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  1. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  2. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  3. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

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    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  5. Casting a look at pediatric plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinovic, Tin; Kozak, Frederick K; Moxham, J Paul; Chilvers, Mark; Wensley, David; Seear, Michael; Campbell, Andrew; Ludemann, Jeffrey P

    2015-10-01

    To review clinical presentations and management strategies for children with plastic bronchitis. Retrospective chart review. Seven patients required rigid bronchoscopy to remove bronchial casts over a 17-year study period. Mean age at presentation was 60 months. Mean follow-up was 53 months. Co-morbidities included: congenital heart disease (n=3), chronic pulmonary disorders (n=2) and sickle cell disease (n=1). 4 patients required multiple bronchoscopies for recurrent casts. Adjunctive topical therapies were administered in all 7 patients, without complication. Rigid bronchoscopy for cast removal was performed in 2 patients who were on extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), using special precautions to safeguard the ECMO catheters. Bronchial casts in children may present acutely or sub-acutely. Recurrent casts are unusual; however, in combination with severe cardiac disease may lead to mortality. Adjunctive topical therapies are still under investigation. Special safeguards for ECMO catheters are imperative. This case series complements and adds to the International Plastic Bronchitis Registry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Bronchitis KidsHealth > For Teens > Bronchitis Print A A A ... Bronchitis Prevention en español La bronquitis What Is Bronchitis? Bronchitis (pronounced: brong-KYE-tis) is an inflammation ...

  7. Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy and plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2015-04-01

    To characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis. A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal, allowing social media to power the study. Participation regardless of PLE or plastic bronchitis diagnosis was allowed. Case control analyses compared patients with PLE and plastic bronchitis with uncomplicated control patients receiving the Fontan procedure. The survey was completed by 671 subjects, including 76 with PLE, 46 with plastic bronchitis, and 7 with both. Median PLE diagnosis was 2.5 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for PLE occurred in 71% with 41% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy varied significantly. Patients with PLE more commonly had hypoplastic left ventricle (62% vs 44% control; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.43-5.53), chylothorax (66% vs 41%; OR 2.96, CI 1.65-5.31), and cardiothoracic surgery in addition to staged palliation (17% vs 5%; OR 4.27, CI 1.63-11.20). Median plastic bronchitis diagnosis was 2 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for plastic bronchitis occurred in 91% with 61% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy was very diverse. Patients with plastic bronchitis more commonly had chylothorax at any surgery (72% vs 51%; OR 2.47, CI 1.20-5.08) and seasonal allergies (52% vs 36%; OR 1.98, CI 1.01-3.89). Patient-specific factors are associated with diagnoses of PLE or plastic bronchitis. Treatment strategies are diverse without clear patterns. These results provide a foundation upon which to design future therapeutic studies and identify a clear need for forming consensus approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A conservative treatment for plastic bronchitis in pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, Marco; Pelucchi, Francesca; Timpano, Silviana; Zorzi, Annalisa; Padoan, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare disorder in pediatric age. This disease can cause life-threatening episodes. Broncoscopy plus bronchial lavage is considered the gold standard therapeutic technique. Knowledge of this disease is mandatory to perform correct diagnosis and provide prompt treatment. The authors report the history of a 5-year-old girl affected by plastic bronchitis who was successfully treated by a conservative therapy avoiding the traditional more invasive management.

  9. Pediatric Plastic Bronchitis: Case Report and Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Epidemiology and Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Kunder; Christian Kunder; Sun, Heather Y; Gerald Berry; Anna Messner; Jennifer Frankovich; Stephen Roth; John Mark

    2013-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n=8) occurred in patients with congenital heart di...

  10. Plastic bronchitis associated with influenza virus infection in children: a report on 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhui; Kang, Xiaolei

    2015-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare disease characterized by formation of bronchial casts. It is usually associated with congenital heart disease, sickle cell disease, lymphoma, and lung diseases such as asthma and pneumonia. To report 14 cases of PB with influenza A or influenza B infection. We analyzed the clinical manifestations, bronchoscopic and histologic findings, clinical courses, and outcomes. These cases indicate that PB is a life-threatening complication of severe influenza. Plastic bronchitis should be considered in the diagnosis of children with acute respiratory distress such as lung atelectasis accompanied by influenza. Diagnosis should be made by bronchial endoscopy and histopathology, and bronchial casts removed as early as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plastic bronchitis arising from solitary influenza B infection: A report of two cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogan, Stephen J; Cass, Nathan D; Wiet, Gregory J; Ruda, James M

    2015-07-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is characterized by thick, inspissated, tracheobronchial casts. It is classified as either inflammatory or acellular based on the content of the endobronchial casts. PB has never been reported in a healthy child with solitary influenza B infection. This study is a retrospective case series of two children who presented to our institution in acute respiratory distress. Emergency rigid bronchoscopy was performed with extraction of casts from the L mainstem bronchus in both patients. Influenza B was the only isolate identified. In otherwise healthy children with respiratory distress, influenza B-mediated inflammatory PB must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric Plastic Bronchitis: Case Report and Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Epidemiology and Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis (PB is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n=8 occurred in patients with congenital heart disease. Clinical presentations, treatments used, histopathology of the casts, and patient outcomes are reviewed. Further discussion is focused on the epidemiology of plastic bronchitis and a systematic approach to the histologic classification of casts. Comorbid conditions identified in this study included congenital heart disease (8, pneumonia (3, and asthma (2. Our institutional prevalence rate was 6.8 per 100,000 patients, and our case fatality rate was 7%.

  13. Successful Thoracic Duct Ligation for Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Nicholas R; Piercecchi, Christopher; Desai, Nikita; Fisher, Micah R; Lee, Eun-Hyung; Force, Seth D

    2017-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease characterized by the development of obstructive fibrinous tracheobronchial casts and hypoxic respiratory failure. With its poorly understood cause and rare occurrence in the adult population, few treatment strategies have been described in adults with this condition. In this report, we present a case of successful treatment of an adult with plastic bronchitis, using thoracic duct ligation and resulting in full resolution of airway cast development. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunophenotyping and protein profiling of Fontan-associated plastic bronchitis airway casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jennifer; Mane, Gerta; Ford, Michael; Schmidt, Lindsay; Myers, Jeffrey; Standiford, Theodore J; Schumacher, Kurt R; Fifer, Carlen; Russell, Mark W; Stringer, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare and deadly condition that is characterized by the formation of airway casts. It most frequently occurs in children with underlying congenital heart disease that has been surgically palliated by the Fontan procedure. The Fontan circulation results in above-normal central venous pressure, and it has been hypothesized that the formation of airway casts is due to lymph leak. Knowledge of plastic bronchitis pathogenesis is poor and stems mostly from published case reports. To garner information about cast pathogenesis by characterizing inflammatory cell phenotypes in existing formalin-preserved, paraffin-embedded samples and generating protein and cytokine-chemokine profiles of airway cast homogenates. We used immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, state-of-the-science proteomics, and a cytokine array assay to immunophenotype cellular content and to generate protein and cytokine profiles of plastic bronchitis airway casts, respectively. Neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, and B lymphocytes were identified in cast samples; there were notably fewer T lymphocytes. Fibrin(ogen) was an abundant protein in the cast proteome. Histone H4 was also abundant, and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated it to be mostly extracellular. The cytokine profile of plastic bronchitis casts was proinflammatory. Plastic bronchitis airway casts from children with Fontan physiology are composed of fibrin and are cellular and inflammatory in nature, providing evidence that their formation cannot be explained simply by lymph leak into the airways. Consequences of cellular necrosis including extracellular histones and the apparent low number of T cells indicate that a derangement in inflammation resolution likely contributes to cast formation.

  16. Risk factors and outcome of Fontan-associated plastic bronchitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Singh, Tajinder P; Kuebler, Joseph; Aprile, Kayla; O'Brien, Molly; Blume, Elizabeth D

    2014-04-22

    The onset of plastic bronchitis (PB) can be debilitating in survivors of Fontan surgery. The rarity of this complication makes designing studies to understand risk factors for PB challenging. This 2-center case-control study aimed to describe patient outcomes and to assess the association of antecedent patient factors with PB development. Using center registries, PB patients (n=25) were matched 1:2 to non-PB Fontans (n=43) by date of Fontan surgery and center. The groups were compared for baseline characteristics. Association of patient characteristics with PB was assessed using logistic regression and of potential risk factors with onset of PB using time-to-event analyses. The median time from Fontan to PB diagnosis was 2.5 years. Overall, 12/25 PB patients died or underwent heart transplant; the median transplant-free survival was 8.3 years after diagnosis. Factors associated with developing PB included post-surgical chylothorax (44% PB versus 10% control; odds ratio [OR] 7.3; P=0.003), chest tube (CT) duration at stage 2 (P=0.04) and Fontan (P=0.004), and postoperative ascites (36% PB versus 12% control; OR 4.2; P=0.003). CT drainage >13 days at Fontan was associated with earlier PB onset (P=0.04). Early-onset PB was associated with an increased risk of death (OR 5.0; P=0.002). PB is a life-threatening disorder. A longer duration of CT drainage after surgery, chylothorax, and development of ascites are all associated with developing PB. Understanding the pathophysiology of peri-operative complications in individual patients and using targeted interventions may delay the onset of the PB phenotype.

  17. Risk Factors and Outcome of Fontan‐Associated Plastic Bronchitis: A Case‐Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R.; Singh, Tajinder P.; Kuebler, Joseph; Aprile, Kayla; O'Brien, Molly; Blume, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The onset of plastic bronchitis (PB) can be debilitating in survivors of Fontan surgery. The rarity of this complication makes designing studies to understand risk factors for PB challenging. This 2‐center case‐control study aimed to describe patient outcomes and to assess the association of antecedent patient factors with PB development. Methods and Results Using center registries, PB patients (n=25) were matched 1:2 to non‐PB Fontans (n=43) by date of Fontan surgery and center. The groups were compared for baseline characteristics. Association of patient characteristics with PB was assessed using logistic regression and of potential risk factors with onset of PB using time‐to‐event analyses. The median time from Fontan to PB diagnosis was 2.5 years. Overall, 12/25 PB patients died or underwent heart transplant; the median transplant‐free survival was 8.3 years after diagnosis. Factors associated with developing PB included post‐surgical chylothorax (44% PB versus 10% control; odds ratio [OR] 7.3; P=0.003), chest tube (CT) duration at stage 2 (P=0.04) and Fontan (P=0.004), and postoperative ascites (36% PB versus 12% control; OR 4.2; P=0.003). CT drainage >13 days at Fontan was associated with earlier PB onset (P=0.04). Early‐onset PB was associated with an increased risk of death (OR 5.0; P=0.002). Conclusions PB is a life‐threatening disorder. A longer duration of CT drainage after surgery, chylothorax, and development of ascites are all associated with developing PB. Understanding the pathophysiology of peri‐operative complications in individual patients and using targeted interventions may delay the onset of the PB phenotype. PMID:24755155

  18. Recurrent plastic bronchitis in a child with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and influenza B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Cho, Hwa Jin; Han, Dong Kyun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Yang, Eun Seok; Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook

    2012-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of bronchial casts. It is associated with congenital heart disease or pulmonary disease. In children with underlying conditions such as allergy or asthma, influenza can cause severe plastic bronchitis resulting in respiratory failure. A review of the literature showed nine cases of plastic bronchitis with H1N1 including this case. We report a case of a child with recurrent plastic bronchitis with eosinophilic cast associated with influenza B infection, who had recovered from plastic bronchitis associated with an influenza A (H1N1) virus infection 5 months previously. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of recurrent plastic bronchitis related to influenza viral infection. If patients with influenza virus infection manifest acute respiratory distress with total lung atelectasis, clinicians should consider plastic bronchitis and early bronchoscopy should be intervened. In addition, management for underlying disease may prevent from recurrence of plastic bronchitis.

  19. Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Grzegorz; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Jedynak-Wasowicz, Urszula; Glowacka, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB), although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.

  20. Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when symptoms get much worse than usual. Chronic bronchitis is a serious, long-term medical condition. Early diagnosis and treatment, combined with quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke, ...

  1. Aerosolised heparin in the treatment of Fontan-related plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Daniel E; Cox, Kristin; Moskowitz, William B

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Fontan palliation and single-ventricle physiology encounter multiple comorbidities including plastic bronchitis, a disease characterised by the plugging of small and large airways by rubbery, white casts. To date, no controlled clinical trials have demonstrated effective treatment of plastic bronchitis. We report the application of aerosolised heparin, which has published success in non-cardiac-related pulmonary disease, for this complication in a Fontan patient.

  2. [The role of rigid bronchoscope in the diagnosis and treatment of plastic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Song, Yingluan; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wen, Xin; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the role of rigid bronchoscope in the diagnosis and treatment of plastic bronchitis. Various clinical parameters, the key points of operation and postoperative recovery were analyzed in 8 patients with plastic bronchitis treated in Department and ICU using retrospective analysis. All cases demonstrated bronchial lumen stenosis, mucous membrance coarse, congestion, edema in the affected side. 2 cases had follicular hyperplasia, 1 case had a few ooze after taking out the plastic type. All cases had endogenous foreign bodies, taking the shape of the bronchial tree or a funicular. Block shape and sites were as follows: right main bronchus 2 cases, superior lobe of right lung 1 case, right middle bronchial 1 case, left main bronchus 2 cases, 1 case with left lower lobe, right main bronchus and left lower lobe bronchus 1 case. The breath sounds of the affected side become more enhanced after operation, with the alliviation of dyspnea. All cases recovered after ICU treatment. The pathologic examination were all type I plastic bronchitis. Removement of the endogenous foreign body via rigid bronchoscopy is the effective method in the treatment of plastic bronchitis. Plastic bronchitis is a rapid-developing critical, urgent disease.In order to reduce the mortality, early diagnosis and timely surgery are necessary.

  3. Use of aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator in the treatment of plastic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubcke, Nicole L; Nussbaum, Vicki M; Schroth, Mary

    2013-03-01

    To present a case of nebulized tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment for symptomatic plastic bronchitis in a pediatric patient years after a Fontan procedure. A 13-year-old boy with a history of corrected congenital heart disease was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after 2 weeks of worsening respiratory distress. A chest radiograph and subsequent bronchoscopy revealed extensive mucus plugging due to plastic bronchitis. Casts reaccumulated quickly after manual removal of the mucus and a regimen of aerosolized t-PA was initiated to break down the casts and prevent further cast formation over the 17-day hospital course. The treatment was successful and the patient was discharged home without evidence of bronchial casts. Plastic bronchitis is a potentially devastating condition in which pulmonary infiltrates line the bronchial tree, forming casts and prohibiting effective oxygen exchange. There are few effective treatment options for this condition. The use of aerosolized t-PA for the treatment of plastic bronchitis has been reported to be safe and effective in 4 cases but no consistent regimen, dose, or duration of treatment has been established. t-PA can be nebulized and inhaled for successful inhibition of bronchial cast formation. More information to determine the most effective dose and duration of therapy is needed to effectively improve the lives of people with plastic bronchitis.

  4. Management of plastic bronchitis with topical tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Elizabeth; Blount, Robert; Lewis, Nancy; Nielson, Dennis; Church, Gwynne; Jones, Kirk; Ly, Ngoc

    2012-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis or cast bronchitis is a rare disease of unclear etiology characterized by formation of airway casts that can lead to life-threatening airway obstruction. There is currently limited data regarding optimal treatment of plastic bronchitis. Several therapies have been suggested, but recurrences are common and mortality remains high. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with refractory eosinophilic bronchial casts, unresponsive to low-dose systemic corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids, azithromycin, and dornase alfa, who was treated successfully and safely with direct instillation of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) to the obstructing casts during flexible bronchoscopy and inhaled tPA. Our case illustrates that the current therapy for plastic bronchitis remains inadequate. To our knowledge, this case is the first to show that direct instillation of tPA can be used safely for treatment of this disease. The use of tPA via direct administration into the airways during bronchoscopy and via a nebulizer appeared to be a safe and effective therapy for plastic bronchitis and should be considered early in the course of the disease to prevent complications of severe airway obstruction.

  5. Management of plastic bronchitis in a child with mild intermittent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin S; Chun, Robert H; Rao, Aparna R; Kerschner, Joseph E

    2011-11-01

    We describe the clinical presentation of a 7 1/2-year-old boy with a history of mild intermittent asthma who presented with left lung collapse and was found to have plastic bronchitis. We reviewed the patient chart and imaging results and performed a literature review of plastic bronchitis and its management. Bronchoscopy in our patient demonstrated a large white, friable, cast-like material that obstructed the entire left main stem bronchus and could not be easily suctioned. The cast was removed in a piecemeal fashion by means of serial rigid bronchoscopy over a 6-month period with use of both optical forceps and flexible suction catheters. Microscopic examination of the cast-like material showed a predominance of eosinophils along with neutrophils encased in proteinaceous material. Plastic bronchitis in children is a rare condition that can mimic foreign body aspiration and can be associated with underlying pulmonary inflammatory disorders or cardiovascular disease. Aggressive bronchoscopic management of the airway obstruction and medical management of the underlying disease process are important for the successful treatment of plastic bronchitis.

  6. Pharmacotherapy challenges of Fontan-associated plastic bronchitis: a rare pediatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kristina; Caruthers, Regine L; Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Pediatric pharmacotherapy is often challenging due to the paucity of available clinical data on the safety and efficacy of drugs that are commonly used in children. This quandary is even more prevalent in children with rare diseases. Although extrapolations for dosing and administration are often made from available adult data with similar disease states, this translation becomes even more problematic in rare pediatric diseases. Understanding of rare disease pathophysiology is typically poor, and few, if any, effective therapies have been studied and identified. One condition that illustrates these issues is plastic bronchitis, a rare, most often pediatric disease that is characterized by the production of obstructive bronchial airway casts. This illness primarily occurs in children with congenital heart disease, often after palliative surgery. Plastic bronchitis is a highly clinically relevant and therapeutically challenging problem with a high mortality rate, and, a generally accepted effective pharmacotherapy regimen has yet to be identified. Furthermore, the disease is ill defined, which makes timely identification and treatment of children with plastic bronchitis difficult. The pharmacotherapies currently used to manage this disease are largely anecdotal and vary between the use of macrolide antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, and inhaled fibrinolytics in a myriad of combinations. The purpose of this review is 2-fold: first, to highlight the dilemma of treating plastic bronchitis, and second, to bring attention to the continuing need for studies of drug therapies used in children so safe and effective drug regimens can be established, particularly for rare diseases. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis with low fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation in child with fontan physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, K; Witte, M H; Samson, R; Teodori, M; Carpenter, J B; Lowe, M C; Morgan, W; Hardin, C; Brown, M; Naughton, Y; Sinha, S; Barber, B J

    2012-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare condition characterized by the formation and expectoration of long, branching bronchial casts that develop in the tracheobronchial tree and cause airway obstruction. Plastic bronchitis has become increasingly recognized as a feared complication of the Fontan operation with a mortality of up to 50%. We report an 11 year old boy who developed severe plastic bronchitis following Fontan repair and the successful long-term control of cast formation utilizing a low-fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation.

  8. Successful treatment of severe asthma-associated plastic bronchitis with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonan, Momoka; Hashimoto, Soshi; Kimura, Akio; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Kinose, Hiromi; Sawada, Maiko; Shime, Nobuaki; Tokuhira, Natsuko; Kato, Yuko; Sasaki, Masayuki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Higaki, Satoshi; Oomae, Tadaki; Hashimoto, Satoru

    2012-04-01

    We describe a case of near-fatal asthma requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The patient presented with severe respiratory distress, which was not responsive to conventional pharmacological therapy. The patient also failed to respond to mechanical ventilation and thus was placed on venovenous ECMO for temporary pulmonary support. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed that large amounts of thick bronchial secretions had occluded the main bronchus, which suggested plastic bronchitis secondary to asthma. Aggressive airway hygiene with frequent bronchoscopies and application of biphasic cuirass ventilation for facilitation of secretion clearance were performed to improve the patient's respiratory status. The patient achieved a full recovery and suffered no neurological sequelae. This case illustrates that aggressive pulmonary hygiene with ECMO is a useful therapy for patients with asthma-associated plastic bronchitis.

  9. A multifaceted approach to the management of plastic bronchitis after cavopulmonary palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Catherine M; Goldberg, David J; Dodds, Kathryn; Dori, Yoav; Ravishankar, Chitra; Rychik, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication after Fontan operation. Hemodynamic alterations (elevated central venous pressure and low cardiac output) likely contribute to the formation of tracheobronchial casts composed of inflammatory debris, mucin, and fibrin. Pathologic studies of cast composition support medical treatment with fibrinolytics such as inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This was a retrospective case series of medical, surgical, and catheter-based treatment of patients with plastic bronchitis after cavopulmonary palliation. Included were 14 patients (86% male, 93% white). Median age at Fontan operation was 2.7 years (range, 1.2 to 4.1 years), with median interval to plastic bronchitis presentation of 1.5 years (range, 9 days to 15.4 years). Cast composition was available for 11 patients (79%) and included fibrin deposits in 7. All patients were treated with pulmonary vasodilators, and 13 (93%) were treated with inhaled t-PA. Hemodynamically significant lesions in the Fontan pathway were addressed by catheter-based (n=9) and surgical (n=3) interventions. Three patients (21%) underwent heart transplantation. Median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0.6 to 8.7 years). Symptoms improved, such that 6 of 13 patients (46%) were weaned off t-PA. Rare or episodic casts are successfully managed with outpatient t-PA in most of the other patients. Of the 3 patients who underwent heart transplant, 2 are asymptomatic and 1 has recurrent casts in the setting of elevated filling pressures and rejection. A systematic step-wise algorithm that includes optimization of hemodynamics, aggressive pulmonary vasodilation, and inhaled t-PA is an effective treatment strategy for patients with plastic bronchitis after cavopulmonary connection. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Clinical features and pathogens of plastic bronchitis in children: an analysis of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhong, Li-Li; Zhang, Bing; Lin, Lin; Huang, Han; Liang, Mo

    2014-07-01

    To study the clinical features and pathogens of plastic bronchitis in children. A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 9 children who were diagnosed with plastic bronchitis between January 2011 and December 2012. Plastic bronchitis began with a fever and cough in all cases, followed by progressive dyspnea on days 1-3 of onset; unilateral or bilateral decreased breath sounds and hepatosplenomegaly were found; complications included respiratory failure (6 cases), toxic encephalopathy (6 cases), toxic hepatitis (7 cases), shock (3 cases), heart failure (3 cases), and renal failure (2 cases). Chest X-ray or chest CT showed single and multiple lobar or segmental consolidation and atelectasis, as well as pleural effusion (4 cases). The bronchofibroscopy revealed some grey-white mucus plugs that blocked bronchial openings and aspirates of bronchial shape. Influenza viruses (IFVs) were detected in all cases, including IFV-A (6 cases, 67%) and IFV-B (3 cases, 33%). Mixed infection with IFV-A and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)/bacteria was found in 50% of all cases. In the three cases of IFV-B infection, one was complicated by MP infection. Nine patients were given treatment of antibiotics, hormones, gamma globulin and necessary respiratory support, and also were given removal of endogenous foreign body by bronchoscopy. Five patients were given antiviral therapy of oseltamivir. Seven cases cured, and 2 died. Plastic bronchitis and severe pneumonia are similar in clinical manifestations. IFVs are the main pathogen. In addition to anti-infection treatment, hormone, gamma globulin, respiratory support, and other conventional treatments, endogenous foreign body removal by bronchofibroscopy and early antiviral therapy with oseltamivir have good efficacy.

  11. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis by selective lymphatic embolization in a Fontan patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rychik, Jack; Itkin, Maxim

    2014-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare and often fatal complication of single-ventricle surgical palliation after total cavopulmonary connection. Although lymphatic abnormalities have been postulated to play a role in the disease process, the etiology and pathophysiology of this complication remain incompletely understood. Here we report on the etiology of plastic bronchitis in a child with total cavopulmonary connection as demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography. We also report on a new treatment of this disease. The patient underwent noncontrast T2-weighted MR lymphatic mapping and dynamic contrast MR lymphangiography with bi-inguinal intranodal contrast injection to determine the anatomy and flow pattern of lymph in his central lymphatic system. The MRI scan demonstrated the presence of a dilated right-sided peribronchial lymphatic network supplied by retrograde lymphatic flow through a large collateral lymphatic vessel originating from the thoracic duct. After careful analysis of the MRI scans we performed selective lymphatic embolization of the pathologic lymphatic network and supplying vessel. This provided resolution of plastic bronchitis for this patient. Five months after the procedure, the patient remains asymptomatic off respiratory medications. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Effective use of corticosteroids in treatment of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis in Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang WANG; You-juan WANG; Feng-ming LUO; Lei WANG; Li-li JIANG; Lin WANG; Bing MAO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis. Methods: A retrospective, clinical study was undertaken. Thirty two patients with only first episodes of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis were divided into a steroid group (n=18) treated with glucocorticoids, and a non-steroid group (n=14). The supportive therapy was uniformly applied to both groups, except for glucocorticoids. Variables such as temperature and white blood cell counts were determined. Furthermore, the volume of hemoptysis and bronchial casts were evaluated in detail daily. Results: There was no difference in the demographic data and variables at baseline between both groups (all P>0.05).On days 5,6,7 and 8, the volume of hemoptysis was significantly decreased in the steroid group compared with the non-steroid group (43±15 mL vs 117±33 mL on d 5,29±12mL vs 97±23mL on d 6,18±10mL vs 80±20mL on d 7,and 13±8mL vs 66±14 mL on d 8; all P<0.05), and on d 10 after fibreoptic bronchoscopy, the cases with bronchial casts was reduced evidently in the steroid group in comparison with the non-steroid group (OR=5.69,95% CI=1.76-43.6; P=0.005). There was no significance in mechanical ventilation and mortality between both groups. Conclusion: Despite some limitations of this study, it has been demonstrated that, on the basis of common supportive therapy, corticosteroids would be effective and safe for the treatment of plastic bronchitis with hemoptysis.

  13. Fontan patient with plastic bronchitis treated successfully using aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thomas B; Chu, James M; Berdjis, Farhouch; Anas, Nick G

    2009-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon condition characterized by the production of large pale bronchial casts that obstruct the tracheobronchial tree. The cellular content, cohesiveness, and often rubber-like consistency distinguish bronchial casts from the usual mucus plugs found with such disease states as asthma. Plastic bronchitis can be found secondary to many conditions, and a simplified classification scheme organizes it into two groups: an inflammatory type consisting of casts with an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and an acellular type with a predominance of fibrin distinguished by its relative lack of cellular infiltrate, its mucin predominance, and its appearance only in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease. This report describes a 5-year-old girl who experienced plastic bronchitis 3 months after a Fontan procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was treated successfully with aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator.

  14. Simultaneous atelectasis in human bocavirus infected monozygotic twins: was it plastic bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegger, Christoph M; Bär, Walter; Iseli, Peter

    2013-12-18

    Plastic bronchitis is an extremely rare disease characterized by the formation of tracheobronchial airway casts, which are composed of a fibrinous exudate with rubber-like consistency and cause respiratory distress as a result of severe airflow obstruction. Bronchial casts may be associated with congenital and acquired cardiopathies, bronchopulmonary diseases leading to mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary lymphatic abnormalities. In recent years, however, there is growing evidence that plastic bronchitis can also be triggered by common respiratory tract infections and thereby cause atelectasis even in otherwise healthy children. We report on 22-month-old monozygotic twins presenting with atelectasis triggered by a simple respiratory tract infection. The clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings given, bronchial cast formation was suspected in both infants but could only be confirmed after bronchoscopy in the first case. Real-time polymerase chain reaction of the removed cast as well as nasal lavage fluid of both infants demonstrated strong positivity for human bocavirus. Our case report is the first to describe two simultaneously affected monozygotic twins and substantiates the hypothesis of a contributing genetic factor in the pathophysiology of this disease. In this second report related to human bocavirus, we show additional evidence that this condition can be triggered by a simple respiratory tract infection in previously healthy infants.

  15. [Clinical analysis of 8 children with plastic bronchitis associated with influenza A virus (H1N1) infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue-jie; Deng, Ji-kui; Lu, Zhi-wei; Ma, Hong-ling; Li, Jing; Wang, Li

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of plastic bronchitis associated with 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) infection. A retrospective investigation of the clinical manifestation, bronchoscopy, and the histology of the cast, clinical course and outcome of 8 children with plastic bronchitis associated with influenza A virus (H1N1) infection during winter of 2009 and 2010 was performed. All 8 cases were boys, the range of age was 3 to 6 years. Five cases occurred in 2009 winter, accounting for 3.3% (5/150) of hospitalized children with influenza A (H1N1) infection; 3 cases occurred in 2010 winter, accounting for 15.8% (3/19) of hospitalized children with influenza A (H1N1) infection. Two patients had an underlying chronic disease, 1 had asthma, and the other had allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. All the 8 cases had fever, cough and sputum; 2 had wheezing; 5 had respiratory distress. All 8 cases were diagnosed as influenza A virus (H1N1) infection complicated with pneumonia, of whom 5 patients had atelectasis, 2 had pneumothorax, 1 had pneumomediastinum, 1 had parapneumonic effusion, 2 patients were suspected of foreign body aspiration. Seven cases were admitted to an ICU, 5 patients developed respiratory failure, and 3 patients required mechanical ventilation. Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage was performed in all cases and showed bronchial cast. Histological examination of the bronchial cast revealed a fibrinous material containing large quantity of eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in 7 patients, fibrinous material and necrotic material without inflammatory cells in 1 patient. After the bronchial cast was removed, all patients were improved greatly, no patients died. Plastic bronchitis is a life-threatening complication associated with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children. In children with rapid and progressive respiratory distress with lung atelectasis or consolidation on chest radiograph, plastic bronchitis should be

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  17. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  19. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001087.htm Bronchitis - acute To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ...

  20. 纤维索性支气管炎的诊治进展%The progress in diagnosis and treatmentment of plastic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘庆; 戴路明

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare but severe respiratory disease.Its major clinical manifestations and periodic haemoptysis are recurrent.When bronchial tube type coughs out,it can block airway,if can't be get out timely or treated effectively, it can rapidly cause severe respiratory distress, which can threaten the lives of patients.The disease is rare,and disease-related research is not much.This paper is to summary the progress in diagnosis and treatmentment of plastic bronchitis to provide the reference and basis for the clinical treatment of plastic bronchitis.%纤维素性支气管炎是一种罕见但病情严重的呼吸系统疾病,临床上主要表现为反复、周期性咯血.若咳出的支气管管型阻塞气道,不能得到及时、有效的治疗和控制,以至迅速引起严重的呼吸窘迫,对患者的生命产生威胁.因此病少见,与此病相关的研究也不多,本文主要对纤维素性支气管炎的诊治进展进行综述,以期为纤维素性支气管炎的临床治疗提供参考和依据.

  1. What Causes Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Infections or lung irritants cause acute bronchitis. The ... fire, also may lead to acute bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis Repeatedly breathing in fumes that irritate and damage ...

  2. Bronquite plástica em criança com talassemia alfa Plastic bronchitis in a child with thalassemia alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago N. Veras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A bronquite plástica é uma doença infreqüente na criança, sendo caracterizada por moldes ou cilindros mucofibrinosos na árvore traqueobrônquica. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial de crianças com insuficiência respiratória de início agudo, e o tratamento precoce é importante para a resolução do quadro. O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de bronquite plástica tratado com sucesso por endoscopia, em paciente portador de talassemia alfa. DESCRIÇÃO: Criança do sexo masculino, 3 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos significativos, apresentou quadro de insuficiência respiratória aguda, com achados radiológicos de atelectasia pulmonar sugestivos de aspiração de corpo estranho. Não havia sintomas respiratórios ou antecedentes de alergia ou infecções respiratórias de repetição. A realização de broncoscopia flexível, complementada por endoscopia rígida e exame anatomopatológico, evidenciou a presença de bronquite plástica. Após a realização da endoscopia, a criança evoluiu satisfatoriamente, com curva térmica afebril e extubação em 72 horas. Foram utilizadas medicações sintomáticas, sem necessidade de antimicrobianos. Dez dias após a alta, a radiografia de tórax encontrava-se normal. A talassemia alfa foi diagnosticada através da eletroforese de hemoglobina. COMENTÁRIOS: A importância clínica da bronquite plástica reside no fato de apresentar um quadro semelhante ao de outras doenças mais prevalentes, como a aspiração de corpo estranho e a asma brônquica. A suspeita do quadro recomenda a realização de endoscopia para diagnóstico e tratamento. É reconhecida a ocorrência de bronquite plástica em crianças com fibrose cística, pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca e anemia falciforme. No presente artigo, foi observada uma associação com talassemia alfa.OBJECTIVE: Plastic bronchitis is an unusual condition in children, associated with formation of mucofibrinous

  3. Chyloptysis causing plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Stoddart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chyloptysis is a rare clinical problem that is associated with conditions affecting lymphatic channels in the thorax. Diagnosis is usually made when the patients present with expectoration of milky-white sputum or of thick tenacious mucus in the shape of smaller bronchi (bronchial cast. Typically the symptoms resolve after coughing up of the bronchial casts. Pleural, mediastinal, pulmonary or lymphatic abnormalities result in chyloptysis. Lymphangiography and detection of lipids (cholesterol or triglycerides in sputum help to establish the diagnosis. However, lymphangiography may not be positive in all patients. We report 2 patients with chyloptysis and bronchial casts with different etiologies. Abnormal lymphatics were demonstrated in one of our cases, but the second patients lymphangiogram was normal. In this patient we suspect that high venous filling pressures due to congestive heart failure had a causative effect in the setting of compromised lymphatic drainage in the thorax due to a prior history of radiation therapy to the chest for lymphoma.

  4. The diagnosis and treatment of plastic bronchitis in children with status asthmaticus%儿童哮喘持续状态下的塑型性支气管炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金鑫; 张琪; 胡凤华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究哮喘持续状态患儿中塑型性支气管炎的发病特点,探讨其诊断和治疗方法.方法 从2008年1月至2011年5月收治4例哮喘持续状态合并塑型性支气管炎的患儿,回顾性分析其发病病因、临床特点、病原学、治疗过程及治疗效果.结果 4例患儿中行急诊纤维支气管镜检查3例,所有取出异物行病理检查,诊断为塑型性支气管炎,这4例患儿经气管插管、呼吸支持、纤维支气管镜灌洗、呼吸道管理及抗感染治疗,均痊愈出院.结论 确诊塑型性支气管炎需依靠支气管镜检查和病理组织学检查.哮喘持续状态患儿要高度警觉塑型性支气管炎的发生.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches of plastic bronchitis in children with status asthmaticus. Methods The clinical profiles of 4 children with plastic bronchitis and plastic bronchitis admitted to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from Jan 2008 to May 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of 4 patients with plastic bronchitis, three received bronchoseope inspection, and all of them were confirmed plastic bronchitis by histopathology, and cured after mechanical ventdation, airway management and anti-infection treatment. Conclusion Plastic bronchitis diagnosis depends on bronchial endoscopy and histopathology. The occurrence of plastic bronchitis in patients with status asthmaticus should be alerted.

  5. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of children with plastic bronchitis%儿童塑型性支气管炎诊疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪

    2013-01-01

    儿童塑型性支气管炎是一种较罕见的疾病,病因不明,起病隐匿,进展快,症状重,诊断和治疗难度大,病死率高.儿童塑型支气管炎被认为与某些疾病包括支气管哮喘、囊性纤维病、伴发急性胸部综合征的镰状细胞病、先天性心脏病以及各种呼吸道细菌性和病毒性感染有一定关系.关于儿童塑型性支气管炎的诊断和治疗目前仍较困难,临床医生应该警惕该病,做到早期诊断、早期治疗.%Children with plastic bronchitis,characterized by unknown origin,insidious onset,rapid progress,severe symptom and high mortality,is a relatively rare disease.Also,it is difficult to diagnose and treat with plastic bronchitis characterized by marked airway obstruction,via the formation of large gelatinous or rigid airway cast.It is associated with certain diseases including bronchial asthma,cystic fibrosis,accompanied with acute chest syndrome with sickle cell disease,congenital heart disease and bacterial and viral respiratory infection.Clinicians should be aware of this disease,and early bronchoscopy should be intervened.

  6. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  7. Report of 5 cases of pediatric plastic bronchitis and review of related literature%儿童塑型性支气管炎五例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春梅; 曹玲; 常丽; 张琪; 王菲; 任晓旭

    2013-01-01

    To report the clinical course of 5 cases of pediatric plastic bronchitis and review the related literature.A total of 113 cases of pediatric plastic bronchitis occurring in China from 2000 to 2012 were retrieved through the databases of CNKI and Wanfang Med Online.Retrospective analyses were performed for the main symptoms,courses,etiologies,imaging findings,histopathological classifications,therapies and prognosis of 118 cases.Pediatric plastic bronchitis was one of critical diseases.Most of them had a rapid onset and a mortality rate.Bronchoscopy examination was essential for definite diagnosis and effective treatment.Airway management and chest physiotherapy were primary adjuvant tools.Early diagnosis and bronchoscopic treatment might result in improved prognosis.%报告5例儿童塑型性支气管炎病例的临床诊治经过,并检索中国知网(CNKI)和万方医学数据库2000年1月至2012年6月相关病例报告113例,回顾性分析118例患儿的主要临床症状、病程、病原学分布、影像学表现、病理分类、治疗和预后.儿童塑型性支气管炎属高危性疾病,多数起病急,病死率高,确诊依靠支气管镜检查,支气管镜异物取出术及灌洗是最有效的治疗方法,气道管理和胸部理疗是重要的辅助治疗手段,经早期确诊和治疗预后良好.

  8. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0...

  9. Percentage of toxic trace elements; Pb, Cr and Cd in certain plastic toys, Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kavehzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have detected the presence of significant levels of heavy metals (chromium, lead and cadmium in toys and other PVC products manufactured for children. In some countries, addition of compounds containing toxic metals to toys are limited or prohibited. Methods: To evaluate the safety of some of the plastic toys in the city of Isfahan with respect to toxic trace metals, pb, cr and cd, 75 samples of three types of toys were collected from the toy shop’s and were digested with acid with the two methods ISIRI and ASTM. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Variance analysis and T-test were used for data analysis. Results: The result of the study showed that the products tested contained lead, chromium and cadmium and the highest and lowest concentration were related to Pb and Cd, respectively. The statistical analysis of the samples showed that there are no significant differences between ASTM and ISIRI digestion methods. The study revealed that none of the heavy metals in the toy samples exceeded the recommended standard levels. Highest average concentration of Pb and Cd were related to toys with green color and the highest Cr concentration was related to yellow toys in this study. Conclusion: Extensive studies are required to evaluate the quality of the toys being used by children and the toxic trace elements should be eliminated from the plastic materials used for making toys.

  10. How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics » Bronchitis » How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  11. Zabofloxacin for chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, B; Szabo, D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of lower respiratory tract infection poses as an ongoing challenge among respiratory tract diseases. Bacterial infections are causes of acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis and indications for antibacterial therapy. Several antibiotics were applied to treat bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis, among them fluoroquinolones are considered potent, broad-spectrum agents with excellent tissue penetration. This monograph focuses on zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone agent recently approved and launched in South Korea, and summarizes the drug's antibacterial efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. Recent advances concerning fluoroquinolones in chronic bronchitis will be discussed, along with a comparison between zabofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Zabofloxacin has proved to be noninferior to moxifloxacin against major community-acquired Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features can make it a potential antimicrobial agent in therapy of chronic bronchitis and other lower respiratory tract infections.

  12. Acute bronchitis: Evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blush, Raymond R

    2013-10-10

    Acute bronchitis affects millions of individuals, significantly impacting patient health and the healthcare industry. Understanding evaluation and treatment guidelines for acute bronchitis allows the nurse practitioner to practice comprehensive care for patients. This article reviews evidence-based practices when caring for the patient with acute bronchitis, promoting optimization of healthy outcomes.

  13. Infectieuze bronchitis bij leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Het Infectieuze Bronchitis Virus (IB) is een van de meest voorkomende virussen in de pluimveehouderij. Men mag rustig zeggen dat waar kippen gehouden worden, ook het IB virus voorkomt. Infecties met dit virus kunnen bij kippen van alle leeftijden ziekte m

  14. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a health care provider. How serious are bronchitis and pneumonia? Both conditions are more serious if a child has a chronic health condition or if the condition is caused by a bacteria, in which case antibiotics are the treatment of choice. When pneumonia is caused by bacteria, ...

  15. 重症新型甲型H1N1流感患儿合并塑型性支气管炎一例并文献复习%Plastic bronchitis associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) in children: a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德军; 杨友生; 王宝春

    2010-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of the pathological and clinical features,diagnosis and treatment of plastic bronchitis associate with influenza A ( H1N1 ).Methods One case of plastic bronchitis associated with influenza A ( H1N1 ) diagnosed and treated in our hospital in January 2010 was reported and 19 cases of plastic bronchitis reported in the literature were reviewed.Results We describe a 5-year-old Chinese Japanese boy presenting with cough for 2 days,gasping and fever for 1 day was admitted.Left lung atelectasis and pneumothorax were found on chest X-ray examination.Pathologically,plastic bronchitis was diagnosed after the endogenous foreign body was extracted by bronchoscopy and classified as type 1 cast.In addition,influenza A (H1N1) was confirmed by the swabs which showed positive for H1N1 nucleic acid.The condition was controlled and the patient was cured and discharged after 16-days' treatment with antiviral therapy,low-dose corticosteroids,and antibiotics.Conclusion Plastic bronchitis associated with influenza A (H1N1) is a rare life-threatening disorder.The diagnosis could be made based on pathological findings of the bronchial casts as well as the positive H1N1 nucleic acid detection.Bronchoscopic extraction of casts in plastic bronchitis is not only useful for early diagnosis but an effective therapeutic modality for the disease.Influenza A( H1N1 ) may be a cause of plastic bronchitis.%目的 提高对新型甲型H1N1流感(简称甲型流感)合并塑型性支气管炎病理特点、临床特征、诊断、治疗的认识.方法 报道2010年1月厦门大学附属中山医院中心ICU收治的1例甲型流感合并塑型性支气管炎病例并进行相关文献复习.结果 患儿男,5岁,日籍华裔,咳嗽2 d加剧伴气喘,发热1 d,X线胸片示左肺不张、气胸,支气管镜检查吸出条索状异物,病理结果显示为塑型性支气管炎Ⅰ型,咽拭子甲型流感核酸检测阳性,经抗病毒、小量糖皮质激素、

  16. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis caused by an infection usually develops ... shortness of breath, especially with physical activity. Chronic Bronchitis The signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis include ...

  17. 布地奈德混悬液联合纤支镜用于儿童甲型H1N1/H3N2感染合并塑型性支气管炎的病例分析%Case Analysis of Budesonide Suspension Combined with Fiber Bronchoscope for Influenza A(H1N1/H3N2) Infection Complicated with Plastic Bronchitis in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿刚; 罗健; 罗征秀; 刘恩梅; 符州

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1/H3N2感染合并塑型性支气管炎(PB)的病理特征及诊治方法.方法:报告3例我院收治的甲型H1N1/H3N2感染合并PB儿童的病例资料,总结布地奈德混悬液雾化吸入联合纤支镜灌洗的治疗经验,并结合文献内容对该少见病种进行分析.结果:3例患儿中有2例甲型H1N1、1例甲型H3N2感染合并PB,其中2例有基础疾病,分别为支气管哮喘与原发性肾病综合征.3例患儿均诊断为重症肺炎、呼吸衰竭、肺不张,其中2例伴有纵膈气肿、皮下气肿.经纤支镜检查均取出树枝状异物,病理检查均为纤维素性渗出,伴有中性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞及淋巴细胞浸润,确诊为PB.3例患儿经过辅助呼吸、呼吸道管理、抗感染等对症支持治疗,并采用布地奈德混悬液雾化吸入联合纤支镜灌洗后均痊愈出院.结论:PB是甲型流感的合并症之一,病情危重.临床上一旦考虑该病,应在布地奈德混悬液雾化治疗基础上尽快行纤支镜检查,以明确诊断并及时治疗.%OBJECTIVE:To analyze the pathological characteristics and therapy method for influenza A(H1N1/H3N2)in-fection complicated with plastic bronchitis (PB). METHODS:Clinical information of 3 children with influenza A (H1N1/H3N2) infection complicated with PB were reported to summarize the experience of aerosol inhalation of Budesonide suspen-sion combined with fiber bronchoscope lavage. Based on literatures,this rare disease were analyzed. RESULTS:Among 3 chil-dren,2 children suffered from influenza A H1N1 infection and one child influenza A H3N2 infection complicated with PB;2 of them got basic disease,i.e. bronchial asthma and primary renal syndrome. 3 children were diagnosed as severe pneumonia,re-spiratory failure and pulmonary atelectasis;2 of them suffered from mediastinal emphesema and subcutaneous emphysema. The branchlike foreign bodies,removed by fiber bronchoscope,were fibrin complicated with neutrophile

  18. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half...

  19. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom; Smucny, John; Becker, Lorne A

    2017-06-19

    The benefits and risks of antibiotics for acute bronchitis remain unclear despite it being one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care. To assess the effects of antibiotics in improving outcomes and to assess adverse effects of antibiotic therapy for people with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. We searched CENTRAL 2016, Issue 11 (accessed 13 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 1, 2017), Embase (1974 to 13 January 2017), and LILACS (1982 to 13 January 2017). We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 5 April 2017. Randomised controlled trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo or no treatment in acute bronchitis or acute productive cough, in people without underlying pulmonary disease. At least two review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality. We did not identify any new trials for inclusion in this 2017 update. We included 17 trials with 5099 participants in the primary analysis. The quality of trials was generally good. At follow-up there was no difference in participants described as being clinically improved between the antibiotic and placebo groups (11 studies with 3841 participants, risk ratio (RR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 1.15). Participants given antibiotics were less likely to have a cough (4 studies with 275 participants, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.85; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6) and a night cough (4 studies with 538 participants, RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83; NNTB 7). Participants given antibiotics had a shorter mean cough duration (7 studies with 2776 participants, mean difference (MD) -0.46 days, 95% CI -0.87 to -0.04). The differences in presence of a productive cough at follow-up and MD of productive cough did not reach statistical significance.Antibiotic-treated participants were more likely to be improved according to clinician's global assessment (6 studies

  20. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds...

  1. Endobronchial Tuberculosis in Anthracotic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Farrokh, Donya

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is a serious form of pulmonary tuberculosis. In EBTB, mycobacterium tuberculosis involves trachea, large airways and bronchial trees Combustion of biomass fuels causes anthracotic bronchitis that is characterized by black pigmentation in bronchial tissue. The majority of anthracotic bronchitis are in aged patients, particularly rural women, that use biomass fuel for cooking or traditional bakery .The aim of this study was to evaluate the endobronchial tuberculosis in anthracotic bronchitis. In total, 483 EBTB patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy (FB), for various indications, were included. Tuberculosis was confirmed by microbiological analysis of bronchoalveolar (smear and culture for Koch's bacillus) and histopathological methods. EBTB patients were divided in two groups: subjects with anthracotic bronchitis (group 1) and without anthracosis (group 2). Demographic data and important clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic findings were recorded. Chi-squre test and Spss 11.5 software were used for statistical analysis. 483 out of 1824 patients who underwent FB had EBTB. 73.7% patients had EBTB and anthracotic bronchitis (versus 27.3% EBTB without anthracosis). The mean age was significantly higher in EBTB and anthracotic bronchitis (68.45 ± 16.31 versus 49.08 ± 14.7). Female/male ratio was 1.4:4 in EBTB and anthracotic group versus 1:1 in non anthracotic patients. Dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis and wheezing were higher in group 1. History of biomass fuel was more significant in EBTB and anthracotic bronchitis. Mass, diffuse infiltration in lower lobes were revealed higher in radiography of group 1. Bronchoscopy showed the higher frequency of bronchial stenosis in EBTB with anthracosis (P value bronchitis. Unusual findings in radiological and bronchoscopic features were seen in EBTB with anthracosis.

  2. Associação de bronquite plástica com enteropatia perdedora de proteínas após operação de Fontan Asociación de bronquitis plástica a la enteropatía perdedora de proteínas tras operación de fontan Association of plastic bronchitis to protein-losing enteropathy after fontan operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alves Guimarães

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso incomum de associação de bronquite plástica (BP com enteropatia perdedora de proteínas (EPP em menina de 4 anos e 9 meses de idade. com dupla via de entrada de ventrículo único tipo esquerdo e concordância ventrículo-arterial submetida à cirurgia cavopulmonar total. com túnel lateral intracardíaco aos três anos. Tornaram-se chamativas a eliminação de molde brônquico de fibrina de 10 cm (BP e a elevação de alfa-1-antitripsina de 52 mg/g de fezes. Em uso de sildenafila. programou-se. em caso de continuidade do processo. a ligadura do ducto torácico e transplante cardíaco.Referimos el caso atípico de asociación de bronquitis plástica (BP con enteropatía perdedora de proteínas (EPP en una menina de 4 años y 9 meses de edad, con doble vía de entrada de ventrículo único tipo izquierdo y concordancia ventrículo-arterial sometida a la cirugía cavopulmonar total, con túnel lateral intracardiaco a los 3 años. Se consideraron como llamativas la eliminación de molde bronquial de 10 cm formado por fibrina (BP y la elevación de alfa-1-antitripsina de 52 mg/g de heces. En uso de sildenafila, se programó, en caso de continuidad del proceso, la ligadura del conducto torácico y trasplante cardíaco.We report an unusual case of association of plastic bronchitis (PB to protein-losing enteropathy (PLE in a girl of 4 years and 9 months of age with double inlet single left ventricle and ventriculoarterial concordance. submitted to total cavopulmonary surgery. with an intracardiac lateral tunnel at the age of three. The elimination of the 10 cm fibrin bronchial mold (PB and the alpha-1-antitrypsin elevation of 52 mg/g in feces had both become outstanding. Using sildenafil. the thoracic duct ligature and the cardiac transplant were programmed in case of continuity of the process.

  3. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirian C; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Cadore, Solange

    2011-06-15

    A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H(2) and He (80 and 60 mL min(-1), respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes (52)Cr and (53)Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(12)C(1)H(+), (36)S(16)O(+) or (1)H(36)S(16)O(+). Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes (110)Cd, (111)Cd, (112)Cd, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg, (202)Hg, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for (52)Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 μg L(-1) with He or H(2) injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 μg L(-1) and Hg had 0.93-0.98 μg L(-1), without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  4. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Bronchitis (Chest Cold)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Preventing and Treating Bronchitis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Format: Select ... not help you get better. What is Acute Bronchitis? Bronchitis occurs when the airways of the lungs ...

  5. 聚乙烯塑料中铅迁移量的研究%Research of Pb migration amount in polyethylene plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏锡辉; 张君

    2009-01-01

    Provides the basis for safer use of polyethylene plastic. A method for testing polyethylene of Pb migration amount by ICP-MS in the environment of acetic acid by changing concentration, temperature and time. In the environment of acetic acid, the effect order to Pb migration amount of polyethylene plastic is: soaking temperature,acetic acid concentration, time. the use of polyethylene plastic is more seientific; national food security system can be established; avoid the second pollution in the food processing process to ensure food security.%通过改变聚乙烯塑料在乙酸环境下的浓度、浸泡温度、浸泡时间,应用ICP-MS测定聚乙烯塑料浸提液中铅的含量.试验表明,在乙酸为浸提液的条件下,浸泡温度对聚乙烯中铅的迁移量影响最大,乙酸浓度其次,浸泡时间影响很小.通过试验能够更加科学的使用聚乙烯塑料,避免食品加工过程产生的二次污染.

  6. Chronic bronchitis in an elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Parner, Jan; Prescott, Eva

    2003-01-01

    in order to describe the prevalence and prognostic implications of chronic bronchitis in individuals 65 years or older we analysed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study.......in order to describe the prevalence and prognostic implications of chronic bronchitis in individuals 65 years or older we analysed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study....

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ross H

    2010-12-01

    Cough is the most common symptom bringing patients to the primary care physician's office, and acute bronchitis is usually the diagnosis in these patients. Acute bronchitis should be differentiated from other common diagnoses, such as pneumonia and asthma, because these conditions may need specific therapies not indicated for bronchitis. Symptoms of bronchitis typically last about three weeks. The presence or absence of colored (e.g., green) sputum does not reliably differentiate between bacterial and viral lower respiratory tract infections. Viruses are responsible for more than 90 percent of acute bronchitis infections. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for bronchitis, and should be used only if pertussis is suspected to reduce transmission or if the patient is at increased risk of developing pneumonia (e.g., patients 65 years or older). The typical therapies for managing acute bronchitis symptoms have been shown to be ineffective, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends against using cough and cold preparations in children younger than six years. The supplement pelargonium may help reduce symptom severity in adults. As patient expectations for antibiotics and therapies for symptom management differ from evidence-based recommendations, effective communication strategies are necessary to provide the safest therapies available while maintaining patient satisfaction.

  8. Evidence-based diagnosis and management of acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ann Marie

    2014-09-18

    Acute bronchitis is a common respiratory infection seen in primary care settings. This article examines the current evidence for diagnosis and management of acute bronchitis in adults and provides recommendations for primary care clinical practice.

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... U.S. Morbidity Number of adults with diagnosed chronic bronchitis in the past year: 9.3 million Percent ...

  10. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  11. Chronic Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Bronquitis crónica Ukrainian (Українська) Bronchitis Бронхіт - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  12. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Bronquitis aguda Ukrainian (Українська) Bronchitis Бронхіт - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  13. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section 113.327 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 77 FR 59929 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Developing Antimicrobial Drugs... ``Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary... treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients with chronic obstructive...

  15. Obesity and the occurrence of bronchitis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yungling L; Chen, Yang-Ching; Chen, Yu-An

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that an elevated BMI was associated with higher risks of bronchitis among children. The magnitude of how increase in BMI influencing the risk of incident bronchitis remained unexplored. The objective of this study is to assess the association between BMI and the incidence of bronchitis in the Taiwan Children Health Study. A school-based prospective cohort study. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study among seventh-grade school children in 14 Taiwanese communities. A total of 3,634 adolescents completed follow-up questionnaire in 2009. Associations between BMI and incident bronchitis were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Among eligible cohort participants without bronchitis at study entry, the proportion of overweight and obesity were 32.1% and 17.9%. Overweight was 40.7% and obesity was 27.7% among those with incident bronchitis. The BMI percentile categories showed significant increasing trends for bronchitis in total eligible children and in girls (P for trend bronchitis. This association was significant in girls only while stratified by gender. Our data showed that the BMI percentile and weight status were associated with higher risks of incident bronchitis in adolescents, especially in girls. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  16. Acute bronchitis | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dition(s) being investigated Acute bronchitis E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language Acute b...LT E.1.2Classification code 10000687 E.1.2Term Acute bronchitis E.1.2System Organ Class 100000004862 E.1.3Co

  17. A controlled trial of ambroxol in chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyatt, G H; Townsend, M; Kazim, F; Newhouse, M T

    1987-10-01

    Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent which is widely used in chronic bronchitis in Europe. We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial of ambroxol vs matched placebo in 90 patients with chronic bronchitis and difficulty clearing secretions. It was concluded that there was no advantage to taking ambroxol.

  18. Ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H A; Dourmashkin, R R; Macnaughton, M R

    1981-03-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined by electron microscopy after shadowing with carbon/platinum. Linear RNP strands up to 6.7 microns in length, from three IVB strains, were sensitive to both pancreatic RNase and to proteases. These strands were obtained from spontaneously disrupted complete particles but not from disrupted incomplete particles that lacked RNP. They were also released from Nonidet P40-disrupted particles and could be isolated on sucrose density gradients at a density of 1.27 g/ml. In some cases, helical RNP complexes associated with virus particles were observed that were similar to RNPs of human coronavirus strain 229E and mouse hepatitis virus strain 3.

  19. Sputum Neutrophilia Can Mask Eosinophilic Bronchitis During Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel D’silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of airway disease are eosinophilic, neutrophilic, both or neither. The primary objective of the present study was to identify whether the treatment of a neutrophilic bronchitis can unmask an associated eosinophilia.

  20. Recognition and management of children with protracted bacterial bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba P; Sanapala, Swathi; Bhatt, Jayesh M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic moist cough in children can be associated with serious pathologies. Protracted bacterial bronchitis remains a clinical diagnosis causing persistent moist cough, disturbed sleep, exercise intolerance and significant levels of morbidity. Management involves minimal investigations and prolonged courses of antibiotics.

  1. [Features of chronic occupational bronchitis in nonferrous metallurgy workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslaia, N A; Likhacheva, E I; Vagina, E R; Roslyĭ, O F; Zhovtiak, E P; Iarina, A L; Varzina, N V

    2004-01-01

    The authors summarized results of periodic medical examinations and deep clinical studies of metallurgy workers with bronchial and pulmonary disorders. The article covers clinical and functional characteristics of toxic and dust bronchitis, clinical course and manifestations.

  2. [New pharmaceuticals in treatment of chronic dust bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, V V; Vakurova, N V; Babanov, S A

    2007-01-01

    The study was dedicated to the assessment of the therapeutic possibilities provided by erespal (fenspirid) as a new class of pharmaceuticals inhibiting the inflammatory process, in patients with chronic dust bronchitis.

  3. Risk of chronic bronchitis in twin pairs discordant for smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Harmsen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample.......It is well known that smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease and respiratory symptoms. We examined the association between smoking and the risk of chronic bronchitis in a large twin sample....

  4. Targeted therapy of bronchitis in obstructive airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Angira; Neighbour, Helen; Nair, Parameswaran

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines for the management of obstructive airway diseases do not emphasize the measurement of bronchitis to indicate appropriate treatments or monitor response to treatment. Bronchitis is the central component of airway diseases and contributes to symptoms, physiological and structural abnormalities. It can be measured directly and reliably by quantitative assay of spontaneous or induced sputum. The measurement is reproducible, valid, and responsive to treatment and to changes in disease status. Bronchitis may be eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed, or paucigranulocytic (eosinophils and neutrophils not elevated). Eosinophilic bronchitis is usually a Th2 driven process and therefore a sputum eosinophilia of greater than 3% usually indicates a response to treatment with corticosteroids or novel therapies directed against Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Neutrophilic bronchitis which is a non-Th2 driven disease is generally a predictor of response to antibiotics and may be a predictor to therapies targeted at pathways that lead to neutrophil recruitment such as IL-8 (eg anti-CXCR2), IL-17 (eg anti-IL17) etc. Paucigranulocytic disease may not warrant anti-inflammatory therapy. Several novel monoclonals and small molecule antagonists have been evaluated in clinical trials with variable results and several more are likely to be discovered in the near future. The success of these agents will depend on appropriate patient selection by accurate phenotyping or characterization of bronchitis. © 2013.

  5. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  6. [Pillars of therapy of chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, W

    1989-02-07

    While bronchial asthma is defined on the basis of pulmonary function, emphysema has a patho-anatomic substrate. Chronic bronchitis on the other hand is defined clinically: productive cough of three months duration per year occurring in two successive years. Complete abstinence of smoking is a prerequisite for a meaningful anti-obstructive therapy. Beta-2-adrenergic stimulation and corticosteroids represent the treatment of choice. Beta-2-agonists are effectively complemented by anticholinergic drugs. Oral or parenteral corticosteroids should be used liberally for exacerbations. For prolonged treatment topical steroids are prescribed exclusively in order to prevent systemic side effects. The type of inhalation therapy (electric nebulizer, aerosol spray, insufflator) has to be adapted to the individual patient. Correct application of inhalation-technique is important. Topical steroids should be administered by means of a spacer chamber. Physical therapy is the most important adjuvant treatment. Selective respiration-training, a correction of breath-technique and autogenic bronchial drainage manoeuvres have to be learned in the setting of a rehabilitation program and are controlled frequently by the treating physician. The integration of all these measures into a treatment and rehabilitation plan is facilitated in a specialized clinic.

  7. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  8. Asthma in adult patients presenting with symptoms of acute bronchitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, HA; Postma, DS; de Bock, GH; Huysman, DAN; van Houwelingen, HC; Springer, MP

    Objectives - To investigate the association between asthma and acute bronchitis in adults and to ascertain criteria to help general practitioners (GPs) differentiate between acute bronchitis and asthma. Design - Descriptive study. Setting - Primary health care centre in The Netherlands. Patients -

  9. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Exposure to Pb above permissible limit (50 ppb in water) .... taken and analyzed for residual metal concentration determination. ..... loss in Pb(II) sorption capacity up to five cycles of reuse of.

  10. Anti-inflammatory drugs and experimental bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, P K

    1986-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (chronic hypersecretion) and chronic bronchiolitis (small airways disease) are two conditions associated with cigarette smoking: both contribute to airflow obstruction in man, the latter associated with progressive deterioration in lung function. Mucous metaplasia and hyperplasia are characteristic histological changes. Experimentally, cigarette smoke given daily for two weeks, induces similar histological changes in the airways of specific pathogen-free rats, providing a suitable animal model for study: an early proliferation of basal cells, accompanied by mucous metaplasia of surface epithelial serous cells is followed by proliferation of newly formed mucous cells. There is also a significant increase in epithelial thickness due to cell hypertrophy without stratification or prior ulceration. Experimentally, secretory cell hyperplasia is inhibited completely or to varying degrees by prophylactic administration (intraperitoneal injection) of either indomethacin, flurbiprofen, dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone (each at 2 or 4 mg/kg body weight) or a mucolytic drug, N-acetylcysteine(Nac), given orally as a 1% solution of the drinking water. Nac also inhibits the associated mucus-hypersecretion. It takes between 21 and 84 days, depending on airway level, for the increase in secretory cell number to return to control values (ie recover). Indomethacin and flurbiprofen (4 mg/kg, by ip injection) shorten recovery to between 4 and 9 days in intrapulmonary airways but have no effect on recovery time in the rat trachea. Nac is effective in 6 of 7 airway levels which showed cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, in the rat, the response to cigarette smoke is one of mucous cell metaplasia and both basal and mucous cell proliferation. Cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia can be inhibited when selected drugs are given concurrently with the cigarette smoke: indomethacin, fluriprofen and Nac are also therapeutic.

  11. SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PIDOTIMOD IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of effective and safe immunomodulators for prophylaxis and treatment of frequently ailing children is pidotimod (Imunorix. Efficacy of the drug in pediatric practice was studied in more than 3200 patients with acute and recurrent respiratory infections. The article shows reasonability of pidotimod administration in children with acute and chronic bronchitis. This fact was confirmed with doubleblinded placebo-controlled studies. Treatment with pidotimod results in decreased terms of recovery of chronic bronchitis exacerbation, shortening of exacerbation. Realization of stable effect is related to recovery of key functions of inborn and adaptive immunity, it begins in 15 days after intake of the drug in therapeutic dose. Prophylactic doses of pidotimod should be used during next 30–60 days.Key words: children, bronchitis, pidotimod, immunity, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:139-143

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Decision Support Strategies in Acute Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Kern, Melissa S; Smith, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    A recent clinical trial suggests that printed (PDS) and computer decision support (CDS) interventions are safe and effective in reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis relative to usual care (UC). Our aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of decision support interventions in reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis. We conducted a clinical trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing UC, PDS and CDS for management of acute bronchitis. We assumed a societal perspective, 5-year program duration and 30-day time horizon. The U.S. population aged 13-64 years presenting with acute bronchitis in the ambulatory setting. Printed and computer decision support interventions relative to usual care. Cost per antibiotic prescription safely avoided. In the base case, PDS dominated UC and CDS, with lesser total costs (PDS: $2,574, UC: $2,768, CDS: $2,805) and fewer antibiotic prescriptions (PDS: 3.79, UC: 4.60, CDS: 3.95) per patient over 5 years. In one-way sensitivity analyses, PDS dominated UC across all parameter values, except when antibiotics reduced work loss by ≥ 1.9 days or the probability of hospitalization within 30 days was ≥ 0.9 % in PDS (base case: 0.2 %) or ≤ 0.4 % in UC (base case: 1.0 %). The dominance of PDS over CDS was sensitive both to probability of hospitalization and plausible variation in the adjusted odds of antibiotic use in both strategies. A PDS strategy to reduce antibiotic use in acute bronchitis is less costly and more effective than both UC and CDS strategies, although results were sensitive to variation in probability of hospitalization and the adjusted odds of antibiotic use. This simple, low-cost, safe, and effective intervention would be an economically reasonable component of a multi-component approach to address antibiotic overuse in acute bronchitis.

  13. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  14. Diagnosis of infectious bronchitis: an overview of concepts and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYB Villarreal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB casues multi-systemic infection in chickens with signs similar caused by other poultry pathogens and thus a high diagnostic accuracy can only be achieved by s series of laboratory assays. This article reviews in a brief way the traditional virus assays such as embryo innoculation, tracheal rings and virus neutralization assays for the direct detection of Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV and methods based on gene molecular biology and some assays for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies, including ELISA. A critical view on each technique is also provived by the author.

  15. Unintended consequences of a quality measure for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Serena; Gonzales, Ralph; Harding-Anderer, Tammy; Bloom, Frederick J; Graf, Thomas; Stahl, Melissa S; Maselli, Judith H; Metlay, Joshua P

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether diagnostic coding shifts might undermine apparent improvements resulting from the 2007 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measure on avoidance of antibiotics for the treatment of adults with acute bronchitis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 466.0). Time series analysis within a primary care network for 3 successive winter seasons from 2006 to 2009. All initial adult visits with a primary diagnosis code of 466.0 or 490 (bronchitis, not otherwise specified) were analyzed. Multivariable analysis accounted for clustering of observations by physician. The percentage of visits treated with antibiotics declined significantly for code 466.0 (76.8% to 74.4% to 27.0% of visits over the 3-year study period; P bronchitis visits in year 1 to 84.6% of total bronchitis visits in year 3. As a result, the odds of an antibiotic prescription for codes 466 and 490 combined decreased slightly in year 3 compared with year 1 (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.99). While performance on the specific HEDIS measure improved dramatically during this study period, overall antibiotic prescribing did not decline substantially. Quality measures that assess performance on specific diagnosis codes are imperfect and do not account for shifts in diagnosis coding.

  16. Acute bronchitis: general practitioners' views regarding diagnosis and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, T.J.M.; Hermans, J.; Kaptein, A.A.; Wijkel, D.; Mulder, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 800 Dutch general practitioners to establish their views on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchitis and related disorders with reference to 12 theoretical patients. The answers of the 467 respondents (response rate 60%) showed no clear relationship between signs and

  17. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  18. Air pollutants, genes and early childhood acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Topinka, Jan; Joad, Jesse P; Dostal, Miroslav; Sram, Radim J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-09-01

    Studies have reported gene-by-environment interaction for chronic respiratory conditions but none on acute illnesses in children. We investigated, longitudinally, whether genotype modifies the relationship of environmental exposures (second-hand tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter bronchitis in children below two years. A random sample of 1133 children, born between 1994 and 1998, in two districts of the Czech Republic, was followed-up from birth, of which 793 were genotyped. Pediatric records were abstracted for respiratory illnesses. Second-hand tobacco smoke exposure from household members was obtained through questionnaires and verified using urine cotinine. Air monitoring provided estimates of ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM2.5. Additionally, we collected information on a range of potential confounders including breastfeeding history, indoor fuel use, other children in household, maternal characteristics, ambient temperature etc. DNA was extracted from tissues taken from the middle of the placenta, opposite the umbilical cord. We examined six single nucleotide polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 MspI, EPHX1 exon 3 and 4) and one (EPHX1) diplotype. To investigate effect measure modification we constructed logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations (for repeated observations) stratified by genotypes. The EPHX1 low activity diplotype consistently imparts greater susceptibility to bronchitis from second-hand tobacco smoke, polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and PM2.5. Each of these three classes of exposure also showed elevated risk for bronchitis in the presence of either one or two histidines at exon 3 and exon 4 of EPHX1. Additional effect modifiers include CYP1A1 and GSTT1. Several xenobiotic metabolizing genes may modify the impact of second-hand tobacco smoke and ambient air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM2.5, on acute bronchitis in preschool children

  19. Predicting the risk of chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ilchenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the study was to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic respiratory pathology in teenage smokers comfortable to use in practical medicine. Materials and methods. 73 teenage smokers aged 14–18 years (average age is 16.4 ± 0.2 years have been exa­mined. They were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 36 teenage smo­kers with chronic bronchitis (average age is 16.8 ± 0.2 years and comparison group comprised 37 apparently healthy teenage smokers (average age is 15.9 ± 0.2 years. We have studied clinical-anamnestic, functiona­­linstrumental data (spirometry, radiography of chest organs, level of nitric oxide in expired breath condensate, respiratory muscles strength and molecular-genetic factors of the risk of developing chronic pathology of respiratory organs in teenage smokers — 103 characteristics overall. The method of consequent (sequential analysis of Wald and Bayes strategy were used to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic bronchitis. Results. The principle of working with a mathematical model for predicting the risk of chronic respiratory pathology development in teenage smokers is to sum up diagnostic factors that are consistent with the signs found in the patient. When the sum of diagnostic components is +13, the deve­lopment of chronic bronchitis is diagnosed in teenage smo­kers with error probability ≤ 5 % (р < 0.05; when the sum is +20 — the probability of diagnosis is 99 % (р < 0.01. Conclusions. Our algorithm for predicting the risk of develo­ping chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers will help early detection of high-risk patients in the formation of this pathology for personalized preventive measures that will allow practitioners to prevent chronic pathological processes and to improve the quality of life.

  20. A ferret model of COPD-related chronic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Kim, Hyunki; Byzek, Stephen A.; Tang, Li Ping; Trombley, John E; Jackson, Patricia; Rasmussen, Lawrence; Wells, J. Michael; LIBBY, EMILY FALK; Dohm, Erik; Winter, Lindy; Samuel, Sharon L.; Kurt R. Zinn; Blalock, J. Edwin; Schoeb, Trenton R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway p...

  1. [Chronic obstructive bronchitis: definitions, risk factors and prevention (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brille, D; Kauffmann, F; Oriol, P; Querleux, E

    1976-01-01

    Chronic obstructive bronchitis is defined as persistent diffuse airways obstruction frequently associated with chronic expectoration. This disease is particularly disabling and its medico-social burden implies that measures be taken. Risk factors of chronic obstructive bronchitis can be classified according to their presently known importance: tobacco, professional exposure, air pollution, viral and bacterial respiratory infections, poor socio-economic and cultural conditions, upper and lower airways infections during childhood, other environmental factors, genetic factors. Prevention needs that research be developed, in particular for factors, as hereditary ones, relations between childhood and adult respiratory diseases and characteristics of the "susceptible smokers". Knowledge of risk factors previously quoted allows to propose public-health actions. Firstly, true preventive action of general nature: fight against tobacco consumption, reduce atmospheric pollution, improve work and life conditions. Secondly, in order to prevent the disabling state of chronic bronchitis, it would be necessary to take care of patients at the initial state. A control trial is proposed to determine the level of symptoms and of reduction of ventilatory values at which an action is needed and the best "preventive therapeutical" protocol to be applied to these patients.

  2. Chronic bronchitis in the iron and steel industry: prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, P G; Arossa, W; Bugiani, M; Nicoli, E

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a prevalence study on functional impairment and chronic bronchitis in 733 foundry workers and in a control group of 1041 workers not exposed to the specific risks of the iron and steel industry. This study is the first part of a longitudinal study lasting 5 years within the framework of the Fourth Research Programme of the European Coal and Steel Community. Data on microclimate and particulate pollution for the various departments showed uniformly cold and damp conditions. Concentrations of pollutants were generally below the current T.L.V.'s. The subjects were subdivided into groups according to age, smoking and length of exposure. All the subjects were administered the "E.C.S.C. Questionnaire for the study of chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema" and underwent a chest X-ray and spirometry to measure FVC, FEV1 and Vmax 50. The prevalence of functional impairment and chronic bronchitis was higher in the foundry workers than in the group of non-exposed workers. A statistical standardization was made of the effect of age and smoking thus accentuating the effect of exposure. The results are compared with the data obtained by other epidemiologic studies on working populations exposed to a similar risk.

  3. A ferret model of COPD-related chronic bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Kim, Hyunki; Byzek, Stephen A.; Tang, Li Ping; Trombley, John E.; Jackson, Patricia; Rasmussen, Lawrence; Wells, J. Michael; Libby, Emily Falk; Winter, Lindy; Samuel, Sharon L.; Zinn, Kurt R.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution. Here, we exposed ferrets to chronic cigarette smoke and found them to approximate complex clinical features of human COPD. Unlike mice, which develop solely emphysema, smoke-exposed ferrets exhibited markedly higher numbers of early-morning spontaneous coughs and sporadic infectious exacerbations as well as a higher level of airway obstruction accompanied by goblet cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and increased mucus expression in small airways, indicative of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Overall, we demonstrate the first COPD animal model exhibiting clinical and pathologic features of chronic bronchitis to our knowledge, providing a key advance that will greatly facilitate the preclinical development of novel treatments for this disease. PMID:27699245

  4. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Brazil: a highly complex virus meets a highly susceptible host population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PE Brandão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is a highly aggressive disease for poultry in terms of symptoms and economic losses, and the control of this disease is difficult if flocks are not protected against type-specific challenges by the Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. This article summarizes data presented by the author at the Workshop on Infectious Bronchitis 2009 on IB and IBV, including future developments on the field.

  5. Dyspnea and Wheezing after Adenosine Injection in a Patient with Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old nonsmoker female was referred for evaluation of chronic cough of 13 months duration. After an initial work-up, the patient was diagnosed to have chronic cough due to eosinophilic bronchitis. The diagnostic work-up for eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchial biopsy is discussed. Eosinophilic bronchitis is differentiated from asthma. In addition, the patient developed dyspnea, flushing, and wheezing after the administration of adenosine during a cardiac stress test in spite of a negative methacholine challenge. This indirect stimulus of airway hyperresponsiveness suggests the possible involvement of mast cells in eosinophilic bronchitis.

  6. Airway Mucin Concentration as a Marker of Chronic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Ford, Amina A; Ceppe, Agathe; Radicioni, Giorgia; Cao, Rui; Davis, C William; Doerschuk, Claire M; Alexis, Neil E; Anderson, Wayne H; Henderson, Ashley G; Barr, R Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R; Christenson, Stephanie A; Cooper, Christopher B; Han, MeiLan K; Hansel, Nadia N; Hastie, Annette T; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Martinez, Fernando; Paine, Robert; Woodruff, Prescott G; O'Neal, Wanda K; Boucher, Richard C

    2017-09-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitic and emphysematous components. In one biophysical model, the concentration of mucin on the airway surfaces is hypothesized to be a key variable that controls mucus transport in healthy persons versus cessation of transport in persons with muco-obstructive lung diseases. Under this model, it is postulated that a high mucin concentration produces the sputum and disease progression that are characteristic of chronic bronchitis. We characterized the COPD status of 917 participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) using questionnaires administered to participants, chest tomography, spirometry, and examination of induced sputum. Total mucin concentrations in sputum were measured with the use of size-exclusion chromatography and refractometry. In 148 of these participants, the respiratory secreted mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were quantitated by means of mass spectrometry. Data from chronic-bronchitis questionnaires and data on total mucin concentrations in sputum were also analyzed in an independent 94-participant cohort. Mean (±SE) total mucin concentrations were higher in current or former smokers with severe COPD than in controls who had never smoked (3166±402 vs. 1515±152 μg per milliliter) and were higher in participants with two or more respiratory exacerbations per year than in those with zero exacerbations (4194±878 vs. 2458±113 μg per milliliter). The absolute concentrations of MUC5B and MUC5AC in current or former smokers with severe COPD were approximately 3 times as high and 10 times as high, respectively, as in controls who had never smoked. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis of the association between total mucin concentration and a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis yielded areas under the curve of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.79) for the SPIROMICS cohort and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.92) for the

  7. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  8. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH FIFTY-YING-ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁民

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Fifty-ying acupuncture therapy for treatment of chronic bronchitis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods: A total of 36 out- and in-patients with chronic bronchitis including 10 cases of asthma were subjected into this study. Among them, 20 cases were qi-deficiency type and 16 qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-clamp type. The changes of symptoms, T-lymphocyte subgroups of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+,CD4+/CD8+, soluble interleuki-2 receptor ( SIL-2R), interleukin-6(IL-6), IgG, IgA and IgM before and after treatment were observed and detected using monoclonal indirect fluorescence method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nephelometry respectively. Results: (1)The effective rate of qi-dificiency type was 100% and that of qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-damp type 87.5%. (2) After acupuncture treatment, in qi-deficiency type patients, serum IgG, IgA and IgM contents increased significantly (P< 0. 001) in comparison with pre-treatment and in qi-yin-deficiency with phlegm-damp type patients, IgG level lowered obviously. Serum SIL-2R and CD4+/CD8+ decreased obviously(P<0.01, 0.001), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ increased evidently (P<0.01). Conclusion: The Fifty-ying acupuncture therapy can better clinical symptoms of chronic bronchitis patients through its resultant up-regulation of the immune system function.

  9. Occupation, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in young adults - An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, JP; Sunyer, J; Kogevinas, M; Kromhout, H; Burney, P; Anto, JM

    We studied the relationship between occupational exposures, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in a general population survey in 14 industrialized countries, including 13,253 men and women aged 20 to 44 yr. We studied associations between occupational group, occupational exposures, bronchitis

  10. Chronic bronchitis sub-phenotype within COPD : inflammation in sputum and biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck-Stroband, J B; Lapperre, T S; Gosman, M M E; Boezen, H M; Timens, W; ten Hacken, N H T; Sont, J K; Sterk, P J; Hiemstra, P S

    The presence of chronic bronchitis predicts a more rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The hallmark of COPD is airway inflammation. It was hypothesised that COPD patients with chronic bronchitis are

  11. Chronic bronchitis sub-phenotype within COPD : inflammation in sputum and biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck-Stroband, J B; Lapperre, T S; Gosman, M M E; Boezen, H M; Timens, W; ten Hacken, N H T; Sont, J K; Sterk, P J; Hiemstra, P S

    2008-01-01

    The presence of chronic bronchitis predicts a more rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The hallmark of COPD is airway inflammation. It was hypothesised that COPD patients with chronic bronchitis are character

  12. [X-ray semiotics of the morphological and functional changes in chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenko, A G; Dmitrieva, L I; Polak, J; Gapon'ko, G A; Starilova, I P

    1985-01-01

    The authors analysed structural disorders of a pulmonary pattern in patients with non-obstructive, obstructive and purulent bronchitis. Characteristic x-ray symptom-complexes were singled out for each clinical variant of the disease. In addition to roentgenomorphological changes functional disorders showing changes of biomechanics in patients with chronic bronchitis were revealed at roentgenopneumopolygraphy.

  13. Occupation, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in young adults - An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, JP; Sunyer, J; Kogevinas, M; Kromhout, H; Burney, P; Anto, JM

    2001-01-01

    We studied the relationship between occupational exposures, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in a general population survey in 14 industrialized countries, including 13,253 men and women aged 20 to 44 yr. We studied associations between occupational group, occupational exposures, bronchitis sym

  14. Waterpipe smoking and dependence are associated with chronic bronchitis: a case-control study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Waked, M; Khoury, F; Akiki, Z; Nasser, Z; Abou Abbass, L; Dramaix, M

    2012-10-01

    Waterpipe smoking and its association with chronic bronchitis has not been assessed in Lebanon. This case-control study in Beirut in 2009/2010 evaluated this relationship: 274 cases of chronic bronchitis and 559 controls without the condition aged > or = 40 years were enrolled. Data were collected by questionnaire on: sociodemographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, smoking (waterpipe and cigarette) and nicotine dependence. ANOVA, Student, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used when applicable and logistic regression analysis was carried out. Previous waterpipe smoking (OR = 6.4), previous mixed smoking (OR = 38.03) and current mixed smoking (OR = 7.68) were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis (P bronchitis (OR = 3.74, P 20 WP-years (P bronchitis.

  15. Chronic bronchitis in West Sweden – a matter of smoking and social class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Malin; Ekerljung, Linda; Eriksson, Jonas; Hagstad, Stig; Rönmark, Eva; Lötvall, Jan; Lundbäck, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Although chronic bronchitis is associated with impaired quality of life, hospitalisations and increased mortality, it has been less in focus after the introduction of the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are no recent published data on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis from the Scandinavian countries. Aim The main aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in West Sweden by using data from a large-scale epidemiological study of the general population. A further aim was to identify current risk factors for chronic bronchitis in a population with a major decrease in the proportion of smokers. Methods From the 18,087 questionnaire responders out of 30,000 invited to participate at the West Sweden Asthma Study, 2,000 subjects were randomly selected and invited to detailed clinical examinations performed during 2009–2013. A total of 1,172 subjects aged 17–79 participated in the examinations which included, among others, spirometry and structured interviews. Chronic bronchitis was defined according to reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 7.2% (men 7.6%; women 6.8% ns), and it was 8.7% in subjects older than age 60. Chronic bronchitis was strongly associated with smoking, defined both as current smoking status and pack-years. Other risk factors were increasing age, low socio-economic class and urban living. Of those with chronic bronchitis, 22% fulfilled the GOLD criteria of COPD. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was somewhat lower than found by studies in Sweden in the 1980s and the prevalence was now similar in men and women. Although smoking was still the dominating risk factor for chronic bronchitis, the relative importance of smoking had decreased parallel with a decreasing smoking prevalence, while the relative importance of other factors than smoking had increased compared to previous studies. PMID:27421832

  16. Increased risk for bronchitis after discharge in non-vaccinated very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichtenoth, G; Härtel, C; Spiegler, J; Dördelmann, M; Möller, J; Wieg, C; Orlikowsky, T; Stein, A; Herting, E; Goepel, W

    2015-03-01

    In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, obstructive bronchitis is a frequent cause of hospital re-admission. For VLBW infants, early vaccinations starting at 2 months after birth have been recommended. To analyze risk factors for bronchitis during the first year after discharge and the effects of in-hospital standard vaccination (hexavalent/pneumococci) and/or RSV immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab. A standardized questionnaire was sent to the parents of VLBW infants 7 month after discharge. The reported episodes of bronchitis were correlated with clinically recorded parameters including risk factors for pulmonary morbidity. The effects of in-hospital vaccination were assessed in a subgroup discharged after day 60. A sample of 1 967 responses of infants born 2009-2011 was analyzed. Risk factors for bronchitis were male gender and older siblings. 24% of the population had episodes of bronchitis. In the subgroup discharged after day 60, episodes of bronchitis were reported for 31% of infants who were not vaccinated in-hospital. A significant reduction of the bronchitis rate was found in infants who received palivizumab±standard vaccination (17% bronchitis, p=0.003). Interestingly, in-hospital standard vaccination without RSV immunoprophylaxis was protective (20% bronchitis; p=0.037) as well. Non-vaccinated male VLBW infants with older siblings are at increased risk for bronchitis during the first year after discharge. Vaccination according to schedule seems to have protective effects, while underlying mechanisms are unknown. The rate of timely vaccination in preterm infants should be increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Antibiotic prescription patterns of South African general medical practitioners for treatment of acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, N B Q; Solanki, G C; Kredo, T; Lalloo, R

    2017-01-30

    Antibiotic resistance is a significant public health problem. Prudent use of antibiotics is crucial in reducing this resistance. Acute bronchitis is a common reason for consultations with general medical practitioners, and antibiotics are often prescribed even though guidelines recommend not prescribing them for uncomplicated acute bronchitis. To analyse the antibiotic prescription patterns of South African (SA) general medical practitioners in the treatment of acute bronchitis. The 2013 claims for members of 11 health insurance schemes were analysed to assess antibiotic prescription patterns for patients diagnosed with acute bronchitis. The patterns were assessed by type of bronchitis, chronic health status of the patients, sex and age group. The types of antibiotic prescribed were also analysed. Of 166 821 events analysed, an antibiotic was prescribed in more than half (52.9%). There were significant differences by type of bronchitis and chronic health status. Patients with viral bronchitis were more likely to be prescribed an antibiotic than those with bacterial bronchitis (odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 - 1.26). Patients with a chronic illness were less likely to be prescribed an antibiotic than those without (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.57 - 0.60). More than 70% of the antibiotics prescribed were cephalosporins, penicillins and other beta-lactams. Prescription rates of antibiotics for acute bronchitis by SA general medical practitioners are high. There is an urgent need to follow the guidelines for antibiotic use for acute bronchitis to reduce the likelihood of increasing resistance to available antibiotics.

  18. Chronic bronchitis in West Sweden – a matter of smoking and social class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Axelsson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although chronic bronchitis is associated with impaired quality of life, hospitalisations and increased mortality, it has been less in focus after the introduction of the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There are no recent published data on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis from the Scandinavian countries. Aim: The main aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in West Sweden by using data from a large-scale epidemiological study of the general population. A further aim was to identify current risk factors for chronic bronchitis in a population with a major decrease in the proportion of smokers. Methods: From the 18,087 questionnaire responders out of 30,000 invited to participate at the West Sweden Asthma Study, 2,000 subjects were randomly selected and invited to detailed clinical examinations performed during 2009–2013. A total of 1,172 subjects aged 17–79 participated in the examinations which included, among others, spirometry and structured interviews. Chronic bronchitis was defined according to reported symptoms. Results: The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 7.2% (men 7.6%; women 6.8% ns, and it was 8.7% in subjects older than age 60. Chronic bronchitis was strongly associated with smoking, defined both as current smoking status and pack-years. Other risk factors were increasing age, low socio-economic class and urban living. Of those with chronic bronchitis, 22% fulfilled the GOLD criteria of COPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was somewhat lower than found by studies in Sweden in the 1980s and the prevalence was now similar in men and women. Although smoking was still the dominating risk factor for chronic bronchitis, the relative importance of smoking had decreased parallel with a decreasing smoking prevalence, while the relative importance of other factors than smoking had increased compared to previous studies.

  19. Europe: history, current situation and control measures for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Jones

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and nature of different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in Europe are described. Infectious bronchitis (IB is the most important endemic viral respiratory disease where highly pathogenic Newcastle disease and avian influenza are not present. IB was first described in the UK in 1948 and identified as Massachusetts type. In the 1970s and 80s new serotypes were reported in Holland and elsewhere and new vaccines were developed. The 1990s saw the emergence of the major variant commonly called 793B, again needing a new vaccine. Two novel types have been recognised since 2000, Italy 02 and QX. Italy 02 appears to be well controlled by the use of two different live vaccines (H120 and the 793B-related 4/91 while for QX, associated with nephritis in young birds and silent layers, new vaccines are in development. The use of two vaccines as above is a widely used protocol and is capable of protecting against a wide range of different types. Alternative approaches to IB vaccination are discussed. The importance of constant surveillance for prevalent and novel IBV types is emphasised and the value of experimental infections in chickens to determine the pathogenesis and pathology of new types in addition to testing efficacy of vaccines is outlined.

  20. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Abubakar, Muhammad Salisu; Abba, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection. PMID:26955391

  1. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Beatriz; del Pozo, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, respiratory system appears to be unique in that PGE2 has beneficial effects. We described that the difference in airway function observed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma could be due to differences in PGE2 production. PGE2 present in induced sputum supernatant from NAEB patients decreases BSMC proliferation, probably due to simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 receptors with inhibitory activity. This protective effect of PGE2 may not only be the result of a direct action exerted on airway smooth-muscle proliferation but may also be attributable to the other anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:22529528

  2. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJ Montassier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and recombination processes are involved in the genetic and phenotypic variations of RNA viruses, leading to the emergence of new variant strains, and give rise to virus population diversity to be modeled by the host, particularly by the immune system, as occurred with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in chickens. The consequence is a continuous emergence of new IBV variants with regard to pathotypes, serotypes, and protectotypes. Nucleotide sequencing and subsequent genetic analysis of the S1 and N protein gene sequences provide a fast and accurate method to classify and predict IBV genotype, and a powerful instrument to monitor phylogenetic and epidemiological evolution of IBV variants. Despite the use of vaccination programmes, infectious bronchitis has become a serious problem in Brazil. Thus, a significant number of IBV field variants have been identified circulating in the Brazilian commercial poultries between 2000 to 2006 and more recently in Argentina. These viruses seem to be indigenous, because they demonstrated a low genetic relatedness with the majority of the reference strains from North America, Europe and Asia, but were moderately to highly related one to another. In summary, indigenous field IBV variants were evolving and circulating in the field in Brazil and Argentina, and should be considered as initial candidates for protection against current IBV infectious in chickens. However, in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to determine the pathogenicity and immunogenecity of these new isolates, before defining a new vaccine strain.

  3. Assessment of the effect of pharmacotherapy in common cold/acute bronchitis - the Bronchitis Severity Scale (BSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, P; Lehrl, S; Kamin, W; Matthys, H

    2014-08-01

    Acute bronchitis (AB) is a highly contagious infection of the airways, presenting mostly in connection with common cold (CC). There is a high variance in duration and course of symptoms which, sooner or later, also may disappear spontaneously and change during the course of the disease. Therefore, assessment of treatment outcome is difficult. Composite outcome measures are commonly used to examine the effects of pharmacotherapy in complex diseases. We discuss the features of the Bronchitis Severity Scale (BSS) on the basis of the available literature. For the BSS the five most important symptoms of AB are rated by the patient and the physician. Since its introduction in 1996, the BSS has been used in many clinical trials evaluating treatment effects of AB. Its score correlates well with clinical findings. As thorough validation analyses revealed, this applies even more to the BSS subscales "cough domain" and "sputum domain". The validated BSS appears to be a reliable tool to assess therapeutic effects in CC/AB. The BSS and its subscales are recommended as outcome measures for future drug trials in CC/AB, but also help physicians to focus their consultation in patients with CC/AB. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  5. Heterogeneity of bronchitis in airway diseases in tertiary care clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'silva, Liesel; Hassan, Nesreen; Wang, Hong-Yu; Kjarsgaard, Melanie; Efthimiadis, Ann; Hargreave, Frederick E; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    Sputum cell counts have identified inflammatory subtypes of bronchitis in relatively small numbers of subjects with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cough in research studies. The prevalence of different subtypes of bronchitis in routine clinical practice, however, has not been reported. To examine the heterogeneity of bronchitis and its relationship to the severity of airflow obstruction. A retrospective cross-sectional survey based on a computerized database of spontaneous or induced sputum cell counts examined in a large university tertiary respiratory outpatient clinic. The database contained 4232 consecutive sputum records from 2443 patients with chronic cough (39%), asthma (37%), asthma with COPD (9%), COPD (13%) and bronchiectasis (3%). Total and differential cell counts were obtained from 86% of successful sputum samples. Induced sputum provided more viable samples than spontaneous expectorate. Approximately one-third of patients with asthma and one-fifth of patients with COPD experience eosinophilic bronchitis. Asthmatic patients with moderate to severe airflow obstruction had a greater number of sputum eosinophils. There was a significantly higher number of total cell counts and percentage of neutrophils in the sputum of COPD patients with moderate and severe airflow obstruction than in those with mild airflow obstruction. There is heterogeneity in the cellularity of sputum in various airway diseases. Patients with clinically stable airway diseases may have high sputum cell counts. During exacerbations, more patients may experience neutrophilic bronchitis. Severity of airflow obstruction is associated with eosinophilic bronchitis in patients with asthma, and neutrophilic bronchitis in patients with nonasthmatic COPD.

  6. The determinants of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806

  7. Second-hand smoke and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women: a health-care based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking cannot fully explain the epidemiologic characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, particularly for those who rarely smoke, but COPD risk is not less than men. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women. Methods We used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Bureau claims data in 1999, and cross-checked using criteria set by the American Thoracic Society; there were 33 women with chronic bronchitis, 182 with probable chronic bronchitis, and 205 with no chronic bronchitis during our interview time between 2000 and 2005. We measured second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by self-reported measures (household users and duration of exposure), and validated this by measuring urinary cotinine levels of a subset subjects. Classification of chronic bronchitis was also based on spirometry defined according to the GOLD guidelines to get the severity of COPD. Results Women who smoked and women who had been exposed to a lifetime of SHS were 24.81-fold (95% CI: 5.78-106.38) and 3.65-fold (95% CI: 1.19-11.26) more likely to have chronic bronchitis, respectively, than those who had not been exposed to SHS. In addition, there was a significant increasing trend between the severity of COPD and exposure years of SHS (p bronchitis for smokers and those exposed to SHS were 23.2 and 47.3% respectively. Conclusions These findings indicate that, besides cigarette smoking, exposure to SHS is a major risk factor for chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women. PMID:20109222

  8. Clinical Peculiarities of Recurrent and Chronic Bronchitis in Children (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Makian, M. V.; Harhaun, V. A.; Maidannyk, V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective manifestations in children with recurrent and chronic bronchitis were the subject of the research.The objective of the research was to evaluate the main clinical manifestations of recurrent and chronic bronchitis, analyze risk factors and preconditions for their occurence in children.Materials and methods of research. The comprehensive clinical and anamnestic examination of 120 children with bronchopulmonary pathology at the age of 3 to 18 (average age was 10.5±1.1 years) was condu...

  9. STUDY ON INFLAMMATORY CELLS IN BALF OF SMOKE-INDUCED CHRONIC BRONCHITIS RAT MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆云; 黄绍光; 吴华成; 程齐俭; 项轶; 万欢英

    2004-01-01

    Objective To establish a smoke-induced chronic bronchitis rat model and evaluate the pathological change semi-quantitatively, and study the characteristics of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in various stages. Methods Chronic bronchitis sequential rat model was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Experiments were performed in 30 young male Sprague-Dawley rats, which comprised 5 groups in random, i.e.,4 chronic bronchitis model groups and I control group. After stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the specimens were studied by semi-quantitative method to evaluate the morphologic changes in various stages. Meanwhile, the inflammatory cells of the BALF and the activity of myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) of lung tissue were analysed. Results During the process of the chronic bronchitis, the pathologic score was increasing as time went on, and the typical morphologic changes of chronic bronchitis emerged in the group 7 weeks. The total number of inflammatory cells in BALF was increasing as time went on, correlated with the pathologic scores ( P < 0. 01 ).And the percentage of lymphocyte increased as well as positively correlated with pathologic scores ( P < 0. 05 ),whereas that of macrophage decreased and negatively correlated with pathologic scores (P <0. 05). The MPO lever of lung tissue was correlated with the pathologic scores ( P < 0. 01 ). But the percentage of the neutrophil in the BALF was just in a high level during the first week, then it maintained relatively lower. Conclusion Smoke-induced chronic bronchitis is a slowly progressive inflammation process. The model we established is convenient and simple for the longitudinal study on the inflammatory process of chronic bronchitis and the therapy in the early stage. The semi-quantitative evaluation for the pathological change is with much more value. During the inflammatory sequential process of early stage of chronic bronchitis, the cellular characteristics are

  10. [Comparative investigations to the epidemiology of chronic bronchitis in Erfurt and Riga (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzon, R; Utkin, W W; Marga, J; Stepanow, I N; Anderson, M A

    1980-01-01

    Studies concerning the prevalence of chronic bronchitis were conducted in Erfurt in 1971 and in Riga in 1974, comprising a standard interview and measurements of vital capacity and forced expiratory volume. Results in both towns are compared and critically discussed. Chronic bronchitis and obstruction are more frequent in Riga, while obstruction shows a better correlation to the severity of clinical signs in Erfurt. The influence of age, smoking, and hemoptysis are also compared; the latter showing no difference between both towns.

  11. The Relationships Between Weather and Climate and Attacks of Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaia, M. A. R.; Saraiva, M. A. C.; Vieira da Cruz, A. A.

    The area of Aveiro, more concretely Aveiro lagoon, a natural laboratory has been con- sidered, for promoting the development and the application of several investigations worked. The importance of the influences of weather and climate on human health has been well known since ancient teams and many decisions concerning human be- haviour it are clearly weather related. However, decisions related to weather criteria can be important and economically significant, but the real economic effect of the weather is difficult to assess. Talaia et al. (2000) and Talaia and Vieira da Cruz (2001) have shown the possible harmful effect of certain meteorological factors on respiratory conditions. Bronchitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the bronchi as a result of infectious agents or air pollutants. In this study our attention is to relate, the be- ginning of bronchitis attacks in the services of urgency of the Hospital of Aveiro with meteorological factors, and the risk group are studied. We used the medical records and the database of meteorological factors. The obtained analysis allows to conclude that some meteorological factors have correlation with the occurrences of the disease and to allow improving the work in the urgency services in the requested periods. The knowledge that will be extracted of this study can be used later in studies that inte- grate other important components for the characterisation of the environmental impact in the area. References: Talaia, M.A.R., Vieira da Cruz, A.A., Saraiva, M.A.C., Amaro, G.S., Oliveira, C.J. and Carvalho, C.F., 2000, The Influence of Meteorological Fac- tors on Pneumonia Emergencies in Aveiro, International Symposium on Human- Biometeorology, St. Petersburg (Pushkin), Russia, pp. 67-68. Talaia, M.A.R. and Vieira of Cruz, A.A., (2001), Meteorological Effects on the Resistance of the Body to Influenza - One Study in Aveiro Region, Proceedings 2nd Symposium of Meteorol- ogy and Geophysics of APMG and 3rd Meeting

  12. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  13. [Education of patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić-Burić, M; Pavicić, F; Rozman, A; Bogić, B; Crc, M; Plesko, N; Sarajlić, N

    1997-02-01

    Patients' education belongs to the most efficient therapeutic measures in the management of asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. The following paper reports the experience in the educational programme at the Polyclinic for Respiratory Diseases in Zagreb. Each patient's education lasted 5 days, 3 lessons per day, in groups of 10-15 persons. The education was carried out by a teaching team consisting of pulmonologists, psychosomatologist, pharmacist, physiotherapist and biometeterologist. From March 1995 to February 1996 135 persons completed the educational programme, 65 of whom were asthma patients. Data on cough and dyspnoea, skills in inhaler and breathing technique were collected at the beginning and 3 months after the education in all asthma patients. Three months after the education the asthma patients showed a significant decrease in dyspnoea and a significant improvement in inhaler and breathing technique. A standard questionnaire was given to all patients at the end of the education and in more than 80% the education was well accepted by the patients. Initial results are encouraging and the programme should be expanded to all parts of Croatia.

  14. Proteomic analysis of purified coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Dingming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV is the coronavirus of domestic chickens causing major economic losses to the poultry industry. Because of the complexity of the IBV life cycle and the small number of viral structural proteins, important virus-host relationships likely remain to be discovered. Toward this goal, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis fractionation coupled to mass spectrometry identification approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified IBV particles. Results Apart from the virus-encoded structural proteins, we detected 60 host proteins in the purified virions which can be grouped into several functional categories including intracellular trafficking proteins (20%, molecular chaperone (18%, macromolcular biosynthesis proteins (17%, cytoskeletal proteins (15%, signal transport proteins (15%, protein degradation (8%, chromosome associated proteins (2%, ribosomal proteins (2%, and other function proteins (3%. Interestingly, 21 of the total host proteins have not been reported to be present in virions of other virus families, such as major vault protein, TENP protein, ovalbumin, and scavenger receptor protein. Following identification of the host proteins by proteomic methods, the presence of 4 proteins in the purified IBV preparation was verified by western blotting and immunogold labeling detection. Conclusions The results present the first standard proteomic profile of IBV and may facilitate the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms.

  15. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.H.; Barter, C.E.; O' Connell, J.M.; Huggins, R.

    1985-10-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1). Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) was 58.6 ml/year. The subjects ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and to methacholine were significantly related to each other and to sputum eosinophilia. With a linear model for the data on 57 patients who had methacholine and skin tests the rate of decline of the FEV1 was found, after adjustment had been made for other variables, to be significantly related to state of residence, current smoking, response to bronchodilator, age, and occupational exposure to dust. Response to bronchodilator was interchangeable with response to methacholine. When data from all 66 subjects were introduced into the model, in addition to the five significant individual variables (FEV1/VC% X response to bronchodilator) was significantly related to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Of these prognostic indices, response to bronchodilator was independent of the initial FEV1, FEV/VC%, and FEV1% predicted. The difference between states, which was not explained by differences due to sampling or withdrawal of subjects, was due to a low rate of decline in Queensland.

  16. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  17. Genetic diversity and selection regulates evolution of infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Haroldo; van Santen, Vicky L; Jackwood, Mark W

    2012-09-01

    Conventional and molecular epidemiologic studies have confirmed the ability of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) to rapidly evolve and successfully circumvent extensive vaccination programs implemented since the early 1950s. IBV evolution has often been explained as variation in gene frequencies as if evolution were driven by genetic drift alone. However, the mechanisms regulating the evolution of IBV include both the generation of genetic diversity and the selection process. IBV's generation of genetic diversity has been extensively investigated and ultimately involves mutations and recombination events occurring during viral replication. The relevance of the selection process has been further understood more recently by identifying genetic and phenotypic differences between IBV populations prior to, and during, replication in the natural host. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple environmental forces within the host, including immune responses (or lack thereof) and affinity for cell receptors, as well as physical and biochemical conditions, are responsible for the selection process. Some scientists have used or adopted the related quasispecies frame to explain IBV evolution. The quasispecies frame, while providing a distinct explanation of the dynamics of populations in which mutation is a frequent event, exhibits relevant limitations which are discussed herein. Instead, it seems that IBV populations evolving by the generation of genetic variability and selection on replicons follow the evolutionary mechanisms originally proposed by Darwin. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution of IBV is of basic relevance and, without doubt, essential to appropriately control and prevent the disease.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul E

    2004-01-01

    Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

  19. Polymorphisms in the IRF-4 gene, asthma and recurrent bronchitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L A; Michel, S; Klopp, N; Vogelberg, C; von Berg, A; Bufe, A; Heinzmann, A; Laub, O; Simma, B; Frischer, T; Genuneit, J; Gorski, M; Illig, T; Kabesch, M

    2013-10-01

    Interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs) play a crucial role in immunity, not only influencing interferon expression but also T cell differentiation. IRF-4 was only recently recognized as a further major player in T cell differentiation. As IRF-1 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with atopy and allergy, we comprehensively investigated effects of IRF-4 variants on allergy, asthma and related phenotypes in German children. Fifteen tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF-4 gene were genotyped by MALDI-TOF MS in the cross-sectional ISAAC phase II study population from Munich and Dresden (age 9-11; N = 3099). Replication was performed in our previously established genome-wide association study (GWAS) data set (N = 1303) consisting of asthma cases from the Multicenter Asthma Genetic in Childhood (MAGIC) study and reference children from the ISAAC II study. SNPs were not significantly associated with asthma but with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, atopy and, most interestingly, with recurrent bronchitis in the first data set. The IRF-4 variant rs9378805 was associated with recurrent bronchitis in the ISAAC population and replicated in the GWAS data set where further SNPs showed associations with recurrent bronchitis and asthma. We found genetic associations in IRF-4 to be associated with recurrent bronchitis in our two study populations. Associated polymorphisms are localized in a putative regulatory element in the 3'UTR region of IRF-4. These findings suggest a putative role of IRF-4 in the development of bronchitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Primary care clinicians' perceptions about antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick P; Businger, Alexandra C; Whaley, Lauren E; Gagne, Joshua J; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-12

    Clinicians prescribe antibiotics to over 65% of adults with acute bronchitis despite guidelines stating that antibiotics are not indicated. To identify and understand primary care clinician perceptions about antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 primary care clinicians in Boston, Massachusetts and used thematic content analysis. All the participants agreed with guidelines that antibiotics are not indicated for acute bronchitis and felt that clinicians other than themselves were responsible for overprescribing. Barriers to guideline adherence included 6 themes: (1) perceived patient demand, which was the main barrier, although some clinicians perceived a recent decrease; (2) lack of accountability for antibiotic prescribing; (3) saving time and money; (4) other clinicians' misconceptions about acute bronchitis; (5) diagnostic uncertainty; and (6) clinician dissatisfaction in failing to meet patient expectations. Strategies to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing included 5 themes: (1) patient educational materials; (2) quality reporting; (3) clinical decision support; (4) use of an over-the-counter prescription pad; and (5) pre-visit triage and education by nurses to prevent visits. Clinicians continued to cite patient demand as the main reason for antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis, though some clinicians perceived a recent decrease. Clinicians felt that other clinicians were responsible for inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and that better pre-visit triage by nurses could prevent visits and change patients' expectations.

  1. Antibiotic and bronchodilator prescribing for acute bronchitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening-Roche, Jason C; Soroudi, Arash; Castillo, Edward M; Vilke, Gary M

    2012-08-01

    Although the overuse of antibiotics and underuse of bronchodilators for treatment of acute bronchitis is well known, few studies have analyzed these trends in the emergency department (ED). To characterize the antibiotic and bronchodilator prescribing practices of physicians at two academic EDs in the diagnosis of acute bronchitis, and to identify factors that may or may not be associated with these practices. A computer database was searched retrospectively for all patients with an ED discharge diagnosis of acute bronchitis, and analyzed, looking at the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions, the class of antibiotic prescribed, and several other related factors including age, gender, chief complaint, duration of cough, and comorbid conditions. During the study period, there were 836 cases of acute bronchitis in adults. Of these, 622 (74.0%) were prescribed antibiotics. Of those prescribed antibiotics, 480 (77.2%) were prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Using multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval), antibiotics were prescribed significantly more often in patients aged 50 years or older (1.7, 1.2-2.5) and in smokers (1.5, 1.0-2.2). Of patients without asthma, 346 (49.9%) were discharged without a bronchodilator, and 631 (91.1%) were discharged without a spacer device. Antibiotics are over-prescribed in the ED for acute bronchitis, with broad-spectrum antibiotics making up the majority of the antibiotics prescribed. Age ≥50 years and smoking are associated with higher antibiotic prescribing rates. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Positioning of the Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) for standardised use in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, H; Kamin, W

    2013-10-01

    Diagnosis and assessment of response to treatment in acute bronchitis depends on clinical findings. We evaluated published data on the Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) used to diagnose acute bronchitis and to evaluate the impact of treatment in clinical studies. We conducted a literature search using PubMed (search terms: acute bronchitis, treatment, score, and BSS; publication date April 2012 or earlier) and asked the manufacturer for relevant publications. Articles were reviewed and relevant studies were classified according to author, study design, measurements made and duration of study, study drug(s), outcome, and statistical significance. The medication most frequently evaluated by the BSS is a herbal drug preparation from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630). The BSS consistently demonstrated statistically significant differences between active treatments and placebo as well as between different doses of active treatment. The proportion of responders was considerably higher in the EPs 7630 group than in the placebo group. Because of the subjective components of the BSS, inter-individual differences in results may exist. However, the BSS outcome was supported by the results of secondary outcome measures, such as the Integrated Medicine Patient Satisfaction Scale (IMPSS), documenting that patients were more often 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with EPs 7630 than placebo. We recommend further use of the BSS as a reliable and convenient clinical trial tool for selecting and evaluating patients in studies of acute bronchitis. Improvement in the BSS correlates with outcomes reported by these patients.

  3. Lifestyle and perceived health in subjects with chronic bronchitis or emphysema: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The study aim was to compare lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI) and perceived health in subjects with and without chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and to explore if these comparisons differed between demographic subgroups. Methods A stratified two-stage sample of the population of Serbia was used; 14.522 adults aged ≥20 years were interviewed. Results Compared with controls, respondents with chronic bronchitis or emphysema reported a 23% increased likelihood of eating fresh vegetables every day (CI 1.02-1.48), 58% increased likelihood of currently smoking (CI 1.32-1.88) and more likely to perceive their health as very bad or bad (OR 4.67, CI 3.64-5.98). After stratification for sex, education, and type of settlement, smoking was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis or emphysema in all subgroups except males. The increased likelihood of very bad or bad perceived health in respondents with chronic bronchitis or emphysema was significant in all subgroups, and was highest for respondents ≤65 years of age (adjusted OR 6.51; CI 4.87-8.72) and lowest for respondents >65 years of age (adjusted OR 3.25; CI 2.12-4.97). Conclusion Efforts to enhance perceived health and healthy lifestyle behaviors in subjects with chronic bronchitis or emphysema are necessary. Special attention should be paid to smoking cessation in almost all demographic subgroups. PMID:20828414

  4. Correlates of COPD and chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers: data from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Mirna; Salame, Joseph; Khayat, Georges; Salameh, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their correlates among a Lebanese nonsmoker group. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010, using a multistage cluster sample throughout Lebanon including Lebanese residents aged 40 years and above with no exclusion criteria. Pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry measurements were performed and carbon monoxide level was measured in exhaled air. COPD was defined and classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines or according to the lower limit of normal (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity postbronchodilator bronchitis was defined by the declaration of morning cough and expectorations for more than 3 months a year over more than 2 years in individuals with normal spirometry. Out of 2201 individuals, 732 were never-smokers: 25 (3.4%) of them had COPD, and 86 (11.75%) fulfilled the definition of chronic bronchitis. Correlates of COPD included a childhood respiratory disease, house heated by diesel, and older age. On the other hand, correlates of chronic bronchitis included childhood respiratory diseases, living in southern Lebanon versus other regions, heating home by gas, older age, number of smokers at work, and lower height. A substantial percentage of the nonsmoking population may exhibit chronic bronchitis or COPD. The significant correlates mentioned above should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the risk of developing such chronic and debilitating respiratory diseases.

  5. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  6. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  7. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua

    2015-01-01

    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  8. Exposure of Plastic Track Detectors to Relativistic Pb Beam for the Purpose of Providing Calibration for the DUBLIN-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment Which was Exposed for Sixty-Nine Months in Earth Orbit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA100 \\\\ \\\\ Solid state nuclear track detectors which formed part of the Dublin-ESTEC ultra heavy~cosmic~ray experiment aboard LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) and which was deployed in Earth orbit for sixty-nine months, will be exposed to relativistic Pb ions. The experiment was the largest of its kind ever undertaken in space and has successfully accumulated more than fifteen times the world sample of cosmic ray nuclei in the region above Z~=~70. The data include the first significant sample of cosmic ray actinide elements and is of major astrophysical importance. The total number of ultra heavy nuclei (Z~$>$~70) in the Dublin-ESTEC sample is $\\sim$~2800. \\\\ \\\\The exposure will be very simple. A stack of detectors (20.5~cm~x~26~cm x~3~cm in size) will be irradiated with a low density beam of Pb ions (a few hundred per cm$^2$ would be ideal, but a wide range of densities and areas could be tolerated). The response of the detectors to these ions of known charge and velocity will be measured and the da...

  9. Genomic and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolnik, Celia

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a Gammacoronavirus that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens. A QX-like strain was analysed by high-throughput Illumina sequencing and genetic variation across the entire viral genome was explored at the sub-consensus level by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) in the order 5'-UTR-1a-1ab-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'UTR were predicted. The relative frequencies of missense: silent SNPs were calculated to obtain a comparative measure of variability in specific genes. The most variable ORFs in descending order were E, 3b, 5'UTR, N, 1a, S, 1ab, M, 4c, 5a, 6b. The E and 3b protein products play key roles in coronavirus virulence, and RNA folding demonstrated that the mutations in the 5'UTR did not alter the predicted secondary structure. The frequency of SNPs in the Spike (S) protein ORF of 0.67% was below the genomic average of 0.76%. Only three SNPS were identified in the S1 subunit, none of which were located in hypervariable region (HVR) 1 or HVR2. The S2 subunit was considerably more variable containing 87% of the polymorphisms detected across the entire S protein. The S2 subunit also contained a previously unreported multi-A insertion site and a stretch of four consecutive mutated amino acids, which mapped to the stalk region of the spike protein. Template-based protein structure modelling produced the first theoretical model of the IBV spike monomer. Given the lack of diversity observed at the sub-consensus level, the tenet that the HVRs in the S1 subunit are very tolerant of amino acid changes produced by genetic drift is questioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Clinical features of protracted bacterial bronchitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Fanfan; Wang, Yuqing; Hao, Chuangli; Sun, Huiquan; Fan, Liping; Huang, Li; Yu, Xingmei; Yang, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jing; Lu, Quan

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children. The clinical data of patients seen from October, 2010 to March, 2014 in Department of Respiratory Diseases of our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria were over 4 weeks cough, receiving fiberoptic bronchoscopy, positive bacterial culture and (or) the increased percentage of neutral granulocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Twenty eight patients were involved, 26 were male (93%) and two were female (7%). The median age of patients was 8.5 months. The median duration of cough was four weeks. The average length of hospital stay was (8.3 ± 3.9)days. The main clinical feature was wet cough in 28 cases, wet cough with wheezing was seen in 21 cases. The wet cough phase distribution was irregular in 21 cases. The crackles with wheeze (in 21 cases) was main signs of PBB. The percentage of CD3⁻ CD16⁺ 56⁺ cells increased in peripheral blood. The fiberoptic bronchoscopic manifestations of PBB were luminal mucosal edema. Eleven patients also had airway malacia. The neutrophil median in BALF was 0.2. The positive rate of bacterial culture of BALF was 36%. The main bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (50%) and Haemophilus influenzae (30%). The main treatment for PBB patients included amoxycillin/clavulanate potassium and second-generation cephalosporins. The average duration of treatment was (17.3 ± 3.2)days, the prognosis was good. PBB is common in male infants. Persistent wet cough with wheezing was the main characteristic of PBB. PBB is commonly accompanied by immune dysfunction and airway malacia, and the pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

  11. Development of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by coronavirus. The disease causes high mortality in young chicks, reduce body weight gain in broilers and remarkable drop in egg production. IB can only be controlled by vaccination, but due to the antigenic variation among serotypes of IB viruses, the effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates. The aim of this research is to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from local IB isolates. Local isolates of IB viruses designated as I-37, I-269 and PTS-III were propagated respectively in specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs, the viruses then were inactivated by formaline at final concentration of 1:1,000. Subsequently, the inactivated viruses were mixed and emulsified in oil emulsion adjuvant with sorbitant mono-oleic as an emulsifier. The vaccine then was tested for its safety, potency and efficacy in broiler chickens. Birds inoculated twice with a two-week interval by inactivated vaccine did not show any adverse reaction, either systemic or local reaction. The inoculated birds developed antibody responses with high titre, while antibody of the control birds remain negative. In addition, efficacy test which was conducted in broilers demonstrated that birds vaccinated by live-commercial vaccine and boosted three weeks later by Balitvet inactivated vaccine showed high level of antibody production which provided high level of protection against challenged virus (76% against I-37, 92% against I-269 and 68% against PTS-III challenge viruses. From this study, it can be concluded that inactivated local IB vaccine is considered to be safe, potent and efficacious. The vaccine stimulates high titre of antibody responses, which provide high level of protection against challenged viruses.

  12. Molecular studies of the Brazilian infectious bronchitis virus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Abreu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates have been widely characterized by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. In present study, these techniques were applied to three viral genomic regions comprising the complete and/or a partial S1 segment, S2 and nucleocapsid genes. DNA sequences from viral isolates obtained from 1972 to 1989 and from 2006 to 2008 were compared. High similarity (>90% was observed among some of the genomic segments, including S1 hypervariable region, which could suggest a common origin or ancestry. DNA sequences from S2 and N protein genes obtained from different infected tissues of the same flock were analyzed, and a clear segregation between respiratory and intestinal tract was observed. Therefore, these data suggest co-circulation of more than one viral strain in the same flock. 57.1% of DNA sequences from the S1 complete segment samples, 53.3% from the S2 fragment and 62.5% from the partial N gene were found to be different from analyzed sequences from reference strains leading to the conclusion that parte of viral isolates included in this study may be considered region specific. Considering the simultaneous analysis of the three genes, a large IBV genetic profile was observed in both old and recent isolates groups. However, most prominent diversity between viral isolates was obtained in the period from 1972 and 1989, showing the presence of a large number of variants in the state of Minas Gerais before the official approval of vaccination (1980.

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis.

  14. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  15. [Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleniewska, Aneta; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented.

  16. Early investigational antibiotics for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Georgiou, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review. Expert opinion: Several novel antimicrobial agents have completed preclinical and Phase I studies and were well-tolerated. Further investigation is mandatory in order to evaluate their future in treatment of chronic bronchitis exacerbations and discover potential advantages compared to already approved antimicrobials.

  17. Clinical Observation in 31 Cases of Chronic Bronchitis at Remission Stage Treated with Bufei Keli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨春; 王乃红; 王娜; 刘冠萍; 阎惠芳

    2003-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of a Chinese drug Bufei Keli (补肺颗粒 granules for invigorating thelung) in the treatment of chronic bronchitis at remission stage, 62 cases were randomly divided into aThe results turned out to be that the short-term clinically controlled and markedly effective rate was77.42% and the long-term relapse-resisting markedly effective rate was 74.2% in the treatment group,which were obviously higher than 45.16% and 38.71% respectively in the control group (P<0.05). And theincrease in contents of SOD and CD3 and the decrease in LPO content in the treatment group were alsobigger than that in the control group (P<0.01). It is therefore concluded that Bufei Keli can improve qideficiency syndrome and raise the immunity of patients with chronic bronchitis, hence its effect ofresisting relapse of chronic bronchitis.

  18. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  19. Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kleniewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented. Med Pr 2013;64(4:569–578

  20. β-carotene protects rats against bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宝森; 王辰; 翁心植; 唐小奈; 张红玉; 牛淑洁; 毛燕玲; 辛平; 黄秀霞; 张海燕; 祝锦

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of β-carotene in rats against the development of chronic bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking. Results Long-term cigarette smoking caused an obvious increase in the amount of IL-6, IL-8 and LPO and a sharp decrease in the levels of NO and SOD in smoking animals compared to controls. β-carotene intake reversed all the changes induced by smoking and alleviated the pathological changes caused by chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Quantitative oral intake of β-carotene had protective effects against chronic bronchitis induced by long-term cigarette smoking, which was associated with the increased production of NO, the clearance of some oxidative free radicals (OFR) and the alleviation of chronic inflammation.

  1. Efficacy Observation on Modified Chronic Bronchitis Decoction for Chronic Bronchitis%慢支汤加减治疗慢性支气管炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范育玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of self-made modified chronic bronchitis decoction for chronic bronchitis. Methods: 60 cases of pa-tients with chronic bronchitis were randomly divided into observation group (30 cases) and control group (30 cases), both of which were treated by conventional medication of artibiotics and cough expectorant medicine (ambroxol hydrochloride or pentoxyverine), while observation group com-bined with orally taking modified chronic bronchitis decoction (aster, radix stemonae, radix platycodi, etc) on the basis of conventional medication, observed the efficacy and the improvement of cough symptom after 7 days of treatment. Results:The overall response rate of observation group was 93.33%, which was higher than 76.67% that of control group (P<0.05); after treatment, the improvement of cough symptom score of observation group was better than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Modified chronic bronchitis decoction can improve the efficacy of the treatment of chronic bronchitis and relieve cough symptom, deserves clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察自拟慢支汤加减治疗慢性支气管炎的疗效。方法:将60例慢性支气管炎患者随机分为观察组和对照组各30例,均给予抗生素、祛痰止咳(盐酸氨溴索或喷托维林)等常规药物治疗,观察组则在常规药物治疗基础上服用加减自拟慢支汤(紫苑、百部、桔梗等),治疗7天观察两组临床疗效及咳嗽症状改善情况。结果:观察组总有效率为93.33%,显著高于对照组的76.67%(P<0.05);治疗后,观察组咳嗽症状积分改善程度显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:自拟慢支汤加减治疗慢性支气管炎能提高临床疗效,有效缓解咳嗽症状,值得临床推广应用。

  2. Pulmonary function and incident bronchitis and asthma in children: a community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yungling Leo; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Chen, Yu-An; Chen, Jer-Min; Wu, Yi-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that reduction of airway caliber in infancy might increase the risks for wheezing and asthma. However, the evidence for the predictive effects of pulmonary function on respiratory health in children was still inconsistent. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study among children in 14 Taiwanese communities. There were 3,160 children completed pulmonary function tests in 2007 and follow-up questionnaire in 2009. Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the effect of pulmonary function on the development of bronchitis and asthma. After adjustment for potential confounders, pulmonary function indices consistently showed protective effects on respiratory diseases in children. The incidence rate ratios of bronchitis and asthma were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.95) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.82-0.99) for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Similar adverse effects of maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) were also observed on bronchitis (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.81) and asthma (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93). We found significant decreasing trends in categorized FEV₁ (p for trend = 0.02) and categories of MMEF (p for trend = 0.01) for incident bronchitis. Significant modification effects of traffic-related air pollution were noted for FEV₁ and MMEF on bronchitis and also for MMEF on asthma. Children with high pulmonary function would have lower risks on the development of bronchitis and asthma. The protective effect of high pulmonary function would be modified by traffic-related air pollution exposure.

  3. Effects of low level air pollution on asthma and chronic bronchitis in Nordic cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froesig, A.; Johnsen, C.R.; Vestergaard Pedersen, B.; Taudorf, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the occurrence of the respiratory diseases asthma and chronic bronchitis in the Nordic countries and discusses differences in prevalence within and between these countries. The report also presents information on the active research groups working in the field, and reviews the current literature on relationships between low-level outdoor air pollution and asthma and bronchitis. The prevalence of asthma and of chronic bronchitis is 5 to 10% of the total population. Asthma alone accounts for 2 to 4% with no apparent national differences. Chronic bronchitis accounts for 3 to 5% in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, but is more frequent in Finland (around 10 to 15%). It has not been possible to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in Iceland from presently available studies. Based on differences in mortality rates it is believed that the prevalences in urban centres are up to about 50% higher than the national figures. The death rates for deaths attributed to asthma and chronic bronchitis show more distinct national differences, and increasing trends. These differences between countries and trends may be attributable to varying diagnostic practice. The occurrence of asthma in the Nordic countries is low compared to other Western industrialized countries. Independent studies have found that low to moderate air pollution levels influence the illness of subjects with respiratory diseases. However, there are still methodological problems to be solved in order to clarify the relationships in detail and to obtain reliable quantitative estimates of these relationships. Research in this area should be strengthened and scientific cooperation across boarders should be promoted. This necessitates an increased and co-ordinated allocation of research funds and a clarification of which authorities should have the responsibility for this area. (EG) (124 refs.)

  4. [DYNAMICS OF CYTOKINES IN INFANTS WITH ACUTE OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS AND THYMOMEGALIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiyan, O I; Plakhuta, V A; Bunda, T P; Popov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the information about pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in infants with acute obstructive bronchitis and thymus hypertrophy. The content of IL-6 and IL-10 has been de- termined in 101 children in acute period of disease and during early convalescence. It was found the increasing of production of proinflammatory IL-6 and a low level of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the first days of illness in all children with thymomegalia. During convalescence in patients with acute obstructive bronchitis and thymomegalia IL-6 level was decreasing, and the level of IL-10 was in- creasing, but it did not amount to the level of healthy children.

  5. Charmonium production in Pb-Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, N; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Bellaiche, F G; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Caponi, V; Casagrande, L; Castor, J I; Chambon, T; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Filippov, S N; Fleuret, F; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Monteno, M; Mourgues, S; Musso, A; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Racca, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Ropotar, I; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2000-01-01

    The NA50 Collaboration studies the J/psi, psi' and Drell-Yan production via their dimuon decay in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon at the CERN SPS: the most recent results on charmonium production are presented here.

  6. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  7. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  8. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  9. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  10. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  11. Epidemiology and impact of chronic bronchitis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousse, Lies; Seys, Leen J.M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Brusselle, Guy G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on the association between chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations has led to discordant results. Furthermore, the impact of chronic bronchitis on mortality in COPD subjects is unclear. Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study of subjects aged ≥45 years, chronic bronchitis was defined as having a productive cough for ≥3 months per year for two consecutive years. Linear, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, sex and pack-years. Out of 972 included COPD subjects, 752 had no chronic phlegm production (CB−) and 220 had chronic phlegm production, of whom 172 met the definition of chronic bronchitis (CB+). CB+ subjects were older, more frequently current smokers and had more pack-years than CB− subjects. During a median 6.5 years of follow-up, CB+ subjects had greater decline in lung function (−38 mL·year−1, 95% CI −61.7–−14.6; p=0.024). CB+ subjects had an increased risk of frequent exacerbations (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.7–5.9; pbronchitis have an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory mortality compared to COPD subjects without chronic phlegm production. PMID:28798087

  12. S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against infectious bronchitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that overexposing the IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) S2 to the chicken immune system by means of a vectored vaccine, followed by boost with whole virus, protects chickens against IBV showing dissimilar S1. We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (...

  13. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  14. Sequence evidence for RNA recombination in field isolates of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, J G; Jager, E J; Niesters, H G; van der Zeijst, B A

    1990-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions coronaviruses were shown to have a high frequency of recombination. In The Netherlands, vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is performed with vaccines that contain several life-attenuated virus strains. These highly effective vaccines may create ideal

  15. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  16. The use of drug-free technologies in patients with chronic toxicochemical bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illarionov V.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: development and scientific substantiation of a complex application halo-inhaled and flutter-kinesiotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis. Material and methods. There was an examination and treatment of 125 patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis at the age from 32 to 65 years (average age 52.2+3,1 with industrial experience from 5 to 27 years (average age 15.9+3,9. Results. Comparative analysis revealed an advantage of an integrated application halo-inhaled and flutter-kinesiotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis as in the I, and that is especially important at the II stage of the disease, which is confirmed by the regression of the main clinical symptoms, a significant decrease in the intensity index of inflammation, recovery to normal values of factors of local immunity broncho-pulmonary system. Conclusion. Developed a comprehensive program including halo-inhaled and flutter-kinesiotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive toxic chemical bronchitis has a pronounced anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunocorrection effect, improves bronchodilating function and bronchial obstruction in bronchial tubes of large, medium and small caliber. The absence of exacerbations in the past year proves that this method is highly effective secondary prevention of lung disease.

  17. Inflammatory mechanisms and treatment of obstructive airway diseases with neutrophilic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jodie L; Phipps, Simon; Gibson, Peter G

    2009-10-01

    Obstructive airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major global health issues. Although considered as distinct diseases, airway inflammation is a key underlying pathophysiological process in asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis. Persistent neutrophilic airway inflammation (neutrophilic bronchitis) occurs with innate immune activation and is a feature of each of these airway diseases. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to neutrophilic bronchitis and few treatments are effective in reducing neutrophil accumulation in the airways. There is a similar pattern of inflammatory mediator release and toll like receptor 2 expression in asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis. We propose the existence of an active amplification mechanism, an effector arm of the innate immune system, involving toll like receptor 2, operating in persistent neutrophilic bronchitis. Neutrophil persistence in the airways can occur through a number of mechanisms such as impaired apoptosis, efferocytosis and mucus hypersecretion, all of which are impaired in airways disease. Impairment of neutrophil clearance results in a reduced ability to respond to bacterial infection. Persistent activation of airway neutrophils may result in the persistent activation of the innate immune system resulting in further airway insult. Current therapies are limited for the treatment of neutrophilic bronchitis; possible treatments being investigated include theophylline, statins, antagonists of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides have shown great promise in their ability to reduce airway inflammation, and can reduce airway neutrophils, levels of CXCL8 and neutrophil proteases in the airways. Studies also show improvements in quality of life and exacerbation rates in airways diseases.

  18. Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis with Modified Ma Xing Shi Gan Tang and Er Chen Tang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 刘晓东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic bronchitis is a disease commonly seen in the clinic. The authors have treated 78 cases of the disease with modified Ma Xing Shi Gan Tang (麻杏石甘汤 Decoction of Ephedra, Armeniacae Amarum, Glycyrrhizae and Gypsum Fibrosum) plus Er Chen Tang (二陈汤 Two Old Drugs Decoction). The results were satisfactory and reported as follows.

  19. A review on antiviral activity of the Himalayan medicinal plants traditionally used to treat bronchitis and related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Rahila; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina

    2017-02-01

    Bronchitis is a common respiratory tract infection of humans mainly caused by influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. The aim of this review was to gather fragmented literature on ethnomedicinal plants used against bronchitis in the Himalayan region and their in-vitro validation against bronchitis causing viral pathogens. Present review contains ethnomedicines of total 55 plants from different countries of the Himalayas. Most of the literature reported was from India followed by Pakistan, China and Nepal. Familiarly used plant families for bronchitis treatment in the Himalayan region were Leguminosae (six plants) and Lamiaceae (five plants). Leaves and roots were the most common parts used in ethnomedicines against bronchitis. Of these 55 plants, only six plants have been studied in vitro against viral pathogens causing bronchitis. Different compounds like monoterpenoids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, iridoid glycosides, sesquiterpenes, benzoic and phenolic compounds were reportedly isolated from these plant extracts having strong antiviral potential. The Himalayan regions possess variety of ethnomedicinal plants used against respiratory diseases, but still there are only few studies related with their in-vitro validation. We invite the attention of researchers for detailed ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies on unexplored plants used to treat bronchitis for the development of novel antiviral drugs. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  1. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Waked

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country.Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered.Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source.Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  2. Identifying patients at risk of late recovery (≥ 8 days) from acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and COPD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anzueto, Antonio; Miravitlles, Marc; Ewig, Santiago; Legnani, Delfino; Heldner, Stephanie; Stauch, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    ...) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis/COPD (AECB/AECOPD). An international, observational, non-interventional study in outpatients with AECB/AECOPD who received treatment for their exacerbation with the antibiotic moxifloxacin...

  3. A community-based case-control study of asthma and chronic bronchitis in relation to occupation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, D.; Donan, P.T.; Cowie, H.A.; Miller, B.G.; Soutar, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    A community-based epidemiological study was conducted in the West Lothian and Central Regions of Scotland in 1994 by postal questionnaire to investigate the associations between occupations previously held and prevalent symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. 50% of the 34,000 questionnaires were returned. The prevalence of asthma was estimated to be 8% and that of chronic bronchitis was 15%. The prevalence of asthma and of chronic bronchitis related to work was estimated to be 0.5% and 2.2% respectively. Clinical assessments of a sample of respondents confirmed the reliability of diagnoses of asthma using a self-administered questionnaire, but suggested that the work-relatedness of asthma was less reliably diagnosed. Asthma symptoms were particularly implicated with employment in the food processing, catering and textiles industries. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with dusty jobs such as coal mining metal processing and manufacturing of electrical products.

  4. Persistent pathogens as risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between infection with “persistent” agents of children and the possibility of the development of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract such as community-acquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis on the basis of risk management concepts.Materials and methods. 701 children in age from 15 days to 16 years were examined in Nizhny Novgorod and the Nizhny Novgorod region with clinically and radiologically confirmed diagnosis: community-acquired pneumonia, acute bronchitis. This study was performed in the period from 2005 to 2014. The control group consisted of 127 healthy children of different ages. The detection of M. pneumoniae, Сytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex I/II C. pneumoniae was performed by PCR. The concept of risk determination was based on the determination of the absolute risk in the exposed and the no exposed groups, attributable risk, relative risk, the population attributable risk, as well as determining the standard errors for each type of risk and confidence interval.Results. Attributable risk, relative risk, population-attributable risk are statistically significant figures. Attributable risk of development of community-acquired pneumonia was 29,26%; 27,37%; 25,70%; 20,21% for the M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, CMV, HSV I / II respectively. The relative risk was 1,43 for the M. pneumoniae; 1,38 – for C. pneumoniae and CMV; 1,28- for HSV I / II. The presence of persistent pathogens is resulting in increased incidence of communityacquired pneumonia throughout the population (population attributable risk: 4,75% for M. pneumoniae, 0,23% for C. pneumoniae, 5,59% for the CMV and 1,08% for the HSV I/II. Similar calculations were performed for patients with acute bronchitis. The statistical analysis allowed to exclude C. pneumoniae and HSV I / II of the risk factors for communityacquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis.Conclusion. The findings suggest the influence of M

  5. Stable (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and radioactive (210Pb) lead isotopes in 1 year of growth of Sphagnum moss from four ombrotrophic bogs in southern Germany: Geochemical significance and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Zaccone, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and 1 year later the production of plant matter was harvested in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Radioactive, 210Pb was determined in solid samples using ultralow background gamma spectrometry while total Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were determined in acid digests using ICP-SMS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. The greatest variations within a given sampling site were in the range 212-532 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb activity, whereas 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb varied less than 1%. The median values of all parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were not significantly different. The median activities of 210Pb (Bq kg-1) in the mosses collected from the bogs in NBF (HO = 372 ± 56, n = 55; WI = 342 ± 58, n = 93) were slightly less from those in OB (GS = 394 ± 50, n = 55; KL = 425 ± 58, n = 24). However, the mosses in the NBF bogs exhibited much greater productivity (187-202 g m-2 a-1) compared to those of OB (71-91 g m-2 a-1), and this has a profound impact on the accumulation rates of 210Pb (Bq m-2 a-1), with the bogs in the NBF yielding fluxes (HO = 73 ± 30; WI = 65 ± 20) which are twice those of OB (GS = 29 ± 11; KL = 40 ± 13). Using the air concentrations of 210Pb measured at Schauinsland (SIL) in the southern Black Forest and average annual precipitation, the atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb at SIL (340 Bq m-2 a-1) exceeds the corresponding values obtained from the mosses by a factor of five, providing the first quantitative estimate of the net retention efficiency of 210Pb by Sphagnum. When the 210Pb activities of all moss samples are combined (n = 227), a significant decrease with increasing plant production rate is observed; in contrast, total Pb concentrations show the opposite trend. The contrasting

  6. Is C-reactive protein testing useful to predict outcome in patients with acute bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Moragas, Ana; Bayona, Carolina; Morros, Rosa; Pera, Helena; Miravitlles, Marc

    2014-10-01

    A recent clinical trial could not find differences between anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and placebo in shortening the duration of symptoms in acute bronchitis. To investigate if C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations at presentation are predictive of symptom resolution in these patients. We performed a secondary analysis of the data from a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial carried out in primary care. Patients from 18 to 70 years of age presenting a respiratory tract infection of 20 mg/l (95% CI: 9-12) (P = 0.337). Among patients with uncomplicated acute bronchitis and discoloured sputum, the CRP concentrations at presentation are not helpful for predicting symptom resolution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A liquid phase blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA was developed for the detection and measurement of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. The purified and nonpurified virus used as antigen, the capture and detector antibodies, and the chicken hyperimmune sera were prepared and standardized for this purpose. A total of 156 sera from vaccinated and 100 from specific pathogen-free chickens with no recorded contact with the virus were tested. The respective serum titers obtained in the serum neutralization test (SNT were compared with those obtained in the LPB-ELISA. There was a high correlation (r2 = 0.8926 between the two tests. The LPB-ELISA represents a single test suitable for the rapid detection of antibodies against bronchitis virus in chicken sera, with good sensitivity (88%, specificity (100% and agreement (95.31%.

  8. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks.

  9. S1 gene sequence analysis of a nephropathogenic strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ladman Brian S; El-Kady Magdy F; Abdel-Moneim Ahmed S; Gelb Jack

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of serotypes/genotypes. Only a few amino acid differences in the S1 protein of vaccine and challenge strains of IBV may result in poor protection. Tropism of IBV includes the respiratory tract tissues, proventriculus and caecal tonsils of the alimentary tract, the ovidu...

  10. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  11. EFFICIENCY OF HYPERTONIC SOLUTION INHALATION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS AND BRONCHIOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis in children with congenital malformation are often characterized by the severe course of disease. The efficiency of treatment of those conditions can be increased through addition of sodium chloride (NaCl, hypertonic saline which takes a hydrostatic and osmotic effect on mucous membrane of the bronchial tree in broncholytic therapy. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of 3% NaCl hypertonic solution inhalation in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of bronchi congenital malformation (Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Patients and methods: The participantsof this study were 28 children in the age of 4–17.5 years with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia in the first days o facute exacerbation of the disease (15 patients in treatment group and 13 patients in control group. In the therapy scheme of treatment group the 3 NaCl hypertonic solution in administered dose of 2 ml was applied 2 times/day during 14 days besides other treatment methods. Results: In patients with chronic bronchiolitis 3% NaCl hypertonic saline inhalation in administered dose of 2 ml twice a day had improved the clinical presentation of disease; by the 14th day of studythe FEV-1 value improved from 70.0 ± 2.1 to 82 ± 3.2% (p = 0.024. The side effects in form of cough aggravation were registered in 13% cases. Among additional criteria of efficiency the improvement of MОС-75 from 52.1 ± 5.2 to 71.2 ± 1.4% (p = 0.011 was also marked in patients. The adverse experience, such as shivering, hypoexcitability and sleep disturbance, were registered in 7% of cases. Conclusion: Inhalation of 3% NaCl hypertonic saline allows the fast arresting of wheezing and eliminates the mycostasis in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis.

  12. [Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and antibodies to the agent in patients with acute bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H; Hashiguchi, K; Kazuyama, Y

    1992-04-01

    Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and serologic tests were performed on 85 children and adults patients with acute bronchitis admitted to the Kitasato Institute Hospital from January 1989 to May 1991. C. pneumoniae was isolated from sputa or tonsillar swabs in 11 of 57 (19%) patients examined. Of these, 10 patients were tested serologically and 9 (90%) had 16 or higher titer of IgG antibody. A total of 68 patients were tested serologically, and 17 (25%) revealed positive; 14 had a fourfold rise or more in the titer of IgG antibody, or IgM titer of 16 or more, and 3 had IgG antibody with a titer of 512 or greater. In 34 patients, sera were tested for evidence of acute infections not only with C. pneumoniae, but also with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, coxackie A9 virus, parainfluenza virus type I, II, and III. Two of the 34 patients were associated with influenza A virus, 4 with influenza B virus, whereas 6 were associated with C. pneumoniae. The data available suggest that C. pneumoniae cause bronchitis much more than has been suspected, and also confirm earlier suggestions that the agent played an important role in respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from sputa and tonsillar swabs in 6 adults patients with acute bronchitis. Studies are needed for a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical relevance of this microorganism to lower respiratory tract diseases in adults.

  13. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li Juan; Zhao, Ang; Chen, Ren Jie; Kan, Hai Dong; Kuang, Xing Ya

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10 μg/m(3) increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO(2), and NO(2) corresponded to 0.94% (95% CI: 0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12% (95% CI: 10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84% (95% CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (Pbronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; März, R; Sieder, C

    1997-12-01

    Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.

  15. Acupuncture as method of treatment and arresting progress of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baburina, E.B.; Bykova, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapy for treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. It can be used independently or in combination with medicaments. Fifty men were divided into two groups of 20 and 30. One group was treated by acupuncture alone, the other with combined therapy. Acupuncture produced excellent results; combined treatment, good and satisfactory results. Since acupuncture reduced the possibility of complications, allergic reactions and side effects due to medication, it is an excellent means of preventing progress of dust-induced bronchitis. Patients experience 9 months remission of symptoms after treatment with acupuncture while medical therapy alone only relieves them for 1 to 1 1/2 months. Patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis should receive a second course of acupuncture in 6 to 8 months to prevent recurrence of symptoms and progress of disease. Because of insufficient study of lasting effects of acupuncture, final conclusions about its effectiveness cannot be made, however, current evidence indicates it is a highly useful therapy. 6 references.

  16. Spirometric abnormalities associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness among boilermaker construction workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, R.; Eisen, E,A,; Pothier, L,; Lewis, D,; Bledsoe, T,; Christiani, D.C. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2002-06-01

    In a 2-year longitudinal study of boilermaker construction workers, authors found a significant association between working at oil-fired, coal-fired, and gas-fired industries during the past year and reduced lung function. In the present study, authors investigated whether chronic bronchitis, asthma, or baseline methacholine airway responsiveness can explain the heterogeneity in lung function response to boilermaker work. Exposure was assessed with a work history questionnaire. Spirometry was performed annually to assess lung function. A generalized estimating equation approach was used to account for the repeated-measures design. One hundred eighteen boilermakers participated in the study. Self-reported history of chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a larger FEV1 reduction in response to workplace exposure at coal-fired and gas-fired industries. Although a high prevalence (39%) of airway hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEVI of {lt} 8 mg/mL) among boilermakers was found, there was no consistent pattern of effect modification by airway responsiveness. Conclusions: Although chronic bronchitis and asthma were associated with a greater loss in lung function in response to hours worked as a boilermaker, and therefore they acted as effect modifiers of the exposure-lung function relationship, airway hyperresponsiveness did not. However, the high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness found in the cohort may be a primary consequence of long-term workplace exposure among boilermakers.

  17. Evaluation of effectiveness of hydrolyzed dextran in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinchenko, N.Z.; Filipchenko, L.L.; Volkova, V.M.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental group and a control group identical in age, work experience, dust exposure and expression of disease were treated for dust-induced bronchitis. The control group received broncholytics, anti-inflammatory preparations and physiotherapy; the experimental group received same treatment plus 200 ml of rheopolyglucin, a 10% solution of dextran (water-soluble polysaccharide of glucose), twice a week for 2 to 3 weeks. In addition to general laboratory and clinical methods of investigation, cytologic analysis of sputum before and after treatment was carried out. Results of experiment are given in 3 tables showing: Dynamics of Allergic Signs after Treatment with Rheopolyglucin, Dynamics of Content of Eosinophils in Blood after Treatment, and Cytologic Characteristics of Mucus of Patients with Dust-Induced Bronchitis. Patients treated with rheopolyglucin improved more than control group in abatement of suppurative process in lungs, strengthening of specific cellular and humoral mechanisms of immune response at level of bronchopulmonary system, increased expulsion of mineral dust from lungs and significant reduction of allergic reaction. Results quantitated in tables prove advantages of adding rheopolyglucin to traditional therapy in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. 19 refs.

  18. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  19. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  20. A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Decision Support Strategies for Reducing Antibiotic Use for Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ralph; Anderer, Tammy; McCulloch, Charles E.; Maselli, Judith H.; Bloom, Frederick J; Graf, Thomas R; Stahl, Melissa; Yefko, Michelle; Molecavage, Julie; Metlay, Joshua P

    2013-01-01

    Background National quality indicators show little change in the overuse of antibiotics for uncomplicated acute bronchitis. We compared the impact of two decision support strategies on antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Methods We conducted a three-arm, cluster-randomized trial among 33 primary care practices belonging to an integrated health care system in central Pennsylvania. The printed intervention arm (n=11 practices) received decision support for acute cough illness through a print-based strategy, the computerized intervention group (n=11) received decision support through an electronic medical record-based strategy, and third group of practices (n=11) served as the control arm. Both intervention groups also received provider education and feedback on prescribing practices, and patient education brochures at check-in. Antibiotic prescription rates for uncomplicated acute bronchitis in the winter period (October 2009 – March 2010) following introduction of the intervention were compared with the previous three winter periods in an intent-to-treat analysis. Results Compared with the baseline period, the percentage of adolescents and adults prescribed antibiotics during the intervention period decreased at the printed (from 80.0% to 68.3%) and computerized intervention sites (from 74.0% to 60.7%), but increased slightly at the control sites (from 72.5% to 74.3%). After controlling for patient and provider characteristics, and clustering of observations by provider and practice site, the differences for the intervention groups were statistically significant from control (control vs. printed P=0.003; control vs. computerized P=0.014) but no among themselves (printed vs. computerized P=0.67). Changes in total visits, proportion diagnosed as uncomplicated acute bronchitis and thirty-day return visit rates were similar between study groups. Conclusions Implementation of a decision support strategy for acute bronchitis can help reduce overuse

  1. A cluster randomized trial of decision support strategies for reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ralph; Anderer, Tammy; McCulloch, Charles E; Maselli, Judith H; Bloom, Frederick J; Graf, Thomas R; Stahl, Melissa; Yefko, Michelle; Molecavage, Julie; Metlay, Joshua P

    2013-02-25

    National quality indicators show little change in the overuse of antibiotics for uncomplicated acute bronchitis. We compared the effect of 2 decision support strategies on antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis. We conducted a 3-arm cluster randomized trial among 33 primary care practices belonging to an integrated health care system in central Pennsylvania. The printed decision support intervention sites (11 practices) received decision support for acute cough illness through a print-based strategy, the computer-assisted decision support intervention sites (11 practices) received decision support through an electronic medical record-based strategy, and the control sites (11 practices) served as a control arm. Both intervention sites also received clinician education and feedback on prescribing practices, as well as patient education brochures at check-in. Antibiotic prescription rates for uncomplicated acute bronchitis in the winter period (October 1, 2009, through March 31, 2010) following introduction of the intervention were compared with the previous 3 winter periods in an intent-to-treat analysis. Compared with the baseline period, the percentage of adolescents and adults prescribed antibiotics during the intervention period decreased at the printed decision support intervention sites (from 80.0% to 68.3%) and at the computer-assisted decision support intervention sites (from 74.0% to 60.7%) but increased slightly at the control sites (from 72.5% to 74.3%). After controlling for patient and clinician characteristics, as well as clustering of observations by clinician and practice site, the differences for the intervention sites were statistically significant from the control sites (P = .003 for control sites vs printed decision support intervention sites and P = .01 for control sites vs computer-assisted decision support intervention sites) but not between themselves (P = .67 for printed decision support intervention sites vs computer

  2. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  3. Charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Songkyo

    2016-01-01

    We report on the analysis of charmonia in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with the CMS experiment with various observables. The cross section for coherent J/$\\psi$ photoproduction is measured in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The ratio of yields at forward (proton-going direction) and backward (Pb-going direction) is studied as a function of $p_{\\rm T}$, rapidity, and the event activity in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The nuclear modification factor of prompt J/$\\psi$ in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV is presented as a function of centrality, $p_{\\rm T}$, and rapidity. Finally, the production yields of $\\psi$(2S) and J/$\\psi$ in pp and PbPb collisions have been compared.

  4. One size does not fit all: evaluating an intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Overuse of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) and acute bronchitis is a persistent and vexing problem. In the U.S., more than half of all patients with upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis are treated with antibiotics annually, despite the fact that most cases are viral in etiology and are not responsive to antibiotics. Interventions aiming to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing have had mixed results, and successes have been modest. The objective of this evaluation is to use mixed methods to understand why a multi-level intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis among primary care providers resulted in measurable improvement in only one third of participating clinicians. Methods Clinician perspectives on print-based and electronic intervention strategies, and antibiotic prescribing more generally, were elicited through structured telephone surveys at high and low performing sites after the first year of intervention at the Geisinger Health System in Pennsylvania (n = 29). Results Compared with a survey on antibiotic use conducted 10 years earlier, clinicians demonstrated greater awareness of antibiotic resistance and how it is impacted by individual prescribing decisions—including their own. However, persistent perceived barriers to reducing prescribing included patient expectations, time pressure, and diagnostic uncertainty, and these factors were reported as differentially undermining specific intervention components’ effectiveness. An exam room poster depicting a diagnostic algorithm was the most popular strategy. Conclusions Future efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing should address multi-level barriers identified by clinicians and tailor strategies to differences at individual clinician and group practice levels, focusing in particular on changing how patients and providers make decisions together about antibiotic use. PMID:24188573

  5. Network meta-analysis of success rate and safety in antibiotic treatments of bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghua; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Pan; Li, Mingxian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative efficacy and safety of different antibiotic drugs and recommend superior regimens in the treatment of bronchitis. With respect to the antibiotic comparisons against quinolones in terms of intention-to-treat patients, we concluded that quinolones had advantages over placebo, β-lactams, sulfonamides, and double β-lactams. Concerning treatment methods for clinically evaluable patients, quinolones demonstrated better performance than β-lactams and sulfonamides. The secondary effects of macrolides, quinolones, and double β-lactams were significantly more adverse than β-lactams with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.5 (95% credible interval [CrI] =1.1–2.0), 1.7 (95% CrI =1.2–2.3), and 2.7 (95% CrI =1.8–4.1), respectively. Significant differences in the prevalence of diarrhea as a secondary effect were only identified among the comparisons of double β-lactams against β-lactams and macrolides (OR =5.0, 95% CrI =2.1–12.0; OR =3.0, 95% CrI =1.7–5.4, respectively). Quinolones can be recommended as the superior treatment for bronchitis, in accordance with our cluster analysis with surface under the cumulative ranking curve. The primary outcomes of network meta-analysis indicated that quinolones showed the best performance among the 8 treatments studied, although β-lactams showed the lowest risk of adverse side effects. Quinolones are recommended as the primary treatment option for bronchitis patients, having taking into account the success rates and safety profiles of the eight drugs studied here. PMID:28848340

  6. Association of Large-Airway Lymphocytic Bronchitis with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, John R.; Jones, Kirk D.; Hays, Steve R.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Urisman, Anatoly; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Caughey, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Lung transplantation offers great promise for otherwise terminal lung diseases, but the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) continues to limit survival. Although acute rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis have been identified as risk factors for the development of BOS, it is unclear whether large-airway lymphocytic inflammation conveys the same risk. Objectives: We evaluated lymphocytic bronchitis on endobronchial biopsies as a risk factor for BOS and mortality. Methods: Endobronchial biopsies were collected and graded during surveillance after lung transplantation. We assessed samples with negative cultures collected in the first 90 days from 298 subjects and compared large-airway lymphocytic bronchitis assessed by a 0–2 “E-score” and with standard A and BR pathology scores for acute rejection and small-airway lymphocytic bronchiolitis, respectively. Measurements and Main Results: We found surprisingly little association between large- and small-airway lymphocytic inflammation scores from a given bronchoscopy. Endobronchial lymphocytic bronchitis was more prevalent in subjects in BOS stage 0p and BOS stages 1–3 at the time of biopsy. Within 90 days after transplantation, increasing maximum E-score was associated with greater risk of BOS (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.78; P = 0.02) and in this analysis 90-day maximum E-scores were the only score type predictive of BOS (P < 0.01). Conclusions: These results support a multicenter study to evaluate endoscopic biopsies for the identification of patients at increased risk for BOS. The association of endobronchial lymphocytic inflammation and BOS may have mechanistic implications. PMID:23239157

  7. Molecular characterization of quail bronchitis virus isolated from bobwhite quail in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Azad; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Patnayak, Devi P; Jindal, Naresh; Porter, Robert E; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-12-01

    From 2008 to 2012, 4 separate cases of quail bronchitis virus infection were seen in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) raised in Minnesota. The quail chicks ranged in age from 5 d to 8 wk and suffered from respiratory distress and elevated mortality. On necropsy, gross lesions consisted of mucus in trachea, congested lungs, caseous air sacculitis, accumulation of chalky white urates on internal organs, necrotic foci in liver, and enlarged spleen. Histologic examination revealed fibrinoheterophilic rhinitis, heterophilic bronchitis, heterophilic tracheitis, and interstitial pneumonia in addition to deciliation, desquamation, and necrosis of bronchial respiratory epithelium. Karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions was also seen in affected epithelium. Severe epicarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis, and splenitis were additional pathological findings. Quail bronchitis virus (QBV) was isolated from all four samples when inoculated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction using fowl adenovirus (FAdV) hexon gene-specific primers. Nucleotide sequences of the four isolates showed 99.0% identity with CELO strain of fowl adenovirus A. Nine nucleotide substitutions were observed; 3 of these were nonsynonymous (A281G, C314T and G565C), leading to changes in deduced amino acid sequences (S94G, T105M and A189P, respectively). Based on partial sequence of the hexon gene, QBV isolates of this study clustered closely with fowl adenovirus A and were different from FAdV groups B through E and from adenoviruses of goose, duck, turkey, and pigeon. Further studies are indicated to determine the impact of nonsynonymous substitutions on host specific pathogenicity of these viruses. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Serotype shift of a 793/B genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus by natural recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Xu, Qianqian; Wang, Qiuling; Gao, Mengying; Wu, Wei; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    An infectious bronchitis coronavirus, designated as ck/CH/LHLJ/140906, was isolated from an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain H120-vaccinated chicken flock, which presented with a suspected infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. A phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene clustered ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 with the 793/B group; however, a pairwise comparison showed that the 5' terminal of the S1 gene (containing hypervariable regions I and II) had high sequence identity with the H120 strain, while the 3' terminal sequence was very similar to that of IBV 4/91 strain. A SimPlot analysis of the complete genomic sequence, which was confirmed by a phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide similarities using the corresponding gene fragments, suggested that isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 emerged from multiple recombination events between parental IBV strains 4/91 and H120. Although the isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 had slightly higher S1 amino acid sequence identity to strain 4/91 (88.2%) than to strain H120 (86%), the serotype of the virus was more closely related to that of the H120 strain (32% antigenic relatedness) than to the 4/91 strain (15% antigenic relatedness). Whereas, vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the 4/91 vaccine provided better protection against challenge with ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 than did vaccination with the H120 strain according to the result of virus re-isolation. As the spike protein, especially in the hypervariable regions of the S1 domain, of IBVs contains viral neutralizing epitopes, the results of this study showed that recombination of the S1 domain resulted in the emergence of a new serotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chest physical therapy in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: effectiveness of three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, A; Lascioli, R; Raschi, S; Guzzi, L; Adone, R

    2000-05-01

    To compare the short-term effects of postural drainage (PD), oscillating positive expiratory pressure (using the FLUTTER device), and expiration with the glottis open in the lateral posture (ELTGOL) on oxygen saturation, pulmonary function, and sputum production in patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. A prospective, randomized study. A clinical ward. Ten patients with chronic bronchitis exacerbation received PD, FLUTTER, and ELTGOL by the same respiratory therapist at about the same time of day on separate days and in random order. Oxygen saturation and pulmonary function were measured before, immediately after, and 15 minutes and 1 hour after each treatment. Improvement in sputum production was measured by total sputum wet weight immediately after and for 1 hour after treatment. PD consisted of positioning the patients in a posture that allows bronchial drainage by gravity. FLUTTER is a device that is claimed to combine oscillating positive expiratory pressure with oscillations of the airflow. ELTGOL is an airway clearance technique that uses lateral posture and different lung volumes to control expiratory flow rate to avoid airway compression. The total time spent for treatments was 30 minutes. All techniques were well tolerated, and oxygen saturation and pulmonary function did not change significantly during and after treatments. Thirty minutes after the beginning of treatment, sputum production increased significantly with all techniques, but during the 1 hour after the end of treatment, it was significantly larger with FLUTTER (from 15.0 +/- 8.6g to 19.0 +/- 9.3g, p ELTGOL (from 17.0 +/- 7.0g to 20.6 +/- 6.9g, p ELTGOL techniques were more effective in prolonging secretion removal in chronic bronchitis exacerbation than was the PD method.

  10. PERSISTENCE AND NEW-ONSET OF ASTHMA AND CHRONIC-BRONCHITIS EVALUATED LONGITUDINALLY IN A COMMUNITY POPULATION-SAMPLE OF ADULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTMA, DS; LEBOWITZ, MD

    1995-01-01

    Background: Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may share the clinical characteristics of those with asthma; their disease is sometimes called ''asthmatic bronchitis.'' Whether there is a difference between asthmatics who do and do not develop chronic bronchitis is not yet

  11. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    that MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role...

  12. RNA sequencing based analysis of the spleen transcriptome following the infectious bronchitis virus infection of chickens selected for different mannose-binding lectin serum concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAvian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune response to IBV infection is a crucial element for further improvements...

  13. [Studies of cellular immunity in medical workers with occupational asthma and obstructive bronchitis in health care institutions of Primorsky Krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasova, M V; Kaptsov, V A; Sheparev, A A

    2013-01-01

    Research was carried out on the basis of voluntary consent to the study of the characteristics of cellular immunity from the blood samples of the medical staff of health institutions of Primorsky Krai suffered from occupational bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis. For this purpose, 23 female patients with a diagnosis of occupational asthma, 100 female cases with obstructive bronchitis were examined. Mean age was 47.9 +/- 3.5 years. The control group was consisted of 30 healthy women, average age of 46.7 +/- 3.7years. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of cellular immunity in health care workers with occupational asthma and obstructive bronchitis. There is an urgent need to study the dynamics of immunogram for proper interpretation and to take measures to prevent complications timely.

  14. The role of pneumococcal infection in development of exacerbations in children with bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Kukhtinova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal infection remains the key cause of severe diseases of lower airways and deaths in children. The objective: to study the role of pneumococcal infection in pathogenesis of exacerbations of recurrent obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods: etiological structure of lower airways infections was evaluated in 125 patients 1–15 years old with bronchial asthma or recurrent bronchitis. Results: etiologic role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in development of low airways infections was detected in 48% of patients with atopic asthma, 85% — with asthma without atopy, 97% — with recurrent bronchitis. Repeated microbiological examination confirmed chronic carriage of S. рneumoniae in nasopharinx in 31% of patients. Conclusion: early active prophylaxis with vaccine against pneumococcal infection including conjugated vaccines is able to prevent further progression of a disease.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, exacerbation, pneumococcal infection.

  15. Genetic mutations in live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses following single or dual in vitro infection of tracheal organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher; Bennett, Sarah; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-12-01

    Despite regular co-vaccination of two different strains of live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses, little is known about possible mutations in these viruses following vaccination. As an alternative to chicks, this study used an in vitro infection model to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the part-S1 gene of two live infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strains (793B and Massachusetts) following single or dual inoculation onto tracheal organ cultures. Results indicate that viral titres reduced over the duration of the study; conversely, the amount of detected infectious bronchitis virus genome increased. Results demonstrate a greater number of non-synonymous SNPs in both vaccine strains when they are co-inoculated, compared with the single inoculations. The influence of the increased SNP and hydrophobic properties of the translated proteins on the vaccine viruses' virulence is unknown.

  16. Observation of the effects of the Suhuang Zhike capsule on acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J

    2017-01-01

    Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases in the world. The Suhuang Zhike capsule is a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that was approved to treat acute bronchitis. In order to study the clinical effects of the Suhuang Zhike capsule on acute bronchitis subjects, the clinical data of 96 patients from the Department of Lung Disease of Zhengzhou Traditional Chinese Hospital from June 2014 to June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group and a Suhuang Zhike capsule treatment group, each with 48 cases. The therapeutic effects of the treatments were evaluated on the tenth day. The results showed that the total effective rate of the observation group was 95.83%, which was significantly higher when compared with the control group, which was 72.91% (P less than 0.005). The clinical signs (e.g. coughing, itchy throat, dry cough without phlegm, little sputum) of the two groups obviously decreased, and the difference was statistically significant when compared with the pretreatment scores (P less than 0.005). The decreased rate of the observation group was significantly larger when compared with the control group (P less than 0.005). The time it took for the clinical symptoms of the observation group to resolve was significantly shorter when compared with the control group (P less than 0.005). After treatment, the serum levels of c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of the two groups obviously decreased. There was a significant difference in these serum levels when compared with pre-treatment levels (P less than 0.005). The decreased rate of the observation group was obviously larger when compared with the control group (P less than 0.005). In the observation group, there were 3 cases with adverse reactions (nausea in 2 cases and mild vomiting in 1 case) during the observation period, with an adverse reaction rate of 6.25% In the

  17. THE USAGE OF HALOAEROSOLOTHERAPY IN THE REHABILITATIONAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH RECCURENT BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEMKO Ivan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various therapeutic complexes on the basis of haloaerosoltherapy in the rehabilitational treatment of children with recurrent bronchitis on the ground of clinical and functional data and further development of recommendations for differentiated treatment. Objectives. Children (at the age of 6-10 years with recurrent bronchitis, who received treatment in conditions of artificial rock salt aerosol medium (haloaerosoltherapy. Material and Methods. 35 children with recurrent bronchitis (RB were examined. All children’s clinical data were monitored; respiratory function was evaluated using spirography. Forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC, forced expiratory volume for the 1-st second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at the point of 25% from FIVC(FEF25, forced expiratory flow at the point of 50% from FIVC (FEF50, and forced expiratory flow at the point of 75% from FIVC (FEF75 were defined. The patients were treated with the help of two therapeutic complexes (TC. 12 children were treated by the first TC which included haloaerosoltherapy (14 procedures, in well-equipped room with the initial concentration of rock salt aerosol 40 mg/m3 and the predominance of fine powder fraction (<80%. The first procedure lasted 10 minutes, the second – 20 minutes, the third and the following ones – 30 minutes. The concentration and dispersity of haloaerosol were measured with the help of special laser optical system. 23 children underwent second TC, which included 12 procedures of singlet oxygen therapy in the form of foam additionally to the haloaerosoltherapy sessions. Results. At the beginning of the treatment children had no signs of the acute phase of the disease. Though there were some symptoms which testify that the inflammatory process and functional recovery are not finished yet after the acute phase of the recurrent bronchitis. The clinical picture was confirmed by the major

  18. Identification of one peptide which inhibited infectivity of avian infectious bronchitis virus in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Purified avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was used to screen a random phage display peptide library. After the fourth panning, 10 positive phages were sequenced and characterized. The phages specifically inhibited IBV infectivity in HeLa cells and blocked IBV haemagglutination. One linear peptide "GSH HRH VHS PFV" from the positive phages with the highest neutralization titer was synthesized and this peptide inhibited IBV infection in HeLa as well. The results may contribute to development of antiviral therapeutics for IBV and studying the determinants for viral and cell interaction.

  19. Reducing Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults With Acute Bronchitis in an Urgent Care Setting: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Tamara L; Townsend, Mary L; Leung, Eugene; Kommu, Sekhar; Vega, Rhonda Y; Hendrix, Cristina C

    Acute bronchitis is a predominantly viral illness and, according to clinical practice guidelines, should not be treated with antibiotics. Despite clear guidelines, acute bronchitis continues to be the most common acute respiratory illness for which antibiotics are incorrectly prescribed. Although the national benchmark for antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis is 0%, a preliminary record review before implementing the intervention at the project setting showed that 96% (N = 30) of adults with acute bronchitis in this setting were prescribed an antibiotic. This quality improvement project utilized a single-group, pre-post design. The setting for this project was a large urgent care network with numerous locations in central North Carolina. The purpose was to determine whether nurse practitioners and physician assistants, after participating in a multifaceted provider education session, would reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for healthy adults with acute uncomplicated bronchitis. Twenty providers attended 1 of 4 training sessions offered in October and November 2015. The face-to-face interactive training sessions focused on factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, current clinical practice guidelines, and patient communication skills. Retrospective medical record review of 217 pretraining and 335 posttraining encounters for acute bronchitis by 19 eligible participating providers demonstrated a 61.9% reduction in immediate antibiotic prescribing from 91.7% to 29.8%. Delayed prescribing, which accounted for a small percentage of the total prescriptions given, had a small but significant increase of 9.3% after training. Overall, this multifaceted, interactive provider training resulted in significant reductions in inappropriate prescriptions.

  20. Treatment effect and safety of EPs 7630-solution in acute bronchitis in childhood: report of a multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, M; Heger, M

    2007-01-01

    An open post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to examine the treatment effect and safety of EPs 7630-solution in the treatment of acute bronchitis in children. This study included a total of 742 children (aged between 0 and 12 years) with acute bronchitis (83.4%) or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (14.3%), who were treated with different doses of the herbal drug for up to 14 days. Five bronchitis specific symptoms (BSS) were summed up to give an overall measure of disease severity. Non-specific disease symptoms (loss of appetite, diarrhoea, headache, vomiting, and fever) were also recorded, together with adverse events and overall ratings of efficacy and tolerability. The overall BSS score decreased during treatment from 6.0+/-3.0 points at baseline to 2.7+/-2.5 points after 7 days and to 1.4+/-2.1 points after 14 days. Remission or improvement in at least 80% of patients was recorded for all the individual component symptoms. The proportion of patients suffering from non-specific symptoms also substantially improved during treatment. For example, loss of appetite was present in 65.8% of patients at study begin, but only in 27.6% at the time point of last observation visit. In 88.3% of cases, the responsible physician rated the treatment as successful. Adverse events were minor and transitory. In conclusion, EPs 7630-solution was shown to be a safe and an effective treatment option for acute bronchitis or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in children.

  1. The phenotype of concurrent chronic bronchitis and frequent exacerbations in patients with severe COPD attending Swedish secondary care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Josefin; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Kjell; Lindén, Anders; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Sandström, Thomas; Janson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic bronchitis and previous exacerbations are both well-known risk factors for new exacerbations, impaired health-related quality of life, and increased mortality in COPD. The aim of the study was to characterize the phenotype of concurrent chronic bronchitis and frequent exacerbation in severe COPD. Methods Information on patient characteristics, comorbidity, and exacerbations from the previous year (total number and number requiring hospitalization) was collected from 373 patients with stage III and IV COPD attending 27 secondary care respiratory units in Sweden. Logistic regression used chronic bronchitis and frequent exacerbations (≥2 exacerbations or ≥1 hospitalized exacerbations in the previous year) as response variables. Stratification and interaction analyses examined effect modification by sex. Results Chronic bronchitis was associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% CI], 2.75 [1.54–4.91]; P=0.001), frequent exacerbations (OR [95% CI], 1.93 [1.24–3.01]; P=0.004), and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR [95% CI], 1.74 [1.05–2.86]; P=0.031), while frequent exacerbations were associated with lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted value [FEV1% pred]) (OR [95% CI] 0.96 [0.94–0.98]; P=0.001) and chronic bronchitis (OR [95% CI] 1.73 [1.11–2.68]; P=0.015). The phenotype with both chronic bronchitis and frequent exacerbations was associated with FEV1% pred (OR [95% CI] 0.95 [0.92–0.98]; P=0.002) and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR [95% CI] 2.55 [1.31–4.99]; P=0.006). The association of smoking with the phenotype of chronic bronchitis and exacerbations was stronger in women than in men (interaction, P=0.040). Conclusion Musculoskeletal symptoms and low lung function are associated with the phenotype of combined chronic bronchitis and frequent exacerbations in severe COPD. In women, current smoking is of specific importance for this phenotype. This should be considered in clinical

  2. Role of Atypical Pathogens and the Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Acute Bronchitis: A Multicenter Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Kil Chan; Kim, Ki-Seong; Song, Kyu-Tae; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Shim, Yun Su; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Myung Goo; Yun, Jang Uk; Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Yee Hyung; Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Do Il; Cha, Hyung Gun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2015-01-01

    The role of atypical bacteria and the effect of antibiotic treatments in acute bronchitis are still not clear. This study was conducted at 22 hospitals (17 primary care clinics and 5 university hospitals) in Korea. Outpatients (aged ≥ 18 yr) who had an acute illness with a new cough and sputum (≤ 30 days) were enrolled in 2013. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect five atypical bacteria. A total of 435 patients were diagnosed as having acute bronchitis (vs...

  3. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  4. Energetics and Compatibility of Plasticizers in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rm. Muthiah

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis on the energetics of ester type plasticizers such as dioctyl adipate (DOA, dioctyl phthalate (DOP,dibutyl sebacate (DBS, isodecyl pelargonate (IDP, trioctylphosphate (TOF, diethyl phthalate (DEP, tricresyl phosphate (TCPand dibutyl phthalate (DBP and hydrocarbon type plasticizers such as polybutene (PB, spindle oil, naphthenic oil, polymer extender oil(PEO and poly isobutylene (PIB and the impact of some of the plasticizers on the work ability, pot life and mechanical properties of propellants based on two selected polymeric binders namely polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile (PBAN ter polymer andhydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB have been reported. The compatibility of all the plasticizers on HTPB binder was also studied at different concentration levels and temperatures using Brookfield viscometer and reported. The mechanism of plasticization is also reviewed.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Edward; Lockhart, Kathleen; Purchuri, Sai Navya; Pushparajah, Jennifer; Cripps, Allan W; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-06-19

    Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people. However, they can cause opportunistic infection. An oral NTHi vaccine has been developed to protect against recurrent infective acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis. To assess the effectiveness of an oral, whole-cell NTHi vaccine in protecting against recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD in adults. To assess the effectiveness of NTHi vaccine in reducing NTHi colonising the respiratory tract during recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of COPD. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), CINAHL (1981 to January 2017), LILACS (1985 to January 2017), and Web of Science (1955 to January 2017). We also searched trials registries and contacted authors of trials requesting unpublished data. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of an oral monobacterial NTHi vaccine in adults with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD when there was overt matching of the vaccine and placebo groups on clinical grounds. The selection criteria considered populations aged less than 65 years and those older than 65 years. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from original records and publications for incidence and severity of bronchitis episodes and carriage rate of

  6. Molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from broiler chicken farms in Iran, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Hamideh; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Ghafouri, Seyed Ali; Maghsoudlo, Hossein; Farahani, Reza Khaltabadi

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a viral avian disease with economic importance in the world, including Iran. S1 gene sequencing has been used for molecular epidemiological studies and genotypic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A total of 118 IBV isolates were obtained from tissue samples from chickens with clinically suspected IB from Iranian broiler farms (eight provinces, 200 samples). The isolates were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characterized by sequencing the spike glycoprotein gene. The isolates formed six distinct phylogenetic groups (IS/1494/06 [Var2] like, 4/91-like, IS/720-like, QX-like, IR-1 and Mass-like) that were related to variants isolated in the region. The most frequently detected viruses were of the Var2-like (IS/1494/06-like) genotype, with an overall prevalence of 34 %. Twenty-one percent of the isolates formed a cluster together with the 4/91 IBV type, 10 % were of the QX genotype, and 8 % were of the IS/720 genotype. In addition, 4 % and 3 % of the isolates belonged to the Massachusetts and IR-1 genotype, respectively. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized IBV variants from broiler farms in different provinces of Iran. This study demonstrates a constant evolution of IBV in Iran, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring and development of new vaccines based on indigenous viruses.

  7. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  8. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  9. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  10. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  11. 210Pb dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Roughly fifty years ago, a small group of scientists from Belgium and the United States, trying to better constrain ice sheet accumulation rates, attempted to apply what was then know about environmental lead as a potential geochronometer. Thus Goldberg (1963) developed the first principles of the 210Pb dating method, which was soon followed by a paper by Crozaz et al. (1964), who examined accumulation history of Antarctic snow using 210Pb. Shortly thereafter, Koide et al. (1972, 1973) adapted this technique to unravel sediment deposition and accumulation records in deep-sea environments. Serendipitously, they chose to work in a deep basin off California, where an independent and robust age model had already been developed. Krishanswami et al. (1971) extended the use of this technique to lacustrine deposits to reconstruct depositional histories of lake sediment, and maybe more importantly, contaminant inputs and burial. Thus, the powerful tool for dating recent (up to about one century old) sediment deposits was established and soon widely adopted. Today almost all oceanographic or limnologic studies that address recent depositional reconstructions employ 210Pb as one of several possible geochronometers (Andrews et al., 2009; Gale, 2009; Baskaran, 2011; Persson and Helms, 2011). This paper presents a short overview of the principles of 210Pb dating and provides a few examples that illustrate the utility of this tracer in contrasting depositional systems. Potential caveats and uncertainties (Appleby et al., 1986; Binford, 1990; Binford et al., 1993; Smith, 2001; Hancock et al., 2002) inherent to the use and interpretation of 210Pb-derived age-models are also introduced. Recommendations as to best practices for most reliable uses and reporting are presented in the summary.

  12. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  13. Serum levels of mannan-binding lectin in chickens prior to and during experimental infection with avian infectious bronchitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    or complement activation via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP) -1 and -2. Thus, MBL plays a major role in the first-line innate defense against pathogens. We investigated the MBL concentrations in serum during experimental infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in chickens. The results showed...

  14. Grepafloxacin in Patients with Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis - a Question of Speed in Bacterial Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J Schentag

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral grepafloxacin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB, with particular attention to the speed of bacterial killing. This was possible because the study design incorporated daily cultures of the patients’ sputum.

  15. Epitopes on the peplomer protein of infectious bronchitis virus strain M41 as defined by monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M.C. Bleumink-Pluym; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractSixteen monoclonal antibodies (Mcabs) were prepared against infectious bronchitis virus strain M41, all of them reacting with the peplomer protein. One of them, Mcab 13, was able to neutralize the virus and to inhibit hemagglutination. Competition binding assays allowed the definition of

  16. Increased Expression of the Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel in Hclca1 in Airways of Patients with Obstructive Chronic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Hauber

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-9 and its effect on enhancing the human calcium-activated chloride channel 1 (hCLCA1 expression have been shown to induce mucin production. Increased expression of hCLCA1 may, in turn, contribute to mucus overproduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with a chronic bronchitis (CB phenotype.

  17. ADVERSE-EFFECTS OF EOSINOPHILIA AND SMOKING ON THE NATURAL-HISTORY OF NEWLY-DIAGNOSED CHRONIC-BRONCHITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEBOWITZ, MD; POSTMA, DS; BURROWS, B

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for the progression of disease in individuals with newly developed chronic bronchitis (CB). In addition to the effects of smoking, there was specific clinical and epidemiologic interest in the importance of traits such as eosinophilia and wheezing, more

  18. Treatment of 301 Infantile Acute Bronchitis Patients withQingre Lifei (清热利肺) Oral Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From December 1995 to May 1996, 4 hospitals in Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu had 301 patients with infantile acute bronchitis (IAB) treated with Qingre Lifei (清热利肺, QRLF) oral liquid and the results compared with that of similar cases treated with Shema (射麻, SM) oral liquid. Following is the report.

  19. [A long-term prospective observation of the course of dust-induced bronchitis in mechanical engineering workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleĭner, A I; Makotchenko, V M; Efremova, V A; Prilipskaia, N I; Martynov, P N; Ovchinnik, E N

    1993-04-01

    A study of 206 machine builders in dynamics (up to 15 years) with dust-induced bronchitis showed that the disease has a tendency to advancing within the first three years, especially in those with a combination of noxious professional factors (dust, heat, hard physical work). Negative risk factors: working conditions, preceding unspecific respiratory infections, smoking.

  20. Jet Fragmentation in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Slovak, Radim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jets are an important tool to study the hot, dense matter produced in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. Due to the loss of some of the jet’s energy outside the jet cone, jet rates have been found to be reduced by approximately a factor of two, in the most central events and over a wide kinematic range. In order to understand precisely how the jets are modified, it is important to measure how the jet momentum is carried by its fragmentation products. The longitudinal momentum fraction of charged particles in jets from Pb+Pb, p+Pb, and p+p collisions have been measured using the ATLAS detector. Proton-proton and p+Pb collisions provide necessary baseline measurements for quantifying the modifications in Pb+Pb collisions. In Run 1, ATLAS collected samples of p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at a center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV and a sample of p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. In Run 2, large samples of p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV have been collected providing a complete set of collision systems at 5.02 TeV. In this t...

  1. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  2. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  3. Fragmentation of Pb-Projectiles at SPS Energies

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU17 \\\\ \\\\ We have exposed stacks consisting of solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass) and different target materials at the SPS to beams of Pb projectiles. Our detectors record tracks of relativistic nuclei with charge numbers of Z~$\\geq$~6 for CR-39 and Z~$\\geq$75 for BP-1. After development of the tracks by etching they are detected and measured using completely automated microscope systems. Thus experiments with high statistics are possible. \\\\ \\\\BP-1 detectors were exposed to measure total charge changing cross sections and elemental production cross sections for heavy projectile fragments. These experiments were performed for different targets CH$ _{2} $, C, Al, Cu, Ag and Pb. Comparison of the results for different targets allows to investigate contributions to charge changing reactions by electromagnetic dissociation. Multifragmentation events in which several intermediate mass fragments are emitted from the heavy Pb projectile are studied using stacks containing CR-39 d...

  4. Infectious bronchitis virus and brown shell colour: Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus affect brown eggshell colour in commercial laying hens differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess any effect of wild and vaccine Australian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains on shell colour in brown-shelled eggs. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from day 1 to day 13 post-inoculation (p.i.) from unvaccinated laying hens challenged with IBV wild strains T and N1/88 and from a negative control group of hens. In Experiment 2, eggs were collected from 2 to 22 days p.i. from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens challenged with either a wild or a vaccine strain of IBV. In Experiment 1, there was a significant effect (P shell reflectivity, L* and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in eggshells, with and without cuticle. The mean PP IX/g of shell with and without cuticle was significantly higher on day 1 p.i. compared to day 7, after which PP IX increased with day p.i. In Experiment 2, shell reflectivity and L* increased and PP IX decreased with increased day p.i. until day 12. Shell reflectivity and L* decreased slightly after day 12 and increased again towards day 22. Shell reflectivity, L* and PP IX were not significantly different for eggshells from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens in the intact eggshell, but were significantly different in shells from which cuticle had been removed. In conclusion, the IBV strains reduced the intensity of brown shell colour to different extents with a lower amount of PP IX in eggshells.

  5. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  6. Industrial bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 64. Tarlo SM. Occupational lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. Methods For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. Results The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1

  8. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  9. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  10. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  11. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  12. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  13. [Immediate and late results of rehabilitation at the climatic health resorts on the southern coast of the Crimea with sunlight- and meteorolabile patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvionenko, I I; Sidorova, L D; Logvinenko, A S

    1988-01-01

    A study of the social, socioeconomic and economic indices of rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive and nonobstructive bronchitis has shown that one should take account of a degree of expression of heliometeolability when selecting patients with chronic bronchitis residing in West Siberia for climatic treatment in the Crimean South Coast. It has been shown that rehabilitation in the Crimean South Coast health resort area is advisable for heliometeostable patients and patients with mild and marked degrees of heliometeolability. Patients with chronic bronchitis should not be sent to the Crimea in winter and late autumn as the rehabilitation effect in this period is lowered.

  14. THE ALPHA-BRANCHING RATIOS OF THE PB-188, PB-190, PB-192 ISOTOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAUTERS, J; DENDOOVEN, P; DECROCK, P; HUYSE, M; KIRCHNER, R; KLEPPER, O; REUSEN, G; ROECKL, E; VANDUPPEN, P

    1992-01-01

    The a-branching ratios (b)alpha)) of Pb-192, Pb-190, Pb-188 are measured using mass-separated sources. Different experimental set-ups are used - one detector as well as two detector set-ups - thereby detecting the alpha-particles from the parent and/or via alpha-decay formed daughter nuclei, the bet

  15. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  16. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  17. Heparan sulfate is a selective attachment factor for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus Beaudette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Ikenna G; Chu, Victor C; Lee, Hwajin; Regan, Andrew D; Bauman, Beverley E; Whittaker, Gary R

    2007-03-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain Beaudette is an embryo-adapted virus that has extended species tropism in cell culture. In order to understand the acquired tropism of the Beaudette strain, we compared the S protein sequences of several IBV strains. The Beaudette strain was found to contain a putative heparan sulfate (HS)-binding site, indicating that the Beaudette virus may use HS as a selective receptor. To ascertain the requirements of cell-surface HS for Beaudette infectivity, we assayed for infectivity in the presence of soluble heparin as a competitor and determined infectivity in mutant cell lines with no HS or glycosaminoglycan expression. Our results indicate that HS plays a role as an attachment factor for IBV, working in concert with other factors like sialic acid to mediate virus binding to cells, and may explain in part the extended tropism of IBV Beaudette.

  18. Beta2-agonists for acute cough or a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lorne A; Hom, Jeffrey; Villasis-Keever, Miguel; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2015-09-03

    The diagnosis of acute bronchitis is made on clinical grounds and a variety of clinical definitions have been used. There are no clearly effective treatments for the cough of acute bronchitis. Beta2-agonists are often prescribed, perhaps because clinicians suspect many patients also have reversible airflow restriction (as seen in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) contributing to the symptoms. To determine whether beta2-agonists improve acute bronchitis symptoms in people with no underlying pulmonary disease (such as asthma, COPD or pulmonary fibrosis). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2015, Issue 5, MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2015), EMBASE (1974 to May 2015), Web of Science (2011 to May 2015) and LILACS (1982 to May 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which allocated people (adults, or children over two years of age) with acute bronchitis or acute cough and without known pulmonary disease to beta2-agonist versus placebo, no treatment or alternative treatment. Three review authors independently selected outcomes and extracted data while blinded to study results. Two review authors independently assessed each trial for risk of bias. We analysed trials in children and adults separately. Two trials of moderate quality in children (n = 134) with no evidence of airflow restriction did not find any benefits from oral beta2-agonists. Five trials in adults (n = 418) had mixed results but overall summary statistics did not reveal any significant benefits from oral (three trials) nor from inhaled (two trials) beta2-agonists. Three studies with low-quality evidence demonstrated no significant differences in daily cough scores, nor in the percentage of adults still coughing after seven days (control group 71%; risk ratio (RR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.18; 220 participants). In one trial, subgroups with evidence of airflow limitation had lower symptom scores if given beta2-agonists. The

  19. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in broiler flocks in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Awad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of broiler flocks with respiratory disease and high mortality in five broiler farms in Libya were sampled for detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Twelve IBV strains from these farms were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and differentiated by nucleotide sequencing of the hypervariable region of the S1 gene. A pair-wise comparison of the sequences showed two distinctive patterns. Those from farms 1, 2, 4 and 5, formed a separate cluster with 94–99% relatedness to the Egyptian IBV strains CK/Eg/BSU-2/2011, CK/Eg/BSU-3/2011 and Eg/1212B. Sequences from the farm 3 formed another cluster with 100% relatedness to Eg/CLEVB-2/IBV/012 and IS/1494/06. This appears to be the first report on the co-circulation these variant IBVs in Libya.

  20. Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer S Balter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB account for over 1.5 million physician visits annually in Canada and are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. This document represents a joint effort between respirologists, microbiologists, infectious disease specialists and family physicians to update the Canadian AECB guidelines published in 1994. Treatment recommendations are graded on the strength of evidence in the published literature where possible. The role for oral corticosteroid therapy in preventing treatment failures, speeding up recovery and delaying the time to next exacerbation is discussed. Risk factors for treatment failure were used to stratify patients into risk groups to help guide antibiotic treatment recommendations. The importance of emerging antimicrobial resistance to current antibiotics is reviewed and strategies to prevent future AECB episodes are suggested.

  1. S1 gene sequence analysis of a nephropathogenic strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladman Brian S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of serotypes/genotypes. Only a few amino acid differences in the S1 protein of vaccine and challenge strains of IBV may result in poor protection. Tropism of IBV includes the respiratory tract tissues, proventriculus and caecal tonsils of the alimentary tract, the oviduct and the kidney. Results Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV strain closely related to Massachusetts (Mass serotype was isolated from broiler chickens suffering from severe renal and respiratory distresses. The isolate was serologically identified by Dot-ELISA and further characterized by RT-PCR then genotyped using S1 gene sequence analysis. Alignment of the S1 sequence of the isolate with 16 IBV strains revealed high homology to isolates related to Mass serotype. Inoculation with the strain reproduced the disease in experimental 1-day-old chickens and resulted in 20% mortality, severe renal and moderate respiratory distresses. Marked histopathological changes in both kidney and trachea were observed in experimentally infected chickens. A protection study using the H120 live attenuated vaccine showed low protection rate in spite of high S1 sequence homology (97%. Protection based criteria were: virus re-isolation attempts from trachea, tracheal and renal histopathology as well as IBV antigens detection by immunofluorescent antibody technique in kidney sections. Conclusion Periodical evaluation of cross-protective capabilities of IBV vaccine(s versus recently recovered field isolates should be performed to ensure optimum control of IBV.

  2. Genome sequencing and characterization analysis of a Beijing isolate of chicken corona virus infectious bronchitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weiwu; YU Jialin; LI Ning; GONG Yuanshi; SUN Qixin; CHEN Zhangliang; CHEN Chen; ZHANG Ying; ZHAO Yiqiang; FENG Jidong; CHEN Fuyong; WU Qingming; YANG Hanchun; WANG Ming

    2004-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV) is lassified as a member of the genus coronavirus in the family coronaviridae. The enveloped virus has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 28 kilo-bases,which has a 5′ cap structure and 3′ polyadenylation tract.The complete genome sequence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Beijing isolate, was determined by cloning sequencing and primer walking. The whole genome is 27733 nucleotides in length, has ten open reading frames: 5′-orfla-orflab-s-3a-3b-e-m- 6a-6b-n-3′. Alignments of the genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate with those of two AIBV strains and one SARS coronavirus were performed respectively. The genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate compared with that of the IBV strain LX4 (uncompleted, 19440 bp in size) was 91.2%similarity. However, the full-length genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate was 85.2% identity to that of IBV Strain Beaudette, and was only 50.8% homology to that of SARS coronavirus. The results showed that the genome of IBV has remarkable variation. And IBV Beijing isolate is not closely related to SARS coronavirus. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome sequence, S protein, M protein and N protein, also showed that AIBV Beijing isolate is lone virus in group Ⅲ and is distant from SARS coronavirus. In conclusion, this study will contribute to the studies of diagnosis and diseases control on IBV in China.

  3. Structural view and substrate specificity of papain-like protease from avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingying; Shaw, Neil; Yan, Lingming; Lou, Zhiyong; Rao, Zihe

    2015-03-13

    Papain-like protease (PLpro) of coronaviruses (CoVs) carries out proteolytic maturation of non-structural proteins that play a role in replication of the virus and performs deubiquitination of host cell factors to scuttle antiviral responses. Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the causative agent of bronchitis in chicken that results in huge economic losses every year in the poultry industry globally, encodes a PLpro. The substrate specificities of this PLpro are not clearly understood. Here, we show that IBV PLpro can degrade Lys(48)- and Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin but not linear polyubiquitin. To explain the substrate specificities, we have solved the crystal structure of PLpro from IBV at 2.15-Å resolution. The overall structure is reminiscent of the structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV PLpro. However, unlike the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV PLpro that lacks blocking loop (BL) 1 of deubiquitinating enzymes, the IBV PLpro has a short BL1-like loop. Access to a conserved catalytic triad consisting of Cys(101), His(264), and Asp(275) is regulated by the flexible BL2. A model of ubiquitin-bound IBV CoV PLpro brings out key differences in substrate binding sites of PLpros. In particular, P3 and P4 subsites as well as residues interacting with the β-barrel of ubiquitin are different, suggesting different catalytic efficiencies and substrate specificities. We show that IBV PLpro cleaves peptide substrates KKAG-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin and LRGG-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin with different catalytic efficiencies. These results demonstrate that substrate specificities of IBV PLpro are different from other PLpros and that IBV PLpro might target different ubiquitinated host factors to aid the propagation of the virus.

  4. Feline aminopeptidase N is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbison Carole E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. In many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. However, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN serves as a functional receptor for most group 1 coronaviruses including feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. A recent report has also suggested a role for fAPN during IBV entry (Miguel B, Pharr GT, Wang C: The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol 2002, 147:2047–2056. Results Here we show that, whereas both transient transfection and constitutive expression of fAPN on BHK-21 cells can rescue FIPV and TGEV infection in non-permissive BHK cells, fAPN expression does not rescue infection by the prototype IBV strain Mass41. To account for the previous suggestion that fAPN could serve as an IBV receptor, we show that feline cells can be infected with the prototype strain of IBV (Mass 41, but with low susceptibility compared to primary chick kidney cells. We also show that BHK-21 cells are slightly susceptible to certain IBV strains, including Ark99, Ark_DPI, CA99, and Iowa97 ( Conclusion We conclude that fAPN is not a functional receptor for IBV, the identity of which is currently under investigation.

  5. Jet Fragmentation in pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Slovak, Radim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jets are an important tool to study the hot, dense matter produced in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. Jet rates have been found to be reduced by approximately a factor of two, in the most central events and over a wide kinematic range. In order to understand precisely how the jets are modified, it is important to measure how the jet momentum is carried by its fragmentation products. In this proceedings, we present the status of fragmentation function measurements at 5.02 TeV for p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions as well as measurement for Pb+Pb and pp collisions at 2.76 TeV.

  6. Removal of lead (Pb2+) from aqueous medium by using chars from co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria; Mendes, Sandra; Lapa, Nuno; Gonçalves, Margarida; Mendes, Benilde; Pinto, Filomena; Lopes, Helena; Fonseca, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of chars from the co-pyrolysis of pine, used tires and plastic wastes for the removal of lead (Pb(2+)) from aqueous medium, was investigated. The chars were predominantly of macroporous nature, but the introduction of tires in the pyrolysis feedstock enhanced their mesoporous content as well as surface area. Pb(2+) sorption with the chars was a slow and unstable process in which sorption-desorption seems to be competing. The highest Pb(2+) removal (88%) was attained by the char resulting from the pyrolysis of a mixture composed by equal mass ratios of used tires and plastics, at 48 h of contact time. This char was also the one with the overall better performance for Pb(2+) sorption, achieving almost 100% of Pb(2+) removal on the study of the effect of adsorbent dose. Mixing the three raw materials for pyrolysis had no advantage for the resulting char concerning the removal efficiency of Pb(2+). The sorption mechanisms varied according to the pyrolysis feedstock: in chars from feedstock with pine, chemisorption involving complexation with oxygenated surface functional groups followed by cation exchange was the presumable mechanism. In tire rubber derived chars, cation exchange with Ca(2+), K(+), and Zn(2+) played the major role on Pb(2+) sorption.

  7. [Occupational sanitary-and-hygienic conditions and chronic dust bronchitis morbidity in the ore-mining industry of Krivoi Rog region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gural', O I

    2005-01-01

    Chronic dust bronchitis morbidity of ore-mining workers is caused not only by high concentration of dust but also conditioned by carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, oil aerosols, unfavorable microclimate as well as different combinations of these adverse agents.

  8. Treatment of Cough and Dyspnea due to Acute Bronchitis by Plaster for Cough and Dyspnea-A Report of 735 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振甫; 周文秀; 高举先; 孙江桥

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the light of the theory of treating the internal disease externally, an externally used plaster for treating cough and dyspnea due to acute bronchitis (Ke Chuan Yi Tie Kang 咳喘一贴康) was successfully applied to 735 cases of acute bronchitis (the treatment group), with the other 423 cases treated with routine western drugs as controls. The results showed that the cure rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01); and that in the treatment group, the cure rate for the wind-cold type of acute bronchitis was significantly higher than that for the wind-heat type of acute bronchitis (P<0.01).

  9. Effect of inhaled procaterol on cough receptor sensitivity to capsaicin in patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis and in normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, M; Sakamoto, S.; Kamio, Y.; Bando, T.; Kurashima, K.; T. Matsuda

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--To evaluate the effect of inhaled beta 2 adrenergic agonists on the sensitivity of airway cough receptors, the effect of inhaled procaterol on cough induced by aerosolised capsaicin, a stimulant of C fibres, was studied in patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis and in normal subjects. METHOD--Eleven patients with asthma and 10 with chronic bronchitis and 14 normal subjects participated. Increasing concentrations of capsaicin solution were inhaled for 15 seconds by tidal breath...

  10. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Yvonne; Cots Josep M; Pera Helena; Morros Rosa; Bayona Carolina; Moragas Ana; Llor Carl; Miravitlles Marc; Boada Albert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effe...

  11. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  12. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  13. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  14. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  15. Charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Run 1 results of the analysis of charmonium production in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions with the CMS experiment are reported. The coherent $J/\\psi$ photoproduction cross section is measured as a function of rapidity in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The forward-backward ratio of prompt $J/\\psi$ yields in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV is presented as a function of the event activity and $p_{T}$. The nuclear modification factor of prompt $J/\\psi$ in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV is shown as a function of rapidity, centrality and $p_{T}$. Finally, the ratio of $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ to $J/\\psi$ yields in PbPb collisions with respect to pp collisions at 2.76 TeV is analysed in different rapidity and centrality bins.

  16. Dose-response-relation between croup syndrome/obstructive bronchitis and ambient air pollution in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Beckmann, M.; Huebner, H.R.; Malin, E.M.; Rebmann, H.; Pizard-Weyrich, M.; Hippke, G.; Doeller, G.; Herrmann, S.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1988-04-01

    The data collection for the epidemiologic study which started in January 1986 has been completed. In Stuttgart, Tuebingen/Reutlingen/Rottenburg and Freudenstadt 188 physicians and 3 hospitals participated in the longitudinal study and more than 3000 cases of croup syndrome or obstructive bronchitis were reported. In the cross-sectional study the parents of more than 8000 children filled in a questionnaire, which corresponds to a response rate of about 90%. Of the positive virologic isolations approximately 50% were RS-viruses, 25% parainfluenza-viruses and 16% influenze-viruses. Parainfluenza viruses had their maximum during fall as croup syndrome had. In contrast RS-viruses were isolated more frequently in spring where also an increase of obstructive bronchitis was reported. During the winter of 1986 an epidemics of influenza B coincided with elevated numbers for both deseases. Statistical analysis of the data with respect to ambient air pollution is in process.

  17. Influence of erdosteine, a mucolytic agent, on amoxycillin penetration into sputum in patients with an infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricevuti, G; Mazzone, A; Uccelli, E; Gazzani, G; Fregnan, G B

    1988-08-01

    Twenty four patients with acute infective exacerbations of chronic bronchitis received amoxycillin alone or in combination with erdosteine (a mucolytic agent) for a week in a double blind, placebo controlled study. Clinical assessment scores, body temperature, serum and sputum amoxycillin concentrations, and sputum culture results were recorded in each group. Erdosteine significantly increased antibiotic concentrations in sputum but not in serum. The combined treatment also caused a more rapid decrease in sputum viscosity and in body temperature and faster sterilisation of the sputum. These results show that erdosteine increases amoxycillin concentration in sputum in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. This effect may be due to a reduction in the viscosity of the bronchial secretions produced by erdosteine.

  18. Influence of erdosteine, a mucolytic agent, on amoxycillin penetration into sputum in patients with an infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricevuti, G; Mazzone, A.; Uccelli, E.; G. Gazzani; Fregnan, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty four patients with acute infective exacerbations of chronic bronchitis received amoxycillin alone or in combination with erdosteine (a mucolytic agent) for a week in a double blind, placebo controlled study. Clinical assessment scores, body temperature, serum and sputum amoxycillin concentrations, and sputum culture results were recorded in each group. Erdosteine significantly increased antibiotic concentrations in sputum but not in serum. The combined treatment also caused a more rapi...

  19. The therapeutic efficacy of erdosteine in the treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis: A meta-analysis of individual patient data

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cazzola; Floriani, I.; Page, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim to test the available evidence for the efficacy of erdosteine in adults with stable or exacerbated CB/COPD. Erdosteine, a drug approved for the treatment of acute and chronic pulmonary diseases, has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic bronchitis or COPD (CB/COPD) in several studies, although marked differences in the perception of its usefulness still remain. Methods meta-analysis of individual patient data fr...

  20. Observation of sequential Upsilon suppression in PbPb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The suppression of the individual Upsilon(nS) states in PbPb collisions with respect to their yields in pp data has been measured. The PbPb and pp datasets used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 150 inverse microbarns and 230 inverse nanobarns, respectively, collected in 2011 by the CMS experiment at the LHC, at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. The Upsilon(nS) yields are measured from the dimuon invariant mass spectra. The suppression of the Upsilon(nS) yields in PbPb relative to the yields in pp scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, R[AA], is measured as a function of the collision centrality. Integrated over centrality, the R[AA] values are 0.56 +/- 0.08 (stat.) +/- 0.07 (syst.), 0.12 +/- 0.04 (stat.) +/- 0.02 (syst.), and lower than 0.10 (at 95% confidence level), for the Upsilon(1S), Upsilon(2S), and Upsilon(3S) states, respectively. The results demonstrate the sequential suppression of the Upsilon(nS) states in PbPb collisions at LHC energies.

  1. Observation of Sequential Υ Suppression in PbPb Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.

    2012-11-01

    The suppression of the individual Υ(nS) states in PbPb collisions with respect to their yields in pp data has been measured. The PbPb and pp data sets used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 150μb-1 and 230nb-1, respectively, collected in 2011 by the CMS experiment at the LHC, at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. The Υ(nS) yields are measured from the dimuon invariant mass spectra. The suppression of the Υ(nS) yields in PbPb relative to the yields in pp, scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, RAA, is measured as a function of the collision centrality. Integrated over centrality, the RAA values are 0.56±0.08(stat)±0.07(syst), 0.12±0.04(stat)±0.02(syst), and lower than 0.10 (at 95% confidence level), for the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), and Υ(3S) states, respectively. The results demonstrate the sequential suppression of the Υ(nS) states in PbPb collisions at LHC energies.

  2. Observation of sequential Υ suppression in PbPb collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Aguilo, E; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Staykova, Z; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Reis, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; McCartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Ceard, L; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins, M; De Jesus Damiao, D; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá, W L; Carvalho, W; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Soares Jorge, L; Sznajder, A; Anjos, T S; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Guo, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zhu, B; Zou, W; Avila, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Ellithi Kamel, A; Khalil, S; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Karjalainen, A; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Millischer, L; Nayak, A; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Shreyber, I; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Tsamalaidze, Z; Anagnostou, G; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Caudron, J; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Magass, C; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Olschewski, M; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Weber, M; Bontenackels, M; Cherepanov, V; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B

    2012-11-30

    The suppression of the individual Υ(nS) states in PbPb collisions with respect to their yields in pp data has been measured. The PbPb and pp data sets used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 150 μb(-1) and 230 nb(-1), respectively, collected in 2011 by the CMS experiment at the LHC, at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. The Υ(nS) yields are measured from the dimuon invariant mass spectra. The suppression of the Υ(nS) yields in PbPb relative to the yields in pp, scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, R(AA), is measured as a function of the collision centrality. Integrated over centrality, the R(AA) values are 0.56±0.08(stat)±0.07(syst), 0.12±0.04(stat)±0.02(syst), and lower than 0.10 (at 95% confidence level), for the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), and Υ(3S) states, respectively. The results demonstrate the sequential suppression of the Υ(nS) states in PbPb collisions at LHC energies.

  3. ϒ production measurements in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indranil

    2016-12-01

    The ϒ production measurement provide an important tool to study the color dissociation properties of matter at extreme energy densities, which is measured using the nuclear modification factor in heavy-ion collisions. In the present paper, the measurement of the nuclear modification factor of ϒ is discussed using the data collected in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE at LHC energies.

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in patients (aged 6–18 years old) with acute bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, W; Maydannik, VG; Malek, FA; Kieser, M

    2010-01-01

    Aim: For EPs-7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots, therapeutic effects in respiratory tract infections outside the strict indication for antibiotics have already been demonstrated in adults. Now, a dose-finding study for EPs-7630 was performed in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 400 patients (aged 6–18 years) were randomized to receive either 30 mg, 60 mg or 90 mg EPs-7630 or placebo daily. Primary outcome criterion was the change in the Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) from day 0 to day 7. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the change in the BSS total score was significantly better in the 60 mg and 90 mg groups compared with placebo that of the without relevant differences between these two dosages. Especially ‘coughing’, ‘sputum’ and ‘rales at auscultation’ improved under EPs-7630. Onset of effect was faster, time of bed rest shorter and treatment outcome and satisfaction with treatment were rated better. Tolerability was comparable with placebo in all treatment groups. Conclusion: EPs-7630 is effective in acute bronchitis outside the strict indication for antibiotics in 6–18 years old patients, with a dose of 60 mg or 90 mg daily offering the best benefit/risk ratio. EPs-7630 significantly reduces the severity of symptoms, leads to a more favourable course of the disease and a faster recovery from acute bronchitis compared with the placebo, and is well tolerated. PMID:20070280

  5. Eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion as the cause of death in a Macaca mulatta: a first case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christal, J.L.; Hubbard, G.B.; Dick, E.J.; Brasky, K.M.; Jagirdar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic bronchitis is a recently described, relatively benign condition in humans that is characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive chronic cough and sputum eosinophilia without the abnormalities of airway function seen in asthma. The exact cause of this condition is currently unknown, however has been associated with various occupational exposures in humans. It has also been reported to progress to irreversible airway obstruction. This disease has been reported in dogs and horses, but not in non-human primates. Methods Gross examination of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old, colony-born Macaca mulatta, which died of severe non-responsive respiratory distress revealed that the lungs were markedly inflated and moist. Results Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from the lungs contained widespread accumulation of eosinophils, sloughed epithelial cells, and mucus centered around bronchioles and adjacent airways. There was no evidence of mast cell infiltration of peribronchiolar smooth muscle, goblet cell hyperplasia, or basement membrane thickening. Conclusions This ruled out recurrent episodes as would be expected in asthma, favoring the diagnosis of an eosinophilic bronchitis-like lesion. We report a first case of eosinophilic bronchitis-like features in a M. mulatta. PMID:18333916

  6. Role of Atypical Pathogens and the Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Acute Bronchitis: A Multicenter Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Kil Chan; Kim, Ki-Seong; Song, Kyu-Tae; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Shim, Yun Su; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Myung Goo; Yun, Jang Uk; Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Yee Hyung; Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Do Il; Cha, Hyung Gun; Lee, Jae-Myung; Seo, Jung San; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2015-10-01

    The role of atypical bacteria and the effect of antibiotic treatments in acute bronchitis are still not clear. This study was conducted at 22 hospitals (17 primary care clinics and 5 university hospitals) in Korea. Outpatients (aged ≥ 18 yr) who had an acute illness with a new cough and sputum (≤ 30 days) were enrolled in 2013. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect five atypical bacteria. A total of 435 patients were diagnosed as having acute bronchitis (vs. probable pneumonia, n = 75), and 1.8% (n = 8) were positive for atypical pathogens (Bordetella pertussis, n = 3; B. parapertussis, n = 0; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, n = 1; Chlamydophila pneumoniae, n = 3; Legionella pneumophila, n = 1). Among clinical symptoms and signs, only post-tussive vomiting was more frequent in patients with atypical pathogens than those without (P = 0.024). In all, 72.2% of the enrolled patients received antibiotic treatment at their first visits, and β-lactams (29.4%) and quinolones (20.5%) were the most commonly prescribed agents. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the incidence of atypical pathogens is low in patients with acute bronchitis, and the rate of antibiotic prescriptions is high.

  7. 慢性支气管炎的临床护理%Clinical Nursing in Treating Patients with Chronic Bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To probe into the nursing measures for patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods 89 cases of chronic bronchitis patients received by our hospital, given conventional treatment and targeted comprehensive care, observe the ef ect. Results After reasonable treatment and good nursing , al patients had good ef ect. Conclusion To employ conventional treatment and targeted care for patients , can reduce the incidence of complications and the recurrence rate of chronic bronchitis , increase the cure and quality of life of the patients.%目的探讨临床护理干预在慢性支气管炎治疗中的作用。方法对89例慢性支气管炎患者的临床资料进行分析,讨论根据患者特点采用有针对性的护理措施。结果正确的护理措施对患者的治疗,取得了良好的效果。结论在慢性支气管炎的治疗中,采用有针对性的护理措施,可以有效降低疾病的复发,促进患者的康复。

  8. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF ACUTE BRONCHITIS PRIMARILY WITH PRICKING-CUPPING ON BACK-SHU POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-dong; ZHANG Yong-juan; YANG Jie; CHEN Xiao-xiang; LIU Yong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of treatment of acute bronchitis primarily with prickingcupping method on Back-shu points. Methods: The patients of acute bronchitis were randomly divided into 2groups. In the observation group, there were 36 cases, who were treated with the integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine, primarily the pricking-cupping method on Back-shu points; while in the control group, there were 29 cases who were given the conventinal treatment of western medicine. All the 2 groups were treated for 7 days as one treating course. Results: The total effective rate of the observation group was 97.2% while that of the control group was 82.8%, so there is a significant difference between them. On the first and third days the clinical manifestations were more satisfactorily improved in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.01 ) and on the fifth and seventh days, the comparison showed no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion: The treatment of acute bronchitis by means of the integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine primarily with pricking-cupping method on Back-shu points is of marked therapeutic effect, simple manipulation, and little untoward effects, thus claiming the unique advantage.

  9. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  10. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  11. Role of synaptic structural plasticity in impairments of spatial learning and memory induced by developmental lead exposure in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Xiao

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is found to impair cognitive function. Synaptic structural plasticity is considered to be the physiological basis of synaptic functional plasticity and has been recently found to play important roles in learning and memory. To study the effect of Pb on spatial learning and memory at different developmental stages, and its relationship with alterations of synaptic structural plasticity, postnatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control; Pre-weaning Pb (Parents were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 3 weeks before mating until weaning of pups; Post-weaning Pb (Weaned pups were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 for 9 weeks. The spatial learning and memory of rats was measured by Morris water maze (MWM on PND 85-90. Rat pups in Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups performed significantly worse than those in Control group (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the performance of MWM between the two Pb-exposure groups. Before MWM (PND 84, the number of neurons and synapses significantly decreased in Pre-weaning Pb group, but not in Post-weaning Pb group. After MWM (PND 91, the number of synapses in Pre-weaning Pb group increased significantly, but it was still less than that of Control group (p<0.05; the number of synapses in Post-weaning Pb group was also less than that of Control group (p<0.05, although the number of synapses has no differences between Post-weaning Pb and Control groups before MWM. In both Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups, synaptic structural parameters such as thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD, length of synaptic active zone and synaptic curvature increased significantly while width of synaptic cleft decreased significantly compared to Control group (p<0.05. Our data demonstrated that both early and late developmental Pb exposure impaired spatial learning and memory as well as synaptic structural plasticity in Wistar rats.

  12. Geo-climatic heterogeneity in self-reported asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesce, G., E-mail: giancarlo.pesce@univr.it [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Bugiani, M. [Unit of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, CPA-ASL TO-2, Turin (Italy); Marcon, A.; Marchetti, P. [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Carosso, A. [Unit of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, CPA-ASL TO-2, Turin (Italy); Accordini, S. [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Antonicelli, L. [Dept of Internal Medicine, Immuno-Allergic and Respiratory Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona (Italy); Cogliani, E. [Casaccia Research Centre, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Substainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Pirina, P. [Institute of Respiratory Diseases, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Pocetta, G. [Dept of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Spinelli, F. [Casaccia Research Centre, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Substainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Villani, S. [Dept of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Marco, R. de [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Background: Several studies highlighted a great variability, both between and within countries, in the prevalence of asthma and chronic airways diseases. Aim: To evaluate if geo-climatic variations can explain the heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma and respiratory diseases in Italy. Methods: Between 2006 and 2010, a postal screening questionnaire on respiratory health was administered to 18,357 randomly selected subjects, aged 20–44, living in 7 centers in northern, central, and southern Italy. A random-effects meta-analysis was fitted to evaluate the between-centers heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma, asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and chronic bronchitis (CB). A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to synthetize the geo-climatic information (annual mean temperature, range of temperature, annual rainfalls, global solar radiations, altitude, distance from the sea) of all the 110 Italian province capital towns. The associations between these geo-climatic components obtained with PCA and the prevalence of respiratory diseases were analyzed through meta-regression models. Results: 10,464 (57%) subjects responded to the questionnaire. There was a significant between-centers heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma (I{sup 2} = 59.5%, p = 0.022) and CB (I{sup 2} = 60.5%, p = 0.019), but not in that of asthma-like symptoms or allergic rhinitis. Two independent geo-climatic components explaining together about 80% of the overall geo-climatic variability were identified: the first principally summarized the climatic variables; the second the topographic ones. Variations in the prevalence of asthma across centers were significantly associated with differences in the climatic component (p = 0.017), but not with differences in the topographic one. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that climate play a role in determining the between-center heterogeneity in the prevalence of asthma in Italy, with higher prevalence in dry-hot Mediterranean

  13. Economic burden of chronic bronchitis in the United States: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Blanchette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Christopher M Blanchette1, Melissa H Roberts1, Hans Petersen1, Anand A Dalal2, Douglas W Mapel31Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC, USA; 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, NM, USABackground: Chronic bronchitis (CB is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed at a later stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We examined how this later diagnosis may impact health care costs and utilization during the 12 months prior to and 24 months post initial CB diagnosis.Methods: This retrospective case-control analysis used claims data from a large US database from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2007. Patients with CB aged 40 years and older were propensity matched (N = 11,674 to patients without evidence of COPD or asthma by demographics, CB diagnosis quarter/year, and comorbidities. Group differences were assessed using Student's t-test and Pearson chi-square test statistics.Results: Six months prediagnosis, CB patients had higher frequencies of any hospitalization (9.6%, 6.7%; P < 0.05, emergency department/urgent care visits (13.3%, 6.7%; P < 0.05, and prescriptions (97.3%, 94.1%; P < 0.05. Six months postdiagnosis, CB patients had 5.6 times more hospitalizations (P < 0.05 and 3.1 times more emergency department/urgent care visits (P < 0.05 compared with controls. Mean total costs (US$ for CB patients 12 months prediagnosis were significantly higher than controls (months 12–7: $4212, $3826; P < 0.05; months 6–1: $5289, $4285; P < 0.05. CB patients had higher mean total costs ($8919; P < 0.05 6 months postdiagnosis. Costs remained $2429 higher for CB patients 19–24 months postdiagnosis (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Health care costs and utilization among CB patients are increased both prior to diagnosis and during the 2 years postdiagnosis. This study suggests that not accurately diagnosing CB early has a

  14. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  15. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  16. Enhancement of φ mesons in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV/c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-bao; FaesslerA.; FuchsC.; ZabrodinE.; TAIAn

    2001-01-01

    Using a hadron-string cascade model LUCIAE, the φ meson production in nuclear collisions (p+Pb and Pb+Pb) and elementary collisions (p+p) were studied systematically. Within the framework of the model, the experimentally measured φ enhancement in p+Pb and Pb+Pb over p+p collisions can be mostly explained by the collective effects in the gluon string emission and the reduction of the s-quark suppression.

  17. Studies on the Behaviors of PbSO4/Pb and PbO2/PbSO4 Electrodes Prepared from Lead Carbonate by Powder Microelectrode Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China Abstract:The behaviors of PbSO4/Pb and PbO2/PbSO4 electrode prepared from PbCOs have been examined using powder microelectrode(PME) technique and cyclic voltammetry(CV). Firstly, PMEs packed with Pb- CO3 transformed into PbSO4 PME in 1.0 mol/L H2SO4 solution at 30 C, and then the PbSO4 in the PMEs were formed to Pb or PbO2 using an unsymmetrical signal (Qa/Qc for PbSO4/Pb electrode and QcQa for PbO2/ PbSO4 electrode being 0. 1-0. 3) in 2. 5 mol/L H2SO4 solution. The results show that the CV characteristic of either PbSO4/Pb or PbO2/PbSO4 PME prepared from PbCO3 are as good as that of both electrodes made from lead oxide powder produced by ball mill.

  18. A Strangelet and Particle Search in Pb-Pb Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Lohmann, K-D; Linden, T

    2002-01-01

    %NA52 %title\\\\ \\\\The NA52 experiment aims to detect strangelets, \\textit{i.e.} small drops of strange quark matter, which might result from the extreme energy and baryon densities attained in Pb+Pb collisions at a beam momentum of 158~A GeV/c. The experiment uses the H6 beam line as a spectrometer equipped with wire chambers, time of flight measurements over a path of 524~m and a hadronic calorimeter which is placed at the end of the setup.\\\\ \\\\During the 17 day run in fall of 1994 we accumulated data of 1.8~\\cdot~10$^{12}$~Pb ions on our Pb targets. The average beam intensity was 2~\\cdot~10$^{7}$~ions per spill for the NA52 experiment. We were running mainly with a 40~mm target at spectrometer rigidities of $\\pm$100 and $-$200~GeV/c and with a 16~mm target at $+$200~GeV/c. Per setting 10$^{11}$ Pb+Pb collisions were recorded. During the Pb-ion run in 1995 the statistics for the strangelet search at a rigidity of $-$200~GeV/c has been improved by about one order of magnitude. This was mainly due to a factor o...

  19. The utility of biomarkers in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children: difference of the diagnostic performance between acute pneumonia and bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Takayuki; Nanishi, Etsuro; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nishio, Hisanori; Kusuhara, Koichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of several biomarkers in differentiating bacterial community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (CA-LRTI) from non-bacterial CA-LRTI in children and the difference of their diagnostic performance between pneumonia and bronchitis. A retrospective cohort study composed of 108 pediatric patients hospitalized for CA-LRTI was performed during 2010-2013. Based on the findings of chest X-ray and sputum samples, patients were divided into 4 categories, group of bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis, and non-bacterial (viral or etiology-unknown) pneumonia or bronchitis. Peripheral white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were compared among the 4 groups. Finally, 54 patients were the subject of this study. In the patients with pneumonia, serum CRP and PCT levels were significantly elevated in the group of bacterial pneumonia (CRP: p = 0.02, PCT: p = 0.0008). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PCT for distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia was the largest, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCT were best among 4 markers. On the other hand, in the patients with bronchitis, neutrophil count was significantly decreased in non-bacterial bronchitis whereas no significant differences of WBC count, CRP level or PCT level were seen. In conclusion, PCT was the most useful marker to differentiate bacterial pneumonia whereas neutrophil count contributed most to the discrimination of bacterial bronchitis. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers may be different between pneumonia and bronchitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Phillippa; Chong, Jimmy; Cates, Christopher J

    2015-07-29

    Individuals with chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may suffer recurrent exacerbations with an increase in volume or purulence of sputum, or both. Personal and healthcare costs associated with exacerbations indicate that any therapy that reduces the occurrence of exacerbations is useful. A marked difference among countries in terms of prescribing of mucolytics reflects variation in perceptions of their effectiveness. Primary objective• To determine whether treatment with mucolytics reduces frequency of exacerbations and/or days of disability in patients with chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Secondary objectives• To assess whether mucolytics lead to improvement in lung function or quality of life.• To determine frequency of adverse effects associated with use of mucolytics. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register and reference lists of articles on 10 separate occasions, most recently in July 2014. We included randomised studies that compared oral mucolytic therapy versus placebo for at least two months in adults with chronic bronchitis or COPD. We excluded studies of people with asthma and cystic fibrosis. This review analysed summary data only, most derived from published studies. For earlier versions, one review author extracted data, which were rechecked in subsequent updates. In later versions, review authors double-checked extracted data and then entered data into RevMan for analysis. We added four studies for the 2014 update. The review now includes 34 trials, recruiting a total of 9367 participants. Many studies did not clearly describe allocation concealment; hence selection bias may have inflated the results, which reduces our confidence in the findings.Results of 26 studies with 6233 participants show that the likelihood that a patient could be exacerbation-free during the study period was greater among mucolytic groups (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.75, 95% confidence interval

  1. Annexin A2 binds RNA and reduces the frameshifting efficiency of infectious bronchitis virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyun Kwak

    Full Text Available Annexin A2 (ANXA2 is a protein implicated in diverse cellular functions, including exocytosis, DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. It was recently proposed to be involved in RNA metabolism because it was shown to associate with some cellular mRNA. Here, we identified ANXA2 as a RNA binding protein (RBP that binds IBV (Infectious Bronchitis Virus pseudoknot RNA. We first confirmed the binding of ANXA2 to IBV pseudoknot RNA by ultraviolet crosslinking and showed its binding to RNA pseudoknot with ANXA2 protein in vitro and in the cells. Since the RNA pseudoknot located in the frameshifting region of IBV was used as bait for cellular RBPs, we tested whether ANXA2 could regulate the frameshfting of IBV pseudoknot RNA by dual luciferase assay. Overexpression of ANXA2 significantly reduced the frameshifting efficiency from IBV pseudoknot RNA and knockdown of the protein strikingly increased the frameshifting efficiency. The results suggest that ANXA2 is a cellular RBP that can modulate the frameshifting efficiency of viral RNA, enabling it to act as an anti-viral cellular protein, and hinting at roles in RNA metabolism for other cellular mRNAs.

  2. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Progress and Challenges toward the Development of Vaccines against Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Hair Bejo, Mohd; Moeini, Hassan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes. PMID:25954763

  4. Molecular Characteristics of S1 Gene of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Chicken Proventriculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-qin; ZHOU Ji-yong; John Dikki; SHEN Xing-yan; CHEN Ji-gang; ZHANG De-yong

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from swollen proventriculi of clinically ill chicken. Thesuspected virus samples (2/97, 3/97, 1/98) were adapted in SPF chicken embryos for virus isolation andidentification. All the virus isolates were able to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes after treatment with trypsin,and interfer with the reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chicken embryos, and have low antigenic relat-edness values with reference positive IBV. The isolates 2/97, 3/97, 1/98 RNAs extracted from the allantoicfluid of inoculated embryonated eggs were converted to cDNA by reverse transcription with 3'-primer of S1gene of (IBV). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with two primers which span the S1 gene.Amplified product of 1.93 kb was subjected to EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ digestion and the fragments obtainedwere the same as expected size. The PCR product was ligated to pBlueScript-SK (+) vector, and its nucleotidesequence was determined by the dideoxy-mediated chain termination method. Nucleotide sequence analysisshowed 73.6 - 99.7 % homology between the isolated IBV and the IBV strains in GenBank. The homology ofamino acid was 71.4 - 99.4 %.

  5. Lithium chloride inhibits the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sally M; Tarpey, Ian; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Hiscox, Julian A

    2007-04-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major economic pathogen of domestic poultry that, despite vaccination, causes mortality and significant losses in production. During replication of the RNA genome there is a high frequency of mutation and recombination, which has given rise to many strains of IBV and results in the potential for new and emerging strains. Currently the live-attenuated vaccine gives poor cross-strain immunity. Effective antiviral agents may therefore be advantageous in the treatment of IBV. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a potent inhibitor of the DNA virus herpes simplex virus but not RNA viruses. The effect of LiCl on the replication of IBV was examined in cell culture using two model cell types; Vero cells, an African Green monkey kidney-derived epithelial cell line; and DF-1 cells, an immortalized chicken embryo fibroblast cell line. When treated with a range of LiCl concentrations, IBV RNA and protein levels and viral progeny production were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in both cell types, and the data indicated that inhibition was a cellular rather than a virucidal effect. Host cell protein synthesis still took place in LiCl-treated cells and the level of a standard cellular housekeeping protein remained unchanged, indicating that the effect of LiCl was specifically against IBV.

  6. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pro-Con Debate: Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis as a Cause of Chronic Cough in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidiwala, Aneela; Krilov, Leonard R; Pirzada, Melodi; Patel, Sameer J

    2015-08-01

    Pro: Children with chronic cough present a diagnostic challenge. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a chronic, persistent bacterial infection of conducting airways defined by the presence of cough for longer than 4 weeks that resolves with antimicrobial therapy and without an alternative diagnosis. The diagnosis is made by the findings of increased bronchial secretions and edema of the lower airways on flexible bronchoscopy and positive cultures on bronchoalveolar lavage. It is speculated that an initial respiratory insult such as viral infection disrupts normal surface morphology and ciliary function, which leads to chronic self-perpetuating inflammation with the formation of bacterial biofilms, leading to PBB. PBB is often misdiagnosed as asthma, leading to inappropriate and excessive use of steroids. The importance of timely diagnosis should be emphasized due to the potential that PBB may be a precursor to chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis if left untreated; however, every patient should be adequately assessed to exclude other causes of chronic cough. Con: Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of PBB are nonspecific and may not distinguish it from other known causes of chronic cough, including viral infections. Benefits from antibiotic therapy (particularly prolonged therapy) have not been demonstrated. Respiratory conditions are the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions during ambulatory visits in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are inappropriate and/or unnecessary. The proposed diagnostic criteria and recommendations for the treatment of PBB will lead to unnecessary overuse of antibiotics.

  8. Diagnostic and clinical observation on the infectious bronchitis virus strain Q1 in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toffan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostic and clinical observations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variant, referred to as Q1, in clinically ill chickens in Italy. This IBV variant was described for the first time in 1998 in China. In the autumn of 2011 it caused a small-scale epidemic in non-vaccinated meat chickens in farms located in Northern Italy. The disease was characterized by increased mortality, kidney lesions and proventriculitis. Histopatological observations confirmed the nephritis and described an unusual erosive/necrotic proventriculitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and heterophils, as well as fibroplasia in the lamina propria. Despite these findings and the isolation of the Q1 IB virus directly from proventricular tissue, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of this IBV strain in the development of proventricular lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the IBV isolates were very similar and probably had a common origin. The IBV Q1 variant appears to be now endemic in the North of Italy and at times it is detected in vaccinated backyard and commercial broiler farms. The importance of continuous monitoring in controlling the spread of known or emerging IBV variants is underlined.

  9. Genetic Characterisation and Analysis of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Brazilian flocks between 2010 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Claudia; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Santander Parra, Silvana H; Nuñez, Luis F N; Penzes, Zoltan; Chacón, Jorge L; Sesti, Luiz; Chacón, Ruy D; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2017-08-14

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants in Brazil were isolated during 2010-2015 for epidemiological and molecular analysis to characterise the different variants and perform a bioinformatic analysis to compare with sequences of variants collected over the previous 40 years. Of the 453 samples examined, 61.4% were positive for IBV and 75.9% of these were considered to have the BR-I genotype and were detected in birds of all ages distributed in all five Brazilian regions. The ratio of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS), i.e. dN/dS, revealed a predominance of codons with non-synonymous substitutions in the first third of the S1 gene and a dN/dS ratio of 0.67. Additionally, prediction of N-glycosylation sites showed that most of the BR-I variants (from 2003 to early 2014) had an extra site at amino acid position 20, whereas the newest variants lacked this extra site. These results suggest that Brazilian IBV variants probably underwent drastic mutations at various points between 1983 and 2003 and that the selection processes became silent after achieving a sufficiently effective antigenic structure for invasion and replication in their hosts. Brazilian IBV genotype BR-I is currently the predominant genotype circulating in Brazil and South America.

  10. Infectious bronchitis viruses with naturally occurring genomic rearrangement and gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Kylie A; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-02-01

    Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) are group III coronaviruses that infect poultry worldwide. Genetic variations, including whole-gene deletions, are key to IBV evolution. Australian subgroup 2 IBVs contain sequence insertions and multiple gene deletions that have resulted in a substantial genomic divergence from international IBVs. The genomic variations present in Australian IBVs were investigated and compared to those of another group III coronavirus, turkey coronavirus (TCoV). Open reading frames (ORFs) found throughout the genome of Australian IBVs were analogous in sequence and position to TCoV ORFs, except for ORF 4b, which appeared to be translocated to a different position in the subgroup 2 strains. Subgroup 2 strains were previously reported to lack genes 3a, 3b and 5a, with some also lacking 5b. Of these, however, genes 3b and 5b were found to be present but contained various mutations that may affect transcription. In this study, it was found that subgroup 2 IBVs have undergone a more substantial genomic rearrangements than previously thought.

  11. A Patient with Bronchial Asthma in Whom Eosinophilic Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis Developed during Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutsugu Fukushima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea, wheezing, and a productive cough. Eight years before presentation, bronchial asthma was diagnosed and the patient received inhaled corticosteroids plus antiasthmatic agents (a long-acting inhaled p2-agonist, leukotriene modifiers, and theophylline. Chest radiography showed small diffuse nodular shadows, and a computed tomographic scan showed thickening of the bronchi and bronchioles, with diffuse centrilobular nodules in both lung fields. A blood test and microscopic examination of the bronchoalveolar fluid revealed marked eosinophilia. Transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial biopsy showed eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. After treatment with oral prednisolone (40 mg daily and inhaled corticosteroids, the symptoms, blood eosinophilia, and radiographic findings improved. Recently, several similar cases of eosinophilic bronchiolitis have been reported. Studies of further cases and elucidation of the pathophysiology of eosinophilic bronchiolitis are necessary to establish a concept for this disease and to determine whether it should be classified as a subtype of bronchial asthma or as a distinct entity.

  12. Activity of erdosteine on mucociliary transport in patients affected by chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, D; Del Donno, M; Casalini, A; D'Ippolito, R; Fregnan, G B

    1991-01-01

    The influence of erdosteine (a mucomodulator endowed with mucolytic and antioxidant properties) on human mucociliary transport (MCT) was investigated in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixteen former smokers affected by chronic bronchitis, preselected for their mucociliary responsiveness to an inhaled beta 2-agonist, were divided into two groups (matched by number, sex, age and FEV1%) and orally treated with placebo or erdosteine (300 mg t.i.d.) for 8 days. Their MCT was assessed by the bronchofiberscopy technique just before starting the treatment and at the end of the treatment. The pretreatment mucus transport velocity in these patients was significantly decreased with respect to healthy subjects. The erdosteine treatment induced a significant improvement of MCT while placebo was inactive (mean % variation +/- SE against their baseline values being +60.4 +/- 18.4 and -3.0 +/- 5.9, respectively). This peculiar activity of erdosteine on mucus transport may be of clinical usefulness in chronic bronchitic patients and it can be added to beta 2-agonist to restore the decreased MCT.

  13. Complete genomic sequence analysis of infectious bronchitis virus Ark DPI strain and its evolution by recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Upadhyay, Chitra; Gelb, Jack; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2008-12-22

    An infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas DPI (Ark DPI) virulent strain was sequenced, analyzed and compared with many different IBV strains and coronaviruses. The genome of Ark DPI consists of 27,620 nucleotides, excluding poly (A) tail, and comprises ten open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of Ark DPI with other IBV strains shows striking similarity to the Conn, Gray, JMK, and Ark 99, which were circulating during that time period. Furthermore, comparison of the Ark genome with other coronaviruses demonstrates a close relationship to turkey coronavirus. Among non-structural genes, the 5'untranslated region (UTR), 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) and the polymerase (RdRp) sequences are 100% identical to the Gray strain. Among structural genes, S1 has 97% identity with Ark 99; S2 has 100% identity with JMK and 96% to Conn; 3b 99%, and 3C to N is 100% identical to Conn strain. Possible recombination sites were found at the intergenic region of spike gene, 3'end of S1 and 3a gene. Independent recombination events may have occurred in the entire genome of Ark DPI, involving four different IBV strains, suggesting that genomic RNA recombination may occur in any part of the genome at number of sites. Hence, we speculate that the Ark DPI strain originated from the Conn strain, but diverged and evolved independently by point mutations and recombination between field strains.

  14. Complete genomic sequence analysis of infectious bronchitis virus Ark DPI strain and its evolution by recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelb Jack

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas DPI (Ark DPI virulent strain was sequenced, analyzed and compared with many different IBV strains and coronaviruses. The genome of Ark DPI consists of 27,620 nucleotides, excluding poly (A tail, and comprises ten open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of Ark DPI with other IBV strains shows striking similarity to the Conn, Gray, JMK, and Ark 99, which were circulating during that time period. Furthermore, comparison of the Ark genome with other coronaviruses demonstrates a close relationship to turkey coronavirus. Among non-structural genes, the 5'untranslated region (UTR, 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro and the polymerase (RdRp sequences are 100% identical to the Gray strain. Among structural genes, S1 has 97% identity with Ark 99; S2 has 100% identity with JMK and 96% to Conn; 3b 99%, and 3C to N is 100% identical to Conn strain. Possible recombination sites were found at the intergenic region of spike gene, 3'end of S1 and 3a gene. Independent recombination events may have occurred in the entire genome of Ark DPI, involving four different IBV strains, suggesting that genomic RNA recombination may occur in any part of the genome at number of sites. Hence, we speculate that the Ark DPI strain originated from the Conn strain, but diverged and evolved independently by point mutations and recombination between field strains.

  15. Genotyping of news variants of the avian infectious bronchitis virus from Tolima department, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analorena Cifuentes-Rincón

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was identify the different genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IVB present in commercial poultry farms from different localities of the Tolima Department, Colombia. Materials and methods. 105 samples of tracheal swabs of poultry of 21 farms were collected. Poultry had been vaccinated against IVB. An screen to identify positive samples and posteriorly the sequencing of the partial region of the S1 subunit and phylogenetic analysis of the isolates with the reference strains, including the vaccine currently used in the country was performed. Results. Poultry all farms had respiratory signs, but only four farms was confirmed the disease. Positive samples of the IBV (HT6, HT9, HT10 and HT11 were pathogenic for embryos 9-days-old. The HT6 sample was grouped in the same cluster that the Massachusetts strains. The HT9 and HT11 samples showed 99% similarity and were grouped genetically distant from the reference strains and other isolated. The HT10 sample showed low similarities with the isolates and reference strains, grouping alone in another cluster. Conclusions. New genotypes are circulating in the Tolima Department, where there is a risk of genetic recombination. Is believed that vaccines used were not providing cross-protection against the new genotypes.

  16. Transient dominant selection for the modification and generation of recombinant infectious bronchitis coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Sarah M; Bickerton, Erica; Britton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in which a full-length cDNA corresponding to the IBV genome is inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a T7 promoter sequence. Vaccinia virus as a vector for the full-length IBV cDNA has the advantage that modifications can be introduced into the IBV cDNA using homologous recombination, a method frequently used to insert and delete sequences from the vaccinia virus genome. Here, we describe the use of transient dominant selection as a method for introducing modifications into the IBV cDNA; this has been successfully used for the substitution of specific nucleotides, deletion of genomic regions, and the exchange of complete genes. Infectious recombinant IBVs are generated in situ following the transfection of vaccinia virus DNA, containing the modified IBV cDNA, into cells infected with a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

  17. Whether chronic bronchitis is an independent risk factor for cerebral infarction in the elderly 1:1 case paired study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inflammatory reaction already becomes an important risk factor of causing acute cerebral infarction; however, the correlation between chronic bronchitis and senile cerebral infarction is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study whether the chronic bronchitis is the risk factor for senile cerebral infarction.DESIGN: 1:1 pair, case contrast, and risk factor study.SETTINGS: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Third Hospital of Tangshan; Department of Neurology,Affiliated Hospital of North China Coal Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 147 patients with acute cerebral infarction who were regarded as case group were selected from Department of Neurology, the Third Hospital of Tangshan from January 2004 to December 2006. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Diseases Meeting. There were 87 males and 60 females, and their ages ranged from 65 to 83 years. Based on 1∶1 pair study, another 147 subjects without cerebrovascular disease were regarded as control group. Except the diseases about infection, there were 73 males and 74 females, and their ages ranged from 62 to 81 years. All subjects provided the confirm consent and agreed with the coordinate experiment.METHODS: ① Questionnaire of risk factor of cerebral infarction was designed to measure the following items: chronic bronchitis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, coronary heart disease, primary cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack and history of smoking. ② Cerebral infarction was regarded as the dependent variance, while chronic bronchitis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperiipemia, primary cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease and smoking were regarded as the independent variance for multiple regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors of senile cerebral infarction.RESULTS: All 147 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 147 subjects without cerebrovascular diseases were involved in

  18. Electroweak bosons in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00356981

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak boson ($W$, $Z$, $\\gamma$) measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV and in $p$+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV are presented with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In Pb+Pb, electroweak boson yields are shown to be independent of centrality. Differential measurements in absolute pseudorapidity are used to investigate nuclear effects to the free-proton parton distribution function (PDF). The distributions lack the experimental precision to unambiguously identify the presence of nuclear modifications. In $p$+Pb, the $Z$ boson cross section is measured as a function of center-of-mass rapidity $y_{Z}^{*}$ and the momentum fraction of the lead-going parton (Bjorken $x_{Pb}$). The distributions are asymmetric and model predictions underestimate the data at large $x_{Pb}$. The overall shape is best described by including nuclear effects. The differential cross section is also measured in different centrality classes and shows evidence of spatially-dependent nuclear PDFs. The $Z...

  19. Electroweak bosons in Pb+Pb and $p$+Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356981; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak boson ( W , Z , γ ) measurements in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV and in p +Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV are presented with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. In Pb+Pb, electroweak boson yields are shown to be independent of centrality. Differential measurements in absolute pseudorapidity are used to investigate nuclear effects to the free-proton parton distribution function (PDF). The distributions lack the experimental precision to unambiguously identify the presence of nuclear modifications. In p +Pb, the Z boson cross section is measured as a function of center-of-mass rapidity yZ⁎ and the momentum fraction of the lead-going parton (Bjorken xPb ). The distributions are asymmetric and model predictions underestimate the data at large xPb . The overall shape is best described by including nuclear effects. The differential cross section is also measured in different centrality classes and shows evidence of spatially-dependent nuclear PDFs. The Z boson production yields are measured as a functi...

  20. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  1. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  3. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  4. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  5. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  6. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  7. Tribological property and wear mechanism of undercooled Ni-Pb monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 杨根仓; 郝维新; 喇培清; 刘维民; 许丽君

    2004-01-01

    The tribological properties of Ni-31.440% Pb monotectic alloys were measured by using a SRV reciprocating tribo-tester. The effects of load, sliding speed and melt undercooling on wear rate of the sample were investigated. The worn surface of Ni-31.44%Pb was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The results show that the wear properties of the samples undercooled by 80 K and 310 K are obviously superior, which is attributed to more efficient transfer of Pb from the bulk material to the worn surface. The lubricating film is identified as a mixture of Ni2 O3 and PbO by XPS analysis. At the same load and sliding speed, the predominant wear mechanisms can be identified as oxidative wear for the lower and larger undercooling,and plastic deformation and fracture for the medium undercooling.

  8. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  9. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371577810; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371578248; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355079615; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070139032; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411885812; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888056; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Rooij, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315888644; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372618715; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355502488; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb at sNN=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons

  11. Efficacy and safety of HL301 in the treatment of acute bronchitis and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Jae; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Kim, Do Jin; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Jae Yeol

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy and safety of Chinese herbs for symptomatic treatment of bronchitis is not well established. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination product of seven herbs (HL301) for the treatment of acute bronchitis (AB) and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial design. A total of 160 patients with AB or with AECB were randomized to receive placebo or one of three doses of HL301 (0.6 g/day, 1.2 g/day, or 1.8 g/day) for a total of 7 days. The primary study endpoint was the change in bronchitis severity score (BSS) from the baseline visit (visit 2) to the end of treatment visit (visit 3). Other efficacy variables were percentage BSS systemic sign efficacy after treatment and change in individual BSS parameters after treatment. Changes in BSS from visit 2 to visit 3 in the three treatment groups (4.63 ± 2.24, 4.08 ± 1.63, and 4.15 ± 1.74 in the HL301 0.6 g/day, 1.2 g/day, and 1.8 g/day groups, respectively) were higher than that of the placebo group (2.88 ± 2.57) in the per protocol set (PPS) (P < .05), and it was also valid in the full analysis set (FAS). The number of participants whose symptoms (measured by BSS) improved at least 30% after treatment was higher in all three treatment groups compared to the placebo group in both the FAS and the PPS (P < .05, for all). Three different doses of HL301 (0.6 g/day, 1.2 g/day, and 1.8 g/day) were effective in decreasing the BSS index compared to placebo. HL301 may be effective for symptomatic treatment of both AB and AECB. Essential components of HL301 have not been delineated in the study and patients with AB and AECB were indiscriminately enrolled in the present study. Respective evaluation of the efficacy of HL301 for AB and AECB will be necessary in the future.

  12. Chronic bronchitis is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi JY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joon Young Choi,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Seoung Ju Park,3 Yong Bum Park,4 Kyeong-Cheol Shin,5 Ju Ock Na,6 Kwang Ha Yoo,7 Ki-Suck Jung,8 Young Kyoon Kim,1 Chin Kook Rhee1 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 5Regional Center for Respiratory Disease, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Republic of Korea Background: The chronic bronchitis (CB phenotype has been associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of disease in patients with COPD. However, little information exists regarding the relationship between the CB phenotype and the COPD assessment test (CAT score. The goal of this study was to reveal the different pattern of CAT scores between CB and non-CB patients. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups.Methods: Data were obtained from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study cohort recruited from 46 centers in South

  13. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response

  14. Bronquitis infecciosa aviar: diagnóstico y control -Avian infectious bronchitis: diagnosis and control

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    Acevedo Beiras, Ana María

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa bronquitis infecciosa aviar (BIA es una enfermedad que ocasiona unimpacto socio-económico severo en la industria avícola mundial. Es unaenfermedad respiratoria aguda, altamente contagiosa, caracterizadaprimariamente por signos respiratorios en los pollos en crecimiento. En las ponedoras, la sintomatología respiratoria es menor pero provoca una disminución marcada en la producción y calidad del huevo. El agente etiológico de esta enfermedad es el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa aviar, un Coronavirus del grupo 3 de la familia Coronaviridae, orden Nidovirales. El virus se replica en los tejidos del tracto respiratorio y en muchos tejidos a lo largo del tracto alimentario. Este virus puede infectar otras especies de aves además de los pollos. Los signos clínicos característicos son tos, estornudos, estertores traqueales, ojos acuosos, letargo y en los pollos, especialmente los jóvenes, se presentan descargas nasales. Estos signos son indicativos pero no tienen por sí solo valor diagnóstico y la confirmación requiere el aislamiento o la demostración directa de la presencia del virus aunque la serología puede ser útil en algunas circunstancias. El diagnóstico de laboratorio requiere el aislamiento viral y su identificación. Se emplean las técnicas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR, inhibición de la hemaglutinación (HI y ensayos inmunoenzimáticos (ELISA, así como la microscopía electrónica, anticuerpos monoclonales, virus neutralización (VN, inmunohistoquímica,ensayos de inmunofluorescencia y de inmunización desafío en pollos. Son ampliamente usadas vacunas vivas e inactivadas en el control de laenfermedad.SummaryAvian infectious bronchitis (BIA is a disease that provokes a severe socioeconomic impact in poultry world industry. It is a breathing sharp disease, highly contagious, characterized primarily for breathing signs in chickens in growth. In the egg-laying, the breathing sintomatology is

  15. Molecular characterization of three new avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains isolated in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smati, Ridha; Silim, Amer; Guertin, Claude; Henrichon, Marc; Marandi, Mehdi; Arella, Max; Merzouki, Abderrazzak

    2002-01-01

    Three unrecognized field isolates of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) were recovered from commercial broiler chickens vaccinated with live Mass viral strain (H120). These isolates were identified by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies produced against reference serotypes: Mass, Conn, and Ark. RT-PCRs were performed on viral RNAs to amplify S1 gene using a specific set of primers S1OLIGO3' and S1OLIGO5'. Restriction polymorphism (RFLP) of PCR products was determined by the use of HaeIII restriction enzyme. As expected, patterns of PCR products were different from common pattern of strains assigned to Mass serotype M41, Beaudette, H120, and Florida. Molecular analysis showed a nucleotide insertion in hypervariable region one (HVR-1) of S1 gene of only Quebec isolates (Qu16, Qu_mv and Q_37zm). However, New Brunswick IBV isolate (NB_cp) did not display these insertions. Major amino acid changes involved insertion of two stretches (aa118-119: Arg-Ser and aa141-145: Sys-Ser-Asn-Ala-Ser-Cys) located at N-terrminal and C-terminal regions of HVR-2. It is speculated that cysteine residue located upstream and downstream of Cys-Ser-Asn-Ala-Ser-Cys segment might be involved in the formation of loop structure and disulfide bond that could trigger important epitope changes. Insertion of new NXT and NXS (X not equal to P) glycosylation motifs scattered along S1 region and insertion of cysteine residues in HVR are contributing to the antigenic shifting of Quebec isolates. Fragment insertions were thought to be induced by inter-serotype recombination between vaccine strain (H120) that belongs to Mass serotype and another strain belonging to Ark serotype. Phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed that Quebec isolates formed a new phylogenetic cluster.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Zhao, Yujun; Yue, Wenbin; Yao, J; Lihua, Lv; Ji, Wenhui; Li, Xuying; Liu, Fengbo; Wu, Qian

    2011-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, seven strains of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) were isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks on different chicken farms in China. The pathogenic characters of seven IBV strains were assessed. Each of the seven strains was infective to the test chickens and could induce an immune response. The results from chicken embryo cross-neutralization assays showed that these strains were antigenically distinct from classic IBV strains of H120, M41, Conn, and Gray. Compared to H120 vaccine strain, point mutation, short insertion, and deletion occurred at many positions in the S1 protein of the seven strains. Five of the seven strains had the motif (HRRRR), which was identical to that of the epidemic IBV strains in China. Two new motifs (HRLRR and RRIRR) emerged in the isolated strains. The homology of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the S1 gene among the seven isolates was 81.7%-99.7% and 79.0%-99.4%, respectively. These seven strains were also genetically different from the vaccine strains and non-China IBV strains but closely related to large numbers of Chinese strains. The seven isolates and 36 reference IBV strains were clustered into six distinct groups (I-VI). The seven strains were categorized into groups I, II, and III, forming a big phylogenetic branch, which is closely related to Chinese IBVs, whereas the vaccine strains belonging to group VI are genetically distant from groups I, II, and III. The results from this study indicate that different IBV strains cocirculate in the chicken population in China.

  17. Infectious bronchitis virus: detection and vaccine Strain differentiation by semi-nested RT-PCR

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    CH Okino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Semi-N-RT-PCR was developed and used to detect the S glycoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV strains and to discriminate H120 vaccine strain from other strains. Viral RNA was extracted from the allantoic fluid of chicken embryos and from tissues of chickens experimentally infected with different strains of IBV. Amplification and identification of the viral RNA was performed using two sets of primers complementary to a region of the S glycoprotein gene in the Semi-N-RT-PCR assay. The pair of primers used in the first PCR consisted of universal oligonucleotides flanking a more variable region of S1-S2 gene. The second primer pair was used in the Semi-N-RT-PCR and was comprised of one of the primers from the first universal pair together with either another universal internal oligolucleotide or a oligonucleotide sequence specific for the H120 strain of IBV. The universal primers detected all reference IBV strains and field isolates tested herein. The Semi-N-RT-PCR had high sensitivity and specificity, and was able to differentiate the H120 vaccine strain from other reference IBV strains; including M41 strain. All tissue samples collected from chickens experimentally infected with H120 or M41 strains were positive in the semi-nested RT-PCR using universal primers, while only the H120-infected tissue samples were amplified by the set of primers containing the H120-oligonucleotide. In conclusion, the ability of Semi-N-RT-PCR to detect distinct IBV strains and preliminarily discriminate the vaccine strain (H120 closes a diagnostic gap and offers the opportunity to use comprehensive PCR procedures for the IBV diagnosis.

  18. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF VITAMIN E ADJUVANTED OIL EMULSIFIED INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS EXPERIMENTAL VACCINE

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    S. ALI, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND M. ASHRAF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to prepare oil emulsified (OE infectious bronchitis (IB experimental vaccines. The vaccines were prepared using the vaccinal strain H-120 Infectious Bonchitis virus (IBV. The virus was cultivated in 9-day old embryonated eggs via allantoic cavity route. Allantoic-amniotic fluid (AAF was collected and inactivated with formalin @ 0.12%. Water in oil emulsion was prepared by adding one part of AAF to four parts of mineral oil containing water phase (Tween 80 and oil phase (Span 80 surfactants. Hydrophile lypohile balance (HLB of the emulsion was maintained at 7.0. Two oil emulsified experimental vaccines were prepared. Vaccine-I was prepared without vitamin E and Vaccine-II with vitamin E (300 mg/ml. A total of 120 day-old broiler breeder chickens were divided into 4 groups, A, B, C, and D, each having 30 birds. At the age of 21 days, experimental Vaccine-I, experimental vaccine-II and commercial IB killed (H-120 vaccine were inoculated @ 0.5 ml in the birds of groups A, B and C, respectively. Group D was maintained as nonvaccinated control. Efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated on the basis of humoral immune response (haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres against IB in the four groups. The seven weeks cumulative mean antibody titres (CMT of each group were calculated. The highest CMT was observed in group B (130, followed by group C (69, group A (58 and group D (17. Statistical analysis showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres in group B (vaccine- II were significantly higher than those of groups A, B and C (P< 0.05.

  19. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan-Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M; de Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Angel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George's questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters.

  20. Impact of clinical decision support on receipt of antibiotic prescriptions for acute bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J Mac; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly recognized as non-indicated for acute bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infection (URI), yet their widespread use persists. Clinical decision support in the form of electronic warnings is hypothesized to prevent non-indicated prescriptions. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of clinical decision support on a common type of non-indicated prescription. Using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 2006 to 2010, ambulatory visits with a primary diagnosis of acute bronchitis or URI and orders for antibiotic prescriptions were identified. Visits were classified on the basis of clinician report of decision-support use. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the effect of decision support on likelihood of antibiotic prescription receipt, controlling for patient, provider, and practice characteristics. Clinician use of decision support increased sharply between 2006 (16% of visits) and 2010 (55%). Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis and URI increased from ∼35% of visits in 2006 to ∼45% by 2010. Use of decision support was associated with a 19% lower likelihood of receiving an antibiotic prescription, controlling for patient, provider, and practice characteristics. In spite of the increased use of decision-support systems and the relatively fewer non-indicated antibiotic prescriptions resulting from the use of decision support, a secular upward trend in non-indicated antibiotic prescribing offset these improvements. The overall effect of decision support suggests an important role for technology in reducing non-indicated prescriptions. Decision support alone may not be sufficient to eliminate non-indicated prescriptions given secular trends. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Network pharmacology-based identification of key pharmacological pathways of Yin-Huang-Qing-Fei capsule acting on chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ren, Weiqiong; Dong, Ling; Li, Junfang; Geng, Ya; Zhang, Yi; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    For decades in China, the Yin-Huang-Qing-Fei capsule (YHQFC) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, with good curative effects. Owing to the complexity of traditional Chinese herbal formulas, the pharmacological mechanism of YHQFC remains unclear. To address this problem, a network pharmacology-based strategy was proposed in this study. At first, the putative target profile of YHQFC was predicted using MedChem Studio, based on structural and functional similarities of all available YHQFC components to the known drugs obtained from the DrugBank database. Then, an interaction network was constructed using links between putative YHQFC targets and known therapeutic targets of chronic bronchitis. Following the calculation of four topological features (degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness) of each node in the network, 475 major putative targets of YHQFC and their topological importance were identified. In addition, a pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database indicated that the major putative targets of YHQFC are significantly associated with various pathways involved in anti-inflammation processes, immune responses, and pathological changes caused by asthma. More interestingly, eight major putative targets of YHQFC (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, FCER1G, CCL11, and EPX) were demonstrated to be associated with the inflammatory process that occurs during the progression of asthma. Finally, a molecular docking simulation was performed and the results exhibited that 17 pairs of chemical components and candidate YHQFC targets involved in asthma pathway had strong binding efficiencies. In conclusion, this network pharmacology-based investigation revealed that YHQFC may attenuate the inflammatory reaction of chronic bronchitis by regulating its candidate targets, which may be implicated in the major pathological processes of the asthma pathway.

  2. Effect of slow expiration with glottis opened in lateral posture (ELTGOL) on mucus clearance in stable patients with chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jocimar Avelar; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Lara, Rovilson; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2012-03-01

    Slow expiration with glottis opened in lateral posture (ELTGOL, l'expiration lente totale glotte ouverte en infralatéral) has been used in clinical practice to improve mucus clearance from peripheral airways. The purpose of this crossover study was to evaluate the effect of ELTGOL on mucus clearance of right and left lungs, especially of peripheral lung areas, in stable patients with chronic bronchitis. Twelve 45-75-year-old patients with chronic bronchitis were studied (10 of whom had mild to moderate COPD according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines). Control and ELTGOL interventions were performed on a randomized allocation of subjects. Mucus clearance was measured through 6 posterior scintigraphy images taken with the patient in the right lateral decubitus position 20 (T1), 40 (T2), 60 (T3), 80 (T4), and 120 (T5) min after baseline image (T0). In the control intervention only ventilatory scintigraphy measurements were performed. During ELTGOL the technique was performed after the baseline image (T0). Significant increases in mucus clearance from the peripheral area were found only in the right lung, and were observed at all times during ELTGOL (P clearance were observed at all times studied in the total area of the right lung and in the left lung at T1 and T2. For the intermediate area and central areas, results were similar in both lungs. ELTGOL was efficient in increasing peripheral airway clearance in dependent lung of patients with chronic bronchitis, most of them with mild to moderate COPD.

  3. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. METHODS: We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. RESULTS: 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5 years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16. High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George's questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters.

  4. COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, W Cairns S; Ayres, Jon G

    2010-03-01

    Over half the world is exposed daily to the smoke from combustion of solid fuels. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main contributors to the global burden of disease and can be caused by biomass smoke exposure. However, studies of biomass exposure and COPD show a wide range of effect sizes. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the impact of biomass smoke on the development of COPD and define reasons for differences in the reported effect sizes. A systematic review was conducted of studies with sufficient statistical power to calculate the health risk of COPD from the use of solid fuel, which followed standardised criteria for the diagnosis of COPD and which dealt with confounding factors. The results were pooled by fuel type and country to produce summary estimates using a random effects model. Publication bias was also estimated. There were positive associations between the use of solid fuels and COPD (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.0) and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.32, 95% CI 1.92 to 2.80). Pooled estimates for different types of fuel show that exposure to wood smoke while performing domestic work presents a greater risk of development of COPD and chronic bronchitis than other fuels. Despite heterogeneity across the selected studies, exposure to solid fuel smoke is consistently associated with COPD and chronic bronchitis. Efforts should be made to reduce exposure to solid fuel by using either cleaner fuel or relatively cleaner technology while performing domestic work.

  5. Network pharmacology-based identification of key pharmacological pathways of Yin–Huang–Qing–Fei capsule acting on chronic bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ren, Weiqiong; Dong, Ling; Li, Junfang; Geng, Ya; Zhang, Yi; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    For decades in China, the Yin–Huang–Qing–Fei capsule (YHQFC) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, with good curative effects. Owing to the complexity of traditional Chinese herbal formulas, the pharmacological mechanism of YHQFC remains unclear. To address this problem, a network pharmacology-based strategy was proposed in this study. At first, the putative target profile of YHQFC was predicted using MedChem Studio, based on structural and functional similarities of all available YHQFC components to the known drugs obtained from the DrugBank database. Then, an interaction network was constructed using links between putative YHQFC targets and known therapeutic targets of chronic bronchitis. Following the calculation of four topological features (degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness) of each node in the network, 475 major putative targets of YHQFC and their topological importance were identified. In addition, a pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database indicated that the major putative targets of YHQFC are significantly associated with various pathways involved in anti-inflammation processes, immune responses, and pathological changes caused by asthma. More interestingly, eight major putative targets of YHQFC (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, FCER1G, CCL11, and EPX) were demonstrated to be associated with the inflammatory process that occurs during the progression of asthma. Finally, a molecular docking simulation was performed and the results exhibited that 17 pairs of chemical components and candidate YHQFC targets involved in asthma pathway had strong binding efficiencies. In conclusion, this network pharmacology-based investigation revealed that YHQFC may attenuate the inflammatory reaction of chronic bronchitis by regulating its candidate targets, which may be implicated in the major pathological processes of the asthma pathway. PMID:28053519

  6. Preparation and Competative Immune Responce Evaluation of Infectious Bronchitis (H-120 + Newcastle Disease (La-Sota Live Bivalent Vaccine

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    Masoudi, Sh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Infectious Bronchitis (IB are highly contagious, acute and common poultry viral diseases. Control of these two important diseases of poultry industry was based on biosecurity and vaccination program. There is discussion about viral interference between these two viruses when combined. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of a Razi live bivalent vaccine containing LaSota strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and H-120 strain of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV. The bivalent vaccine was formulated based on EID50 titer of viruses. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was compared with commercial and monovalent Razi live IB (H-120 and ND (La Sota vaccines in Specific pathogen free (SPF and commercial chickens. The vaccination response was evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI, serum neutralization and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA antibody titers. SPF chickens that had received one dose of the Razi bivalent vaccine, has antibody titer (HI of Newcastle 5.87 based on Log2 and the serum neutralization index of Infectious bronchitis 6.5. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs of HI were 3.20 and 3.30 for Razi bivalent vaccine and commercial one respectively. Serum IBV ELISA antibodies GMTs were 3569 and 1992 and 320 for Razi bivalent vaccine and commercial one and control group respectively. Therefore antibody titers against NDV and IBV in chickens that received Razi vaccine were similar to those that were given monovalent and commercial vaccine. Our results show that the combined ND+IB vaccine has the ability to induce a high level of immune response in vaccinated chickens and no interference was seen between Razi and commercial one.

  7. Prolonged period of acute bronchitis with late progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome as possible result of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Samer; Milojkovic, Natasa; Alawad, Bashar; Homsi, Yamen

    2012-09-01

    Young adults with underlying medical conditions who are infected with the H1N1 virus are at risk of quickly progressing from mild upper airways infection to severe ARDS within 4 to 5 days after the onset of the illness. Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old morbidly obese and diabetic woman infected with the H1N1 virus who developed acute bronchitis that lasted for 4 weeks and then progressed to ARDS. We discuss the month-long persistence of the H1N1 viral bronchitis and its late progression to ARDS which may reflect prolonged viral activity. Such a prolonged, rather than quick, course of deterioration can cause clinicians to misdiagnose the etiology of the ARDS and may cause the patient to receive a prolonged treatment with steroids to treat bronchitis symptoms. These steroids may cause increased viral replication and promote parenchymal involvement and the development of ARDS.

  8. Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Risk to relatives for airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, E K; Chapman, H A; Drazen, J M; Weiss, S T; Rosner, B; Campbell, E J; O'DONNELL, W J; Reilly, J J; Ginns, L; Mentzer, S; Wain, J; Speizer, F E

    1998-06-01

    Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have assembled a cohort of 44 probands with severe, early-onset COPD, who do not have severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. A surprisingly high prevalence of females (79.6%) was found. Assessment of the risk to relatives of these early-onset COPD probands for airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis was performed to determine whether significant familial aggregation for COPD, independent of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, could be demonstrated. First- degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands had significantly lower FEV1 and FEV1/FVC values than control subjects (p < 0.01), despite similar pack-years of smoking. Reduced spirometric values in first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands were found only in current or ex-cigarette smokers. The mean FEV1 in current or ex-smoking first-degree relatives was 76.1 +/- 20.9% predicted compared to 89.2 +/- 14.4% predicted in current or ex-smoking control subjects (p < 0.01); in lifelong nonsmokers, the mean FEV1 was 93.4% predicted for both control subjects and first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands. Generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age and pack-years of smoking, demonstrated increased odds of reduced FEV1 and chronic bronchitis in current or ex-smoking first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands. Using a new method to estimate relative risk from relative odds, we estimate that the relative risks for FEV1 below 60%, FEV1 below 80%, and chronic bronchitis are each approximately three in current or ex-smoking first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands. The increased risk to relatives of early-onset COPD probands for reduced FEV1 and chronic bronchitis, limited to current or ex-smokers, suggests genetic risk factor(s) for COPD that are expressed in response to cigarette smoking.

  9. Genome-wide linkage analysis of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Edwin K; Mosley, Jonathan D; Palmer, Lyle J; Barth, Matthew; Senter, Jody M; Brown, Alison; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Kwiatkowski, David J; Chapman, Harold A; Campbell, Edward J; Province, Michael A; Rao, D C; Reilly, John J; Ginns, Leo C; Speizer, Frank E; Weiss, Scott T

    2002-03-15

    Familial aggregation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been demonstrated, but linkage analysis of COPD-related phenotypes has not been reported previously. An autosomal 10 cM genome-wide scan of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic markers was analyzed for linkage to COPD-related phenotypes in 585 members of 72 pedigrees ascertained through severe, early-onset COPD probands without severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis (using the ALLEGRO program) was performed for qualitative phenotypes including moderate airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV(1)) < 60% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC < 90% predicted], mild airflow obstruction (FEV(1) < 80% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC < 90% predicted) and chronic bronchitis. The strongest evidence for linkage in all subjects was observed at chromosomes 12 (LOD = 1.70) and 19 (LOD = 1.54) for moderate airflow obstruction, chromosomes 8 (LOD = 1.36) and 19 (LOD = 1.09) for mild airflow obstruction and chromosomes 19 (LOD = 1.21) and 22 (LOD = 1.37) for chronic bronchitis. Restricting analysis to cigarette smokers only provided increased evidence for linkage of mild airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis to several genomic regions; for mild airflow obstruction in smokers only, the maximum LOD was 1.64 at chromosome 19, whereas for chronic bronchitis in smokers only, the maximum LOD was 2.08 at chromosome 22. On chromosome 12p, 12 additional STR markers were genotyped, which provided additional support for an airflow obstruction locus in that region with a non-parametric multipoint approach for moderate airflow obstruction (LOD = 2.13) and mild airflow obstruction (LOD = 1.43). Using a dominant model with the STR markers on 12p, two point parametric linkage analysis of all subjects demonstrated a maximum LOD score of 2.09 for moderate airflow obstruction and 2.61 for mild airflow obstruction. In smokers only, the maximum two point LOD score for mild airflow

  10. Nursing experience of chronic bronchitis%浅谈慢性支气管炎的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费亚芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the nursing effect of patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: in our hospital from 2012 March to 2014 January were treated 100 patients with chronic bronchitis, given clinical observation, mental nursing, medication nursing, life care, health care guidance. Results: in 100 cases of chronic bronchitis patients in this group, after the treatment and nursing of 86 patients after, markedly effective (86%), effective 12 cases (12%), 2 cases of invalid patients (2%), the total efficiency is 98%, no serious complications. Conclusion: for the patients of chronic bronchitis, by giving the scientific comprehensive nursing, conducive to patient recovery, reduce the incidence of complications, improve the quality of life of patients.%目的:探讨慢性支气管炎患者的护理效果。方法我院从2012年3月到2014年1月共收治慢性支气管炎患者100例,给予临床观察、心理护理、用药护理、生活护理、健康指导等护理。结果在本组的100例慢性支气管炎患者中,经过治疗与护理之后,显效的患者86例(86%),有效的患者12例(12%),无效的患者2例(2%),总有效率是98%,均没有严重的并发症。结论对于慢性支气管炎患者,通过给予全方面的科学护理,有利于患者的病情早日康复,降低并发症的发生率,提高患者的生存质量。

  11. [Efficacy and safety of acute bronchitis treatment in adults--a comparison of Bronchosol® syrup and synthetic preparations with ambroxol. Results of observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Andrzej M; Schönknecht, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), including acute bronchitis, are the frequent health problems and the most common reason for acute cough in adults. Even though the infections are caused mainly by viruses, and their course is usually not complicated, febrifuges, i.a. mucokinetics, or antitussives are used in the treatment of URTI in order to improve the quality of life and safety of patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bronchosol® herbal syrup in comparison to ambroxol preparations in the treatment of acute bronchitis in adult patients. The Bronchosol®/2013 study was a non-interventional, prospective, open-label, observational study. Data from adult patients treated with Bronchosol® syrup for acute bronchitis were collected and compared with data from patients treated for the same condition with ambroxol preparations. The severity of bronchitis symptoms was evaluated with the BSS (Bronchitis Severity Score) scale, and patients'quality of life wasassessed with the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scale. Between visits patients conducted self-observations and filled out observation diaries. Moreover, the data on adverse events were collected. In 87.68% of patients the infections were cured. Most of patients considered the studied drugs to be the agent decreasing the duration of infection and its intensity. The percentage of patients who declared that they had a less intense cough than during earlier infections was higher in the group of patients treated with Bronchosol® syrup in comparison to ambroxol treated patients (60.22% vs. 45.03%). 91.94% of patients treated with Bronchosol® considered this syrup to be very safe; in the ambroxol group such a declaration was made by 76.61% of patients. Bronchosol® syrup is an efficient, well-tolerated, and safe drug. Its efficacy in the treatment of acute bronchitis symptoms in adult patients is similar to the efficacy of ambroxol preparations.

  12. Pb-Pb chronometry and the early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J. N.; Bollard, J.; Bizzarro, M.

    2017-03-01

    Of the long-lived chronometric systems, only the dual decay of 238U and 235U to 206Pb and 207Pb, respectively, have appropriate half-lives to resolve the ages of meteorites and their components formed in the first 5 Myr of the Solar System. This paper reviews the theory and methods behind this chronometer, offers criteria to critically evaluate Pb-Pb ages and presents a summary of the current state and immediate future of the chronometry of the early Solar System. We recognize that there is some debate over the age of the Solar System, but conclude that an age of 4567.30 ± 0.16 Ma based on four CAIs dated individually by the same method in two different laboratories is presently the best constrained published value. We further conclude that nebular chondrules dated by the Pb-Pb method require that they formed contemporaneously with CAIs and continued to form for at least ∼4 Myr, a conclusion that implies heterogeneous distribution of the short-lived 26Al nuclide in the protoplanetary disk. Planetesimals were already forming by ∼1 Myr after CAI formation, consistent with their growth predominantly through the accretion of chondrules. Nebular chondrule formation was completed by ∼5 Myr after CAI formation when the impact-generated Cba chondrules formed after the disk was cleared of gas and dust. We note that the absolute age of the Solar System or any single early Solar System object is not fundamental to any significant scientific question and that it is important only to know the correct relative ages of objects being used to piece together the formation history of the Solar System. As such, we point out the risks inherent in comparing Pb-Pb ages produced by different approaches in different laboratories at the level of the internal errors of individual ages. Until a cross-calibration exercise using synthetic and natural standards establishes the reproducibility between laboratories, only ages from a single laboratory, or between laboratories having

  13. Soft physics in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijer P.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The LHC results on particle and transverse energy production and Bose-Einstein correlations show that the system produced in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV is significantly larger, lives longer and is hotter and denser than at RHIC energies. The particle spectra and soft particle correlations allow a more detailed study of the properties of the produced system and its initial conditions. This contribution highlights some of the first soft physics results from the LHC.

  14. Strangelet search and antinuclei production studies in Pb + Pb collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, G.; Appelquist, G.; Arsenescu, R.; Baglin, C.; Beringer, J.; Bohm, C.; Borer, K.; Bussière, A.; Dittus, F.; Elsener, K.; Frei, D.; Gorodetzky, Ph.; Guillaud, J. P.; Hess, P.; Hugentobler, E.; Kabana, S.; Klingenberg, R.; Lindén, T.; Lohmann, K. D.; Mommsen, R.; Moser, U.; Pal, T.; Pretzl, K.; Schacher, J.; Selldén, B.; Stoffel, F.; Tuominiemi, J.; Weber, M.; Zhang, Q. P.

    1996-02-01

    We searched for long-lived strange quark matter particles, so-called strangelets, and studied particle and antiparticle production in Pb + Pb collisions at 158 GeV/ c per nucleon at zero degree production angle. We give upper limits for the production of strangelets covering a mass to charge ratio up to 120 GeV/ c 2 and lifetimes tlab > 1.2 μs and plot invariant differential production cross sections as a function of rapidity for a variety of particles.

  15. Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG. Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

  16. Neutralization Analysis of a Chicken Single-Chain Variable Fragment Derived from an Immune Antibody Library Against Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Li, Benqiang; Ye, Jiaxin; Wang, Man; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is prevalent in many countries causing severe economic loss to the poultry industry, causes infectious bronchitis (IB) in birds. Recombinant single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have been proven to effectively inhibit many viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, and they could be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic reagent to control IB. In this study, six anti-IBV chicken scFvs, ZL.10, ZL.64, ZL.78, ZL.80, ZL.138, and ZL.256, were obtained by screening random clones from an immune antibody library. An analysis of nucleotide sequences revealed that they represented distinctive genetic sequences and greatly varied in complementarity-determining region three of the heavy chain. Neutralization tests showed that ZL.10, which bound the S1 protein in western blots, inhibited the formation of syncytia in Vero cells 48 h post IBV infection and decreased the transcriptional level of nucleoprotein mRNA to 17.2%, while the other five scFvs, including ZL.78 and ZL.256, that bound the N protein did not. In conclusion, the results suggested that specific and neutralizing chicken scFvs against IBV, which can be safe and economical antibody reagents, can be produced in vitro through prokaryotic expression.

  17. Distribution of infectious bronchitis virus strains in different organs and evidence of vertical transmission in natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claiton Gonçalves; Saraiva, Giuliana Loreto; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Júnior, Abelardo Silva

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of partial sequencing of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene, this study investigated the molecular diversity of the virus in two life periods of a batch of breeding hens at the field level. The chicks were vaccinated against IBV on the second day of life with the vaccine Ma5, but at the age of 18 days, they exhibited clinical signs and macroscopic lesions compatible with avian infectious bronchitis (IB). In the clinical disease stage, the Ma5 vaccine strain was detected in the trachea, lungs, and small intestine of the chicks, while IBV variants were detected in the bursa of Fabricius and kidneys. Subsequently, new samples were collected from the same batch at the end of the production cycle. In this phase, the Ma5 vaccine strain was detected in the kidneys, small intestine, and oviduct of the hens. However, a previously unidentified IBV variant was found in the cecal tonsils. Additionally, a fragment of viral RNA with that was completely identical to the corresponding region of the Ma5 vaccine was detected in the allantoic fluid of viable embryos from the hens under study after 18 days of incubation. These findings suggest that, in addition to the Ma5 vaccine, other strains of IBV variants can coexist, seeming to establish a chronic infection in the chickens, and that they can potentially be transmitted vertically. These results may assist in immunoprophylaxis control programs against IBV.

  18. The potential of oceanic transport and onshore leaching of additive-derived lead by marine macro-plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Guo, Xinyu

    2016-06-15

    The long-distance transport potential of toxic lead (Pb) by plastic marine debris was examined by pure water leaching experiments using plastic fishery floats containing high level of additive-Pb such as 5100±74.3mgkg(-1). The leaching of Pb ended after sequential 480-h leaching experiments, and the total leaching amount is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total Pb in a float. But it recovered when the float was scratched using sandpaper. We propose that a "low-Pb layer," in which Pb concentration is negligibly small, be generated on the float surface by the initial leaching process. Thickness of the layer is estimated at 2.5±1.2μm, much shallower than flaws on floats scratched by sandpaper and floats littering beaches. The result suggests that the low-Pb layer is broken by physical abrasion when floats are washed ashore, and that Pb inside the floats can thereafter leach into beaches.

  19. Genetic Characterization of the Belgian Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis Virus (NIBV Reference Strain B1648

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanatha R.A.P. Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The virulent nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (NIBV strain B1648 was first isolated in 1984, in Flanders, Belgium. Despite intensive vaccination, B1648 and its variants are still circulating in Europe and North Africa. Here, the full-length genome of this Belgian NIBV reference strain was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS to understand its evolutionary relationship with other IBV strains, and to identify possible genetic factors that may be associated with the nephropathogenicity. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs were predicted in the B1648 strain (51UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-31UTR. ORFs 4b, 4c and 6b, which have been rarely reported in literature, were present in B1648 and most of the other IBV complete genomes. According to phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome, replicase transcriptase complex, spike protein, partial S1 gene and M protein, B1648 strain clustered with the non-Massachusetts type strains NGA/A116E7/2006, UKr 27-11, QX-like ITA/90254/2005, QX-like CK/SWE/0658946/10, TN20/00, RF-27/99, RF/06/2007 and SLO/266/05. Based on the partial S1 fragment, B1648 clustered with the strains TN20/00, RF-27/99, RF/06/2007 and SLO/266/05 and, further designated as B1648 genotype. The full-length genome of B1648 shared the highest sequence homology with UKr 27-11, Gray, JMK, and NGA/A116E7/2006 (91.2% to 91.6% and was least related with the reference Beaudette and Massachusetts strains (89.7%. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses indicated that B1648 strain may have played an important role in the evolution of IBV in Europe and North Africa. Further, the nephropathogenicity determinants might be located on the 1a, spike, M and accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b and 6b. Overall, strain B1648 is distinct from all the strains reported so far in Europe and other parts of the world.

  20. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  1. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  2. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  3. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  4. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  5. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  6. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  7. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  8. Jet fragmentation in p+Pb and Pb+Pb with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rybar, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The modification of jets in heavy ion collisions is a central tool to study the properties of QCD matter at high temperature and its interaction with hard probes. Jet production in heavy ion collisions is observed to be suppressed relative to expectations from $pp$ collisions and the measurement of the longitudinal fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb\\ are expected to provide insight into mechanism of the modification of the parton showering by the QCD medium. In proton-nucleus collisions, a large amount of hot QCD matter is not expected to be made and no evidence of jet suppression is observed. However, there is an unexpected excess of high momentum charged particles relative to expectations from $pp$ collisions that is observed in these collisions. The mechanism for this excess is not understood. The $p$+Pb fragmentation functions are expected to provide insight into the high momentum charged particle excess and into a possible influence of Pb+Pb jet fragmentation by effects due to the nuclear initial state. Th...

  9. Flow Harmonics vn in pPb and PbPb Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan

    2016-12-01

    Previous CMS measurements have demonstrated the collective nature of multiparticle correlations in high-multiplicity pPb collisions at the LHC. This collectivity is consistent with a hydrodynamic flow origin. However, it can also be interpreted in terms of initial state effects arising from gluon saturation. The pseudorapidity dependence of the azimuthal Fourier coefficients (vn) is expected to be sensitive to the underlying mechanism with, in the hydrodynamic picture, the longer lifetime of the fireball on the Pb-going side expected to lead to a larger flow signal than found on the p-going side. To investigate the detailed properties of the observed collectivity, differential vn values in transverse momentum (pT) and pseudorapidity (η) are presented over the full range of the CMS tracker detector (- 2.4 < η < 2.4) for pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Results based on multiparticle analyses involving four or more particles are shown. An event plane analysis is presented where the influence of recently demonstrated event-plane decorrelation is considered. Comparisons are made with peripheral PbPb collisions measured at similar mid-rapidity particle multiplicities. The results will be discussed in the context of current models of the longitudinal dependence of the multiparticle correlations.

  10. Otras enfermedades obstructivas: bisinosis, bronquitis crónica y EPOC de origen laboral y bronquitis eosinofílica Other obstructive diseases: byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Michel De la Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Además del asma ocupacional y las enfermedades derivadas de la inhalación aguda, otras enfermedades obstructivas también reconocen un origen laboral. Aunque en la actualidad la bisinosis es una enfermedad rara en España, describimos las características de la misma por su interés histórico dentro de las enfermedades respiratorias de origen laboral y porque todavía sigue vigente en los países en vías de desarrollo. La bronquitis crónica también puede estar relacionada con la exposición laboral a polvos y humos, con frecuencia denominada "bronquitis industrial". La relación ocupacional de la EPOC ha sido más controvertida a lo largo de la historia, pero en la actualidad esta relación está aceptada; describimos la evidencia actual que sustenta esta relación. En último lugar, describimos la bronquitis eosinofílica sin asma, entidad descrita por primera vez en 1989 y que en ocasiones también puede tener un origen laboral, compartiendo agentes etiológicos con el asma ocupacional.Besides occupational asthma and diseases derived from acute inhalation, other obstructive diseases also have an occupational origin. Although at present byssinosis is a rare disease in Spain, we describe its characteristics because of its historical interest amongst occupational respiratory diseases and because it is still relevant in developing countries. Chronic bronchitis can also be related to exposure at work to dust and smoke, and is often referred to as "industrial bronchitis". Historically, the relation of CPOD to occupation has been subject to controversy, but nowadays this relationship is accepted; we describe the present evidence supporting this relationship. Finally, we describe eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma, an entity that was described for the first time in 1989 and that can sometimes have an occupational origin, sharing aetiological agents with occupational asthma.

  11. Reciprocal Antibody and Complement Responses of Two Chicken Breeds to Vaccine Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

    2006-01-01

    Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular c

  12. Performance and design of ATLAS trigger in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The peak rate of interactions in high luminosity heavy ion runs in 2015 and 2016 was well above the ATLAS maximum recording rate of around 1kHz. Therefore an active trigger selection is applied relying partly on algorithms used for selection during pp data taking and a set of algorithms dedicated solely for heavy ions. They are used to collect enhanced samples of high multiplicity, ultra-peripheral and azimuthally asymmetric collisions. Contrary to the slowly changing underlying event conditions in nominal pp collisions, the underlying event in heavy ion collisions varies from event to event. Therefore specialised approaches have been developed for events containing hard probes to assure even performance in the environment of peripheral and central events. This poster presents an overview of the strategy and performance of the different triggers used during the Pb+Pb and p+Pb runs.

  13. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  14. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  15. Pb speciation results in amended soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the distribution of Pb phases resulting from various amendments to change Pb speciation. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  16. Protective effect of a bacterial extract against acute exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖; 郑劲平; 袁锦屏; 曾广翘; 钟南山; 林材元

    2004-01-01

    Background Immunostimulating agents made from bacterial extracts represent a class of medications that contains antigens derived from several bacterial strains and their potential ability to prevent bacterial infections results from the stimulation of the nonspecific component of the immune system. The present study investigated the effect of the oral immunostimulant Broncho-Vaxom, which includes material from eight different species of bacteria that are frequently present in the lower respiratory tract, on the frequency and severity of acute exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Ninety patients with chronic bronchitis complicated with COPD were randomly divided into groups A and B. Forty-nine subjects in group A received oral capsules containing 7mg Broncho-Vaxom, while 41 patients in group B received similar placebo capsules. Both groups took one capsule daily for the first 10 days of each month for 3 consecutive months. The frequency of acute exacerbation, symptom scores, and lung function were recorded for the following one year period.Results There was a significant decrease in the incidence, duration, and severity of acute exacerbation, as well as a reduction in the course of antibiotics administered and in the dosage of bronchodilator and mucolytic agent in group A, as compared to group B (P<0.05, respectively). Symptom scores for cough, sputum, dyspnea, as well as symptoms observed upon auscultation of the chest also improved significantly in group A as compared to group B (P<0.05, respectively). The bacterial clearance rate in sputum cultures from patients who received no antibiotics for the first 3 months was also significantly higher in group A compared to group B (P<0.01).Conclusions Orally administered Broncho-Vaxom is associated with a decrease in the incidence of acute exacerbation and a decrease in the need for antibiotics and symptomatic relief medications in patients

  17. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  18. Low temperature creep plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kassner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of crystalline materials at low temperatures (T < 0.3Tm is discussed. In particular, the phenomenological relationships that describe primary creep are reviewed and analyzed. A discussion of the activation energy for creep at T < 0.3Tm is discussed in terms of the context of higher temperature activation energy. The basic mechanism(s of low temperature creep plasticity are discussed, as well.

  19. Infectious bronchitis in Brazilian chickens: current data and observations of field service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV was detected for the first time in Brazil by Hipólito in 1957 in chickens sold life in the municipal market of Belo Horizonte, MG, when commercial poultry production was just starting in that country. The Massachusetts (Mass serotype was identified. However, the clinical disease was only observed in 1975, when poultry production was intensely growing. The extensive outbreak produced the classical condition in layers and breeders, affecting egg production and quality, whereas broilers presented respiratory and "nephritis-nephrosis" signs. The disease rapidly spread to all poultry-producing regions in the country, and in 1979, both the imports and the manufacturing of live vaccines against IB strains Mass, H120 and H52, were licensed. In 1980, inactivated vaccines were introduced. Molecular techniques, particularly PCR, started to bed in the identification of IBV. A retrospective analysis showed that, up to 1989, the main IBV strain circulating in Brazil was Mass. However, other studies shows the presence of a wide diversity of IBV strains in Brazil since the first strains were isolated, even before vaccination was introduced. Most researchers agree that the incidence of IBV different from Mass has increased, including of exclusively Brazilian genotypes, different from those described in other countries. Indeed, during the last few years, the number of genotypical variants has been much higher than that of the classical Mass serotype. Clinically, in addition of the classic presentations, atypical forms such as testicular atrophy and stones in the epidydimis associated to low fertility have been described. Serological techniques started to be used in vaccination monitoring and as a diagnostic tool. Serological response standards were developed, and have shown to be very useful to determine the expected profile in vaccination programs and when clinical disease is suspected. However, the immuno-enzymatic test

  20. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Constitutive Behavior of Mixed Sn-Pb/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. P.; Chan, D. K.; Subbarayan, G.; Handwerker, C. A.

    2012-03-01

    During the transition from Pb-containing solders to Pb-free solders, joints composed of a mixture of Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag-Cu often result from either mixed assemblies or rework. Comprehensive characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixed solder alloys resulting in a deformationally complete constitutive description is necessary to predict failure of mixed alloy solder joints. Three alloys with 1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 20 wt.% Pb were selected so as to represent reasonable ranges of Pb contamination expected from different 63Sn-37Pb components mixed with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. Creep and displacement-controlled tests were performed on specially designed assemblies at temperatures of 25°C, 75°C, and 125°C using a double lap shear test setup that ensures a nearly homogeneous state of plastic strain at the joint interface. The observed changes in creep and tensile behavior with Pb additions were related to phase equilibria and microstructure differences observed through differential scanning calorimetric and scanning electron microscopic cross-sectional analysis. As Pb content increased, the steady-state creep strain rates increased, and primary creep decreased. Even 1 wt.% Pb addition was sufficient to induce substantially large creep strains relative to the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy. We describe rate-dependent constitutive models for Pb-contaminated Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys, ranging from the traditional time-hardening creep model to the viscoplastic Anand model. We illustrate the utility of these constitutive models by examining the inelastic response of a chip-scale package (CSP) under thermomechanical loading through finite-element analysis. The models predict that, as Pb content increases, total inelastic dissipation decreases.

  2. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  3. Splitting function in pp and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    splitting is observed to be modified towards a more imbalanced fraction in central PbPb collisions compared to peripheral PbPb and pp collisions. In addition, the measurement in pp collisions is compared to the prediction of the splitting function from the {\\tt PYTHIA} and {\\tt HERWIG} event generators.

  4. Simultaneous recovery of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn from diluted solutions by electroextraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smara A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is mainly used in galvanoplasty and stabilisation of plastic materials. It accumulates continuously in soils. The analysis of soil samples gave concrete evidence of increase of concentration of this element during the past centunary [1]. Furthermore Cd and Pb attack selectively the kidneys and the liver with enzymatic troubles. The work has enabaled to put into evidence the contribution of the presence of resin to the conventional electrodialysis process. The optimal conditions for the elimination of Cd++, Zn++ and Pb++ ions were determined. These included influence of resin, imposed current density, flow rate of the feeding solution (diluat, different supporting electrolytes used during the electroextraction (HNO3, HCl and H2SO4 and concentration of the solution to be treated [2-3-4]. Furthermore the competition between the electroextraction of the metallic cations Cd++, Zn++and Pb++ was investigated for different mixtures.

  5. Measurements of flow and correlation phenomena in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of anisotropic collective flow in ultra relativistic heavy-ion collisions have been studied extensively in the past years using two or more particle correlations. An overview of collective flow and particle correlation measurements at CMS as a function of transverse momentum, pseudorapidity, event multiplicity, for both charged hadrons or identified particles will be presented. These results will be compared among pp, pPb and PbPb systems. Latest results of pp and PbPb data from 2015 run will also be discussed.

  6. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  7. News on collectivity in Pb-Pb collisions (CMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    The flow anisotropies with the fourier coefficients (n = 2, 3) for the charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV is studied with the CMS detector. In order to extract the fourier coefficients, several methods were used, such as the scalar product method or multi-particle cumulant method. The results cover both of the low-$p_T$ region (1 $< p_{T} <$ 3 GeV/c) associated with hydrodynamic flow phenomena and the high-$p_T$ region where anisotropic azimuthal distributions may reflect the path-length dependence of the parton energy loss in the created medium for the seven bins of collision centrality, spanning the rang of 0-60\\% most-central events.

  8. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Rauber

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  9. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  10. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  11. Measurement of inclusive jet spectra in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions with the ALICE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Rüdiger; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Highly energetic jets are sensitive probes of the kinematic properties and the topology of high energy hadron collisions. Jets are collimated sprays of charged and neutral particles, which are produced in fragmentation of hard scattered partons from an early stage of the collision. In ALICE, jets have been measured in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at several collision energies. While analyses of Pb-Pb events unveil properties of the hot and dense medium formed in heavy-ion collisions, pp and p-Pb collisions can shed light on hadronization and cold nuclear matter effects in jet production. Additionally, pp and p-Pb collisions serve as a baseline for disentangling hot and cold nuclear matter effects. A possible modification of the initial state is tested in p-Pb analyses. For the extraction of a jet signal, the exact evaluation of the background from the underlying event is an especially important ingredient. Due to the different nature of underlying events, each collision system requires a different analysis technique for removing the effect of the background on the jet sample. The focus of this publication is on the ALICE measurements of nuclear modification factors connecting p-Pb and Pb-Pb events to pp collisions. Furthermore, the radial jet structure is explored by comparing jet spectra reconstructed with different resolution parameters.

  12. Urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with adult emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and infections: US NHANES, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-12-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, pesticides, etc. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the relationships of urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons and adult respiratory health conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based setting in recent years. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported health conditions, and urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Statistical analyses including chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Of 5560 American adults aged 20-80, urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene were positively associated with emphysema (OR, 1.60, 95 % CI 1.26 to 2.03, P = 0.001 and OR, 1.42, 95 % CI 1.15 to 1.77, P = 0.003, respectively) and chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.42, 95 % CI 1.04 to 1.94, P = 0.031 and OR, 1.40, 95 % CI 1.03 to 1.91, P = 0.036, respectively), while 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-naphthol) was likely to be borderline associated with emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Conversely, urinary 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene were inversely associated with asthma and infections. Urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with adult respiratory health conditions, although the causality cannot be established. For future research, studies using large human sample across regions to longitudinally monitor would be suggested. For practice and policy-making, regulation on minimizing polyaromatic hydrocarbons exposure to protect respiratory health might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies and intervention programs.

  13. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  14. Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ningjing; Huang, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments Hu Ning-jinga, Huang Pengb,, Liu Ji-huaa, a First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China b Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China To investigate the source of Pb within Bohai Bay, Pb concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of surface sediments in this area were determined. The Pb concentration in this bay varied widely from 6.9 to 39.2 μg/g (average: 21.8 ± 7.8 μg/g), and the Pb isotopic compositions ranged from 0.8338 to 0.8864 (average: 2.0997 ± 0.0180) for 208Pb/206Pb and from 2.0797 to 2.1531 (average: 0.8477 ± 0.0135) for 207Pb/206Pb, presenting in three distinct clusters. The Pb isotopic ratios of sediments from the northeastern (NE zone) and northwestern (NW zone) coastal areas were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and automobile emission. In sediments from the central and southern Bohai Bay (C-S zone); however, Pb mainly originated from the Yellow River catchment, as a result of lithogenic sediment (from rock weathering) accumulation. The Pb isotopic ratios further indicate that, apart from riverine inputs, the neighboring large-scale ports and aerosols significantly contributed to the anthropogenic Pb contained in these sediments. Pb contamination in the Haihe and Luanhe river mouths as well as in the regions near ports is also suggested from anthropogenic enrichment factors. As cities and ports continue to develop around Bohai Bay, a long-term extensive sewage monitoring program is highly recommended.

  15. The Pb pollution fingerprint at Lochnagar: The historical record and current status of Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Handong [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: hyang@geog.ucl.ac.uk; Linge, Kathryn [NERC ICP Facility, School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, KT1 2EE (United Kingdom); Rose, Neil [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Ratios of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in a Lochnagar sediment core slowly decline from c. 1.32 at 140 cm to c. 1.23 at 9 cm, and then rapidly decline to c. 1.15 at the surface. Ninety percent of the Pb in the surface sediments can be attributed to anthropogenic sources. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio data imply that catchment peat surface contains a higher fraction of anthropogenic Pb than the sediment surface. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the surface of the sediment core are consistent with ratios in trapped sediments collected annually between 1998 and 2003. However, there is no significant decline in these recent samples suggesting that the reduction in atmospheric Pb emissions has not yet been recorded by the sediments due to Pb inputs from the catchment. As catchment peats store about 840 kg previously deposited anthropogenic Pb since 1860, it is likely that catchment inputs will continue to affect future {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. - Pb previously deposited and stored in Lochnagar catchment has a major affect on contemporary Pb in the lake system.

  16. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  17. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies......, examination of pH-dependent desorption, distribution in grain-size fractions and sequential extraction. Our results show that the first factors determining the speciation of Pb in soil are: (1) the stability of the original speciation and (2) the contamination level, while soil characteristics...... are of secondary importance. In nine of ten soils Pb was concentrated strongly in the soil fines (soils, particles with a highly concentrated Pb-content were observed during SEM-EDX. In eight of the soils, the particles contained various Pb-species with aluminum/iron, phosphate, sulfate...

  18. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  19. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  20. EFFECT OF COPPER ON THE HOT PLASTICITY OF 304HC STAINLESS STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Z. Cui; H.S. Di; G.D. Wang; X.H. Liu

    2005-01-01

    The plasticity map of 304HC stainless steel was determined by using tensile and compressive test. The effect of Cu on the hot plasticity of 304HC stainless steel was analyzed. The microstructure, inclusion and fracture surface were studied by using the method of optical microscopy, SEM,EDS and EPMA. The results showed that Cu has effect on the hot plasticity and the hotplasticity of 304HC stainless steel decrease with the increase of Cu content. The deformation temperature also hasmuch effect on the hot plasticity, the suitable deformation temperature are 1100-1200℃.The reason is that the brittle compounds were precipitated from austenite during cooling. These brittle compounds are Cu2S, Cu2O and PbCl etc.

  1. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    “Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  2. Fabrication of plastic biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaem, Ishtiaq; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Alam, S. Munir; Tian Jingdong [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A versatile surface functionalization procedure based on rf magnetron sputtering of silica was performed on poly(methylmethacrylate), polycarbonate, polypropylene, and cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 6015). The hybrid thermoplastic surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis and contact angle measurements. The authors then used these hybrid materials to perform a sandwich assay targeting an HIV-1 antibody using fluorescent detection and biotinylated peptides immobilized using the bioaffinity of biotin-neutravidin. They found a limit of detection similar to arrays on glass surfaces and believed that this plastic biochip platform may be used for the development of disposable immunosensing and diagnostic applications.

  3. Particle correlations and their implication to collectivity in pPb and PbPb from CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Byungsik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-range two-particle correlation functions reveal the near-side ridge structures in highmultiplicity pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. The model that takes into account the collective flow originated from the initial-state geometry fluctuation can successfully describe the measured long-range correlation functions of charged particles. In this review paper, the recent experimental data on the long-range correlations and the extracted elliptic and triangular flow parameters in pPb and PbPb collisions from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS experiment are summarized. The flow parameters from the longrange correlation analyses are compared with those from the multiparticle cumulants and the Lee-Yang Zeros (LYZ method. In addition, the pseudorapidity dependence of long-range two-particle correlation functions in pPb and the deduced flow parameters for identified strange hadrons (KS0 and Λ/Λ̄ in pPb and PbPb are also presented to provide more insights on the long-range correlations and flow dynamics.

  4. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berger, Martin Emanuel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boehmer, Felix Valentin; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dorheim, Sverre; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; Hilden, Timo Eero; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Esposito, Marco; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Ferencei, Jozef; 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Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gumbo, Mervyn; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; 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Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; 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Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-11-03

    Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV and Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV collisions are presented. They help address a question if there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a $|\\Delta \\eta|$ gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The n...

  5. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  6. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  7. Pb-Al relationships in waterfowl feces discriminate between sources of Pb exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Haro, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana - CSIC, Americo Vespucio, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Taggart, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, R., E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Hunted mallards (n = 56) were collected in the Ebro Delta (Spain) in 2007-08 to evaluate the use of feces as a non-invasive monitoring method to study lead shot ingestion. The prevalence of Pb shot ingestion in these birds was 28.6%, and similar to that reported before a ban on Pb shot use in 2003. Lead concentrations in terminal intestinal contents were higher in mallards with Pb shot in their gizzard. Feces Pb concentrations >34 {mu}g/g d.w were indicative of Pb shot ingestion, and background Pb levels were <12.5 {mu}g/g d.w. To discriminate between birds ingesting soil Pb, and those ingesting Pb shot, we correlated Al and Pb levels and showed that mallards with ingested Pb shot in the gizzard stood out as outliers within the regression. Feces Pb-Al relationships can be used as a simple non-invasive tool in monitoring programs regarding Pb shot ingestion in birds. - By analysing Pb-Al levels in feces, a simple non-invasive method can help determine sources of Pb exposure in waterfowl.

  8. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  9. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  10. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  11. Perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) induces ultrastructural and molecular alterations in synapses of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąssowska, Magdalena; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Moczydłowska, Joanna; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Gewartowska, Magdalena; Strużyńska, Lidia; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-12-12

    Lead (Pb), environmentally abundant heavy-metal pollutant, is a strong toxicant for the developing central nervous system. Pb intoxication in children, even at low doses, is found to affect learning and memorizing, with devastating effects on cognitive function and intellectual development. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb impairs synaptic plasticity is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb (with Pb concentrations in whole blood below 10μg/dL) on the synaptic structure and the pre- and postsynaptic proteins expression in the developing rat brain. Furthermore, the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed. Pregnant female Wistar rats received 0.1% lead acetate (PbAc) in drinking water from the first day of gestation until weaning of the offspring, while the control animals received drinking water. During the feeding of pups, mothers from the Pb-group were continuously receiving PbAc. Pups of both groups were weaned at postnatal day 21 and then until postnatal day 28 received only drinking water. 28-day old pups were sacrificed and the ultrastructural changes as well as expression of presynaptic (VAMP1/2, synaptophysin, synaptotagmin-1, SNAP25, syntaxin-1) and postsynaptic (PSD-95) proteins were analyzed in: forebrain cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. Our data revealed that pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb promotes pathological changes in synapses, including nerve endings swelling, blurred and thickened synaptic cleft structure as well as enhanced density of synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic area. Moreover, synaptic mitochondria were elongated, swollen or shrunken in Pb-treated animals. These structural abnormalities were accompanied by decrease in the level of key synaptic proteins: synaptotagmin-1 in cerebellum, SNAP25 in hippocampus and syntaxin-1 in cerebellum and hippocampus. In turn, increased level of synaptophysin was

  12. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  13. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  14. ALICE results on quarkonium production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    The study of quarkonia, bound states of heavy (charm or bottom) quark-antiquark pairs such as the J/psi or the Upsilon?, provides insight into the earliest and hottest stages of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions where the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma is expected. High-precision data from proton-proton collisions represent an essential baseline for the measurement of nuclear modi?cations in nucleus-nucleus collisions and serve also as a crucial test for models of quarkonium hadroproduction. Another fundamental tool to understand the quarkonium production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is the the study of proton-nucleus interactions, which allows one to investigate cold nuclear matter e?ects, such as parton shadowing or gluon saturation. The ALICE detector provides excellent capabilities to study quarkonium production at the Large Hadron Collider at both central and forward rapidity. An overview on ALICE results on quarkonium production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions is presented. Results are compare...

  15. Strangeness production in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the ALICE experiment is to study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The measurement of the (multi-)strange particles is an important tool to understand particle production mechanisms and the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We report on the production of K$^{0}_{S}$, $\\Lambda$($\\overline{\\Lambda}$), $\\Xi^{-}$($\\overline{\\Xi}^{+}$) and $\\Omega^{-}$($\\overline{\\Omega}^{+}$) in proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV measured by ALICE at the LHC. The comparison of the hyperon-to-pion ratios in the two colliding systems may provide insight into strangeness production mechanisms, while the comparison of the nuclear modification factors helps to determine the contribution of initial state effects and the suppression from strange quark energy loss in nuclear matter.

  16. Differential flow harmonic vn in pPb and PbPb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Previous CMS measurements have demonstrated the collective nature of multiparticle correlations in high-multiplicity pPb collisions at the LHC. This collectivity is consistent with a hydrodynamic flow origin. However, it can also be interpreted in terms of initial state effects arising from gluon saturation. The pseudorapidity dependence of the azimuthal Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) is expected to be sensitive to the underlying mechanism with, in the hydrodynamic picture, the longer lifetime of the fireball on the Pb-going side expected to lead to a larger flow signal than found on the p-going side. To investigate the detailed properties of the observed collectivity, differential $v_n$ values in transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) are presented over the full range of the CMS tracker detector ($-2.4 < \\eta < 2.4$) for pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Results based on multiparticle analyses involving four or more particles are shown. An event plane...

  17. Flow Harmonics $v_{n}$ in pPb and PbPb Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084946

    2016-01-01

    Previous CMS measurements have demonstrated the collective nature of multiparticle correlations in high-multiplicity pPb collisions at the LHC. This collectivity is consistent with a hydrodynamic flow origin. However, it can also be interpreted in terms of initial state effects arising from gluon saturation. The pseudorapidity dependence of the azimuthal Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) is expected to be sensitive to the underlying mechanism with, in the hydrodynamic picture, the longer lifetime of the fireball on the Pb-going side expected to lead to a larger flow signal than found on the p-going side. To investigate the detailed properties of the observed collectivity, differential $v_n$ values in transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) are presented over the full range of the CMS tracker detector ($-2.4 < \\eta < 2.4$) for pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Results based on multiparticle analyses involving four or more particles are shown. An event plane...

  18. W and Z bosons with CMS in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, Émilien

    2016-12-01

    Electroweak boson production is an important benchmark process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. W and Z bosons do not participate in the strong interaction and their leptonic decays provide medium-blind probes of the initial state of the collisions. The final results on the W and Z production in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, combining both the muon and electron channels, will be presented. When compared to theory calculations that include nuclear modifications to the parton distributions, data show a clear sensitivity to this type of effects. The final results in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV, compared to pp collisions at the same centre of mass energy, will also be presented. The centrality dependence confirms the binary scaling of hard probes in heavy-ion collisions, while the differential cross sections points to initial state effects small compared to the statistical precision of the available data.

  19. Transverse momentum fluctuations in ultrarelativistic Pb + Pb and p + Pb collisions with "wounded" quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    BoŻek, Piotr; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the phenomenon of size-flow transmutation in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions in a model where the initial size fluctuations are driven by the wounded quarks and the collectivity is provided by viscous hydrodynamics. It is found that the model properly reproduces the data for the transverse momentum fluctuations measured for Pb +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The agreement holds for a remarkably wide range of centralities, from 0-5 % up to 70-80 %, and displays a departure from a simple scaling with (dNch/d η ) 1 /2 in the form seen in the data. The overall agreement in the model with wounded quarks is significantly better than with nucleon participants. This feature joins the previously found wounded quark multiplicity scaling in the argumentation in favor of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in the early dynamics. We also examine in detail the correlations between measures of the initial size and final average transverse momentum of hadrons. Predictions are made for the transverse momentum fluctuations in p +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=5.02 TeV.

  20. Flow Harmonics $v_{n}$ in pPb and PbPb Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Previous CMS measurements have demonstrated the collective nature of multiparticle correlations in high-multiplicity pPb collisions at the LHC. This collectivity is consistent with a hydrodynamic flow origin. However, it can also be interpreted in terms of initial state effects arising from gluon saturation. The pseudorapidity dependence of the azimuthal Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) is expected to be sensitive to the underlying mechanism with, in the hydrodynamic picture, the longer lifetime of the fireball on the Pb-going side expected to lead to a larger flow signal than found on the p-going side. To investigate the detailed properties of the observed collectivity, differential $v_n$ values in transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) are presented over the full range of the CMS tracker detector ($-2.4 < \\eta < 2.4$) for pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Results based on multiparticle analyses involving four or more particles are shown. An event plane...

  1. J/ψ photoproduction in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions with the ALICE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jaroslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-relativistic heavy ions generate strong electromagnetic fields which offer the possibility to study gamma-gamma, gamma-nucleus and gamma-proton processes at the LHC in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions. Exclusive photoproduction of J/ψ vector mesons is sensitive to the gluon distribution of the target. Here we report on the ALICE measurement of J/ψ coherent photoproduction in Pb-Pb ultra-peripheral collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV for the rapidity ranges -3.6 < y < -2.6 and |y| < 0.9, and on preliminary results on the J/ψ photoproduction in p-Pb at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. The J/ψ mesons have been identified through their leptonic decays.

  2. Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki Eskeli; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bornschein, Joerg; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deppman, Airton; Oliveira Valeriano De Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Doenigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Beomkyu; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratyev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz Arkadiusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazumder, Rakesh; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes Prado, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexander; Nyatha, Anitha; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woojin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang Hans; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Xiang, Changzhou; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    The average transverse momentum versus the charged-particle multiplicity $N_{ch}$ was measured in p-Pb collisions at a collision energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and in pp collisions at collision energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 Tev in the kinematic range 0.15 with $N_{ch}$ is observed, which is much stronger than that measured in Pb-Pb collisions. For pp collisions, this could be attributed, within a model of hadronizing strings, to multiple-parton interactions and to a final-state color reconnection mechanism. The data in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions cannot be described by an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions and pose a challenge to most of the event generators.

  3. Multi-strange baryon production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Transverse momentum spectra and yields of charged $\\Xi$ and $\\Omega$ at mid-rapidity in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC have been measured by the ALICE Collaboration. These baryons are identified by reconstruction of their weak decay topology, in modes with only charged decay products, using the excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities of the detector. The recent measurements of the multi-strange baryon production relative to non-strange particles in p-Pb collisions are presented: this would help to understand the change in relative strangeness production from pp collisions to Pb-Pb collisions. Results on the nuclear modification factors for the charged $\\Xi$ and $\\Omega$ particles, compared with those for other light particles, are also reported.

  4. QCD with Jets and Heavy Flavour in pp and PbPb Collisions in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377077; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has studied different aspects of QCD in pp and PbPb collisions. A summary of interesting recent results at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV, 8 TeV and 13 TeV (pp), and 2.76 TeV (PbPb) per nucleon pair is presented. Measurements using pp collisions of Z, W, photon, quarkonia and open charm production differential cross sections in a variety of variables are presented. Jet and heavy flavour muon measurements in PbPb collisions, aimed to test the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma with the view of better understanding of jet quenching, are also presented.

  5. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  6. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  7. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  8. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  9. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  10. Methylation of free-floating deoxyribonucleic acid fragments in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of dogs with chronic bronchitis exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, Yoshiki; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Watari, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of canine chronic bronchitis (CB) is not completely understood, although exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the airway inflammatory responses in some dogs with CB. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We investigated the concentrations and methylation rates of free-floating DNA fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from dogs with chronic bronchitis. Based on serum cotinine levels, dogs with CB were divided into 2 groups: dogs that either had or had not been exposed to ETS. Our results demonstrated that the total nucleated cell and macrophage numbers increased in BALF of ETS-exposed dogs with CB. There were no significant differences in DNA concentrations and methylation rates in BALF between the 2 groups. However, 3 out of 8 dogs exposed to ETS had high DNA methylation rates in their BALF samples. Our results suggest that ETS exposure leads to epigenetic modifications of cellular components in BALF in dogs diagnosed with CB.

  11. [Multicenter, controlled, double-blind study of the efficacy and tolerance of Vectrine (erdostein) versus placebo in the treatment of stabilized chronic bronchitis with hypersecretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubier, M; Berdah, L

    1999-09-01

    The clinical efficacy of vectrine (erdosteine) was evaluated in the treatment of chronic bronchitis patients with hypersecretion during a controlled clinical trial having included 170 patients. For inclusion, the bronchitis patients had to be in a stable status (no exacerbation since at least three months). The patients received, in double-blind protocol, vectrine, one capsule b.i.d. or placebo, one similar capsule b.i.d. during a period treatment of 21 days. The results of the main evaluation criteria, the global index of efficacy (frequency of the cough + severity of the cough + difficulty in breathing + dyspnea) but also on the intensity and frequency of the cough were statistically significant in favor of vectrine. The safety of the treatment was excellent.

  12. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag-Pb

  13. Searches for transverse momentum dependent flow vector fluctuations in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Garg, Prakhar; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Isakov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lazaridis, Lazaros; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nobuhiro, Akihide; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Vigolo, Sonia; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb--Pb collisions at $\\snn=$ 2.76 TeV and p--Pb collisions at $\\snn=$ 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order flow vector in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<0.8$ as a function of centrality and transverse momentum $\\pt$ using two observables, to search for evidence of $p_{\\rm T}$-dependent flow vector fluctuations. For Pb--Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV, the measurements indicate that $\\pt$-dependent fluctuations are only present for the second order flow vector. Similar results have been found for p--Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic model calculations with event-by-event geometry fluctuations in the initial state to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties of the matter created in Pb--Pb and p--Pb collisions.

  14. Correlations of azimuthal anisotropy harmonics in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The first measurements of anisotropy harmonics ($v_n$, $n=2-4$) in $\\text{pPb}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$ is presented. In addition, measurements of event-by-event correlations of different $v_n$ in $\\text{pp}$ at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$, $\\text{pPb}$ at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 5.02$ and $8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$ and $\\text{PbPb}$ at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = 5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$ collision systems at the LHC are explored. New results of the $v_n$ harmonics in $8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$ $\\text{pPb}$ collisions are extracted via long-range ($|\\Delta\\eta|>2$) two-particle correlations as a function of event multiplicity. The current measurement is reaching a very-high-multiplicity region beyond that achieved in $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$ $\\text{pPb}$ data collected in 2013. Event-by-event correlations among $v_2$, $v_3$ and $v_4$ harmonics are measured using the four-particle symmetric cumulant method in $\\text{pp}$ and $\\text{pPb}$, and compared to the large system of $\\text{PbPb}$ collisions. For high-multipli...

  15. Jets and charged particles in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spousta, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Jets provide a powerful tool for probing the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma created in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The modification of high-pT jets as they propagate in the quark-gluon plasma provides insight on structure of the plasma at short-length scale. Such modifications have been observed in a variety of measurements of single jet, dijet, photon-jet and charged-particle fragmentation functions. Recent results of modifications of jets in proton-lead and Pb+Pb collisions will be presented.

  16. Jet measurements in p+Pb and Pb+Pb with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Helena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Jets provide a powerful tool for probing the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma created in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The modification of high-pT jets as they propagate in the quark-gluon plasma provides insight on structure of the plasma at short-length scale. Such modifications have been observed in a variety of measurements of single jet, dijet, photon-jet and charged-particle fragmentation functions. Recent results of modifications of jets in proton-lead and Pb+Pb collisions will be presented.

  17. The role of point defects in PbS, PbSe and PbTe: a first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wun-Fan; Fang, Chang-Ming; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Huis, Marijn A

    2015-09-09

    Intrinsic defects are of central importance to many physical and chemical processes taking place in compound nanomaterials, such as photoluminescence, accommodation of off-stoichiometry and cation exchange. Here, the role of intrinsic defects in the above mentioned processes inside rock salt (RS) lead chalcogenide systems PbS, PbSe and PbTe (PbX) was studied systematically using first principles density functional theory. Vacancy, interstitial, Schottky and Frenkel defects were considered. Rock salt PbO was included for comparison. The studied physical properties include defect formation energy, local geometry relaxation, Bader charge analysis, and electronic structure. The defect formation energies show that monovacancy defects and Schottky defects are favoured over interstitial and Frenkel defects. Schottky dimers, where the cation vacancy and anion vacancy are adjacent to each other, have the lowest defect formation energies at 1.27 eV, 1.29 eV and 1.21 eV for PbS, PbSe and PbTe, respectively. Our results predict that a Pb monovacancy gives rise to a shallow acceptor state, while an X vacancy generates a deep donor state, and Schottky defects create donor-acceptor pairs inside the band gap. The surprisingly low formation energy of Schottky dimers suggests that they may play an important role in cation exchange processes, in contrast to the current notion that only single point defects migrate during cation exchange.

  18. Elliptic flow of inclusive electrons in Pb-Pb collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheid, Sebastian; Bailhache, Raphaelle; Rascanu, Theodor; Appelshaeuser, Harald [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The main purpose of ALICE at the LHC is to investigate the properties of the deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Since heavy quarks, i.e. charm and beauty, are produced on a shorter time scale with respect to the hot fireball, they are suited to probe the interaction dynamics inside the medium. Heavy-flavour hadrons can be measured via their semi-electronic decays at mid-rapidity with ALICE. The heavy-flavour elliptic flow, the second harmonic in the Fourier expansion of the particle azimuthal distribution, is an observable sensitive to the degree of thermalization of charm and beauty quarks in the medium at low p{sub T}, as well as to the path length dependence of the energy loss of heavy quarks at high p{sub T}. In this poster, I will show how the elliptic flow of inclusive electrons is measured with the event-plane method in 20-40% central Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV. Electrons are identified with the Time-Projection-Chamber and the Time-Of-Flight in the central barrel in the p{sub T} range 1.5-6 GeV/c. The estimation of the remaining hadron contamination will be presented as well as a possible way to subtract this contribution to the elliptic flow.

  19. Pb isotopes during mingling and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  20. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  1. The scope of plastic surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-03

    Aug 3, 2013 ... areas of surgery (especially general surgery), plastic surgeons are arguably the .... Who do you feel are experts in laparoscopic surgery? e (general surgeons) a. Maxillofacial .... of pressure sore. ORIF = open reduction internal fixation. ... Plastic versus cosmetic surgery: What's the difference? Plast Reconstr.

  2. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  3. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  4. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  5. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution associated with prevalence of asthma and COPD/chronic bronchitis. A cross-sectional study in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihlén Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that air pollution from traffic has adverse long-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in children, but there are few studies and more inconclusive results in adults. We examined associations between residential traffic and asthma and COPD in adults in southern Sweden. A postal questionnaire in 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years provided disease status, and self-reported exposure to traffic. A Geographical Information System (GIS was used to link geocoded residential addresses to a Swedish road database and an emission database for NOx. Results Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/minute (compared with having no heavy road within this distance was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89, and COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.11–2.4, as well as asthma and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Self-reported traffic exposure was associated with asthma diagnosis and COPD diagnosis, and with asthma symptoms. Annual average NOx was associated with COPD diagnosis and symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Living close to traffic was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis, COPD diagnosis, and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This indicates that traffic-related air pollution has both long-term and short-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in adults, even in a region with overall low levels of air pollution.

  7. 支气管哮喘34例临床治疗体会%Clinical Treatment Experience of 34 Cases of Bronchitis Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical treatment of bronchitis asthma is to be investigated. Methods Review and analyze clinical treatment data selected from 34 bronchitis asthma patients who are treated in hospital from June 2013 to June 2014. Results Of the 34 patients with bronchitis asthma,there were 18 cured cases,10 cases of significant efficiency,4 cases of efficacy and 2 cases of inefficiency,the efficacy incidence was up to 94.12% in total. Conclusion Timely and effective treatment is of significance to improve patients’cure rate and quality of life.%目的:探讨支气管哮喘的临床治疗。方法对2012年6月~2014年6月收治的34例支气管哮喘患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果34例支气管哮喘患者经治疗,治愈18例,显效10例,有效4例,无效2例,总有效率94.12%。结论对于支气管哮喘,应及时有效的治疗,提高治愈率和生活质量。

  8. 慢性支气管炎中医治疗体会%The Experience of the Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis With Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖春梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of chronic bronchitis treated with Traditional Chinese Medicine. Method Analysed the clinical treatment data of thirty-ifve cases of chronic bronchitis patients treated by Traditional Chinese Medicine from 2012 to 2013 in our hospital. Results 19 cases were markedly effective, 11 cases were effective, and the total efifciency reach to 85.7%. Conclusion The Traditional Chinese Medicine used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis patients can have a satisfactory effect, and reduce the recurrence rate.%目的:探讨慢性支气管炎的中医治疗方法。方法选取2012~2013年收治的慢性支气管炎患者35例的临床中医治疗资料进行分析。结果本组收治的35例患者中,显效19例,有效11例,总有效率85.7%。结论对慢性支气管炎患者进行中医论治效果满意,可降低复发率。

  9. 慢性支气管炎的临床治疗体会%To Discuss Clinical Experience on Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚运清

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性支气管炎的治疗体会。方法回顾性分析我院2013年3月~8月收治的58例慢性支气管炎患者。结果经治疗后,治愈48例,有显著效果的8例,好转1例,无效1例。结论早发现、早治疗是治疗慢性支气管炎的主要方法。%Objective To investigate the treatment of chronic bronchitis. Methods A retrospective analysis of 58 cases of patients with chronic bronchitis treated in our hospital from March 2013 to August 2013.Results After treatment, 48 cases were cured, 8 cases with signiifcant effect, one case with improvement , one case invalid .Conclusion Early detection and early treatment is the main method for the treatment of chronic bronchitis.

  10. Postnatal lead exposure and the cholinergic system: effects on cholinergically mediated behaviors and cholinergic development and plasticity in the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    A review of previous evidence suggested the possibility of a functional association between the behavioral effect of early lead (Pb) exposure, hippocampal damage and cholinergic deficiency. To further assess this possibility, Long-Evans hooded rat pups were exposed to Pb for the first 25 postnatal days via the maternal milk. Beginning at 65 days of age, animals were tested on behavioral tasks sensitive to both Pb exposure and cholinergic deficiency. Exposure to both levels of Pb impaired passive avoidance acquisition and produced lower rates of spontaneous alternation. The anticholinergic scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) impaired passive avoidance acquisition, lowered the rate of spontaneous alternation and decreased open field activity scores in control animals. At 30 days of age, the brains of High Pb and control animals were processed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. Morphometric evaluation of the molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus indicated no effects of Pb on the development of the cholinergic innervation of this brain region. The results provide strong evidence for the involvement of deficient cholinergic functioning in the behavioral changes observed following postnatal Pb exposure. Further, these findings indicate that a decrease in neuroanatomical plasticity may be a critical brain mechanism underlying the learning deficits observed following exposure to Pb.

  11. Effect of developmental lead exposure on synaptic plasticity and N—methyl—D—aspartate receptor subunit in rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RuanDY; SuiL

    2002-01-01

    Chronic lead(Pb) exposure is known to be associated with learning and memory,and cognitive dysfunction in children.Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb exposure may impair neuronal process underlying synaptic plasticity via a direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors(NMDARs).The studies described here were carried out to investigate effect of developmental Pb exposure on long-term potentiation(LTP),long-tern depression(LTD) and NMDAs subunits in rat hippocampus.The results are listed as follows:(1)low-level Pb exposture can impair the induction and maintenance of LTP in vivo and in vitro;(2)the Pb-induced impairment of LTD magnitude was an age-related decline in area CA1 of rat hippocampus;(3)chronic Pb exposure affected two components,voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent LTD and NMDARs-dependent LTD,of LTD induction in area CA1 of rat hippocampus;(4)different effects of developmental Pb exposure on NMDA receptor NR1,NR2A,NR2B,NR2C,NR2D and NR3A subunits in area CA1,CA2,CA3 and CA4 of rat hippocampus were observed;(5)the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors enriched in area CA1,CA3 and dentate gyrus and kainite receptors enriched in area CA1 and dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus were impaired by Pb exposure.

  12. Universal features of amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Castellanos, David Fernandez; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics. It captures the complex shear patterning observed for a wide variety of deformation modes, as well as the avalanche dynamics of plastic flow. Avalanches are described by universal size exponents and scaling functions, avalanche shapes, and local stability distributions, independent of system dimensionality, boundary and loading conditions, and stress state. Our predictions consistently differ from those of mean-field depinning models, providing evidence that plastic yielding is a distinct type of critical phenomenon.

  13. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  14. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  15. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  16. Cefditoren versus levofloxacin in patients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: serum inflammatory biomarkers, clinical efficacy, and microbiological eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasi F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Blasi, Paolo Tarsia, Marco Mantero, Letizia C Morlacchi, Federico PifferDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, ItalyBackground: The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.Methods: Forty eligible patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB were randomized to receive cefditoren 200 mg twice a day for 5 days (n = 20 or levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days (n = 20.Results: The inflammatory parameters which were significantly reduced at test-of-cure with respect to visit 1 were Krebs von den Lundgen-6 (KL-6 and interleukin-6. KL-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 19 ± 11 UI/mL to 6 ± 8 UI/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 19 ± 13 UI/mL to 8 ± 10 UI/mL, P = 0.006 and levofloxacin (from 19 ± 10 UI/mL to 5 ± 5 UI/mL, P = 0.000 arms. Similarly, interleukin-6 decreased both in the overall study population (from 13.35 ± 16.41 pg/mL to 3 ± 4.7 pg/mL, P = 0.000 and in the cefditoren (from 15.90 ± 19.54 pg/mL to 4.13 ± 6.42 pg/mL, P = 0.015 and levofloxacin (from 10.80 ± 12.55 pg/mL to 1.87 ± 1.16 pg/mL, P = 0.003 arms. At the end of treatment (test-of-cure, 6–9 days after drug initiation, the clinical success rate in the overall study population was 78%; the clinical cure rate was 80% in the cefditoren arm and 75% in the levofloxacin arm. Globally, bacteriological eradication at test-of-cure was obtained in 85% of the overall study population. Both treatments were well tolerated.Conclusion: Cefditoren represents a valid option in the treatment of mild to moderately severe cases of AECB in the outpatient care setting. Moreover, the use of this cephalosporin is associated with a significant

  17. Transverse momentum dependence of charmonium suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, Bruno; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cormick, M M; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2005-01-01

    Charmonium suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon is investigated in detail with the study of the transverse momentum distributions of J/ psi as a function of the centrality of the collision. It is shown that the observed J/ psi suppression in Pb-Pb interactions is particularly significant mainly at low transverse momentum where it strongly depends on centrality. For peripheral Pb- Pb collisions, the transverse momentum dependence of the J/ psi cross section is, as a function of centrality, qualitatively similar to the dependence observed in p-A and S-U collisions. Comparing peripheral and central Pb-Pb collisions, the data show a relative suppression in the whole p/sub T/ range although its amplitude significantly decreases with increasing p/sub T/ and becomes almost p/sub T/ independent for the highest p/sub T/ values.

  18. Electrodialytic Remediation of Pb Contaminated Soil - Effects of Soil Properties and Pb Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of soil properties and Pb distribution on the electrodialytic remediation of Pb contaminated soil. Two naturally Pb contaminated soils were compared with respect to total Pb content, Pb distribution, pH, carbonate content, clay content and organic...... matter, and an electrodialytic remediation experiment was made on each soil.It was concluded that soil pH was the most important factor limiting the mobilisation of Pb. In one of the remediation experiments it was possible to mobilise and reduce the amount of Pb significantly, whereas in the other only...... a small amount of the initial Pb was mobilised at similar experimental conditions. A high buffering capacity of one of the soils, which was partly due to a high carbonate content, led to a bad remediation result....

  19. Caratterizzazione tecnologica di una Pb-clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Calia, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A Sardinian clinoptilolite rich-rock was submitted to a mineral separation process aimed to increase zeolite content. The material enriched in zeolite was subjected to exchange processes in Na- and Pb- solutions, to conduct the clinoptilolite in Pb-form. The behaviour of the Pb-clinoptilolite was studied measuring the Pb2+ release in 0.5 M NaCH3COO solution at 20°C. This release was compared with lead releases of the same material heated at 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 675, 700, 800, and 900°C...

  20. Lead (Pb)-Free Solder Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VIANCO,PAUL T.

    2000-08-15

    Legislative and marketing forces both abroad and in the US are causing the electronics industry to consider the use of Pb-free solders in place of traditional Sn-Pb alloys. Previous case studies have demonstrated the satisfactory manufacturability and reliability of several Pb-free compositions for printed circuit board applications. Those data, together with the results of fundamental studies on Pb-free solder materials, have indicated the general feasibility of their use in the broader range of present-day, electrical and electronic components.

  1. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  2. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  3. Avoidance Reaction of Penaeus Chinensis to Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr,Zn) and Heavy Metal Mixtures (Pb-Cr, Pb-Zn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民山

    2001-01-01

    Study on the avoidance response of Penaeus chinensis to heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn) and heavy metal mixtures (Pb-Cr, Pb-Zn) is carred out using a Y-model avoidance apparatus. The concentrations calculated to induce 50% avoidance rate byPenaeus chinensis are 11.4, 33.2 and 238. 1 mg/L for Pb, Cr and Zn, respectively. Mixtures of Pb-Cr and Pb-Zn produce additive effect in the avoidance test using Penaeus chinesis. But when the mixed Pb-Zn solution has 0.5 toxic unit Pb and 0.5 toxic unit Zn, the mixture seems to have synergistic effect.

  4. SOBRE OS COMPOSTOS DO PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE Seung-Hwa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propõe uma nova análise dos compostos do Português do Brasil (doravante, PB assumindo os pressupostos da Morfologia Lexical (Kiparky: 1982, 1983; Lieber: 1980, 1983 e argumenta que existem dois tipos de compostos no PB: Compostos Lexicais e Compostos Pós-Lexicais. Os compostos lexicais são formados no léxico e são sintaticamente opacos, ou seja, esses compostos se comportam como uma unidade (uma palavra comum em relação a processos morfo-sintáticos, pois não permitem flexão, derivação, nem concordância. Os compostos pós-lexicais são formados no componente pós-lexical e, portanto, sintaticamente transparentes (permitindo flexão, derivação, concordância; esses compostos resultam da atuação da regra de formação de palavras não-morfológicas, proposta por Di Sciullo & Williams (1987.

  5. One and two dimensional analysis of 3$\\pi$ correlations measured in Pb+Pb interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bearden, I G; Boissevain, J G; Christiansen, P; Conin, L; Dodd, J; Erazmus, B; Esumi, S C; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Ferenc, D; Fields, D E; Franz, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A G; Hansen, O; Hardtke, D; van Hecke, H; Holzer, E B; Humanic, T J; Hummel, P; Jacak, B V; Jayanti, R; Kaimi, K; Kaneta, M; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M L; Leltchouk, M; Ljubicic, A; Lörstad, B; Maeda, N; Martin, L; Medvedev, A; Murray, M; Ohnishi, H; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Piuz, François; Pluta, J; Polychronakos, V; Potekhin, M V; Poulard, G; Reichhold, D M; Sakaguchi, A; Schmidt-Sørensen, J; Simon-Gillo, J; Sondheim, W E; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Willis, W J; Wolf, K L; Xu, N; Zachary, D S

    2001-01-01

    $\\pi^{-}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{-}$ correlations from Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon are presented as measured by the focusing spectrometer of the NA44 experiment at CERN. The three-body effect is found to be stronger for PbPb than for SPb. The two-dimensional three-particle correlation function is also measured and the longitudinal extension of the source is larger than the transverse extension.

  6. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  7. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropog

  8. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Koster, Rik S.; Wang, Shuaiwei; Fang, Changming; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; van Huis, Marijn A.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., "Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heterona

  9. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  10. Initial-state fluctuations and factorization breaking in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Milosevic, Jovan

    2014-01-01

    The single-particle anisotropy coefficients measured in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76~TeV and high-multiplicity pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=5.02~TeV by the CMS collaboration are presented. These coefficients are obtained from two-particle $\\Delta\\phi$-$\\Delta\\eta$ correlations. The observed correlations in ultra-central PbPb events are expected to be particularly sensitive to initial-state fluctuations. The breakdown of factorization of two-particle correlations into single-particle azimuthal anisotropies is observed in both colliding systems. This effect, recently predicted by hydrodynamics, is induced due to initial-state fluctuations which could produce a transverse momentum dependence of event-plane angle even if hydrodynamic flow is the only source of correlations.

  11. Electrochemical degradation of linuron in aqueous solution using Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abu Ghalwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2 were prepared by electrodeposition and used as anodes for electrochemical degradation of linuron (phenylurea pesticide in aqueous solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process including current density, temperature, initial concentration of linuron, pH, conductive electrolyte and time of electrolysis were studied and optimized. The best degradation occurred in the presence of NaCl (1 gL−1 as conductive electrolyte. After 30 min, nearly complete degradation of linuron was achieved (92% and 84% using C/PbO2 and Pb/PO2 electrodes at pH 7 and 1.5, respectively. Higher degradation efficiency was obtained at low temperature (5–10 °C. The optimum current density for the degradation of linuron on both electrodes was (150 mAcm−2.

  12. [Inter-society consensus for the management of respiratory infections: acute bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, Gustavo; Pensotti, Claudia; Scapellato, Pablo; Caberlotto, Oscar; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Clara, Liliana; Klein, Manuel; Levy Hara, Gabriel; López Furst, María J; Mykietiuk, Analía; Pryluka, Daniel; Rial, María J; Vujacich, Claudia; Yahni, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The Argentine Society for Infectious Diseases and other national societies issued updated practical guidelines for the management of acute bronchitis (AB) and reactivations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the aim of promoting rational use of diagnostic and therapeutic resources. AB is a condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial airways which affects adults and children without underlying pulmonary disease. It is usually caused by a virus. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings after community acquired pneumonia has been ruled out. Treatment of AB is mainly symptomatic. Antibiotics should be used in immune-compromised hosts, patients with chronic respiratory or cardiac diseases and in the elderly with co-morbidities. Reactivation of COPD is defined as an acute change in the patient's baseline clinical situation beyond normal day to day variations, with an increase in dyspnea, sputum production and/or sputum purulence, warranting a change in medication. An increase in one symptom is considered a mild exacerbation, two as moderate, and the presence of three symptoms is considered a severe exacerbation. An infectious agent can be isolated in sputum in 50 to 75% of COPD reactivations. Moderate and severe episodes must be treated with antibiotics, amoxicillin/ beta-lactamase inhibitor, macrolides and fluoroquinolones are first choice drugs.

  13. Comparative histopathology and immunohistochemistry of QX-like, Massachusetts and 793/B serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyeda, Zs; Szeredi, L; Mató, T; Süveges, T; Balka, Gy; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs; Rusvai, M; Palya, V

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experimentally the pathogenicity and tissue distribution of the recently emerged QX-like strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with the widespread M41 and 793/B serotypes of the virus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical methods were employed to define the main sites of virus replication. One-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with five different QX-like strains, or with the M41 and 793/B IBV strains and monitored for 42 days post-infection. Tracheal lesions developed in all infected birds, confirming the ability of all of the tested strains to induce respiratory disease. Replication of the isolates in the alimentary tract was detected, but the infection did not cause significant gut lesions. Four of the five QX-like IBV strains induced severe kidney lesions. Dilation of the oviduct with accumulation of serum-like fluid in the lumen of this structure, reported previously from field cases of QX-like IBV infection, was observed following experimental infection with all of the five QX-like strains. Microscopical and immunohistochemical examination of the affected oviducts did not help to elucidate the pathogenesis of this lesion.

  14. [Hemodynamics, blood gas composition and viscosity in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis complicated by chronic cor pulmonale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskiĭ, O N; Buturov, I V; Purkh, T Iu; Mohamed Fadi Fanari; Paraska, V I

    2004-01-01

    Hemodynamics, external respiratory function (ERF), blood gas composition and viscosity were studied in 120 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis at different developmental stage of cor pulmonale. In pulmonary hypertension, there were moderate ERF disorders that became more marked in the compensatory and particularly decompensatory cor pulmonale. As bronchial patency deteriorated, the index of right ventricular performance increased from 0.76+0.081 to 1.23+0.022 in the examinees. Examination of blood gas composition revealed insignificant hypoxemia in pulmonary hypertension and compensatory cor pulmonale, which progressed with decompensation of chronic cor pulmonale (CCP). As bronchial obstruction progressed, there were increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean pressure in the pulmonary artery. The viscosity of blood and plasma and the indices of red blood cell aggregation and deformability were in the normal range in pulmonary hypertension and compensatory CCP. In CCP decompensation, the viscosity of blood and plasma and the index of red blood cell aggregation were increased and the index of red blood cell deformability was decreased.

  15. First characterization of a Middle-East GI-23 lineage (Var2-like) of infectious bronchitis virus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska, Anna; Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Fusaro, Alice; Pikula, Anna; Domanska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2017-09-18

    Variants assigned to GI-23 lineage of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), formerly called Var2, have circulated for nearly 20 years only in countries of the Middle East. Strains of this lineage were first identified in Israel in 1998. More severe form of the virus appeared in 2006, when the second wave of Var2 epidemic has spread over the Middle East region. The present study describes the detection and detailed genetic characterization of the GI-23 viruses in Poland. The full-length genome of gammaCoV/Ck/Poland/G052/2016 strain consists of 27596 nucleotides and has typical organization for IBV (UTR5'-POl-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-UTR3'). The phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequence showed that it formed separate branch distinct from all of the full-length genome sequences analyzed in this study. Recombination analyses with other gammacoronaviruses revealed that Polish GI-23 strain may originate from recombination events and potential donors of build-in sequences are IBV of GI-1, GI-13 and G-19 lineages (Mass-, 793B- and QX-like strains, respectively). The 1a, 1b and N genes were involved in these recombination events. The source of virus introduction to the chicken population in Poland is unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning and Sequencing of S Gene of Novel Variant of Infectious Bronchitis Virus ZJ971 Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-yong; CHENG Li-qin; SHEN Xing-yan; DING Hong-mei; WU Jian-xiang

    2002-01-01

    A novel proventriculopathogic variant (isolate ZJ971) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was identified from enlarged proeventriculus of the sick chickens in the study. The S gene cDNA segment with 3.6 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with special primers from the ZJ971 viral isolate of (IBV) and cloned into plasmid pBluescript SK( + ). The recombinants containing S gene of IBV-ZJ971 isotate were identified by digestion of restriction enzyme EcoRI, BamHI and PCR amplification. The cloned S gene from isolate IBVZJ971 was composed of 3492 bp in length encoding for a polypeptide of 1080 amino acids. Comparing the nucleotide of S gene of IBV isolate ZJ971 with that of reported IBV strains Beaudette, M41, Ark99 and CuT2,the homology was 97.3%, 97.5%, 88.6% and 85.6%, respectively; and the homology of the deduced amino acids of S protein of IBV isolate ZJ971 was 96%, 96.3%, 86.1% and 83.1% respectively; especially, the mutation of 3241st nucleotide of S gene of IBV isolate ZJ971 from G to T resulted in the translating termination of S protein at 3240th nucleotide site.

  17. The presence of viral subpopulations in an infectious bronchitis virus vaccine with differing pathogenicity--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Kylie A; Scott, Peter C; Devlin, Joanne M; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-06-13

    There are currently four commercially available vaccines in Australia to protect chickens against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Predominantly, IBV causes clinical signs associated with respiratory or kidney disease, which subsequently cause an increase in mortality rate. Three of the current vaccines belong to the same subgroup (subgroup 1), however, the VicS vaccine has been reported to cause an increased vaccinal reaction compared to the other subgroup 1 vaccines. Molecular anomalies detected in VicS suggested the presence of two major subspecies, VicS-v and VicS-del, present in the commercial preparation of VicS. The most notable anomaly is the absence of a 40 bp sequence in the 3'UTR of VicS-del. In this investigation, the two subspecies were isolated and shown to grow independently and to similar titres in embryonated chicken eggs. An in vivo investigation involved 5 groups of 20 chickens each and found that VicS-del grew to a significantly lesser extent in the chicken tissues collected than did VicS-v. The group inoculated with an even ratio of the isolated subspecies scored the most severe clinical signs, with the longest duration. These results indicate the potential for a cooperative, instead of an expected competitive, relationship between VicS-v and VicS-del to infect a host, which is reminiscent of RNA viral quasi-species.

  18. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  20. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  2. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Frank

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity.

  3. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  4. Biological conversion of anglesite (PbSO4) and lead waste from spent car batteries to galena (PbS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Hoop, de K.; Bosma, W.; Dijkman, H.

    2002-01-01

    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO4, PbO2, PbO/Pb(OH)2 precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted

  5. Biological conversion of anglesite (PbSO4) and lead waste from spent car batteries to galena (PbS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Hoop, de K.; Bosma, W.; Dijkman, H.

    2002-01-01

    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO4, PbO2, PbO/Pb(OH)2 precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted

  6. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  7. Pb-Free Soldering Iron Temperature Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Hiroto; Wajima, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoichi; Komiyama, Eiichi; Tachibana, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi

    Recently, much importance has been attached to the environmental problem. The content of two directives to better control the management of waste electronic equipment was approved. The two directives are the Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). These set phase-out dates for the use of lead materials contained in electronic products. Increasingly, attention is focusing on the potential use of Pb-free soldering in electronics manufacturing. It should be noted that many of the current solding irons are not suitable for Pb-free technology, due to the inferior wetting ability of Pb-free alloys compared with SnPb solder pastes. This paper presents a Pb-free soldering iron temperature controller using an embedded micro-processor with a low memory capacity.

  8. Pb distribution and translocation in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The trends of distribution, translocation and seasonal change of heavy metal Pb were studied based on the surface and bottom water sampling in Jiaozhou Bay in 1979, and compared with those in 1990's. The results showed that the source of Pb in the bay was from wastewater and sewage in the east of Jiaozhou Bay from ocean vessels. Pb concentration was higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn, and remained stable through sedimentation in the bottom layer. The overall water quality was good in 1970's. Compared with the environmental monitoring data of 1995-1999, Pb pollution had become serious. Therefore, more efforts should be made to protect the bay from Pb pollution.

  9. Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, U-Pb dating in the Bandja plutonic series of Western Cameroon. Donnees geochronologiques (Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, U-Pb) sur le complexe plutonique de Bandja (Centre-Ouest Cameroun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchankam, C.N. (Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France)); Vialette, Y. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France))

    1994-08-01

    The results of U-Pb zircon and Pb-Pb on minerals and whole rocks are reported on a charnockite syn-D1 from the Bandja series in the western Cameroon. Data are interpreted as representing a plutonic emplacement at 640 Ma. A syn- to post-tectonic pluton is dated at 557 [+-] 8 Ma (Rb-Sr whole rocks isochron). These results confirm the Pan-African age of the charnockitic intrusive body. Initial isotopic [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of charnockite (0.709) and granite (0.7089) show the importance of crustal imprint in the magma genesis. (authors).

  10. Atmospheric fluxes and geochemistries of stable Pb, Pb-210, and Po-210 in Crystal Lake, Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    In a lake system where atmospheric input greatly exceeds all other source inputs, the atmospheric supply, water column transport, and sediment accumulation should be coupled. This research examined the exchange of lead between these metal compartments. The approach was to use Pb-210 as a natural tracer to provide experimental evidence concerning the movement of lead between various compartments linking the geochemical regime of lead in an integrated lake system. This research was conducted in Crystal Lake, Wisconsin, an oligotrophic, non-calcareous, seepage lake. The atmosphere serves as the principal route for transport of material to the lake. Stable Pb concentrations in the water column are of the order of 200 mg kg/sup -1/. At least 85% of the atmospheric input of Pb and Pb-210 to Crystal Lake occurs via wet deposition. More than 805 of the Pb entering the lake appears to be derived from anthropogenic Pb has resulted in an 8-fold increase in sediment Pb concentrations from 19 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ to 145 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ over the past 150 years. The net removal of Pb-210 from the water column occurred primarily as short-term deposition events. Deposition of Pb-210 was enhanced by elevated biological activity during bloom periods. Accelerated deposition of Pb-210 was also observed during fall turnover. At least 90% of the standing crop of Po-210 in Crystal Lake is formed in-situ by decay of atmospherically suppled Pb-210.

  11. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  12. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  13. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  14. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  15. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  16. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  17. Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of two- and four-particle correlations in pPb and PbPb collisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A.M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V.M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C.-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E.A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Staykova, Z; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; DʼHondt, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Keaveney, J; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G.P; Villella, I; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Favart, L; Gay, A.P.R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P.E; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Dildick, S; Garcia, G; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A.A; Ryckbosch, D; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C

    2013-01-01

    ... of 5.02 TeV by the CMS experiment. The results are compared to 2.76 TeV semi-peripheral PbPb collision data, collected during the 2011 PbPb run, covering a similar range of particle multiplicities...

  18. Investigation of the properties of jets from p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B. A.

    2016-08-01

    Jets from hard scattering processes allow to study the properties of strongly interacting matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The hot and dense medium created in such collisions is expected to cause energy loss of hard-scattered partons via elastic scattering and gluon radiation. Eventually, these processes modify the parton fragmentation. We report measurements of charged jets from lead-lead (Pb-Pb) and proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions at J= 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV. To estimate cold nuclear matter effects, the jet production in p-Pb collisions is studied for different centrality classes and is compared to that in proton-proton (pp) collisions via the nuclear modification factor. In addition, we discuss the measurement of (charged) jets recoiling from a high-pT trigger hadron, which allows to remove the contribution of combinatorial jets without introducing a bias on the jet population. Furthermore, we report about the measurement of strange hadrons (A, Kg) in association with charged jets from Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions. The results are expected to clarify the role of the fragmentation process in the anomalous baryon-to-meson ratio observed at intermediate pT in A-A collisions. In particular, the measurement allows disentangling the contributions from jet fragmentation and other hadronisation processes.

  19. Vector boson production in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions measured with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak boson production processes (W, Z and photon) provide access to the earliest moments of heavy ion collisions. Furthermore, because they do not undergo strong interactions, they are sensitive to the initial-state geometry of the collision and potentially the details of the nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF). ATLAS results on vector boson yields have demonstrated binary collision scaling in Pb+Pb collisions. In p+Pb collisions, the measurement of vector bosons provides possible constraints on the nuclear PDF and insights into the details of the initial collision geometry. We report on the latest results of vector boson production in p+Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=5.02 TeV and Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV. In p+Pb collisions, production yields and lepton charge asymmetry of W bosons are presented as a function of pseudorapidity of the charged lepton and centrality. Photon and Z yields are presented differentially as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity and centrality. The vecto...

  20. Charmonium production in pPb and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda

    2017-01-01

    Charmonium states, such as $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ mesons, are excellent probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The understanding of charmonium production in PbPb collisions requires the inclusion of many phenomena, such as dissociation in the QGP and statistical recombination, on top of cold nuclear matter effects (modifications of nPDFs, initial-state energy loss, nuclear break-up). Measurements of charmonium production in pPb collisions are crucial in order to disentangle the QGP-related effects from cold nuclear matter effects. In this proceeding, final results on the ratio of $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ meson to $J/\\psi$ meson yields in PbPb collisions normalized to pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$~TeV, are reported. In addition, final prompt and nonprompt $J/\\psi$ meson results in pPb collisions at 5.02~TeV are also shown, using the 2015 pp data taken at the same energy. At last, final results are reported regarding prompt $\\psi\\left(2S\\right)$ meson production in pPb collisions at 5.02~TeV, ...