirable to have a container capable of meeting the requirements for storage as well as the requirements for transportation. Most of the off-site transportation is envisioned to take place using the TRUPACT-II Type B package, with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as the destination. Prior to the development of this new container, the TRUPACT-II had a limit of 325 FGE (fissile gram equivalents) of plutonium due to criticality control concerns. Because of the relatively high plutonium content in the material to be transported, transporting 325 FGE per TRUPACT-II is uneconomical. Thus, the purpose of the new containers is to provide criticality control to increase the allowed TRUPACT-II payload and to provide a safe method for on-site storage prior to transport. This paper will describe the analysis and testing used to demonstrate that the Pipe Overpack Container provides safe on-site storage of plutonium bearing materials in unhardened buildings and provides criticality control during transportation within the TRUPACT-II. Analyses included worst-case criticality analyses, analyses of fork-lift time impacts, and analyses of roof structure collapse onto the container. Testing included dynamic crush tests, bare pipe impact tests, a 30-minute totally engulfing pool-fire test, and multiple package impact tests in end-on and side-on orientations

  6. Development of the interactive model between Component Cooling Water System and Containment Cooling System using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo; Jun, Hwang Yong

    2006-01-01

    In a design point of view, component cooling water (CCW) system is not full-interactively designed with its heat loads. Heat loads are calculated from the CCW design flow and temperature condition which is determined with conservatism. Then the CCW heat exchanger is sized by using total maximized heat loads from above calculation. This approach does not give the optimized performance results and the exact trends of CCW system and the loads during transient. Therefore a combined model for performance analysis of containment and the component cooling water(CCW) system is developed by using GOTHIC software code. The model is verified by using the design parameters of component cooling water heat exchanger and the heat loads during the recirculation mode of loss of coolant accident scenario. This model may be used for calculating the realistic containment response and CCW performance, and increasing the ultimate heat sink temperature limits

  7. Development of a multiparticulate system containing enteric-release mini-tablets of omeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Jose Tondo Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of omeprazole formulated with an enteric polymer with pH-dependent solubility. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production ofhigh quality mini-tablets. The mini-tablets were coated in a fluidized bed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose /Eudragit(r L30D55 and packed into hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profile showed gastro-resistance and zero-order kinetics. The dissolution profile for the formulation containing lactose as the diluent and coated with 12% (tablet weight gain of polymer was similar to that ofthe reference drug.

  8. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  9. Development of a parametric containment event tree model for a severe BWR accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T [OTO-Consulting Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-04-01

    A containment event tree (CET) is built for analysis of severe accidents at the TVO boiling water reactor (BWR) units. Parametric models of severe accident progression and fission product behaviour are developed and integrated in order to construct a compact and self-contained Level 2 PSA model. The model can be easily updated to correspond to new research results. The analyses of the study are limited to severe accidents starting from full-power operation and leading to core melting, and are focused mainly on the use and effects of the dedicated severe accident management (SAM) systems. Severe accident progression from eight plant damage states (PDS), involving different pre-core-damage accident evolution, is examined, but the inclusion of their relative or absolute probabilities, by integration with Level 1, is deferred to integral safety assessments. (33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.).

  10. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  11. A strain gradient plasticity theory with application to wire torsion

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J. X.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the framework of the existing strain gradient plasticity theories, we have examined three kinds of relations for the plastic strain dependence of the material intrinsic length scale, and thus developed updated strain gradient plasticity

  12. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery has its objectives in publishing original articles about developments in all areas related to plastic and reconstructive surgery as well as to trauma surgery. It also serves as a means of providing a forum for correspondence, information and discussion. It also accepts review articles that ...

  13. Phenotypic plasticity in the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina): long-term physiological effects of chronic hypoxia during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-15

    Studies of embryonic and hatchling reptiles have revealed marked plasticity in morphology, metabolism, and cardiovascular function following chronic hypoxic incubation. However, the long-term effects of chronic hypoxia have not yet been investigated in these animals. The aim of this study was to determine growth and postprandial O2 consumption (V̇o2), heart rate (fH), and mean arterial pressure (Pm, in kPa) of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) that were incubated as embryos in chronic hypoxia (10% O2, H10) or normoxia (21% O2, N21). We hypothesized that hypoxic development would modify posthatching body mass, metabolic rate, and cardiovascular physiology in juvenile snapping turtles. Yearling H10 turtles were significantly smaller than yearling N21 turtles, both of which were raised posthatching in normoxic, common garden conditions. Measurement of postprandial cardiovascular parameters and O2 consumption were conducted in size-matched three-year-old H10 and N21 turtles. Both before and 12 h after feeding, H10 turtles had a significantly lower fH compared with N21 turtles. In addition, V̇o2 was significantly elevated in H10 animals compared with N21 animals 12 h after feeding, and peak postprandial V̇o2 occurred earlier in H10 animals. Pm of three-year-old turtles was not affected by feeding or hypoxic embryonic incubation. Our findings demonstrate that physiological impacts of developmental hypoxia on embryonic reptiles continue into juvenile life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Development of a PWR-W GOTHIC 3D model for containment accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocanegra, Rafael; Jimenez, Gonzalo; Fernández-Cosials, Mikel Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The development of several 3D PWR containment models is described. • A Large Break LOCA is simulated. • The temperature and velocity fields are highly dependent on three-dimensional phenomena. • The pressure evolution is qualitatively similar in all models with small quantitative differences. - Abstract: The confinement of radioactive material in a nuclear power plant, including the discharge control and the release minimization, is a fundamental safety function to be ensured in a design basis accident (DBA). For plant licensing analysis, the containment is usually modeled with a lumped parameter approach. Inherent to the lumped parameter approach is the assumption that within each region the fluid is well mixed. However, the containment is a large building with a complex configuration and it is distributed in several compartments that avoid the well mixing of the fluid and could have three-dimensional effects that affect the thermal–hydraulic behavior. Therefore, the commonly used lumped parameter approach may not be enough to capture these effects. In order to study these assumptions, four generic PWR containment models have been developed for Mass and Energy (M&E) release analysis with GOTHIC 8.0 (QA) code, three of them being subdivided and the fourth one is a lumped parameter model. A Large Break LOCA is simulated in order to compare the thermal–hydraulic behavior of the different models. The results show a high dependence on the three-dimensional phenomena, especially the temperature and velocity distribution. In contrast, the pressure evolution is qualitatively similar in all models with small quantitative differences.

  15. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  16. Development and Characterization of a Rate-Dependent Three-Dimensional Macroscopic Plasticity Model Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Several key capabilities have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the material/models for composite materials currently available within commercial transient dynamic finite element codes such as LS-DYNA. Some of the specific desired features that have been identified include the incorporation of both plasticity and damage within the material model, the capability of using the material model to analyze the response of both three-dimensional solid elements and two dimensional shell elements, and the ability to simulate the response of composites composed with a variety of composite architectures, including laminates, weaves and braids. In addition, a need has been expressed to have a material model that utilizes tabulated experimentally based input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to utilizing discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength) and analytical functions based on curve fitting. To begin to address these needs, an orthotropic macroscopic plasticity based model suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA has been developed. Specifically, the Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients in the yield function are determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions, along with selected off-axis curves. Incorporating rate dependence into the yield function is achieved by using a series of tabluated input curves, each at a different constant strain rate. The non-associative flow-rule is used to compute the evolution of the effective plastic strain. Systematic procedures have been developed to determine the values of the various coefficients in the yield function and the flow rule based on the tabulated input data. An algorithm based on the radial return method has been developed to facilitate the numerical implementation of the material

  17. Procedural Portfolio Planning in Plastic Surgery, Part 2: Collaboration Between Surgeons and Hospital Administrators to Develop a Funds Flow Model for Procedures Performed at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles Scott

    2016-06-01

    from $-115,103 to $+1,277,040, of which $350,000 (25%) was returned to the practice plan as enterprise funds to support program development. Through focused strategic initiatives, plastic surgeons and hospital administrators can work together to unlock the latent value of a plastic surgery service to an AMC. Specific financial benefits to the hospital include increased contribution margin and operating income, the latter of which can be reinvested in the plastic surgery service through a gain-sharing model.

  18. [Effect of krypton-containing gas mixture on Japanese quail embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul', A R; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Pavlov, N B; Pavlov, B N

    2008-01-01

    Investigated were effects of gas mixture with up to 3.0 kgs/cm2 of krypton on the embryonic development of domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica dom.). Results demonstrated absence of a serious krypton effect on Japanese quail embryos. Development of embryos proceeded in due course; morphometrically the experimental embryos were essentially similar to controls. It should be noted that despite exposure to acute hypoxic hypoxia during the initial 12 hours of development in the krypton-containing gas mixture, viability of quail embryos was high enough which can be ascribed to the krypton protective action. Besides, an additional experiment showed that krypton partial pressure of 5-5.5 kgs/cm2 produces the narcotic effect on adult Japanese quails.

  19. Development of instrumentation systems for severe accidents. 4. New accident tolerant in-containment pressure transducer for containment pressure monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masato; Teruya, Kuniyuki; Yoshitsugu, Makoto; Ikeuchi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (TF-1 accident) caused severe situations and resulted in a difficulty in measuring important parameters for monitoring plant conditions. Therefore, we have studied the TF-1 accident to select the important parameters that should be monitored at the severe accident and are developing the Severe Accident Instrumentations and Monitoring Systems that could measure the parameters in severe accident conditions. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) developed a new accident tolerant containment pressure monitoring system and demonstrated that the monitoring system could endure extremely harsh environmental conditions that envelop severe accident environmental conditions inside a containment such as maximum operating temperature of up to 300degC and total integrated dose (TID) of 1 MGy gamma. The new containment pressure monitoring system comprises of a strain gage type pressure transducer and a mineral insulated (MI) cable with ceramic connectors, which are located in the containment, and a strain measuring amplifier located outside the containment. Less thermal and radiation degradation is achieved because of minimizing use of organic materials for in-containment equipment such as the transducer and connectors. Several tests were performed to demonstrate the performance and capability of the in-containment equipment under severe accident environmental conditions and the major steps in this testing were run in the following test sequences: (1) the baseline functional tests (e.g., repeatability, non-linearity, hysteresis, and so on) under normal conditions, (2) accident radiation testing, (3) seismic testing, and (4) steam/temperature test exposed to simulated severe accident environmental conditions. The test results demonstrate that the new pressure transducer can endure the simulated severe accident conditions. (author)

  20. Recent development of a CEC'S elasto-plastic-creep cyclic benchmark programme relevant to LMFBR structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, F.; Terzaghi, A.

    1984-01-01

    It's presented the programme of elasto-plastic benchmark calculations relevant to LMFBr, which started in 1977 with the support and coordination of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and the participation of nuclear engineering and manufacturing companies as well as nuclear research centers of France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Development of Process for Disposal of Plastic Waste Using Plasma Pyrolysis Technology and Option for Energy Recovery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Miroslav; Ruj, B.; Chatterj, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, SI (2012), s. 420-430 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague, 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : plastic waste * plasma pyrolysis * syngas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  2. Optimization of wood plastic composite decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.

    2018-04-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.

  3. Influence of Port Policy on the Development of Croatian Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Dundović

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the port development throughoutthe world from the aspect of economical, transport and portpolicy and their mutual impact on commerce and efficiency ofports. By examining such relations in the context of developmentof the Croatian container ports, it is possible to define reasonsfor lagging behind of Croatian ports compared to theworld movements.The main reason for the negative trend of development ofCroatian container ports lies in the non-existence of adequatemeasures of transport, maritime and port policy. Analysis ofstatistics over the past decade and comparison of structure andvolume of the general cargo traffic in the Rijeka port and theneighbouring ports in the area of North Adriatic are both showingsignificant size discrepancy and uncompetitiveness of theCroatian port. Disturbances that have brought to such a situationresult from inadequate port policy and non-harmonisedactivities between various modes of transport.In order to overcome such situation, the authors suggest determiningof clear tasks, goals and measures of the port policythat have to be undertaken so that the Croatian policy could becompatible with the main aspects, development tendencies andmeasures of theE U port policy.

  4. Development of a re-brazeable containment system for special nuclear material storage and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.D.; Stephens, J.J.; Walker, C.A.; Hosking, F.M.; Curlee, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a novel means of closing and sealing small type B radioactive material transport packages for surface or air transport as governed by 10CFR71 or NUREG-0360 has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This method is a controlled brazing process that may be used to attach and seal a closure lid to a containment vessel and then remove it at a later time. The process may be performed multiple times without the need for special preparations of the braze joint. A number of advantages for utilization of this technique have been determined. A brazed seal has integrity at high temperatures for better protection in accident or abnormal environments. A properly designed joint has essentially the same strength as the parent metal. A closure that is brazed, therefore, will no longer be the anticipated point of failure for a broad range of accident environments. This technique will allow the containment vessel design to be optimized with a lighter, more uniform wall thickness throughout. Finally, with a well defined process for sealing, mechanical inspection, leak testing, and then reopening at a later time, automation of the process is relatively straightforward and the overall system should be as easy to use as one that utilizes elastomeric seals for containment

  5. Development of a submerged gravel scrubber for containment venting applications: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Although hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) are not design basis accidents for breeder reactor plants, extensive assessments of HCDA consequences have been made and design features for providing margins beyond the design base have been considered for future fast reactor plants. One feature proposed for increasing the safety margin is a containment vent and/or purge system which would mitigate the challenge to containment integrity resulting from excessive temperature and pressure or excessive hydrogen. A cleanup system would be required for removal of vented aerosols and condensible vapors to mitigate radiological consequences to the environment. A study is in progress at HEDL to select and develop a suitable air cleaning system for use in potential breeder reactor containment venting applications. A concept was conceived whereby the passiveness and high loading capacity of a water pool scrubber was combined with the high efficiency of a sand and gravel bed. It was termed a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS). A schematic drawing of the concept is shown. The SGS consists of a bed of gravel (or other packing) submerged in a pool of water

  6. Large scale fire experiments in the HDR containment as a basis for fire code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Dobbernack, R.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1991 7 different series of large scale fire experiments and related numerical and theoretical investigations have been performed in the containment of a high pressure reactor in Germany (known as HDR plant). The experimental part included: gas burner tests for checking the containment behaviour; naturally ventilated fires with wood cribs; naturally and forced ventilated oil pool fires; naturally and forced ventilated cable fires. Many results of the oil pool and cable fires can directly be applied to predict the impact of real fires at different locations in a containment on mechanical or structural components as well as on plant personnel. But the main advantage of the measurements and observations was to serve as a basis for fire code development and validation. Different types of fire codes have been used to predict in advance or evaluate afterwards the test results: zone models for single room and multiple room configurations; system codes for multiple room configurations; field models for complex single room configurations. Finally, there exist codes of varying degree of specialization which have proven their power and sufficient exactness to predict fire effects as a basis for optimum fire protection design. (author)

  7. Yucca Mountain project container fabrication, closure and non-destructive evaluation development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    In this presentation, container fabrication, closure, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) process development activities are described. All of these activities are interrelated, and will contribute to the metal barrier selection activity. The plan is to use a corrosion-resistant material in the form of a cylinder with a wall thickness of ∼1cm (2cm for pure copper.) The materials under consideration include the three austenitic alloys: stainless steel-304L, stainless steel-316L and alloy 825, as well as the three copper alloys: CDA 102, CDA 613, and CDA 715. This document reviews the recommended procedures and processes for fabricating, closing and evaluating each of the candidate materials

  8. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, H.; Kurozumi, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated, Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Kaneshima, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants. Integrity of containment liners on nuclear power plants can be secured by suitable present operation and maintenance. Furthermore, non-destructive testing technique to inspect embedded liners will ensure the integrity of the containment further. In order to develop the non-destructive testing technique, ultrasonic transducers were made newly and ultrasonic testing data acquisition and evaluation were carried out by using a mock-up. We adopted the surface shear horizontal (SH) wave, low frequency (0.3-0.5MHz), to be able to detect an echo from a defect against attenuation of ultrasonic waves due to long propagation in the liners and dispersion into concrete. We made transducers with three large active elements (40mm x 40mm) in a line which were equivalent to a 120mm width active element. Artificial hollows, {phi}200mm - 19mm depth (1/2thickness) and {phi}200mm - 9.5mm depth (1/4thickness), were made on a surface of a mock-up: carbon steel plate, 38mm thickness, 2,000mm length, 1000mm width. The surfaces of the plate were covered with concrete in order to simulate liners embedded in concrete. As a result of the examinations, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows at a distance of 1500mm. We evaluate that the newly made surface SH transducers with three elements have ability of detection of defects such as corrosion on the liners embedded in concrete. (author)

  10. Development of Models to Predict the Redox State of Nuclear Waste Containment Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinet, O.; Guirat, R.; Advocat, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Departement de Traitement et de Conditionnement des Dechets, Marcoule, BP 71171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Phalippou, J. [Universite de Montpellier II, Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Vitrification is one of the recommended immobilization routes for nuclear waste, and is currently implemented at industrial scale in several countries, notably for high-level waste. To optimize nuclear waste vitrification, research is conducted to specify suitable glass formulations and develop more effective processes. This research is based not only on experiments at laboratory or technological scale, but also on computer models. Vitrified nuclear waste often contains several multi-valent species whose oxidation state can impact the properties of the melt and of the final glass; these include iron, cerium, ruthenium, manganese, chromium and nickel. Cea is therefore also developing models to predict the final glass redox state. Given the raw materials and production conditions, the model predicts the oxygen fugacity at equilibrium in the melt. It can also estimate the ratios between the oxidation states of the multi-valent species contained in the molten glass. The oxidizing or reductive nature of the atmosphere above the glass melt is also taken into account. Unlike the models used in the conventional glass industry based on empirical methods with a limited range of application, the models proposed are based on the thermodynamic properties of the redox species contained in the waste vitrification feed stream. The thermodynamic data on which the model is based concern the relationship between the glass redox state and the oxygen fugacity in the molten glass. The model predictions were compared with oxygen fugacity measurements for some fifty glasses. The experiments carried out at laboratory and industrial scale with a cold crucible melter. The oxygen fugacity of the glass samples was measured by electrochemical methods and compared with the predicted value. The differences between the predicted and measured oxygen fugacity values were generally less than 0.5 Log unit. (authors)

  11. Development of cosmetic formulations containing glucan polymer of Cassava (Manihot esculenta: stability and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Manço

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development, rheological behaviour determination, and sensory analysis of cosmetic formulations containing glucan biopolymer (Manihot esculenta, a tensor agent that was proposed to produce an immediate lifting and smoothing effect. For this purpose, formulations were developed and supplemented or not with 4 % of hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract and submitted to preliminary stability tests. These formulations were evaluated in terms of rheological behaviour over 90 days. Sensory analysis was carried out through a research with 20 cosmetic consumers who answered a questionnaire regarding their perception to the cosmetic qualities. The formulations presented pseudoplastic behavior and were considered stable in the physical stability studies, with the exception of the gel formulation based on Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer. The formulations were well evaluated in the sensory parameters. The gel formulations based on Polyacrylamide, C13- 14 Isoparaffin, and Laureth-7 were stable and presented the best sensory profile in some evaluated parameters, such as spreadability, smoothness and skin moisturizing, and can be considered an appropriate vehicle for formulations containing hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract.

  12. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Dan; Liang, Zhong-Yuan; Cen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He; Han, Mei-Gui; Tian, Yun-Qiao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Da-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. PMID:26640367

  13. Development and evaluation of an emulsion containing lycopene for combating acceleration of skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caramori Cefali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a carotenoid and potent antioxidant is found in large quantities in tomatoes. Lycopene combats diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and different types of cancer, including prostate cancer. However, its topical use in emulsion form for the combat of skin aging is under-explored. The aim of the present study was to develop an emulsion containing lycopene extracted from salad tomatoes and evaluate its cytotoxicity, stability, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and phytocosmetic permeation. The developed cosmetic comprised an oil phase made up of shea derivatives and was evaluated in terms of its physiochemical stability, spreadability, thermal analysis, rheological behavior, microbiological quality, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, cutaneous permeation and retention. The results demonstrate that this phytocosmetic is stable, exhibits satisfactory rheological behavior for a topical formula and is a promising product for combating skin aging.

  14. Evaluation of Lumicyano™ cyanoacrylate fuming process for the development of latent fingermarks on plastic carrier bags by means of a pseudo operational comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Deacon, Paul; Fraser, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. This study is a pseudo operational trial to compare an example of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate product, Lumicyano™, with the two recommended techniques for plastic carrier bags; cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 (BY40) dyeing and powder suspensions. 100 plastic carrier bags were collected from the place of work and the items were treated as found without any additional fingermark deposition. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique (average of 300 fingermarks). The items treated with Lumicyano™ were sequentially processed with BY40 and an additional 43 new fingermarks were detected. Lumicyano™ appears to be a suitable technique for the development of fingermarks on plastic carrier bags and it can help save lab space and time as it does not require dyeing or drying procedures. Furthermore, contrary to other one-step cyanoacrylate products, existing cyanoacrylate cabinets do not require any modification for the treatment of articles with Lumicyano™. To date, there is little peer reviewed articles in the literature on trials related to Lumicyano™ and this study aims to contribute to fill this gap. © 2013.

  15. COCOSYS: Status of development and validation of the German containment code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelein, H.-J.; Arndt, S.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Schwarz, S.; Spengler, C.; Weber, G.

    2006-01-01

    For the simulation of severe accident propagation in containments of nuclear power plants it is necessary to assess the efficiency of a severe accident measures under conditions as realistic as possible. Therefore the German containment code system COCOSYS is under development and validation at GRS. The main objective is to provide a code system on the basis of mostly mechanistic models for the comprehensive simulation of all relevant processes and plant states during severe accidents in the containment of light water reactors covering the design basis accidents, too. COCOSYS is being used for the identification of possible deficits in plant safety, qualification of the safety reserves of the entire system, assessment of damage-limiting or mitigating accident management measures, support of integral codes in PSA level 2 studies and safety evaluation of new plants. COCOSYS is composed for three main modules, which are separate executable files. The communication is realized via PVM (parallel virtual machine). The thermal hydraulic main module (THY) contains several specific models relevant for the simulation of severe accidents. Beside the usual capabilities to calculate the gas distribution and thermal behavior inside the containment, there are special models for the simulation of Hydrogen deflagration, pressure suppression systems etc. Further detailed models exist for the simulation of safety systems, like catalytic recombiners (PAR's), safety relief valves (used in WWR-440/V-230 type plants), ice condenser model, pump and spray system models for the complete simulation of cooling systems. The aerosol and fission product part (AFP) describes the aerosol behavior of nonsoluble and as well as hygroscopic aerosols, iodine chemistry and fission transport. Further the decay process of nuclides is considered using ORIGIN like routines. The corium concrete interaction (CCI) main module is based on an improved version of WECHSL extended by the ChemApp module for the

  16. Reduction experiment of iron scale by adding waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    The special features of waste plastics in China are huge in total amount, various in type and dispersive in deposition. Therefore, it is necessary to try some new ways that are fit to Chinese situation for disposing waste plastics as metallurgical raw materials more effectively and flexibly. Owing to its high ferrous content and less impurity, the iron scale became ideal raw material to produce pure iron powder. One of the methods to produce pure iron powder is Hoganas Method, by which, after one or multistage of reduction steps, the iron scale can be reduced pure iron powder. However, combining utilization of waste plastics and iron powder production, a series of reduction experiments were arranged and investigated, which is hoped to take use of both thermal and chemical energy contained in waste plastics as well as to improve the reducing condition of iron scale, and hence to develop a new metallurgical way of disposing waste plastics. The results show that under these experimental conditions, the thermal-decomposition of water plastics can conduce to an increase of porosity in the reduction systems. Moreover, better thermodynamics and kinetics conditions for the reduction of scale can be reached. As a result, the reduction rate is increased.

  17. Conceptual design and technology development of containment structure in Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Sato, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Fushiki; Kanamori, Naokazu; Koizumi, Koichi; Abe, Tetsuya; Hosobuchi, Hideo; Tada, Eisuke; Yamada, Masao.

    1991-05-01

    A conceptual design of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) containment structure and its associated R and D activities, conducted from '89 to '90, are described. The FER containment structure system which mainly consists of a vacuum vessel, shielding structures, in-vessel replaceable components, ports, a cooling pipe system, has been developed to fullfil the required function. As an initial stage of R and D activities, the elemental technologies common to a tokamak reactor have been developed. Among them, a locking mechanism for supporting in-vessel replaceable components and a technique for insulation/conduction are described. For the locking mechanism, a caulking cotter driven by hydraulic pressure has been employed. Three kinds of hydraulic driving mechanism have been manufactured by trial: a 'piston jack' type, a 'bellows' type and a 'flexible tube' type. In the latter type, the stroke is obtained by changing the cross section of the flexible tube from a flat racetrack shape to a fat shape by hydraulic pressure. As the result of preliminary performance test, the shape of 'flexible tube' has been found to be improved. For the insulation coating, Al 2 O 3 has been selected as the material and a plasma spray method has been applied as the coating procedure. For the conduction coating, Cr 3 C 2 has been selected as the material and JET-KOTE method has been applied as the coating procedure. Both methods have been successfully developed and have been confirmed to be applicable the actual machine. A one fifth scale model has been fabricated in order to verify the design feasibility, mainly geometrical consistency. Then some design modifications were found to be needed for some of the components based on the manufacturing experience. (author)

  18. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  19. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of improved SGV480 steel plate for containment vessel in PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Norioki [Advanced Nuclear Equipment Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Morikage, Yasushi; Okayama, Yutaka; Higashikubo, Tomohiro

    2001-01-01

    When a nuclear containment vessel made of steel plate at PWR plants in Japan is produced, SGV480 steel plate made by annealing method according to JIS G3118 is usually used in main. And, when thickness of welding portion of the vessel is larger than 38 mm, as heat treatment after welding is regulated to carry out according to the ministerial ordinance, it is difficult in actual to carry out the heat treatment of the actual welded portions. In a leading plant, approval of welding using a special method without heat treatment less than 47.25 mm of SGV480 carbon steel plate for JIS G3118 middle and ordinary pressure vessel was carried out to supply it for actual use. And, it is required for protection of welding fracture to carry out pre-heat treatment before welding. Because of increasing plate thickness requiring for lower temperature and more seismic resistance in construction condition, in order to produce a containment vessel without heat treatment after welding, more toughness is required for using material and welded portion. Therefore, a new SGV480 steel plate was developed by using TMCP method of modern steel manufacturing technology, to establish lower carbon equivalence and finer texture with upgrading of both toughness and weldability, without heat treatment after welding and pre-heat treatment before welding, at the Shin-Nippon Steel Co, Ltd. and Kawasaki Steel, Co. Ltd., respectively. (G.K.)

  1. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-03

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry.

  2. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry. PMID:29301339

  3. The development of thermal models for a UF6 transport container in a fully engulfing fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, J.; Clayton, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development work on a lumped-parameter model known as BURST3 created by BNFL to examine the physics of the heating problem. The predictions of this model were compared with the results obtained by Mallett in 1965, in which small (3.5, 5 and 8 inch diameter) cylinders were exposed to a fire. In general, the comparison is good; however there are some differences - particularly on the speed of response of the wall temperature to the heating from the fire. The model was further modified to allow conditions of partial and full insulation to be investigated. The partially insulated condition simulates the Japanese proposal to insulate the ends of the container only, leaving the cylinder bare between the stiffening rings. The results obtained with our modified model support the predictions of Abe et al that the partially-insulated cylinder will survive the fire test. The analysis of a completely insulated container has indicated that a minimal thickness of insulation provides sufficient protection to allow survival in the fire test. A discussion of additional improvements to the lumped-parameter model are presented. (J.P.N.)

  4. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F.; Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs

  5. Development of containment system for application to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Oichi; Iwasaki, Yukio; Miyao, Hidehiko; Uchikoshi, Tadaaki; Furuya, Hirotaka; Kamata, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    New greenhouse/containment was developed to apply for confining the radioactive materials and preventing the dispersion of radioactive contamination during the maintenance and dismantling of the nuclear facility. The pressed-air tubes for columns and beams of the structure frame were applied and the vinyl chloride sheet reinforced with the polyester fiber was used as a canvas of wall and ceiling. This canvas is possible to use repeatedly and has high efficiency of safe enclosing. The containment can be easily assembled and disassembled by charge and discharge of the pressed air in the tubes of columns and beams. Two standard units (2.5mL x 2.5mW x 2.5mH, 5mL x 5mW x 2.5mH) are prepared, and lateral connection of these standard units makes it applicable to the wide working area. Expansion model up to 5m in height is also available. (author)

  6. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  7. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy-Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson, Robert W. Emerick, Alfred B. England, James P. Flanders, Frank J. Loge, Katherine A. Wiedeman, Michael P. Wolcott

    2010-04-08

    The forestry, wood and paper industries in the United States provide thousands of productive well-paying jobs; however, in the face of the recent economic downturn it faces significant challenges in remaining economically viable and competitive. To compete successfully on a global market that is increasingly driven by the need for sustainable products and practices, the industry must improve margins and diversify product lines while continuing to produce the staple products. One approach that can help to accomplish this goal sustainably is the forest biorefinery. In the forest biorefinery, traditional waste streams are utilized singly or in combination to manufacture additional products in a profitable and environmentally sustainable manner. In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. Renewable microbial polyesters are not currently used in WFRTCs primarily because their production costs are several times higher than those of conventional petrochemical-derived plastics, limiting their use to small specialty markets. The strategy for this project was to economically produce WFRTCs using microbial polyesters by reducing or eliminating the most costly steps in the bio-plastic production. This would be achieved by producing them in and from waste effluents from the municipal and forest products sectors, and by eliminating the costly purification steps. After production the plasticladen biosolids would be dried and used directly to replace petroleum

  8. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kornhauser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  9. Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.

  10. Development of mobile manipulator for maintenance work in containment vessels of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nakayama, Junji; Sato, Masatoshi; Ishida, Michiyasu

    1985-01-01

    The teleoperation system with robot is described for in the containment vessels of nuclear power plants. We have developed a high level robot system as the practical use level. The robot is designed to execute the locomotions and manipulations required for closing and opening the valve, tightening the bolt and others. The robot consists of a locomotor with four legs and two driving wheels, an articulated manipulator with seven joints, and an ITV arm with stereo-camera. The size of the robot is small, that is about 500 mm in length, 500 mm in width, 1200 mm in height and 420 kg in weight. The robot can be operated in a hostile environment, which has a 10 6 R gamma ray dose, 70 deg C temperature, 100 % relative humidity. We have added an advanced control method in order to reduce the operator's load. Also, an interlock and a fail-safe control are installed in the robot system. (author)

  11. A self-consistent anisotropic approach for the simulation of plastic deformation and texture development of polycrystals: Application to zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebensohn, R.A.; Tome, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present in this work a visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) anisotropic approach for modeling the plastic deformation of polycrystals, together with a thorough discussion of the assumptions involved and the range of application of such approach. They use the VPSC model for predicting texture development during rolling and axisymmetric deformation of zirconium alloys, and to calculate the yield locus and the Lankford coefficient of rolled Zircaloy sheet. They compare the results with experimental data and find that they are in good agreement with the available experimental evidence. They also compare the VPSC prediction with the ones of a Full Constraints approach and observe that they differ both quantitatively and qualitatively: according with the predictions of the VPSC scheme, deformation is accommodated mostly by the soft systems, the twinning activity is much lower, and fewer systems are active, in average, per grain. These results are a consequence of having accounted for the grain interaction with its surroundings, which is a crucial aspect when modeling plastically anisotropic materials

  12. Developments in radiography and tomography of waste containers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, T.J.; Allemeier, R.T.; Galbraith, S.G.; Tow, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (IN-F-L) has been inspecting containers (boxes and drums) of nuclear waste materials using real-time radiography (RTR) for the past ten years. Requirements governing characterization of containerized waste for short-term storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal have become more stringent. These new requirements, and the need to reduce inspection times to increase throughput, necessitate improvements in the information obtained by radiographic methods. RTR provides a qualitative view of container contents, whereas quantitative information is often required. Two projects at the INEL are converting the present qualitative radiographic inspection to the more quantitative digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) methods, while retaining the RTR function. The first project is modifying, the RTR hardware at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to allow rapid processing of analog RTR images. The digital RTR (DRTR) system described here can digitize, process, and redisplay RTR images at video frame rates allowing for real-time image improvement features such as edge detection, contrast enhancement, frame subtraction, frame averaging, and a variety of digital filtering options. The second project is developing a complete radiographic and tomographic capability that allows for greater sophistication in data acquisition and processing as the operator and/or requirements demand. The approach involves modification of an industrial CT scanner with the capability to acquire radiographic and tomographic data in several modes, including conventional RTR, DR, and CT with a linear detector for high spatial resolution, and DR and CT with an area detector for high throughput. Improvements in image quality and quantitative digital radiographic capabilities of the DRTR system are shown. Status and plans for the modified CT scanner (presently under development) are also presented

  13. Development of Magnesium and Siloxane-containing Vaterite and its Composite Materials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eYamada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel biomaterials with Mg2+, Ca2+ and silicate ions releasability for bone regeneration is now in progress. Several inorganic ions have been reported to stimulate bone-forming cells. We featured Ca2+, silicate and especially Mg2+ ions as growth factors for osteoblasts. Various biomaterials, such as ceramic powders and organic-inorganic composites, releasing the ions have been developed and investigated in their cytocompatibilities in our previous work. Through the investigation, providing the three ions was found to be effective to activate osteogenic cells. Mg and siloxane-containing vaterite (MgSiV was prepared by a carbonation process as an inorganic particles, which can provide simultaneously releasing ability of Ca2+, silicate and Mg2+ ions to biodegradable polymers. Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA- and bioactive PLLA-based composites containing vaterite coatings were discussed on their degradability and cytocompatibility using a metallic Mg substrate as Mg2+ ion source. PLLA/SiV composite film, which has a releasability of silicate ions besides Ca2+ ion, was coated on a pure Mg substrate to be compared with the PLLA/V coating. The degradability and releasability of inorganic ions were morphologically and quantitatively monitored in a cell culture medium. The bonding strength between the coatings and Mg substrates was one of the key factors to control Mg2+ ion release from the substrates. The cell culture tests were conducted using mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells; cellular morphology, proliferation and differentiation on the materials were evaluated. The PLLA/V and PLLA/SiV coatings on Mg substrates were found to enhance the proliferation; especially the PLLA/SiV coating possessed a higher ability of inducing the osteogenic differentiation of the cells.

  14. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alain D.; Rykalin, Viktor V.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R andD program at Fermilab

  15. Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, O.J. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large reserves of oil shale. Expected development of oil shale will affect the regional hydrologic systems because most oil-shale mines will require drainage; industrial requirements for water may be large; and oil-shale mines, wastes, and retorts may affect the quantity and quality of surface water and ground water. In addition, the oil-shale industry may discharge particles and gases to the atmosphere that could alter the quality of high-altitude lakes and surface-water reservoirs. Hydrologic data need to be collected in order to plan for oil-shale development and to estimate the effects of development. Test-well drilling and aquifer testing are needed to provide a better understanding of the local and regional flow system, to furnish additional data for a model that simulates mine drainage, and to explore for water supplies in aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Much of the ground water in the bedrock aquifers discharges through springs, and a systematic study of the springs will help to predict the effects of mine drainage on spring discharge and quality. Surface runoff, dissolved and suspended loads in streams, and the aquatic environment in streams would be highly susceptible to the disruptions in the land surface and will require additional study in order to estimate the effects of development. A water-quality assessment is proposed for the White River basin because it is a possible source of water and a region likely to be affected by development. The effects of emissions to the atmosphere from oil-shale plants require study because these emissions may affect the quality of water in lakes downwind. Spoil piles of retorted oil shale may be very large and require study to anticipate any problems caused by leaching and erosion. Processing wastes resulting from in-situ retorts and other waste materials need to be studied in greater detail. 71 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Joint use of developed collagen-containing complexes and cell cultures in creating new tissue equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Kulakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of applying the integrated module as the basis of a celltissue equivalent for treatment of wounds of skin and soft tissues. In the frame of the set task the following problems were being solved: research of the spatial structure and architectonics of the surface of the developed base collagen-containing materials and their biocompatibility with cell cultures.Materials and methods. The study of a material which is a two-layer complex film, consisting of collagen and polysaccharide components was carried out. The collagen was separated from the dermis and was then impregnated with particulate demineralized bone matrix (DCM according to the original methodology. For the purposes of the study the dehydrated material was created in the form of a film. Electron microscopic examination of surfaces was performed on scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-IT300LV in high vacuum and at low values of probe current (< 0,1 nА. Studies to assess the viability of the cells cultivated on films of collagen material (tested for cytotoxicity and the adhesive capacity were performed in vitro using strains of diploid human fibroblasts 4–6 passage. The culture condition was visually assessed using an inverted Leica microscope DM IL (Carl Zeiss, Austria, equipped with a computerizes program of control of culture growth (Leica IM 1000.Results. The data obtained in the study of the surface structure of the developed complex module showed that it seems to be promising as a basic component of the cellular-tissue system with its large number of structural formations for fixation of the cells and a well-organized barrier layer capable of vapor - permeability. Experiments in vitro confirmed the absence of toxicity of the material being studied in relation to the culture of dermal human fibroblasts, suggesting the possibility of creation on its basis of cell-tissue complex and further experimental studies in vivo

  17. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  18. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  19. A Coupled Plastic Damage Model for Concrete considering the Effect of Damage on Plastic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Feng; Cheng, Guangxu

    2015-01-01

    A coupled plastic damage model with two damage scalars is proposed to describe the nonlinear features of concrete. The constitutive formulations are developed by assuming that damage can be represented effectively in the material compliance tensor. Damage evolution law and plastic damage coupling are described using the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. The plasticity part is developed without using the effective stress concept. A plastic yield function based on the true stress is ado...

  20. Mixed gas plasticization phenomena in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the thorough investigation of mixed gas transport behavior of asymmetric membranes in the separation of feed streams containing plasticizing gases in order to gain more insights into the complicated behavior of plasticization. To successfully employ gas separation membranes in

  1. Development and Characterization of a Microemulsion System Containing Amphotericin B with Potential Ocular Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Walteçá Louis Lima; Damasceno, Bolivar P G L; Ferreira, Laura F; Ribeiro, Izabel L S; Silva, Karolyne S; Silva, André Leandro; Giannini, Maria José Mendes; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, E Sócrates Tabosa

    2016-01-01

    Amphotericin B eye drops are widely used in the treatment of ocular infections. However, amphotericin's toxicity leads to low patient compliance and aggravation of symptoms. This work describes the development of a microemulsion system containing amphotericin B, aiming for its use in ocular applications. The microemulsion was developed by the titration technique. The physicochemical characteristics were determined with both loaded and unloaded amphotericin B-microemulsion. The nanostructures were analyzed by polarized light microscopy. The microdilution method was used to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration against fungal strains, and, therefore, evaluate the microemulsion activity. Additionally, in order to evaluate the microemulsion toxicity an in vitro toxicity assay against red blood cells was performed. The performed studies showed that the presence of amphotericin B loaded into the system did not induce serious changes in the physicochemical properties of the microemulsion when compared to the unloaded system. The spectrophotometric studies depicted amphotericin B-self-associated species, which allow predicting its behavior in vitro. The high pressure liquid chromatography results revealed high drug content entrapment in the microemulsion droplet. Finally, the amphotericin B-microemulsion in vitro susceptibility test showed high activity against Candida strains and a low toxicity profile against red blood cells when compared to Fungizone®. The physicochemical characterization of the microemulsion demonstrated that its characteristics are compatible with the topical ocular route, making it eligible for consideration as a new and interesting amphotericin B-deliverydosage form to be used as eye drop formulation.

  2. Development of Evaluation Technology for Hydrogen Combustion in containment and Accident Management Code for CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, D. H.; Song, Y. M.

    2011-08-01

    For a licensing of nuclear power plant(NPP) construction and operation, the hydrogen combustion and hydrogen mitigation system in the containment is one of the important safety issues. Hydrogen safety and its control for the new NPPs(Shin-Wolsong 1 and 2, Shin-Ulchin 1 and 2) have been evaluated in detail by using the 3-dimensional analysis code GASFLOW. The experimental and computational studies on the hydrogen combustion, and participations of the OEDE/NEA programs such as THAI and ISP-49 secures the resolving capabilities of the hydrogen safety and its control for the domestic nuclear power plants. ISAAC4.0, which has been developed for the assessment of severe accident management at CANDU plants, was already delivered to the regulatory body (KINS) for the assessment of the severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) for Wolsong units 1 to 4, which are scheduled to be submitted to KINS. The models for severe accident management strategy were newly added and the graphic simulator, CAVIAR, was coupled to addition, the ISAAC computer code is anticipated as a platform for the development and maintenance of Wolsong plant risk monitor and Wolsong-specific SAMG

  3. Development of Alginate Microspheres Containing Chuanxiong for Oral Administration to Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM by patients is the common way to treat health problems. Zebrafish emerges as an excellent animal model for the pharmacology investigation. However, the oral delivery system of TCM in zebrafish has not been established so far. This issue was addressed by development of alginate microparticles for oral delivery of chuanxiong, a TCM that displays antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects on hepatocytes. The delivery microparticles were prepared from gelification of alginate containing various levels of chuanxiong. The chuanxiong-encapsulated alginate microparticles were characterized for their solubility, structure, encapsulation efficiency, the cargo release profile, and digestion in gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Encapsulation of chuanxiong resulted in more compact structure and the smaller size of microparticles. The release rate of chuanxiong increased for alginate microparticles carrying more chuanxiong in simulated intestinal fluid. This remarkable feature ensures the controlled release of encapsulated cargos in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Moreover, chuanxiong-loaded alginate microparticles were moved to the end of gastrointestinal tract after oral administration for 6 hr and excreted from the body after 16 hr. Therefore, our developed method for oral administration of TCM in zebrafish is useful for easy and rapid evaluation of the drug effect on disease.

  4. Development and stability studies of sunscreen cream formulations containing three photo-protective filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slim Smaoui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate sunscreen cream (W/O/W emulsion containing three photo-protective filters: benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and titanium dioxide at different percentages. Formulations were stored at 8, 25 and 40 °C for four weeks to investigate their stability. Color, centrifugation, liquefaction, phase separation, pH and Sun Protection Factor (SPF of sunscreen cream formulations were determined. The microbiological stability of the creams was also evaluated and the organoleptic quality was carried out for 28 days. Interestingly, the combination of 7% Benzophenone-3, 7% Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and 6% Titanium dioxide preserved physicochemical properties of the product and was efficient against the development of different spoilage microorganisms as well as aerobic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mold counts. Furthermore, a good stability was observed for all formulations throughout the experimental period. The newly formulated sunscreen cream was proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the development of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products.

  5. Poinsettia Growth and Development Response to Container Root Substrate with Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the growth and development of poinsettia ‘Prestige Red’ (Euphorbia pulcherrima grown in a commercial peat-based potting mix (Sunshine Mix #1 amended with biochar at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, or 100% (by volume at four different fertigation regimes: F1: 100 to 200 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N, F2: 200 to 300 mg·L−1 N (control, F3: 300 to 400 mg·L−1 N, or F4: 400 to 500 mg·L−1 N. The experiment was a two-factor factorial design with 10 replications for each combination of biochar by fertigation. As the percentage of biochar increased, root substrate pore space and bulk density increased, while container capacity decreased. Root rot and red bract necrosis only occurred in F4 combined with 100% biochar. Plants grown in 40% biochar had a similar growth and development to those in 0% biochar. Up to 80% biochar, plants exhibited no significant change, except in terms of dry weight, which decreased at higher biochar percentages (60% and 80%. In summary, at a fertigation rate of 100 mg·L−1 N to 400 mg·L−1 N, up to 80% biochar could be used as an amendment to peat-based root substrate with acceptable growth reduction and no changes in quality.

  6. Pre-clinical development of a combination microbicide vaginal ring containing dapivirine and darunavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Diarmaid J; Desjardins, Delphine; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Brochard, Patricia; Perrot, Ludivine; Pruvost, Alain; Le Grand, Roger; Lagatie, Ole; Vanhooren, Leen; Feyaerts, Maxim; van Roey, Jens; Malcolm, R Karl

    2014-09-01

    Combination microbicide vaginal rings may be more effective than single microbicide rings at reducing/preventing sexual transmission of HIV. Here, we report the pre-clinical development and macaque pharmacokinetics of matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal rings containing dapivirine and darunavir. Macaque rings containing 25 mg dapivirine, 100 mg dapivirine, 300 mg darunavir or 100 mg dapivirine+300 mg darunavir were manufactured and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro release was assessed into isopropanol/water and simulated vaginal fluid. Macaque vaginal fluid and blood serum concentrations for both antiretrovirals were measured during 28 day ring use. Tissue levels were measured on day 28. Ex vivo challenge studies were performed on vaginal fluid samples and IC50 values were calculated. Darunavir caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the dapivirine melting temperature in both solid drug mixes and in the combination ring. In vitro release from rings was dependent on drug loading, the number of drugs present and the release medium. In macaques, serum concentrations of both microbicides were maintained between 10(1) and 10(2) pg/mL. Vaginal fluid levels ranged between 10(3) and 10(4) ng/g and between 10(4) and 10(5) ng/g for dapivirine and darunavir, respectively. Both dapivirine and darunavir showed very similar concentrations in each tissue type; the range of drug tissue concentrations followed the general rank order: vagina (1.8 × 10(3)-3.8 × 10(3) ng/g)  > cervix (9.4 × 10(1)-3.9 × 10(2) ng/g)  > uterus (0-108 ng/g)  > rectum (0-40 ng/g). Measured IC50 values were >2 ng/mL for both compounds. Based on these results, and in light of recent clinical progress of the 25 mg dapivirine ring, a combination vaginal ring containing dapivirine and darunavir is a viable second-generation HIV microbicide candidate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  7. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  8. Development of electrochemical ion exchange electrodes for the treatment of wastes containing chromium or cesium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosso, Helena Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental preservation using technologies that do not attack it, generating non-toxic residues and reduced volumes, has been discussed. Hazardous effluents, containing metals, as chromium, have been poured in the soils and rivers, degrading the water. Not different are the problems originated from some nuclear activities that generate wastes, as in chemical research laboratories. Although those wastes are not poured in the environment, sometimes they are inadequately stored, what can cause serious accidents. With the purpose of solving this problem, there are some techniques to waste treatment, between them there is the electrochemical ion exchange (EIX). EIX is an advanced process that has advantages over traditional ion exchange and the fact of using the electron as the only reagent, reduces the volume of the solution to be treated. This technique consists of development of an electrode, where an ion exchanger is physically incorporated in an electrode structure with a binder. In this study, cationic resin Amberlite CG-50 and zirconium phosphate have been chosen for the separation of chromium and cesium from waste, respectively. They were chosen because they present high chemical stability in oxidizing media and at ionizing radiation. The quantity of charcoal, graphite and binder used in formulation of electrode have been studied either. Before choosing the best electrode, it was verified sorption percentage of 99,3% for chromium and 99,8% for cesium. The greater advantage of this process is the total elution of chromium as much as cesium, without reagents addition, being possible to reuse the electrode without losing its capacity. Beside on the results, a continuous process for the wastes containing Cr and Cs, using a flux electrolytic cell (CELFLUX) of high retention capacity, was presented. The high efficiency of this cell for both retention and elution, leading to an important reduction of waste volume, and, every more, making possible the

  9. Decontamination flowsheet development for a waste oil containing mixed radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Buckley, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of waste oils contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous components are generated in nuclear power plant, research lab. and uranium-refinery operations. The waste oils are complex, requiring a detailed examination of the waste management strategies and technology options. It may appear that incineration offers a total solution, but this may not be true in all cases. An alternative approach is to decontaminate the waste oils to very low contaminant levels, so that the treated oils can be reused, burned as fuel in boilers, or disposed of by commercial incineration. This paper presents selected experimental data and evaluation results gathered during the development of a decontamination flowsheet for a specific waste oil stores at Chalk River Labs. (CRL). The waste oil contains varying amounts of lube oils, grease, paint, water, particulates, sludge, light chloro- and fluoro-solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), complexing chemicals, uranium, chromium, iron, arsenic and manganese. To achieve safe management of this radioactive and hazardous waste, several treatment and disposal methods were screened. Key experiments were performed at the laboratory-scale to confirm and select the most appropriate waste-management scheme based on technical, environmental and economic criteria. The waste-oil-decontamination flowsheet uses a combination of unit operations, including prefiltration, acid scrubbing, and aqueous-leachage treatment by precipitation, microfiltration, filter pressing and carbon adsorption. The decontaminated oil containing open-quotes de minimisclose quotes levels of contaminants will undergo chemical destruction of PCBs and final disposal by incineration. The recovered uranium will be recycled to a uranium milling process

  10. Research and development activities at INE concerning corrosion of final repository container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The present work provides a historical overview of the research and development activities carried out at the (Nuclear) Research Center Karlsruhe (today KIT) since the beginning of the 1980s on the corrosion of materials which might be suitable for construction of containers for highly radioactive wastes. The report relates almost exclusively to the work performed by Dr. Emmanuel Smailos, who elaborated the corrosion of various materials at the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE). The requirements for the containers and materials, which were subject to changes in time, are presented. The changes were strongly influenced by the changed perception of the use of nuclear energy. The selection of the materials under investigations, the boundary conditions for the corrosion experiments and the analytical methods are described. Results of the corrosion of the materials such as finegrained steel, Hastelloy C4, nodular cast iron, titanium-palladium and copper or copper-nickel alloys in typical salt solutions are summarized. The findings of special investigations, e.g. corrosion under irradiation or the influence of sulfide on the corrosion rates are shown. For construction of disposal canisters, experiments were conducted to determine the contact corrosion, the influence of the hydrogen embrittlement of Ti-Pd and fine-grained steels on the corrosion behavior as well as the corrosion behavior of welding and the influence of different welding processes with the resulting heat-affected zones on the corrosion behavior. The work was contributed to several European research programs and was well recognized in the USA. Investigations on the corrosion of steels in non-saline solutions and corrosion under interim storage conditions as well as under the expected conditions of the Konrad repository for low-level radioactive wastes are also described. In addition, the experiments on ceramic materials are presented and the results of the corrosion of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 ceramics

  11. FORMULATION AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL PHENOLIC BIOPOLYMER-CONTAINING FILMS FOR BURN TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokadze, S; Barbakadze, V; Mulkijanyan, K; Bakuridze, A; Bakuridze, L

    2017-06-01

    Application of phytofilms based on biosolublepolymers is considered as a prospectivemethod for burn treatment . Herbal remedies contain biologically active substances, that are relatively less toxic, do not cause skin irritation or allergic reactions and, importantly, affectstrains of the microorganisms and viruses resistant to antibiotics and synthetic drugs. Nowadays, the advantages are given to such burn healing drugs, which along with high specific efficacy, have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and don't irritate the tissues. The mentioned peculiarities are characteristic for a new herbal phenolic biopolymer poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid](PDGA), isolated from the roots and stems of different comfrey species . The aim of the study was the development of the formulation and technology of biosoluble films for burn treatment on the basis of PDGA. The optimal content of phytofilm for burn healing was selected on the basis of the biopharmaceutical study results. The impact of the film-former on the quality, adhesion and moisture absorption of the phytofilmhas been studied. The optimal degree of the phytofilm moisture, determining its high adhesive properties,was established. The film prepared on the basis of sodium alginate, with 30.4% humidity, demonstrated the greatest adhesion strength. After investigation of the PDGA release it was found, that the hydrophilic bases such as: sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (69.2%) andsodium alginate (78,65%) appeared to be optimal among the others. At the same time, taking into consideration the disadvantages of sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (tautening effect on burnt surface, relatively low stability), a film based on sodium alginate has been chosen. The manufacturing technology for obtaining PDGA-containing phytofilm by casting is proposed. Theshelf-lifeofproposedPDGA-containingphytofilmis 2 years.

  12. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  13. An Administrator's Manual for Planning, Developing, and Implementing Mainstream, Self-Contained, or Co-op Programs for the Disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Div. of Occupational and Vocational Studies.

    This administrator's manual contains guidelines for planning, developing, and implementing mainstream, self-contained, or cooperative work experience programs for the disadvantaged. Outlined in the introductory section are the philosophy underlying programs for the disadvantaged, procedures to determine student eligibility, signals indicating the…

  14. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  15. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  16. Hardening of Fe-Cr-Mn steels cold plastic working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinov, L.S.; Konop-Lyashko, V.I.; Nikoporets, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence is established between the level of proper-- ties obtained after cold plastic working and development of martensite transformations when loading in Fe-Cr-Mn steels containing 0.1-0.5% C, 13% Cr, 8-12% Mn, as well as in a number of complex alloyed steels. It is shown that the highest level of mechanical properties can be obtained after cold plastic working only in steels with definite austenite stability. Cold plastic working can both activize and stabilize austenite relatively to martensite formation during loading. The first thing is found when under the effect of preliminary cold working dislocation splitting takes place, as well as the formation of a small amount of E-phase and martensite. The second thing manifests itself when under the effect of cold working performed above Md (Md<20 deg C) cell dislocation structure is formed and dislocation pinning takes place

  17. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  18. Development of nitroxide radicals–containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals–containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV–visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke. (papers)

  19. Development of Liposome containing sodium deoxycholate to enhance oral bioavailability of itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance oral bioavailability of itraconazole (ITZ by developing Liposome containing sodium deoxycholate (ITZ-Lip-NaDC. The liposome, consisting of egg yolk lecithin and sodium deoxycholate, was prepared by thin-film dispersion method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC results indicated an amorphous state in the liposome. The physicochemical characteristics including particle size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, dissolution properties were also investigated. The performance of single-pass intestinal infusion exhibited that the transport order of intestinal segment was jejunum, duodenum, colon and ileum, and that all the segments participated in the absorption of ITZ in intestinal tract. The bioavailability study in rats showed that the AUC0-72 of the liposome was nearly 1.67-fold higher than that of commercial capsules (SPORANOX in terms of oral administration, and the RSD of AUC0-72 of ITZ-Lip-NaDC was also decreased. Our results indicated that ITZ-Lip-NaDC liposome was facilitated to improve dissolution efficiency, augment transmembrane absorption, and then enhance the oral bioavailability of ITZ, successfully.

  20. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated

  1. Development of a Zero-Dimensional Particle Generation Model in SFR-Containments under Accidental Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, M.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    During postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), contaminated-sodium at high temperature may leak into the containment and burns in the presence of oxygen. As a result, large quantities of sodium oxide aerosols are produced. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during a generic sodium pool fire has been developed to be implemented in ASTEC-Na code. This paper presents the adaptation of the 3-D particle generation model to a 0-D model based on the generation of particles under average system conditions. Deviations between both approaches less than 20% have been found in all the simulated scenarios. From the 0-D model, simple correlations for the particle generation rate and the primary particle size as a function of Na-oxide vapour pressures, temperature and sodium pool characteristics have been derived for its straightforward implementation in the ASTEC-Na code. (Author)

  2. Development of high efficiency filtered containment venting system by using AgX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Ishii, Tasuku

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident would be terminated, if sufficient accident countermeasures, such as water proof door, mobile power, etc. In case of Europe, it had already installed the heat removal system and filtered containment venting system (FCVS) from the lessons of TMI and Chernobyl Accidents. Decay heat removal system and CV spray cooling system with FCVS are ensured by using mobile generators and heat exchangers to keep the ultimate heat sink even in any natural disaster, such as large earthquake, big tsunami, sudden flooding etc. In this paper we introduce high decontamination factor FCVS that used Silver Zeolite named AgX, developed by Rasa Industries, Ltd. Hokkaido University has tested wet type FCVS using venturi scrubber in water pool and dry type FCVS using metallic filter for 1st stage, and AgX for 2nd stage. Since the AgX needs super heat steam, it is possible to heat up steam by heat exchanger. It is confirmed by TRAC analysis. (author)

  3. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated.

  4. Design, development and in-vitro evaluation of metoprolol tartrate tablets containing xanthan-tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Akhtar; Iqbal, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Waqas, Muhammad K; Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat A; Bhatti, Naveed S

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop oral sustained release tablets of metoprolol tartrate using natural hydrophilic matrix formers (xanthan gum and tragacanth). Sustained release matrix tablets of metoprolol tartrate were prepared by using different ratios of drug, xanthan gum and tragacanth. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used as diluent. The polymer was incorporated into a matrix system using direct compression technique. All the lubricated formulations were compressed using concave punches in compression machine. Compressed tablets were evaluated for diameter, hardness, friability, weight variation and in vitro dissolution using USP dissolution apparatus-II. Different formulations were evaluated with respect to dissolution profile in 900 mL phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), 0.1 M HCl solution and distilled water for 12 h at 37 degrees C. Increasing the amount of polymer (xanthan gum) in the formulation led to slow release of drug and decreasing the amount of polymer gave enhanced release of metoprolol tartrate. The kinetic treatment showed the best fitted different mathematical models (Zero order, First order, Higuchi's and Hixson-Crowell). Most of the solid matrix formulations followed Higuchi or zero order kinetics. The formulations F1, F2, F3 and F7, F8, F9 showed maximum linearity while the formulations F4, F5, F6 were not of linear behavior. The results showed that the formulation F9 containing 30% xanthan gum and 10% gum tragacanth is the most similar to that of the reference marketed preparation.

  5. Development and characterization of clay facial mask containing turmeric extract solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan-On, Suchiwa; Rujivipat, Soravoot; Ounaroon, Anan; Tiyaboonchai, Waree

    2018-04-01

    To develop clay facial mask containing turmeric extract solid dispersion (TESD) for enhancing curcumin water solubility and permeability and to determine suitable clay based facial mask. The TESD were prepared by solvent and melting solvent method with various TE to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30 mass ratios. The physicochemical properties, water solubility, and permeability were examined. The effects of clay types on physical stability of TESD, water adsorption, and curcumin adsorption capacity were evaluated. The TESD prepared by solvent method with a TE to PVP K30 mass ratio of 1:2 showed physically stable, dry powders, when mixed with clay. When TESD was dissolved in water, the obtained TESD micelles showed spherical shape with mean size of ∼100 nm resulting in a substantial enhancement of curcumin water solubility, ∼5 mg/ml. Bentonite (Bent) and mica (M) showed the highest water adsorption capacity. The TESD's color was altered when mixed with Bent, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) indicating curcumin instability. Talcum (Talc) showed the greatest curcumin adsorption followed by M and kaolin (K), respectively. Consequently, in vitro permeation studies of the TESD mixed with Talc showed lowest curcumin permeation, while TESD mixed with M or K showed similar permeation profile as free TESD solutions. The developed TESD-based clay facial mask showed lower curcumin permeation as compared to those formulations with Tween 80. The water solubility and permeability of curcumin in clay based facial mask could be improved using solid dispersion technique and suitable clay base composed of K, M, and Talc.

  6. Biocide Usage in Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Nergizhan; Çakır, Ayşegül; Koltuk, Fatmagül; Uzun, Utku

    2015-01-01

    People’s demand of improving their life quality caused to the term of hygiene become popular and increased the tendency to use more reliable and healthy products. This tendency makes the continuous developments in the properties of the materials used in manufactured goods compulsory. It is possible to create anti-bacterial plastic products by adding biocidal additives to plastic materials which have a wide-range of application in the areas such as health (medicine), food and many other indust...

  7. Biodegradability of Plastics: Challenges and Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubowicz, Stephan; Booth, Andy M

    2017-11-07

    Plastics are one of the most widely used materials and, in most cases, they are designed to have long life times. Thus, plastics contain a complex blend of stabilizers that prevent them from degrading too quickly. Unfortunately, many of the most advantageous properties of plastics such as their chemical, physical and biological inertness and durability present challenges when plastic is released into the environment. Common plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are extremely persistent in the environment, where they undergo very slow fragmentation (projected to take centuries) into small particles through photo-, physical, and biological degradation processes 1 . The fragmentation of the material into increasingly smaller pieces is an unavoidable stage of the degradation process. Ultimately, plastic materials degrade to micron-sized particles (microplastics), which are persistent in the environment and present a potential source of harm for organisms.

  8. Some aspects of the research and development programmes on the behaviour of containments during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.

    1989-01-01

    The R and D programmes relating to the behaviour of containments during severe accidents cover several domains: .leaktightness of the containment: this programme concerns the mechanical resistance of the concretes and the cracking criteria, on the one hand, and the leak rate through the porosities or cracks, on the other; . gaseous releases inside the containment. In addition to the releases of steam and fission products from the primary circuit, the gaseous H 2 0 and C0 2 releases from the concrete must also be studied: firstly during the corium-concrete interaction, and secondly during the heating of the internal surface of the containment which can be raised to a high temperature on contact with the atmosphere, for example during hydrogen combustion; . the release of fission products during the corium-concrete interactions; . the behaviour of the fission products inside the containment, particularly as regards iodine

  9. A Lesson Plan to Develop Structured Discussion of the Benefits and Disadvantages of Selected Plastics Using the Product-Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    People use many different products made from plastics every day. But conventional plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) do not always have a good reputation in society at large. Bioplastics such as thermoplastic starch (TPS) promise to be better alternatives but are they really better than conventional plastics? This article presents a new…

  10. Business Education for Plastic Surgeons: A Systematic Review, Development, and Implementation of a Business Principles Curriculum in a Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Bahar; Burce, Karen K; Seal, Stella M; Lifchez, Scott D; Redett, Richard J; Frick, Kevin D; Dorafshar, Amir H; Cooney, Carisa M

    2017-05-01

    Rising health care costs, decreasing reimbursement rates, and changes in American health care are forcing physicians to become increasingly business-minded. Both academic and private plastic surgeons can benefit from being educated in business principles. The authors conducted a systematic review to identify existing business curricula and integrated a business principles curriculum into residency training. The authors anonymously surveyed their department regarding perceived importance of business principles and performed a systematic literature review from 1993 to 2013 using PubMed and Embase to identify residency training programs that had designed/implemented business curricula. Subsequently, the authors implemented a formal, quarterly business curriculum. Thirty-two of 36 physicians (88.9 percent; 76.6 percent response rate) stated business principles are either "pretty important" or "very important" to being a doctor. Only 36 percent of faculty and 41 percent of trainees had previous business instruction. The authors identified 434 articles in the systematic review: 29 documented formal business curricula. Twelve topics were addressed, with practice management/administration (n = 22) and systems-based practice (n = 6) being the most common. Four articles were from surgical specialties: otolaryngology (n = 1), general surgery (n = 2), and combined general surgery/plastic surgery (n = 1). Teaching formats included lectures and self-directed learning modules; outcomes and participant satisfaction were reported inconsistently. From August of 2013 to June of 2015, the authors held eight business principles sessions. Postsession surveys demonstrated moderately to extremely satisfied responses in 75 percent or more of resident/fellow respondents (n = 13; response rate, 48.1 percent) and faculty (n = 9; response rate, 45.0 percent). Business principles can be integrated into residency training programs. Having speakers familiar with the physician audience and a

  11. Rate and time to develop first central line-associated bloodstream infections when comparing open and closed infusion containers in a Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Vilins

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from an open (glass or semi-rigid plastic infusion container to a closed, fully collapsible plastic infusion container (Viaflex® on rate and time to onset of central lineassociated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. An open-label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in three intensive care units in Brazil. The CLABSI rate using open infusion containers was compared to the rate using a closed infusion container. Probability of acquiring CLABSI was assessed over time and compared between open and closed infusion container periods; three-day intervals were examined. A total of 1125 adult ICU patients were enrolled. CLABSI rate was significantly higher during the open compared with the closed infusion container period (6.5 versus 3.2 CLABSI/1000 CL days; RR=0.49, 95%CI=0.26- 0.95, p=0.031. During the closed infusion container period, the probability of acquiring a CLABSI remained relatively constant along the time of central line use (0.8% Days 2-4 to 0.7% Days 11-13 but increased in the open infusion container period (1.5% Days 2-4 to 2.3% Days 11-13. Combined across all time intervals, the chance of a patient acquiring a CLABSI was significantly lower (55% in the closed infusion container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.45, p= 0.019. CLABSIs can be reduced with the use of full barrier precautions, education, and performance feedback. Our results show that switching from an open to a closed infusion container may further reduce CLABSI rate as well as delay the onset of CLABSIs. Closed infusion containers significantly reduced CLABSI rate and the probability of acquiring CLABSI.

  12. Development of a constitutive model for the plastic deformation and creep of copper and its use in the estimate of the creep life of the copper canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Kjell

    2006-12-01

    A previously developed model for the plastic deformation and creep of copper (included as an Appendix to the present report) has been used as the basis for a discussion on the possibility of brittle creep fracture of the copper canister during long term storage of nuclear waste. Reported creep tests on oxygen free (OF) copper have demonstrated that copper can have an extremely low creep ductility. However with the addition of about 50 ppm phosphorus to the copper it appears as if the creep brittleness problem is avoided and that type of copper (OFP) has consequently been chosen as the canister material. It is shown in the report that the experiments performed on OFP copper does not exclude the possibility of creep brittleness of OFP copper in the very long term. The plasticity and creep model has been used to estimate creep life under conditions of intergranular creep cracking according to a model formulated by Cocks and Ashby. The estimated life times widely exceed the design life of the canister. However the observations of creep brittleness in OF copper indicate that the Cocks-Ashby model probably does not apply to the OF copper. Thus additional calculations have been done with the plasticity and creep model in order to estimate stress as a function of time for the probably most severe loading case of the canister with regard to creep failure, an earth quake shear. Despite the fact that the stress in the canister will remain at the 100 MPa level for thousands of years after an earth quake the low temperature, about 50 deg C or less, will make the solid state diffusion process assumed to control the brittle cracking process, too slow to lead to any significant brittle creep cracking in the canister

  13. Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K

    2010-11-01

    Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species.

  14. Development of novel strontium containing bioactive glass based calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, A; Kent, N W; Shahdad, S A; Hill, R G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on properties of increasing strontium substitution for calcium in bioactive glasses used as precursors for novel calcium phosphate cements. Glasses were produced by progressively substituting strontium for calcium. Cements were prepared by mixing the glass powder with Ca(H2PO4)2 powder with a 2.5% solution of Na2HPO4. Setting times and compressive strength were measured after 1h, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days immersion in Tris buffer solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and radiopacity were measured and crystal morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. A correlation between the phases formed, morphology of the crystallites, setting time and compressive strength were analyzed. Setting time increased proportionally with strontium substitution in the glass up to 25%, whereas for higher substitutions it decreased. Compressive strength showed a maximum value of 12.5MPa and was strongly influenced by the interlocking of the crystals and their morphology. XRD showed that the presence of strontium influenced the crystal phases formed. Octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O, OCP) was the main phase present after 1h and 1 day whereas after 28 days OCP was completely transformed to strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrxCa(10-x)(PO4)6(OH)2, SrHA). Radiopacity increased proportionally to strontium substitution in the glass. A novel method to develop a bone substitute forming in vitro SrHA as a final product by using a bioactive glass as a precursor was shown. These novel injectable bioactive glass cements are promising materials for dental and orthopedic applications. Further in vivo characterizations are being conducted. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and characterization of titanium-containing hydroxyapatite for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Best, S M; Bonfield, W; Buckland, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite containing levels of titanium (TiHA) of up to 1.6 wt.% has been produced via a chemical co-precipitation route. The distribution of Ti was seen by transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to be uniform throughout as-prepared nanosized TiHA particles (20 nm x 100 nm). The incorporation of Ti into the HA structure was found to influence the ceramic microstructure on sintering and the grain size was found to decrease from 0.89 microm with HA to 0.63 microm with 0.8 wt.% TiHA (0.8 TiHA) and 0.45 microm with 1.6 wt.% TiHA (1.6 TiHA). Rietveld refinement analysis showed that there was a proportional increase in both the a and c axis with incorporation of Ti into the HA lattice structure, leading to an increase in the cell volume with the addition of Ti. Fourier transform-Raman analysis showed a slight increase in the ratio of O-H/P-O peaks on TiHA, in comparison with HA. A bone-like apatite layer was formed on the surface of TiHA after immersion in simulated body fluid for 3 days, which demonstrated the high in vitro bioactivity of TiHA. In vitro culture with primary human osteoblast (HOB) cells revealed that TiHA was able to support the growth and proliferation of HOB cells in vitro, with a significantly higher cell activity being observed on 0.8 TiHA after 7 days of culture in comparison with that on HA. Well-organized actin cytoskeletal protein was developed after 1 day of culture, and an increase in cell filopodia (attachment) was observed on TiHA sample surfaces. The results indicate that TiHA has great potential for biomedical applications.

  16. Development of a pneumatic stowing and chocking system for packages containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekelandt, L.; Libon, H.; Vandorpe, M.; Lafontaine, I.

    1989-01-01

    Since that goods are transported, their chocking and stowing is very often done by improvisation, successfully or disastrously. When the disaster appears in comics it is always a source of an enormous amusement, when it appears in road or maritime accidents it is most of the time a source of death or severe damages. Even if transport of radioactive materials could be considered as the exception where chains and tie-down systems are used abundantly, their strength relies always on the weakness of their components. Special attention has been paid to the transport of type A or type B packages, but obviously there was a lack of interest for the transport of low level radioactive waste, even knowing that the quantities of this waste are a hunderfold or a thousandfold of the first ones. On the subject of stowing and chocking systems for radioactive waste packages, TRANSNUBEL together with the CEA-France performed under the sponsorship of the Commission of the European Communities between 1980 and 1985 a study which clearly showed that during a road accident, in case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration, which is proportional to the package mass. The chocks must be able to absorb a deceleration energy generated by the package of about 30 g at a speed of about 50 km/h. This energy of course decreases at the same time as the speed. These conclusions served as basic principles for the development by TRANSNUBEL of a pneumatic stowing and chocking system for packagings containing radioactive waste

  17. Determining the bio-based content of bio-plastics used in Thailand by radiocarbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploykrathok, T.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-06-01

    Presently, there is an increased interest in the development of bio-plastic products from agricultural materials which are biodegradable in order to reduce the problem of waste disposal. Since the amount of modern carbon in bio-plastics can indicate how much the amount of agricultural materials are contained in the bio-plastic products, this research aims to determine the modern carbon in bio-plastic using the carbon dioxide absorption method. The radioactivity of carbon-14 contained in the sample is measured by liquid scintillation counter (Tri-carb 3110 TR, PerkinElmer). The percentages of bio-based content in the samples were determined by comparing the observed modern carbon content with the values contained in agricultural raw materials. The experimental results show that only poly(lactic acid) samples have the modern carbon content of 97.4%, which is close to the agricultural materials while other bio-plastics types are found to have less than 50% of the modern carbon content. In other words, most of these bio-plastic samples were mixed with other materials which are not agriculturally originated.

  18. Determining the bio-based content of bio-plastics used in Thailand by radiocarbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploykrathok, T; Chanyotha, S

    2017-01-01

    Presently, there is an increased interest in the development of bio-plastic products from agricultural materials which are biodegradable in order to reduce the problem of waste disposal. Since the amount of modern carbon in bio-plastics can indicate how much the amount of agricultural materials are contained in the bio-plastic products, this research aims to determine the modern carbon in bio-plastic using the carbon dioxide absorption method. The radioactivity of carbon-14 contained in the sample is measured by liquid scintillation counter (Tri-carb 3110 TR, PerkinElmer). The percentages of bio-based content in the samples were determined by comparing the observed modern carbon content with the values contained in agricultural raw materials. The experimental results show that only poly(lactic acid) samples have the modern carbon content of 97.4%, which is close to the agricultural materials while other bio-plastics types are found to have less than 50% of the modern carbon content. In other words, most of these bio-plastic samples were mixed with other materials which are not agriculturally originated. (paper)

  19. Plastic waste depolymerization as a source of energetic heating oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz-Głąb Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been an increase in production and consumption of plastics, which are widely used in many areas of life. Waste generated from this material are a challenge for the whole of society, regardless of awareness of sustainable development and its technological progress. Still the method of disposal of plastic waste are focused mainly on their storage and incineration, not using energy contained there. In this paper technology for plastic waste depolymerization with characteristics of fuel oil resulting in the process, as an alternative to traditional energy carriers such as: coal, fine coal or coke used in households will be presented. Oil has a high calorific value and no doubt could replace traditional solutions which use conventional energy sources. Furthermore, the fuel resulting from this process is sulfur-free and chemically pure. The paper presents the installation for plastics waste depolymerization used in selected Polish Institute of Plastics Processing, along with the ability to use the main thermocatalytic transformation product.

  20. PVC removal from mixed plastics by triboelectrostatic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Park, Jai-Koo

    2007-01-01

    Ever increasing oil price and the constant growth in generation of waste plastics stimulate a research on material separation for recycling of waste plastics. At present, most waste plastics cause serious environmental problems due to the disposal by reclamation and incineration. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste plastics generates hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, and so on, which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of incinerator, and it makes difficultly recycling of other plastics. Therefore, we designed a bench scale triboelectrostatic separator for PVC removal from mixed plastics (polyvinyl chloride/polyethylene terephthalate), and then carried out material separation tests. In triboelectrostatic separation, PVC and PET particles are charged negatively and positively, respectively, due to the difference of the work function of plastics in tribo charger of the fluidized-bed, and are separated by means of splitter through an opposite electric field. In this study, the charge efficiency of PVC and PET was strongly dependent on the tribo charger material (polypropylene), relative humidity (below 30%), air velocity (over 10 m/s), and mixture ratio (PET:PVC = 1:1). At the optimum conditions (electrode potential of 20 kV and splitter position of -2 cm), PVC rejection and PET recovery in PET products were 99.60 and 98.10%, respectively, and the reproducibility of optimal test was very good (±1%). In addition, as a change of splitter position, we developed the technique to recover high purity PET (over 99.99%) although PET recovery decreases by degrees

  1. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compensatory plasticity: time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa eLazzouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioural outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioural enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with neurochemical and morphological changes; both intrinsic connectivity and functional coupling at rest are altered but are likewise dependent on different sensory

  3. Interaction between vegetable oil based plasticizer molecules and polyvinyl chloride, and their plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Triwulandari, Evi; Jiang, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Plasticizer molecules are low molecular weight compounds that are widely used in polymer industries especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. As an additive in PVC resin, the important role of plasticizer molecules is to improve the flexibility and processability of PVC by lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg). However, the commercial plasticizer like di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known to cause liver cancer, at least in laboratory rats. DEHP can leach out from PVC into blood, certain drug solutions and fatty foods, which has been detected in the bloodstream of patients undergoing transfusion. Vegetable oil based plasticizers have some attractive properties such as non-toxic, bio-degradable, good heat and light stability, renewable resources, and environmentally friendly. Here we discussed the main results and development of vegetable oil based plasticizer, and especially palm oil based plasticizer. The interaction between plasticizer and polymer was discussed from the properties of the plasticized polymeric material.

  4. Development of lightweight aggregates from stone cutting sludge, plastic wastes and sepiolite rejections for agricultural and environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maroto, José Manuel; González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodríguez, Luis; Acosta, Anselmo

    2017-09-15

    Three different wastes have been assessed for lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufacturing: granite and marble sludge (COR), sepiolite rejections (SEP) and polyethylene-hexene thermoplastics (P). A preliminary study of the physical and chemical properties of the raw materials was carried out to design proper batches. It was mixed 10% SEP with 90% COR to confer plasticity, and in turn, 0, 2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w) of P was added to check its suitability as a bloating agent. The mixtures were milled, kneaded with water, extruded, shaped into pellets, oven-dried and finally fired at 1100, 1125 and 1150 °C for 4, 8 and 16 min. The main technological properties of the aggregates related to bloating, density, porosity, loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to study the microstructure of some LWAs. 23 out of 29 types of aggregate were lightweight, although neither bloating effect was observed, nor the typical cellular structure comprised of shell and core with relatively large pores was obtained, but a structure consisting of micropores and microchannels. The increase of temperature and time of firing involved a greater sintering, which in turn was translated into higher shrinkage, density and compressive strength values, but less porosity and water absorption. The addition of P did not involve any improvement, indeed it caused a significant decrease in compressive strength. The LWA sintered without P at the minimum time (4 min) and temperature of firing (1100 °C) was selected to assess its water suction capability. The results pointed out that this LWA could be suitable in hydroponics and/or water filtration systems, even better than the commercial LWA Arlita G3. A new and most environment-friendly perspective in LWA industry arises from here, promoting LWA production at relative low temperatures (prior to significant sintering occurs) and using non-plastic silty wastes instead of clays as major

  5. Further development of KAVERN and code development on gas generation from the containment basement during concrete decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzott, W.; Artnik, J.; Hassmann, K.; Kemner, H.; Stuckenberg, X.

    1983-04-01

    The events during the melt/concrete interaction, e.g. the shape of the cavity and the mass and energy of gases released to the containment atmosphere can be analysed by the computer code KAVERN. In case of basaltic conrete sump water contacts the melt surface after 7 hours. Overpressurization of the containment is calculated to occur after appr. 5 days. For different paths out of the reactor cavity to the containment atmosphere STROMI calculates the mass flow of the gases released during melt concrete interaction. Results show max. temperatures up to 1200 0 C which is well above the self ignition temperature of H 2 . (orig.) [de

  6. Irradiated recycled plastic as a concrete additive for improved chemo-mechanical properties and lower carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carolyn E; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Ortega, Michael; Soriano, Carmen; Büyüköztürk, Oral; White, Anne E; Short, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Concrete production contributes heavily to greenhouse gas emissions, thus a need exists for the development of durable and sustainable concrete with a lower carbon footprint. This can be achieved when cement is partially replaced with another material, such as waste plastic, though normally with a tradeoff in compressive strength. This study discusses progress toward a high/medium strength concrete with a dense, cementitious matrix that contains an irradiated plastic additive, recovering the compressive strength while displacing concrete with waste materials to reduce greenhouse gas generation. Compressive strength tests showed that the addition of high dose (100kGy) irradiated plastic in multiple concretes resulted in increased compressive strength as compared to samples containing regular, non-irradiated plastic. This suggests that irradiating plastic at a high dose is a viable potential solution for regaining some of the strength that is lost when plastic is added to cement paste. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Backscattered Electron Microscopy (BSE), and X-ray microtomography explain the mechanisms for strength retention when using irradiated plastic as a filler for cement paste. By partially replacing Portland cement with a recycled waste plastic, this design may have a potential to contribute to reduced carbon emissions when scaled to the level of mass concrete production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research cooperation project on the development of easy injection molding control technology for engineering plastics; Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to enhance the industries which supply assembly parts to Japan`s assembly industries in Thailand, research cooperation project on the plastic parts production technology has started. For the research cooperation, the mold design is effectively conducted using simulation technique of CAE (computer aided engineering), and an international easy injection molding control system is made using the molding support software for injection molding machines. In FY 1996, actual situations of plastic parts and assembly industries in Thailand have been investigated through the cooperation with the counterpart of Thailand. Demand and supply of engineering plastics, receive and inspection of parts, and current circumstances of molding processing makers in Thailand have been grasped. Based on the results of this investigation, proposal of basic plan, time schedule, and delivery plan of molding machines and testing equipment have been discussed, to make the basic plan. 18 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. Development of a coupled containment-reactor coolant system methodology for the analysis of IRIS small break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredini, Antonio; Oriolo, Francesco; Paci, Sandro; Oriani, Luca

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to identify the most relevant physical phenomena for the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) containment system and the development of an integrated methodology for the simultaneous safety analysis of both the reactor and containment with available computer codes. Specific objectives are: (a) to assess the limitations of the lumped parameter codes on predictions of complex situations; (b) to identify alternatives to classical containment analysis techniques. The characteristic features of an integral reactor like IRIS present a much greater challenge to code developers than conventional, loop type PWRs. In particular, the integral primary system and the containment are strongly coupled during postulated accident conditions and thus an integrated simulation of both systems is required to obtain a reliable phenomenological representation. The comparison of the results obtained in the application of two containment codes (GOTHIC and integrated FUMO) on 'ad hoc' IRIS related benchmarks will also be described. These preliminary calculations were used to test the IRIS containment concept and cooling strategies, at the same time highlighting the most relevant issues that require a more refined investigation. Finally, this activity allowed to perform more refined calculations, in progress at the moment, aimed at showing that the IRIS safety systems and containment design solutions perform their intended functions. (author)

  9. Ductile fracture of cylindrical vessels containing a large flaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, F.; Irwin, G. R.; Ratwani, M.

    1976-01-01

    The fracture process in pressurized cylindrical vessels containing a relatively large flaw is considered. The flaw is assumed to be a part-through or through meridional crack. The flaw geometry, the yield behavior of the material, and the internal pressure are assumed to be such that in the neighborhood of the flaw the cylinder wall undergoes large-scale plastic deformations. Thus, the problem falls outside the range of applicability of conventional brittle fracture theories. To study the problem, plasticity considerations are introduced into the shell theory through the assumptions of fully-yielded net ligaments using a plastic strip model. Then a ductile fracture criterion is developed which is based on the concept of net ligament plastic instability. A limited verification is attempted by comparing the theoretical predictions with some existing experimental results.

  10. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed

  11. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container (HIC) in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed. 6 refs., 1 tab

  12. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18° C to 22° C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  13. The development and testing of a modular containment system under plutonium active conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.J.; Pengelly, M.G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A Modular Containment System has been designed, constructed and tested under plutonium active conditions at AEE Winfrith. The unit consists of a portable self-contained pressurised suit area, complete with shower entry tunnel and ventilation plant which can be assembled to enclose active plant to enable active operations to be carried out safely by operators dressed in standard pressurised suits. A fundamental feature of the system is the use of strippable coatings which are used to treat the interior surfaces prior to active operations to prevent permanent contamination of the structure. Details of construction are given together with results of trials. Whilst this report describes work with plutonium, the system has clear applications wherever temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is needed. (U.K.)

  14. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18degrees C to 22degrees C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  15. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste disposal containers for the Yucca Mountain Project: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.; Robitz, E.S.; Conrardy, C.C.; LaCount, D.F.; McAninch, M.D.; Fish, R.L.; Russell, E.W.

    1991-09-01

    In GFY 89, a project was underway to determine and demonstrate a suitable method for fabricating thin-walled monolithic waste containers for service within the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. A concurrent project was underway to determine and demonstrate a suitable closure process for these containers after they have been filled with high-level nuclear waste. Phase 1 for both the fabrication and closure projects was a screening phase in which candidate processes were selected for further laboratory testing in Phase 2. This report describes the final results of the Phase 1 efforts. It also describes the preliminary results of Phase 2 efforts

  16. Plastic collapse behavior for thin tube with two parallel cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong In; Chang, Yoon Suk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jin Ho; Song, Myung Ho; Choi, Young Hwan; Kim, Joung Soo

    2004-01-01

    The current plugging criterion is known to be too conservative for some locations and types of defects. Many defects detected during in-service inspection take on the form of multiple cracks at the top of tube sheet but there is no reliable plugging criterion for the steam generator tubes with multiple cracks. Most of the previous studies on multiple cracks are confined to elastic analyses and only few studies have been done on the steam generator tubes failed by plastic collapse. Therefore, it is necessary to develop models which can be used to estimate the failure behavior of steam generator tubes with multiple cracks. The objective of this study is to verify the applicability of the optimum local failure prediction models proposed in the previous study. For this, plastic collapse tests are performed with the tube specimens containing two parallel through-wall cracks. The plastic collapse load of the steam generator tubes containing two parallel through-wall cracks are also estimated by using the proposed optimum global failure model and the applicability is investigated by comparing the estimated results with the experimental results. Also, the interaction effect between two cracks was evaluated to explain the plastic collapse behavior

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium field. Second year report. Development of the technology to combine plastic and metal using biodegradable natural polymer; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium bun'ya. Seibunkaisei tennen plastic to kinzoku no fukugoka gijutsu no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the electromagnetic wave shielding technology composed of plastic body, chitosan containing biodegradable coating and electroless metal plating layer. Key technologies are for formation of biodegradable electroless plating use coating using chitosan as chemical adsorption carrier of Pd and for separation of the body and the metal thin film by the environment-harmony method for recovery of the material. Studies were made in the following 5 fields: 1) method to produce low molecular chitin and chitosan; 2) application of biodegradable materials to electromagnetic wave shielding; 3) evaluation of physical properties and function of a new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 4) R and D of the degradation method of the new electromagnetic wave shielding system; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, in 1), conditions for production of chitosan degrading enzymes were determined, and also the scale of bio-reactor was increased up to 20L. Further, chitosan was so re-synthesized that it disperses to the electroless plating use primer. (NEDO)

  18. Environmental impact assessment of six starch plastics focusing on wastewater-derived starch and additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, Martijn L.M.; Kuling, Lody; Worrell, Ernst; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Starch plastics are developed for their biobased origin and potential biodegradability. To assist the development of sustainable starch plastics, this paper quantifies the environmental impacts of starch plastics produced from either virgin starch or starch reclaimed from wastewater. A

  19. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  20. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...