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Sample records for plastic bottles safely

  1. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  2. Recycling plastic bottles in a creative way

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Beside other plastic products, plastic bottles represent a true environmental disaster in the last few years. We assume that hardly anyone asks what happens after they drink that last drop of water out of it. Just like most municipal waste, a plastic bottle can be reused, recycled, burned or deposited into landfill. When the Environment Protection Act is not respected, plastic bottle ends up in the nature, very often in the sea, where it decomposes very slowly and has negative influence on th...

  3. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

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    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  4. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed

  5. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  6. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  7. Are consumers concerned about plastic water bottles environmental impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic. However, these damages are more or less significant according to the plastic used. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining information influence on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a significant effect ...

  8. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  9. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  10. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  11. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  12. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  13. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

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    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  14. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  15. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  16. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  17. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  18. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  19. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  20. Demonstration of Hydrostatic Paradox with Plastic Bottles and LabQuest Vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, Cenek

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the experimental demonstration of the hydrostatic paradox using simple tools in the form of plastic bottles and plastic syringes with a thread. For the evaluation of the results obtained the data logger Lab Quest Vernier was used. The construction of the device is presented in the first part of this paper. The second part…

  1. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  2. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  3. Estrogenic activity, selected plasticizers and potential health risks associated with bottled water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H; Van Zijl, Magdalena C; Swart, Pieter; Truebody, Barry; Genthe, Bettina; Charmier, Jessica; Jager, Christiaan De

    2018-04-01

    Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. Solid phase extracts of samples were analyzed for bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), selected phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Using a scenario-based health risk assessment, human health risks associated with bottled water consumption were evaluated. Estrogenic activity was detected at 20 °C (n = 2) and at 40 °C (n = 8). Estradiol equivalent (EEq) values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 ng/L. BPA concentrations ranged from 0.9 ng/L to 10.06 ng/L. Although EEqs and BPA concentrations were higher in bottled water stored at 40 °C compared to 20 °C, samples posed an acceptable risk for a lifetime of exposure. Irrespective of temperature, bottled water from SA contained chemicals with acceptable health risks.

  4. PROFILE OF PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES WASTES PROCESSING BUSINESS UNIT FOR WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herijanto P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Used plastic water bottles waste pickers can be categorized as one of the informal sector’s component. They work for themselves by picking up used water bottles and selling them to the waste collectors. The problem to be solved in this research is How the Most Appropriate Used Plastic Water Bottles Business Model for Waste Pickers Is that enables them to be categorized as formal sector. From the result of the interview with 120 waste pickers, 96 results were qualified to be analyzed. The interview was located in several waste collectors, which were visited by waste pickers at certain hours. The data were analyzed descriptively based on six business aspects. Specifically for production facilities, Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE analysis were performed. The results of the analysis indicate that the business is practicable for waste pickers and has the potential to enable them run a formal business sector.

  5. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  6. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  7. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Madsen, C. B.; Nedergaard, Jytte

    1961-01-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P32 in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P32. The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible. PMID:14456481

  8. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  9. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  10. Economic Impact of Imposing Excise Tax on Plastic Bottles of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mardanugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research simulates the effect of imposing excise tax on plastic container of drinks towards economic performance of beverage industry in Indonesia and governmentâ˘A ´Zs tax revenue. The results showed that by imposing excise tax on plastic cups and plastic bottles the government would lose tax revenue from value added tax (PPN and corporate income tax (PPh badan more than they gain additional revenue from excise tax. Hence, imposing excise tax on drink containers should serve a clear purpose and an undeniable reason. This paper recommends the government to develop proper excise infrastructure to extend the goods or services to be taxed. This paper also recommends the required stages for extending the excise tax.

  11. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Borde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities living in developing countries as well as populations affected by natural or man-made disasters can be left at great risk from water related diseases, especially those spread through the faecal-oral route. Conventional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove costly for impoverished communities. Solar water disinfection (SODIS has been shown to be a cheap and effective way for communities to treat their water. The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l. Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities. Recent work has shown 19-L plastic water dispenser containers to be effective SODIS reactors, comparable in efficacy to PET bottles. In this paper we outline the need for studying SODIS in large volumes and discuss 4 main associated challenges. Discussion Apart from clean water needed for consumption, access to adequate water is essential for sanitation and hygiene. Contamination of treated water through unwashed hands or vessels contributes heavily to the spread of water borne pathogens in communities. Traditional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove financially burdensome for low income communities. SODIS in large vessels could be used as a simple method to meet water requirements in low income and disaster affected populations. However, there have been some concerns associated with the conventional SODIS method; we identify the main ones to be: (1 cold or cloudy weather; (2 the fear of leaching in plastic bottles; (3 water turbidity, and; (4 community acceptance. Summary The application of SODIS in large bottles like WDCs has the potential to be an efficient and cost effective method of disinfecting water, either for consumption until more rigorous water treatments can be put in place, or for

  12. Property of filler-loaded magnetic ferrite from plastic waste bottle used to treat municipal domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Jin; Gong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Qiao; Xu, Li-Xia; Lu, Lu; Yang, Qi-Zhi

    2018-06-01

    The present work investigates the properties of self-made magnetic filler from plastic waste bottle and explores a new technology approach of waste plastic resource utilization. The magnetic filler was prepared by air plasma modification and loading magnetic ferrite on the plastic strip from waste plastic bottle. The surface properties of magnetic filler were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle system and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). AFM images of original and modified plastic strip showed that low-temperature plasma treatment markedly increased the surface roughness of plastic strip. The mean roughness (Ra) of plastic strip rose from 1.116 to 5.024 nm. FTIR spectra indicated that a lot of polar oxygenic groups were introduced onto the surface of plastic by plasma modification. Modification by low-temperature plasma increased the hydrophilicity of plastic strip surface. When treatment time is 40 s, water contact angle of plastic strip surface reduced from 78.2° of original plastic strip to 25.3°. When used in bioreactor, magnetic filler had very favorable microenvironment for microorganism growth. Magnetic filler was more efficient for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [Formula: see text] in sewage than nonmagnetic filler. The resource utilization of plastic wastes will become reality if the magnetic filler is applied widely.

  13. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  14. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected...

  15. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  16. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  17. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  18. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  19. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  20. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  1. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  2. Effect of waste plastic bottles on the stiffness and fatigue properties of modified asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Amir; Hamedi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PET reduced the mix stiffness at both temperatures of 5 and 25 °C. • PET improved the fatigue behavior at both testing temperatures. • At more than 210 microstrain, adding temperature resulted in higher fatigue life. • SBS modified mixes showed better fatigue behavior than PET modified ones. • Overall PET had comparable effects to SBS on the stiffness and fatigue behavior. - Abstract: Nowadays, the use of recycled waste materials as modifier additives in asphalt mixes could have several economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the stiffness and specially fatigue properties of asphalt mixes at two different temperatures of 5 and 20 °C. Likewise, the effect of PET was compared to styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) which is a conventional polymer additive which has been vastly used to modify asphalt mixes. Different PET contents (2–10% by weight of bitumen) were added directly to mixture as the method of dry process. Then the resilient modulus and fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with indirect tensile loading procedure. Overall, the mix stiffness reduced by increasing the PET content. Although stiffness of asphalt mix initially increased by adding lower amount of PET. Based on the results of resilient modulus test, the stiffness of PET modified mix was acceptable and warranted the proper deformation characteristics of these mixes at heavy loading conditions. At both temperatures, PET improved the fatigue behavior of studied mixes. PET modified mixes revealed comparable stiffness and fatigue behavior to SBS at 20 °C. However, at 5 °C the fatigue life of SBS modified mixes was to some extent higher than that of PET modified ones especially at higher strain levels of 200 microstrain

  3. Wiping away the dirt-a safe option for plastics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne; Segel, Kathrine

    Modern and contemporary collections are characterized by the diversity of materials present. Although plastics were once thought to be an indestructible product of the 20th century, museum professionals are now challenged by their conservation. One pressing challenge is cleaning plastics´ vulnera...

  4. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  5. Energy Globe 2004 - Plastic bottles for a human life; Plastikflaschen fuer ein Menschenleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This short article takes a look at how the Swiss Aquatic Research Centre EAWAG won a special prize for its simple method of providing people suffering from lack of clean drinking water in the aftermath of the tsunami catastrophe in south-east Asia. The method involves filling PET-bottles with water and placing them for a period of six hours in the sun, preferably on hot corrugated iron. In this way, contaminated water can be made potable.

  6. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  7. Stability of Hydromorphone-Ketamine Solutions in Glass Bottles, Plastic Syringes, and IV Bags for Pediatric Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Leung, Karen; Montgomery, Carolyne

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after storage for up to 7 days at room temperature (25°C). The stability of 3 standard mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine (hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.2 mg/mL, hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.6 mg/mL, and hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL) in NS was studied. Portions of each mixture were transferred to 3 brown glass bottles (100 mL), 3 plastic syringes (50 mL), and 3 IV bags (50 mL), which were then stored at room temperature (25°C). Physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and precipitation, were evaluated daily. Three 1.5-mL samples were collected from each bottle, syringe, and IV bag at baseline, at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and on day 7. Samples were analyzed in triplicate by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Samples from syringes and IV bags were subjected to standard sterility testing by incubation for 5 days in an enriched culture media. No notable changes in pH or colour were observed, and no precipitation occurred in any of the solutions. All formulations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug on day 7. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples tested. Mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine were stable for up 7 days at 25°C, and the sterility of the preparations was maintained. Because stability alone does not guarantee efficacy, it is recommended that clinical studies be conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these formulations.

  8. Composite material making from empty fruit bunches of palm oil (EFB) and Ijuk (Arengapinnata) using plastic bottle waste as adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihayat, T.; Salim, S.; Audina, N.; Khan, N. S. P.; Zaimahwati; Sami, M.; Yunus, M.; Salisah, Z.; Alam, P. N.; Saifuddin; Yusuf, I.

    2018-03-01

    Reviewed from the current technological required a new methods to capable offering a high profit value without overriding the quality. The development of composite technology is now beginning to shift from traditional composite materials based petroleum to natural fibers composite. In the present study, aim to made specimens using natural fibers in form of EFB as a composite reinforcedment with Polyethylene Terephtalate (PET) derived from Plastic bottles waste as matrix with mixed composition parameters and time-tolerance in the mixing process to build a biocomposite material. The characterization of mechanical properties includes tensile test (ASTM D638-01) and bending test (ASTM D790-02) followed by thermal analysis using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and morphological analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis effect of EFB, Ijuk and PET mixtures on the composite matrix is very influential with mechanical properties characterization, including tensile test and bending strength. The results demonstrated that from the sample named : 50 : 25: 25, hybrid composites showed improved properties such as tensile strength of 167 MPa while the 90:05:05 based composites exhibited tensile strength values of 30 MPa, respectively. In term the flexural test the best result of composition on the properties with 10 minutes duration time its load value 7,5 Mpa for 80:10:10.

  9. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  10. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  11. Recovery of Pu from PVC vials and bottles used for sample storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Paru; Bhide, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Nathaniel, Newton; Natarajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium in the form of oxide is stored in plastic vials and bottles during its analysis for trace metal as say. Due to radiation damage and moisture, small amount of oxide samples were found to be adhering to surface of vials/ bottles. This required methods for safe disposal. Methods involving wet chemical and dry cleaning procedures were evaluated for effective removal of sticking α active plutonium oxide powder from these vials for their safe disposal. Dry cleaning method for removal of plutonium activity was found to be effective method for disposal of storage vial, while wet chemical method was found to be more suitable for removal of plutonium from damaged PVC bottles. (author)

  12. Microbes on a bottle: substrate, season and geography influence community composition of microbes colonizing marine plastic debris

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dee A.; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A. Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial com...

  13. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleick, P H; Cooley, H S

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  15. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  16. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  17. Comparison of solidification of floating drop and homogenous liquid-liquid microextractions for the extraction of two plasticizers from the water kept in PET-bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Khalili-Zanjani, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mohammad; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-09-01

    Two approaches based on solidification of floating drop microextraction (SFDME) and homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLE) were compared for the extraction and preconcentration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) from the mineral water samples. In SFDME, a floated drop of the mixture of acetophenone/1-undecanol (1:8) was exposed on the surface of the aqueous solution and extraction was permitted to occur. In HLLE, a homogenous ternary solvent system was used by water/methanol/chloroform and the phase separation phenomenon occurred by salt addition. Under the optimal conditions, the LODs for the two target plasticizers (DEHA and DEHP), obtained by SFDME-GC-FID and HLLE-GC-FID, were ranged from 0.03 to 0.01 microg/L and 0.02 to 0.01 microg/L, respectively. HLLE provided higher preconcentration factors (472.5- and 551.2-fold) within the shorter extraction time as well as better RSDs (4.5-6.9%). While, in SFDME, high preconcentration factors in the range of 162-198 and good RSDs in the range of 5.2-9.6% were obtained. Both methods were applied for the analysis of two plasticizers in different water samples and two target plasticizers were found in the bottled mineral water after the expiring time and the boiling water was exposed to a polyethylene vial.

  18. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  19. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  20. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safe Disposal of Medical and Plastic Waste and Energy Recovery Possibilities using Plasma Pyrolysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, S.K.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis and plasma gasification are emerging technologies that can provide complete solution to organic solid waste disposal. In these technologies plasma torch is used as a workhorse to convert electrical energy into heat energy. These technologies dispose the organic waste in an environment friendly manner. Thermal plasma provides extremely high temperature in oxygen free or controlled air environment which is required for pyrolysis or gasification reactions. Plasma based medical waste treatment is an extremely complex technology since it has to contend with extreme temperatures and corrosion-prone environment, complex pyro-chemistry resulting in toxic and dangerous products, if not controlled. In addition, one has to take care of complete combustion of pyrolyzed gases followed by efficient scrubbing to meet the emission standards set by US EPA and Central Pollution Control Board, India. In medical waste, high volume and low packing density waste with nonstandard composition consisting of a variety of plastics, organic material and liquids used to be present. The present paper describes the work carried out at Institute for Plasma Research, India, on plasma pyrolysis of (i) medical waste disposal and the results of emission measurement done at various locations in the system and (ii) energy recovery from cotton and plastic waste. The process and system development has been done in multiple steps. Different plasma pyrolysis models were made and each subsequent model was improved upon to meet stringent emission norms and to make the system energy efficient and user friendly. FCIPT, has successfully demonstrated up to 50 kg/ hr plasma pyrolysis systems and have installed plasma pyrolysis facilities at various locations in India . Plastic Waste disposal along with energy recovery in 15 kg/ hr model has also been developed and demonstrated at FCIPT. In future, this technology has great potential to dispose safely different waste streams such as biomass

  2. Insulated Containers for Bottled Water (ICB)-Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Plastic   Wrapped  Cordura  Rubberized traction pad  PE  Plastic   Liner  No  Yes  Yes  No  Safe Tie‐Down  Capability  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Easy Access...mounted Soldiers. The ICBs are lighter, require less storage space, and have more effective tie-down characteristics than coolers often used to carry...bottled water in vehicles. The performance of the ICBs and a commonly used cooler was assessed to determine whether the easier-to-stow ICBs would be as

  3. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  4. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP), made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos, Eloína Maria Mendonça; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro

    2012-09-07

    Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap), produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors) were evaluated. During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3). Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors) and front or back yard (outdoors). The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically infested by mosquitoes. Low requirements for skilled labor

  5. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  6. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  7. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  8. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  9. Safely re-integrating silicone breast implants into the plastic surgery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1990s, it was reported that silicone breast implants were possibly responsible for serious damage to women's health. In January 1992, the Food and Drug Administration issued a voluntary breast implant moratorium and, in April, issued a ban on the use of silicone gel-filled implants for cosmetic breast augmentation. Since that time, silicone gel-filled breast implants have been available to women only for select cases: women seeking breast reconstruction or revision of an existing breast implant, women who have had breast cancer surgery, a severe injury to the breast, a birth defect that affects the breast, or a medical condition causing a severe breast deformity. Since the ban on the use of silicone gel-filled breast implants for cosmetic breast augmentation, numerous scientific studies have been conducted. To ensure patient safety, the American Board of Plastic Surgery believes that these scientific studies and the Food and Drug Administration's scrutiny of silicone gel-filled breast implants have been appropriate and necessary.

  10. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... Drinks for Kids Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  11. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  12. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF THE THREAT OF REUSING PET BOTTLES FOR THE STORAGE OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to a sociological survey of about 86% of Kharkiv (Ukraine residents reuse PET bottles for a drinking water storing. This type of reuse of PET bottles isn't safe and the results of numerous research unequivocally confirm this assertion. The largest hazard of plastic bottles reuse for drinking water storage is biological film on the internally surface of bottle. This biofilm may contain pathogenic microorganisms which can migrate from biofilm to fresh water. Human, who drinking contaminated water, may drink microorganisms in common with this water. It's very dangerous, because the numerous strains of pathogens may migration in water and infect from gastric-bowel tract to the humans. Scientists from National technical university "Kharkiv polytechnic institute" in common with experts from Mechnikov institute of microbiology and immunology explored this problem and devised the apparatus, which can destroy a biofilm on polymer or another surface. Materials & Methods. The tested apparatus was the electrical device consisting of a block with electrodes, an electronic control, a water pump and a sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant. The electrode was made of 925˚ silver (sterling silver. Water for the preparation of a disinfectant was tap water and wasn't treated additionally. The sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant was placed in the neck of the infected bottle. Disinfectant solution was sprayed inside the bottle for 4 seconds. The water pressure was about 1.5 atmospheres. After that, the sprinkler was removed and the disinfectant was drained. A smear for microbiological composition was taken from three parts of the bottle - the neck, the middle part and the bottom. Growth of microorganisms and their detections was fixed by classic microbiological methods. Results & Discussion. In the article the scheme of the most probable and widespread way of infection of PET-bottles by pathogens and the way of minimization of this

  15. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  16. Effects of Sunlight Exposure on the Quality Parameters of Bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    microbial population (total coliform) of the bottled water with increasing exposure to sunlight was observed. ... safe drinking water which has led to the tremendous ... degradation under high temperature (Bach et al., ..... Solar and photocatalytic.

  17. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  18. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  19. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  20. Evaluation of microbial contamination of canine plasma eyedropper bottles following clinical use in canine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Rachel A; Genschel, Ulrike; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Sebbag, Lionel; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    To investigate microbial contamination of canine plasma eye drops when used clinically and to compare the effect of two different eyedropper bottles on contamination rate. Forty-six bottles containing plasma were randomly dispensed for use on 42 dogs with ulcerative keratitis. Of these, 23 were standard eyedropper bottles and 23 were Novelia ® bottles designed to prevent contamination. After use for up to 2 weeks, samples for bacterial culture were obtained from a drop of plasma, the bottle tip, the plasma inside the bottle, and the corneal surface. Fungal culture was performed from a drop of plasma. The overall microbial contamination rate was 17.4% (8/46 bottles); however, only one bottle had growth from the plasma inside the bottle. There was a lower contamination rate of Novelia ® bottles (3/23 = 13.0%) compared to standard bottles (5/23 = 21.7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = .57). There were also no significant differences in contamination rate of bottles used greater than 7 days compared to less than or equal to 7 days, or in bottles used greater than 4 times daily compared to 4 times daily or less. Three corneal samples (6.5%) had bacterial growth, but none matched contamination from the bottles. Novelia ® bottles may decrease contamination of plasma eye drops used clinically. However, while microbial contamination of plasma bottles was documented, no clinically relevant complications were observed. This study supports safe use of plasma eye drops for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated and dispensed from either Novelia ® or standard eyedropper bottles. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    .... FDA 1993-N-0259 (Formerly Docket No. 1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard... evidence from two studies puts previous concerns to rest concerning the effects of DEHP consumption in... increase costs for consumers for beverages packaged in plastic bottles. However, this rule does not...

  2. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  3. Plastics and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers, such as plastics, PVC, polyamides etc are considered less ecological than natural materials such as wood. Other artificial materials such as metals, glass or biodegradable plastics have also a better image than petroleum products. This short paper demonstrates that the manufacturing or the transport of every material uses energy and that the complete energy balance sheet of a plastic bottle, for instance, is more favourable than the one of a glass bottle. Plastic materials are also easily valorized and recycled and part of the energy spent during manufacturing can be recovered during incineration for district heating. During the life-cycle of such a synthetic material, the same petroleum quantity can be used twice which leads to less negative effects on the environment. Finally, the paper focusses on the problem of biodegradable materials which are not degradable when buried under several meters of wastes and which are a nuisance to recycling. (J.S.)

  4. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  5. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  6. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  7. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  8. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  9. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  10. Bottle & Can Recycling in Denmark: addressing issues and optimizing the recycling rate

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Alessandro; Larsen, Lucas; Tetens, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The research is conducted in the landscape of environmental care and consumer behaviour. This paper explores the different dynamics revolving around the recycling of plastic bottles and aluminium cans in Denmark. The aim is to shed light on the possible impediments people might encounter when attempting to hand back their deposit marked bottle to the allocated facilities as well as illuminating what the main forces involved in encouraging or inhibiting people from recycling are. The ultimate ...

  11. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1... owned or controlled by the winery within the boundaries of the labeled viticultural area; (3) crushed...

  12. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of simultaneous recovery of chlorine contained in waste plastics and alkali contained in waste glass bottles; 2000 nendo shinki recycle seihin nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hai plastic gan'yu enso to hai glass bin gan'yu alkali no doji kaishu ni kakawaru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on a technology to have alkali contained in waste glass bottles reacted with chlorine contained in waste plastics to separate and remove salt, and reuse the residues as a resource for cement raw material. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research, glass powder pulverized to 5 to 10 {mu} m, calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and alumina were used to prepare raw material for the ordinary Portland cement. Vinyl chloride pulverized to 3 mm was added into this cement raw material so that chlorine-alkali equivalent ration will be 1.0, and the material was sintered in a rotary kiln at 800 to 1,400 degrees C. As a result, it was discovered that salt is produced from the alkali in glass and the chlorine in vinyl chloride, whereas the produced salt volatilizes when heated to 1,200 degrees C or higher, and clinker containing low chlorine and alkali can be produced. The test result reveals that the control range of the chlorine and alkali ratio is from 1.0 to 1.1. The remaining problems are measures against carbon monoxide and dioxin contained in the exhaust gas, and treatment of dust containing salt. (NEDO)

  14. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  15. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juba, Olivia Sakhile; Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai

    2018-06-01

    Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bottled water industry continues to thrive as local authorities fail to adequately purify municipal water. The study assessed the perceptions on drinking bottled water in restaurants within Harare's CBD. Demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users were established and the role and influence of stakeholders in bottling and distribution of water documented. A field survey through the administration of questionnaires to fifty restaurant users was carried out to assess the perceptions of people on the use of bottled water in terms of its safety and potential health benefits. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview with ten local water bottling companies as well as representatives from the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) and Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Standard descriptive statistics were generated, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Consumers used bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceived that tap water was not safe. Perceptions of purity of water, bottled water convenience, and tap water unavailability seemed to determine consumption patterns among users. Females in the 18-48 age groups were more likely to think that bottled water was cleaner, safer, tasted better and was more convenient than tap water. Consumers regularly purchased bottled water for drinking and used bottled water as their primary drinking water

  17. Safety in Bottle feeding and Safe Preparation | Rees | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infants are born with a natural immune system from their mothers. The effectiveness of this natural immune system drops significantly over the first two months, until after 8 weeks infants begin to build up their own immune resistance to pathogenic diseases. However, during this time, their immune resistance is very weak ...

  18. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  19. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  20. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  1. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  2. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  3. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  4. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  5. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  6. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  7. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  8. Social perceptions of single-use plastic consumption of the Balinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Murcia Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The island of Bali has suffered from an increasing amount of single-use plastics being littered into the environment during the past few years. This research aims to determine the social perceptions of plastic bags and bottles in particular, through consumption habits, the degree of awareness of environmental impacts and the willingness to reduce their consumption. The methodology is based on a survey approach and literature review contrasting the characteristics of plastic bottles and bags, ...

  9. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  10. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  11. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  12. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  13. Evaluation of Using Waste of Bottles in Concrete as Sustainable Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Hasan Abdulabbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study attention was focused on effects of using wastes of plastic and glass of juices and soft drink bottles in concrete, and the optimum percent's of the wastes were detected giving the best properties of concrete. Total number of concrete mixes was (12, which have different wastes additions details. These mixes included: three mixes have plastic fibers (1, 2, 3% by cement weight, three mixes have glass with ratios of (10, 15, 20% as a replacement of sand volume, three mixes have pieces of plastic bottle caps with ratios of (15, 20, 25% as a replacement of gravel volume. The mix that has the optimum properties in these three groups, was selected to merge these types of wastes in one mix. Therefore, two additional mixes were prepared; one mix contains addition of 2% plastic fibers and 15% glass; and the other mix contains 20% plastic bottle caps and 15% glass, in addition to the reference mix without any waste additions. The achieved tests comprise; compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, density, absorption and fire resistance. Tests results give good indications about using these waste in concrete; when two types of wastes are added to the mixes (plastic fiber with glass C11 or pieces of bottle caps and glass C12 the compressive strength is improved noticeably, the residual compressive strength is about (75% and 83% with total ratio of wastes about 35% at age of 7 and 28 days, respectively, in mix C12, and (76 .7% and 70.5% with total ratio of wastes about 17% at age of 7 and28 days, respectively, in mix C11.

  14. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  15. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  16. Will bottle-grade PET demand lure fiber-grade capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    As demand for bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) continues strong and new capacity hastens to meet it, some industry observers wonder if conversions to bottle-grade from fiber-grade capacity will become an industry trend. Taiwan's Nan Ya Plastics was recently said to be considering such a switch, but company sources say it has no such plans. Peter Driscoll, senior partner at PCI Fibres ampersand Raw Materials (Crawley, UK), says that while it is true that demand for the bottle-grade material remains unsatisfied, he doubts that many conversions will take place. You must remember, says Driscoll, that it is not always possible to switch, and that even where it is possible there are limitations

  17. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  18. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  19. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sáenz, José-María; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Hormone-like activities were evaluated in 29 bottled waters using receptor-specific bioassays based on reporter gene expression in PALM cells [(anti-)androgenicity] and cell proliferation assessment in MCF-7 cells [(anti-)estrogenicity] after optimized solid phase extraction (SPE). All of the water samples analyzed showed hormonal activity. This was estrogenic in 79.3% and anti-estrogenic in 37.9% of samples and was androgenic in 27.5% and anti-androgenic in 41.3%, with mean concentrations per liter of 0.113pM 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent units (E2Eq), 11.01pM anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) equivalent units (ICI 182780Eq), 0.33pM methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalent units (R1881Eq), and 0.18nM procymidone equivalent units (ProcEq). Bottled water consumption contributes to EDC exposure. Hormone-like activities observed in waters from both plastic and glass bottles suggest that plastic packaging is not the sole source of contamination and that the source of the water and bottling process may play a role, among other factors. Further research is warranted on the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to low doses of EDCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  2. SCADA based radioactive sample bottle delivery system for fuel reprocessing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Subrat; Munj, Niket; Chauhan, R.K.; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive samples of process streams need to be analyzed in centralized control lab for measuring concentration of heavy elements as well as activity at various stages of re-processing plants. The sample is taken from biologically shielded process cells remotely through sampling blisters in sample bottles. These are then transferred to control lab located about 50 meters using vacuum transfer system. The bottle movement is tracked from origin to destination in rich HMI SCADA system using Infra-red non contact type proximity sensors located along sampling line and these sensors are connected to PLC in a fail-safe mode. The sample bottle travels at a speed of 10 m/s under vacuum motive force and the detection time is of the order of 1 mS. The contact time Flow meters have been used to know the air flow in sampling line

  3. SCADA based radioactive sample bottle delivery system for fuel reprocessing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Subrat; Munj, Niket; Chauhan, R.K.; Jayaram, M.N.; Haneef, K.K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive samples of process streams need to be analyzed in centralized control lab for measuring concentration of heavy elements as well as activity at various stages of re-processing plants. The sample is taken from biologically shielded process cells remotely through sampling blisters in sample bottles. These are then transferred to control lab located about 50 meters using vacuum transfer system. The bottle movement is tracked from origin to destination in rich HMI SCADA system using Infra-red non contact type proximity sensors located along sampling line and these sensors are connected to PLC in a fail-safe mode. The sample bottle travels at a speed of 10 m/s under vacuum motive force and the detection time is of the order of 1 mS. The flow meters have been used to know the air flow in sampling line. The system has been designed, developed, tested and commissioned and in use for four years. (author)

  4. Speciation of inorganic antimony in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwo, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a regulated drinking water contaminant that has been found to leach from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic containers into the waters stored in them. The common inorganic species of antimony in water are Sb(III) and Sb(V), with the former being more toxic and the latter being more soluble. In order to assess the extent to which waters stored in PET bottles are contaminated with inorganic Sb and to further examine the effect of typical storage conditions on migration rates, speciation analysis of inorganic Sb using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) was undertaken on selected PET plastic bottled waters marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Six brands of PET plastic bottled waters were obtained at source on the day of packaging, and analyses undertaken on samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers at intervals of four weeks for twelve weeks, under three carefully chosen storage conditions distinctive of bottled water usage. Selected physicochemical properties of samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers and total Sb of samples of the plastic containers were also determined to discover the effect of some physical properties and certain major ions, and the influence of the different quality PET plastic types on Sb migration respectively. The study revealed amounts of total Sb in the PET plastic containers of the 6 brands ranging from 123.46 mg/kg to 146.45 mg/kg. The selected physicochemical properties of the waters stored in the PET plastic containers considered were pH (6.78 – 7.43), Ca2+ (1.61 – 12.39 mg/L), Mg2+ (1.00 – 4.96 mg/L), HCO3− (6.18 – 55.41 mg/L) and TDS (8.70 – 70.40 mg/L)). PET bottled waters of 5 out of the 6 brands contained Sb (initial total Sb ranging from 1.11 – 14.65 μg/L) before storage. Total Sb concentrations of the waters stored in the plastic containers were observed to increase with storage time under all the three storage conditions for

  5. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  6. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  7. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  8. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  9. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  10. Microbial assessment of un-bottled synthetic juices sold in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Ali, J.; Hussain, A.

    2010-01-01

    Un-bottled synthetic juices are sold by street vendors and hawkers raising the concern about their safety. To examine the quality of un-bottled synthetic beverages from different locations of Peshawar city using Standard techniques. A total of 56 samples of un-bottled synthetic juices were collected from 8 different locations of Peshawar City and analyzed for Total Plate Count, Total Coliform Bacteria, Total Fecal Coliform bacteria E. coli, Yeast and Mould. In all localities, the street vended un-bottled synthetic juices were found hygienically of poor quality as all had high total plate count which ranged from 2 x 102 to 5 x 107 and total coliform bacteria ranged from 110 MPN/ml. Total Fecal Coliform ranged from < 0.3 to 110M PN/ml. The presence of E coli, contamination was found in (25) 44 % Samples, while all the analyzed samples were contaminated with yeasts and moulds. All un-bottled synthetic juices sold on roadside were highly contaminated with disease causing microorganisms. Policy message: Periodic monitoring of street beverage should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. (author)

  11. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  12. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  13. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  14. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  16. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  17. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  18. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  19. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  20. Plastic solid waste utilization technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Shivashankar, Murugesh; Majumder, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are used in more number of applications in worldwide and it becomes essential part of our daily life. In Indian cities and villages people use the plastics in buying vegetable as a carry bag, drinking water bottle, use of plastic furniture in home, plastics objects uses in kitchen, plastic drums in packing and storage of the different chemicals for industrial use, use plastic utensils in home and many more uses. After usage of plastics it will become part of waste garbage and create pollution due to presence of toxic chemicals and it will be spread diseases and give birth to uncontrolled issues in social society. In current scenario consumption of plastic waste increasing day by day and it is very difficult to manage the plastic waste. There are limited methodologies available for reutilization of plastic waste again. Such examples are recycling, landfill, incineration, gasification and hydrogenation. In this paper we will review the existing methodologies of utilization of plastic waste in current scenario

  1. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of fixed titanium dioxide film on PET bottles and visual indicator for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Munoz, Manuel Antonio

    Water is perhaps the most important resource that sustains human life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost two billion people do not have access to the required water that is needed to satisfy their daily needs and one billion do not have access to clean sources of water for consumption, most of them living in isolated and poor areas around the globe. Poor quality water increases the risk of cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and other water-borne illness making this problem a real crisis that humankind is facing. Several water disinfection technologies have been proposed as solutions for this problem. Solar water disinfection using TiO2 coated PET bottles was the alternative that is studied in this work. This technology does not only inactivate bacteria but also disintegrates organic chemicals that can be present in water. The objectives of this work address the optimization of the TiO 2 coated PET bottles technologies. The improvement on the bottle coating process, using two coats of 10% W/V of TiO2 in a solution of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate to form the TiO2 film, the use of a different indigo carmine (1.25 X 10-1mg/pill) concentration in the pill indicator of contamination, the increase of the disinfection rate through shaking the bottles, degradation under intermittent UV radiation and the effect of bottle size on photocatalytic water disinfection were among the most important findings. A new mathematical model that describes better photocatalytic water disinfection in TiO2 coated bottles and simulates water disinfection under different working conditions was another important achievement. These results can now be used to design a strategy for disseminating this technology in areas where it is required and, in that way, generate the greatest positive impact on the people needing safe drinking water.

  3. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  4. Beer bottle whistling: a stochastic Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujo, Edouard; Bourquard, Claire; Xiong, Yuan; Noiray, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Blowing in a bottle to produce sound is a popular and yet intriguing entertainment. We reproduce experimentally the common observation that the bottle ``whistles'', i.e. produces a distinct tone, for large enough blowing velocity and over a finite interval of blowing angle. For a given set of parameters, the whistling frequency stays constant over time while the acoustic pressure amplitude fluctuates. Transverse oscillations of the shear layer in the bottle's neck are clearly identified with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To account for these observations, we develop an analytical model of linear acoustic oscillator (the air in the bottle) subject to nonlinear stochastic forcing (the turbulent jet impacting the bottle's neck). We derive a stochastic differential equation and, from the associated Fokker-Planck equation and the measured acoustic pressure signals, we identify the model's parameters with an adjoint optimization technique. Results are further validated experimentally, and allow us to explain (i) the occurrence of whistling in terms of linear instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the limit cycle as a competition between linear growth rate, noise intensity, and nonlinear saturation. E. B. and N. N. acknowledge support by Repower and the ETH Zurich Foundation.

  5. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  6. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  7. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  8. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  9. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  10. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared and...

  11. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  12. THE APPLICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    MR. YASHODHAN ARVIND JAGTAP; DIGVIJAY PRAMOD BHOSALE

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of plastic waste in the environment is considered to be a big problem because it is very low in biodegradability and its presence is large. Chocolate, chocolate, chips, handbags, cold drink bottles and other plastic packaging can cause major environmental and economic problems. They consume a lot of energy and other natural resources and exhaust the environment in various ways. In recent years, the use of industrial waste to replace a part of conventional concrete aggregate is being ...

  13. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  14. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  15. Shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldan, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material comprises a can having a cavity therein for receiving the bottle, a screw cap for the can and the cavity, and an annular bottle retainer extending downwardly in the cavity from its upper end having an outwardly extending flange at its upper end clamped between the cap and the upper end of the cavity and an inwardly extending flange at its lower end receiving the neck of the bottle. The cap carries a sponge to absorb spillage from the bottle. (U.S.)

  16. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  18. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  19. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid 137 Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine

  20. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  2. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (pwater by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  3. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  4. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  5. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  6. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important pre...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  8. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  9. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  10. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etale, Anita; Jobin, Marilou; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-02-01

    What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  13. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  14. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  15. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  16. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  17. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  18. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results,

  19. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to providing investment data to guide entrepreneurs in making investment decisions. The economic evaluation was based on a factory capacity of 750,000 bottles (60cl) per annum with production ...

  20. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  1. Aschroft Pressure Switch - Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS)

  2. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  3. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  4. Quality assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of selected sachet and bottled water produced and sold within Gboko town, Benue State was investigated to determine their Shelf life. Eight brands of sachet water and four brands of bottled water samples were collected from different manufacturers within 24 hours and stored at ambient temperature.

  5. Labeling practices of water bottling firms and its public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bottled water labels enable the consumers to choose brands that can best fit to their needs and preferences. Anything inaccurate, however, may pose serious public health risks, especially to vulnerable individuals. In Ethiopia, regular monitoring of bottled water quality and labelling practices is still lacking.

  6. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production...

  7. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  8. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  9. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  10. Determination of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in plastic medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of DEHP in dialysis and infusion sets for peritoneal dialysis and parenteral nutrition, which are made of PVC and other plastic polymeric materials, were investigated. Phthalate determination was carried out by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method (GC-MS. The results showed that the peritoneal dialysis set (bag and tubing made of PVC contains DEHP in significant amount, about 31 - 34%. Solution for peritoneal dialysis which was stored in the investigated PVC bag, contains low amount of DEHP, about 3.72 μg dm-3. Infusion bottles which are made of LDPE, also contain DEHP but in lower amount than PVC bags. LDPE bottle for packaging physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl showed higher amount of DEHP than LDPE bottle for packaging Ringer’s solution. In contrast, solution stored in bottle with lower DEHP level, i.e. Ringer’s solution contained about three times higher concentration of DEHP than physiological saline solution stored in bottle with higher DEHP level. Concentrations of DEHP in Ringer’s solution and physiological saline solution are 17.30 and 5.83 μg dm-3, respectively. The obtained values are under estimated upper-bound dose of DEHP received by adult patients undergoing procedures of peritoneal dialysis and parenteral nutrition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, III 41018

  11. Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

    1997-01-01

    A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

  12. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  13. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  14. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-04-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important predisposing factors. Preventive measures we suggest are better standards for manufacturers, more careful inspection of returnable bottles to detect defective ones, a separate detailed warning label on all bottles, and health education especially of school children about this and other risks of serious injury to the eyes and other parts of the body.

  15. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  16. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  17. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  18. Migration of DEHP from plastic to food simulants under microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Li, F.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Huang, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The migration of plasticizer DEHP from the plastic products (4 kinds of commonly used plastic food containers under microwave heating: plastic wrap, food bags, ordinary plastic boxes, microwave special plastic boxes) through food contact materials to food simulants (isooctane, 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v), 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) and distilled water) was studied under microwave heating (power levels of 400 W). The results shows that the DEHP mobility increases with the increase of microwave heating time, DEHP mobility in isooctane and 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) is significantly greater than in 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v) and distilled water; the order of DEHP mobility in isooctane is plastic wrap>food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box, while in 3% acetic acid (w/w), the order is food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box>plastic wrap.

  19. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rangel, J.I.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters

  20. Ship-in-a-bottle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, James F.; Song, Weiguo

    2006-07-18

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel catalyst system in which the catalytic structure is tailormade at the nanometer scale using the invention's novel ship-in-a-bottle synthesis techniques. The invention describes modified forms of solid catalysts for use in heterogeneous catalysis that have a microporous structure defined by nanocages. Examples include zeolites, SAPOs, and analogous materials that have the controlled pore dimensions and hydrothermal stability required for many industrial processes. The invention provides for modification of these catalysts using reagents that are small enough to pass through the windows used to access the cages. The small reagents are then reacted to form larger molecules in the cages.

  1. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  2. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  3. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  4. Is it safe to re-access sodium bicarbonate bottles for use in minor surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Lindsay; Bucevska, Marija; Tilley, Peter; Verchere, Cynthia

    2018-04-06

    Sodium bicarbonate is added to lidocaine to reduce injection pain. In Canada, it is available in vials exceeding the injection volume 100-fold. These are single-use vials that should be disposed of after one access. Some surgeons re-use vials to reduce waste, potentially causing contamination. This study aims to review the safety of sodium bicarbonate and assess alternatives to current practice. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia were used to assess bacterial growth in vials of sodium bicarbonate. Each pathogen was inoculated into a vial for 14 days at room temperature. At several time points, 1 mL of solution was removed and diluted. One hundred microliters were transferred to blood agar plates and incubated at 35 °C. Colony counts were calculated, averaged and plotted onto a logarithmic graph. Colony counts of all strains fell below observational threshold after 7 days in sodium bicarbonate. Although all strains were reduced, bacteria can survive in sodium bicarbonate for several days, during which transmission may occur. Sodium bicarbonate vials should be treated as single-dose, as indicated by the manufacturers. To reduce waste, hospital pharmacies can repackage sodium bicarbonate into smaller vials or pre-alkalize lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  6. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    a safe and statically admissible stress distribution is established. The plasticity solutions are compared with tests carried out at the Engineering Academy of Denmark, Lyngby, in the early nineties, and old fillet weld tests. The new failure conditions are in very good agreement with the yield load......This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...... tests, but not so good agreement with the old failure load tests....

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  8. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  9. An axisymmetric PFEM formulation for bottle forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhakov, Pavel B.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for bottle forming simulation is proposed. It is based upon the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) and is developed for the simulation of bottles characterized by rotational symmetry. The PFEM strategy is adapted to suit the problem of interest. Axisymmetric version of the formulation is developed and a modified contact algorithm is applied. This results in a method characterized by excellent computational efficiency and volume conservation characteristics. The model is validated. An example modelling the final blow process is solved. Bottle wall thickness is estimated and the mass conservation of the method is analysed.

  10. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  11. Valorization of post-consumer waste plastic in cementitious concrete composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, O. Yazoghli; Dheilly, R.M.; Queneudec, M.

    2007-01-01

    The sheer amount of disposable bottles being produced nowadays makes it imperative to identify alternative procedures for recycling them since they are non-biodegradable. This paper describes an innovative use of consumed plastic bottle waste as sand-substitution aggregate within composite materials for building application. Particularly, bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been used as partial and complete substitutes for sand in concrete composites. Various volume fractions of sand varying from 2% to 100% were substituted by the same volume of granulated plastic, and various sizes of PET aggregates were used. The bulk density and mechanical characteristics of the composites produced were evaluated. To study the relationship between mechanical properties and composite microstructure, scanning electron microscopy technique was employed. The results presented show that substituting sand at a level below 50% by volume with granulated PET, whose upper granular limit equals 5 mm, affects neither the compressive strength nor the flexural strength of composites. This study demonstrates that plastic bottles shredded into small PET particles may be used successfully as sand-substitution aggregates in cementitious concrete composites. These new composites would appear to offer an attractive low-cost material with consistent properties; moreover, they would help in resolving some of the solid waste problems created by plastics production and in saving energy

  12. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  13. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  14. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  15. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  16. Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.

  17. Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia

    2018-03-22

    Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.

  18. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  19. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  20. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  2. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraya, S; Azman, M D; Fatchurrohman, N; Jaafar, A A; Yusoff, A R

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed. (paper)

  3. The influence of the structures and compounds of DLC coatings on the barrier properties of PET bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Zhen-Duo, Wang; Shou-Ye, Zhang; Li-Zhen, Yang; Qiang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the oxygen transmission rate through a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (an organic plastic) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the inner surface of the PET bottle were deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology with C 2 H 2 as the source of carbon and Ar as the diluted gas. As the barrier layer to humidity and gas permeation, this paper analyses the DLC film structure, composition, morphology and barrier properties by Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen transmission rate in detail. From the spectrum, it is found that the DLC film mainly consists of sp 3 bonds. The barrier property of the films is significantly relevant to the sp 3 bond concentration in the coating, the film thickness and morphology. Additionally, it is found that DLC film deposited in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced capacitively coupled plasma source shows a compact, homogeneous and crack-free surface, which is beneficial for a good gas barrier property in PET bottles. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  4. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of recyclate contains milk bottles up to 100% and that both shelf-life testing and sensorial testing of the products are successful, which are topics of further investigations.

  5. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-02

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  6. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  7. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDPE PLASTIC FILM FOR HERBICIDE CONTAINER USING FLY ASH CLASS F AS FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic plays an important role in various applications, for example, it can be used as a container (bottle. Petrokimia Kayaku Company, a branch of Petrokimia Company of Gresik, produces herbicides using HDPE plastic bottles as their container. Those plastic bottles undergo degradation (kempot for certain period of time. The aim of this research is to characterize and to synthesize the HDPE plastic film with class F fly ash as filler. The results expected from this research are producing the plastic with a better properties and durability. This research was initiated by taking the sample of HDPE plastic bottle and herbicides (containing Gramakuat, on active material parakuat dichloride at Petrokimia Kayaku Company. Both the initial HDPE and the degraded bottles was analyzed their tensile strength and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR spectral. The next step was to synthesize the HDPE plastic film using class F fly ash as filler and a coupling agent. The filler concentrations were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20wt %. The best result was 5% filler concentration with tensile strength of 27.7 lbs. This HDPE film was then subjected to degradation test using pyridine solution with various concentrations (1%, 3% and 5% for two weeks, thermal degradation at 100 °C for two weeks and chemical resistance by xylene with soak time variation of 24 h, 98 h and 168 h. The result of degradations test show that the value of tensile strength was decreased with the increase of filler consentration. The chemical resistance, however, was increased.   Keywords: degradation, filler, fly ash, HDPE, Herbicide

  9. An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature and Storage Time on Military Packaged Water in Afghanistan - The Liberation and Migration of Potential Contaminants from Expeditionary Water Packaging System Polyethylene Terephthalate Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    soil ,  with  inhalation  being  the  predominant  route  of  entry  into  the   body.    Drinking  water...DEHP   concentrations   vanish   when   bottles   were   placed   outdoors   in   direct   sunlight   and   at   higher...Recycling  Plastic  Bottles  upon  Treatments."  Environmental  Science   Pollution  Research  17:  

  10. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  11. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  12. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  13. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  14. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  15. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F.; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S.; Araújo, Maria Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estuaries and mangrove forests are rarely studied for marine plastic debris loads. • Types of plastic items and mangrove forest habitats determine the potential of debris retention. • Mangrove habitats are temporary sinks of plastic debris from river and marine origins. • Plastics rapidly accumulate in mangrove forest, but are exported slowly. • Fauna and fishers using mangrove forest habitats are at risk of interaction with plastic debris. -- Abstract: An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years)

  16. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  17. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  18. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures ( children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  19. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles

  20. Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Clemens; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A test comparing concentrations of 57 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, α = 0.05) differences in median concentrations for Sb, Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Th, La, Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb, Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Dy, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs. 0.016 μg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19x higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14x), Al (7x), Zr (7x), Ti, Th (5x), La (5x), Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb (2x), Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu (1.4x). Testing an additional 136 bottles of the same water sold in green and clear glass bottles demonstrates an important influence of colour, the water sold in green glass shows significantly higher concentrations in Cr (7.3x, 1.0 vs. 0.14 μg/L), Th (1.9x), La, Zr, Nd, Ce (1.6x), Pr, Nb, Ti, Fe (1.3x), Co (1.3x) and Er (1.1x). One hundred and twenty-six bottles of three different materials (glass, hard PET and soft PET) in 5 principal colours (clear, light and dark green and blue, brown) were subsequently washed and then filled with high purity water (18.2 MΩ cm). A portion of the bottles where left at the original average pH of the water (pH 6.5) while the remaining bottles were acidified to pH 3.5 with HNO 3 . Concentrations of the same 57 elements as above were determined after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30, 56, 80 and 150 days of leaching. Results substantiate the observations from the direct comparison of the same water sold in different bottle types (colour). For most elements leaching is

  1. Risk assessment from intake of Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials in some bottled drinking water on the Ghanaian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portuphy, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in some bottled water brands were analyzed using gamma spectrometry. 40 K activity concentrations were in the range of 3.57-5.47Bq/L, the highest occurring in brand L9. Similarly 232 Th activity concentrations were in the range of 0.30-0.56 Bq/L with the highest occurring in brand L8. 226 Ra was identified in eleven brands with the remaining five below detection limit. The highest value (0.53Bq/L) occurred in brand L9. Comparison of the mean concentrations showed significant differences at (α=0.05) between the various brands of bottled water. Estimated committed effective doses were generally below 0.1mSv/a for all age groups with the exception of children <1yr. Estimated lifetime cancer and hereditary risk was done using the ICRP risk assessment methodology. Relationship between Activity concentrations and some physicochemical parameters were established using scatter graphs. The significant one was the conductivity parameter and how estimated activity concentrations tend to correlate (Jobbàgy et al, 2013). Trace elements and heavy metals were analysed using titrimetry, UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Their levels were below recommended and conventional levels. Conclusively bottled water brands analyzed were therefore radiologically safe. (au)

  2. Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S release in milk under household conditions from baby bottles marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Cardone, Eleonora; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Grumetto, Lucia

    2018-02-01

    A simple and sensitive validated analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem fluorescence (FD) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to monitor the presence of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in plastic baby bottles marketed in Italy. The limits of detection (LOD) were 3.75 ng mL -1 and 80.00 ng mL -1 , and those of quantification (LOQ) were 12.51 ng mL -1 and 260.00 ng mL -1 for BPA (FD detection) and for BPS (UV detection), respectively. BPA was found in only four samples, two samples undergone to microwave heating and two samples undergone to bottle warmer heating either at 40°C or at 80°C. Although the quantities of leached BPA were well below the reference dose for daily intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (4.0 µg kg -1 bw/day), the release of BPA and BPS from these plastic materials should be carefully considered by the government authorities to increase people's awareness on this issue and to protect the most vulnerable population group.

  3. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  4. Storing plastics in the Cold – more harm than good?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    from ambient. Methylene blue powder was used to indicate the formation of condensation. Dimensional changes were determined on cooling. Thinwalled plastics may be safely placed in freezers protected only by a closed polyethylene bag. The same approach cannot be applied to thick-walled plastics......Storage of plastics at low temperatures has been proposed as a low-cost, lowmaintenance technique. The research described here concerned the results of cooling thin- and thick-walled (greater than 10 mm) plastics materials. Tinytalk loggers were used to record temperature profiles during cooling......, particularly those containing plasticized PVC because of large dimensional changes and formation of condensation....

  5. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  6. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling

  7. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  8. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  9. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  10. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  11. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  12. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  13. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  15. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  16. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  17. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  18. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  19. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  20. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  1. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  2. Emptying device for expendable bottles, especially small counter bottles for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltermann, W.

    1975-01-01

    The device cuts up and empties, respectively, counting bottles and vials, respectively, for radioactive liquids. The vials are taken from a magazine and put on transport disks which move them past a circular saw blade cutting the vials into two cups. The liquid pouring out flows through a collection groove into a collection vessel. The two cups are pushed on the arms of a double turnstile by means of guide systems. Gas fed through lines running inside the arms of the turnstiles is used to flush the cups with nitrogen gas. In the downward movement of the double turnstile a catching surface removes the cups or they automatically fall into a collection bag, respectively. Baffle plates hold the vials on the transport disks. (DG/RF) [de

  3. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  4. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  5. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  6. A 'simple anterior fish excluder' (SAFE for mitigating penaeid-trawl bycatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J McHugh

    Full Text Available Various plastic strips and sheets (termed 'simple anterior fish excluders'-SAFEs were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels were compared against a control (no SAFE on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE ('continuous plastic' was subsequently tested (against a control on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity.

  7. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Basic model means, with respect to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines, all units... beverages and dispenses the bottled or canned beverages on payment. V means the refrigerated volume (ft3) of...

  8. Insulated Containers For Bottled Water (ICB)- Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    WATER STOWAGE PROTOTYPES BOTTLED WATER HIGH TEMPERATURE WEIGHT EJECTION CONTAINERS ...Soldiers are ineffectively mounting commercially  available  coolers and they,  as well as the bottles they  contain , are becoming projectile hazards... container  (shown in Figure 15). The tie‐down procedures were determined by a professional  rigger; a video of the procedures is  available  from NSRDEC

  9. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  10. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products. PMID:28788167

  11. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S; Araújo, Maria Christina B

    2014-01-15

    An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Observational Study Unveils the Extensive Presence of Hazardous Elements in Beached Plastics from Lake Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 3,000 samples of plastic litter have been retrieved from 12 pebble beaches around the shores of Lake Geneva. The plastic stock consisted of identifiable objects of various size and color, including bottles, bottle tops, cotton buds, pens, toys, and straws, an heterogeneous assortment of fragments whose origin was either discernible or unknown, and pieces or blocks of expanded polymer (polystyrene or polyurethane foam. Analysis of 670 samples by portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry revealed high concentrations of hazardous elements or compounds among many plastics. These included Cd, Hg, and Pb (with maximum concentrations of 6,760, 810, and 23,500 ppm, respectively as stabilizers in PVC-based materials and/or brightly-colored sulfide or chromate pigments in primary and secondary plastics, and Br (with a maximum concentration of 27,400 ppm as a proxy for brominated flame retardants (BFRs in both plastics and foams. The abundance of hazardous elements in beached plastics that have been restricted or banned reflect the age and residence time of the plastic stock in the lake, coupled with a relatively high length of shoreline to surface area of the system. The migratability of hazardous elements from the polymeric matrix is likely to determine their environmental impacts and is recommended as a future area of research.

  13. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  14. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  15. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  16. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  17. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  18. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  20. A comparison of bottling alternatives in the pharmaceutical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.; Flapper, S.D.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines with possibilities for rework. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling alternative for produced batches when these have to undergo several lengthy quality tests related to the

  1. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  2. Factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a number of companies and industries in Kenya and other developed countries have come up with bottled/packaged drinking water for sale to a wide range of consumers particularly those in urban areas. The objectives ... The brand choices were influenced by price, availability and media advertisements. More than ...

  3. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  4. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  5. Evaluation of Microbial Quality of Bottled Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of population growth, limited access to fresh water resources, the need to use bottled water, controlling microbial quality of  bottled water is important. Materials and Methods: Microbiological quality of 24 brands of bottled water available in the town markets of Iran was studied Random. Samples were collected in summer and autumn, 2012. In each season, we collected two samples for each brand. In order to analyze Total coliforms, E-Coli, and HPC, MPN and Plate Count Methods were used. Data analysis was processed by SPSS software. Results: Total coliforms were 2 MPN/100CC in two brands S18 and S20. Increased HPC levels were also observed in all brands. pH level of 6% from bottled waters were higher than the standard. Average of turbidity was 0.232 and 0.228 at the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusion: the heterotrophic microorganisms were present in 100% of the samples. Total coliforms were also found in 12% of the samples. None of the samples contained E-Coli.

  6. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  7. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to ... F. S. Adeyemo, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (fiiro), P.M.B 21023, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. C. F. Kupoluyi, Federal ... weighing scale, holding tank, refractometer and PH meter. 22.

  8. Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Brambilla, Gilberto; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrated a method to excite selected whispering gallery modes in optical bottle microresonators (BMR) by inscribing microgroove scars on their surface by focused ion beam milling. Substantial spectral clean-up is obtained in appropriately scarred BMRs, providing the potential for high performance sensors and other optical devices.

  9. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    total of 224 mothers who had children between the ages of 0 and 24 months were included in the study. ... extensive advertising and aggressive sale practice of .... Reasons for bottle-feeding practice. No. %. Insufficient Breast Milk. Back to work. Short duration of Maternity leave. Availability of infant formula. Adopted child.

  10. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  11. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  12. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  13. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  14. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is...

  15. Exploring Klein Bottles through Pottery: A STEAM Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E.; Paré, Jana N.

    2016-01-01

    While one author was reading "The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets by Simon Singh" (2013) in preparation for a presentation, the second author asked what in the book would be interesting to discuss. The topic of Klein bottles was on the first author's mind at that moment, so he tried to describe and explain the form to her--a real…

  16. factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    concern about the safety and quality of tap water in many cities and ... for the upper class markets. Most of the ... copying what is happening in the western world (Bullers,. 2002). ... bottled water and is the manufacturing of the water regulated?

  17. Inoculation of peritoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine if direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles would improve the positive bacteriological yield compared with conventional techniques in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with peritonitis. All patients presenting with suspected peritonitis ...

  18. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  19. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  20. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  1. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  2. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  3. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  5. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  6. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  7. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  8. Leaching behavior of solidified plastics radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Chong Chul; Lee, Byung Hun; Jae, Won Mok; Kim, Kyung Eung

    1986-01-01

    It is highly needed to develope the solidification process to dispose safely the radioactive wastes increasing with the growth of the nuclear industry. The leaching mechanisms of the solidified plastic wastes were investigated and the leaching rates of the plastic wastes were also measured among the many solidification processes. In addition, the transport equation based on the diffusion or the diffusion-dissolution was compared with the empirical equation derived from the experimental data by graphical method. Consequently, leaching process of the solidified plastic wastes is quite well agreed with the mass transport theory, but it may be difficult to simulate leaching process by diffusion dissolution mechanism. But the theoretical equation could be applicable to the cumulative amount of radionuclides leached form the plastic wastes disposed into the environment. (Author)

  9. The conversion of waste plastics/petroleum residue mixtures to transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.F.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Plastics have become the material of choice in the modern world and its applications in the industrial field are continually increasing. Presently the plastics are manufactured for various uses such as: consumer packaging, wires, pipes, containers, bottles, appliances, electrical/electronic parts, computers and automotive parts. Most of he post consumer, plastic products are discarded and end up as mixed plastic municipal waste. The disposal of his waste has become a major social concern. Mixed plastic waste (MPW) recycling is still very much in its infancy. Approximately 20 million tons of plastic waste is generated in the United States of America, while about 15 million tons is generated throughout the Europe. With existing recycle efforts, only 7% of the MPW are recycled to produce low-grade plastic products such as plastic sacks, pipes, plastic fencing, and garden furniture. The current plastic reclamation technology options are generally grouped into the following four types: (i) Primary: The processing of plastic for use comparable to the original application. (ii) Secondary: The processing of plastics waste into new products with a lower quality level. (iii) Tertiary: The chemical or thermal processing of plastic waste to their basic hydrocarbon feedstock. The resulting raw materials are then reprocessed into plastic material or other products of the oil refining process. (iv) Quaternary: The incineration of plastics waste to recover energy. This paper deals exclusively with tertiary recycling by pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of plastics waste alone and by coprocessing with petroleum residue or heavy oils to fuels and petrochemical feedstock for further processing in existing refinery and petrochemical units. (author)

  10. Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CASE JR.,ROGER S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

  11. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  13. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  14. Bottle roll leach test for Temrezli uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çetin, K.; Bayrak, M.; Turan, A. İsbir; Üçgül, E.

    2014-01-01

    The bottle roll leach test is one of the dynamic leaching procedure which can meet in-situ mining needs for determining suitable working conditions and helps to simulate one of the important parameter; injection well design. In this test, the most important parameters are pulp density, acidic or basic concentration of leach solution, time and temperature. In recent years, bottle roll test is used not only for uranium but also gold, silver, copper and nickel metals where in situ leach (ISL) mining is going to be applied. For this purpose for gold and silver metal cyanide bottle roll tests and for uranium metal; acidic and basic bottle roll tests could be applied. The new leach test procedure which is held in General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey is mostly suitable for determining metal extraction conditions and recovery values in uranium containing ore bodies. The tests were conducted with samples taken from Temrezli Uranium Ore located in approximately 200 km east of Turkey’s capital, Ankara. Mining rights of Temrezli Ore is controlled 100% by Anatolia Energy Ltd. The resource estimate includes an indicated mineral resource of 10.827 Mlbs U_3O_8 [~4160 t U] at an average grade of 1426 ppm [~1210 ppm U] and an additional inferred resource of 6.587 Mlbs of U_3O_8 [~2530 t U] at an average grade of 904 ppm [~767 ppm U]. In accordance with the demand from Anatolia Energy bottle roll leach tests have been initiated in MTA laboratories to investigate the recovery values of low-grade uranium ore under in-situ leach conditions. Bottle roll leaching tests are performed on pulverized samples with representative lixiviant solution at ambient pressure and provide an initial evaluation of ore leachability with a rough estimate of recovery value. At the end of the tests by using 2 g/L NaHCO_3 and 0.2 g/L H_2O_2 more than 90% of uranium can pass into leach solution in 12 days. (author)

  15. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bateson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana. We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle−1·day−1, which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  16. Preparation of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend from PET bottles and modification studies induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, Edvaldo Luis

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems nowadays. Amidst the pollutants, plastic and especially the packings type P ET bottles , which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are causing big damage in the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by a process of simplified mechanical recycling from 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective to find solution to this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation doses effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 e 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness), thermal (Vicat softening temperature, differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric) and microscopic (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) properties of the blend were studied. The analysis of the results showed to be a not mixing and compatible blend, with mechanical and thermal properties (which appeared to be similar to the properties of the component material used in the blend in separate) satisfactory, resulting in a resistant material and of low cost, being able to be used in the production of parts that do not demand specifications techniques. The use of the ionizing radiation improved some of the mechanical and thermal properties of the blend (these modifications had been random and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation and the type of property) making possible more specific applications for this material. (author)

  17. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  18. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Paci Mazzilli, B.; Costa, P. da; Akiko Tanigava, P.

    2001-01-01

    The natural activity concentration levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were analyzed in 17 brands of bottled mineral waters commercially available in the Southeast region of Brazil. Concentrations up to 647 mBq x l -1 and 741 mBq x l -1 were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, whereas 210 Pb concentrations reached 85 mBq x l -1 . Average committed effective doses of 1.3 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 226 Ra, 3.4 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 228 Ra and 9.4 x 10 -3 mSv x y -1 for 210 Pb were estimated for the ingestion of these waters. A collective dose of 90 manSv was evaluated, considering the annual production of the bottled mineral waters analyzed in this study. (author)

  19. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  20. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  1. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  2. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  3. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups ...

  4. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  5. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  6. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  7. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  9. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  10. Brucella detection in blood: comparison of the BacT/Alert standard aerobic bottle, BacT/Alert FAN aerobic bottle and BacT/Alert enhanced FAN aerobic bottle in simulated blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümerkan, B; Gökahmetoglu, S; Esel, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of the standard aerobic bottle (StAe), FAN aerobic (FANAe) and enhanced FAN aerobic (E-FANAe) (the charcoal component of the FANAe was revised recently to improve the feasibility of Gram smear interpretation) blood culture bottles for BacT/Alert system for the detection of Brucella melitensis in simulated blood culture. Triplicate strains of eight clinical isolates of B. melitensis were studied. Each bottle was inoculated with 5 mL of freshly collected human blood at three different targeted bacterial inocula (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/bottle). All bottles were monitored for up to 21 days or until they became positive. The results of time to detection (TTD) on the eight B. melitensis samples were as follows: at 10(1) CFU/bottle, the E-FANAe had a mean TTD significantly shorter than the StAe (48 h vs. 56.2 h, P StAe (41.2 h and 40 h vs. 45.6 h, P StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 96, 83 and 58%, respectively. At 10(3) CFU/bottle, the reproducibilities of StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 95, 95 and 91%, respectively. Positive results for the presence of bacteria in Gram smears were confirmed in 68% of StAe, 54% of FANAe and 90% of E-FANAe. In case of suspected brucellosis, the combination of one StAe bottle and one E-FANAe bottle seems to provide the highest and fastest recovery of the organism.

  11. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  12. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  13. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  14. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  15. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  16. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  17. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  18. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  19. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  20. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  2. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  3. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  4. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  6. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  7. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  8. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  9. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  10. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-07

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  11. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  12. Our plastic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation.

  13. Our plastic age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation. PMID:19528049

  14. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE-PLASTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shakle

    2017-01-01

    Polythene is the most common plastic, the annual global production is approximately 60 million tones, and its primary use is in packing. Plastic bags pollute soil and waters and kill thousands of marine generalize plastic bags are not biodegradable they clog water ways, spoil the land scape and end up in landfills. Where they may take 1000 year or more to break down into ever smaller particals that continue to pollution the soil and water.

  16. Our plastic age

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste pl...

  17. Plasticity: modeling & computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ronaldo Israel

    2013-01-01

    .... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...

  18. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  19. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  20. Epigenetic Basis of Neuronal and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, Nina N; Sales, Amanda J; Joca, Samia R

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal network and plasticity change as a function of experience. Altered neural connectivity leads to distinct transcriptional programs of neuronal plasticity-related genes. The environmental challenges throughout life may promote long-lasting reprogramming of gene expression and the development of brain disorders. The modifications in neuronal epigenome mediate gene-environmental interactions and are required for activity-dependent regulation of neuronal differentiation, maturation and plasticity. Here, we highlight the latest advances in understanding the role of the main players of epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation and demethylation, histone modifications, chromatin-remodeling enzymes, transposons, and non-coding RNAs) in activity-dependent and long- term neural and synaptic plasticity. The review focuses on both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression levels, including the processes of promoter activation, alternative splicing, regulation of stability of gene transcripts by natural antisense RNAs, and alternative polyadenylation. Further, we discuss the epigenetic aspects of impaired neuronal plasticity and the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental (Rett syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, genomic imprinting disorders, schizophrenia, and others), stressrelated (mood disorders) and neurodegenerative Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disorders. The review also highlights the pharmacological compounds that modulate epigenetic programming of gene expression, the potential treatment strategies of discussed brain disorders, and the questions that should be addressed during the development of effective and safe approaches for the treatment of brain disorders.

  1. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  2. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of spirits...

  3. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  4. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  5. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarulzaman, A.; Jong, E. de; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces

  6. Nitrate and nitrite content in bottled beverages by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yong-Hong; Chen, Feng; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite levels in six types of beverages--total of 292 individual samples from 73 brands (four bottles each)--from Guangzhou city in China were evaluated by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite ranges were 0.43-46.08 and safety of Chinese bottled beverages.

  7. Effect of chemical preservation on the shelf-life of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six samples of bottled intermediate moisture tomato paste were stored at ambient conditions (33-38°C). Four of the samples were preserved with chemicals. One of the last two samples which was bottled with no chemical preservatives added had palm oil filled onto its headspace. Shelf-like studies conducted for forty weeks ...

  8. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  9. suitability of broken bottles as fine aggregate for production of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The maximum mean compressive strength of 19.0N/mm2 was obtained at 28days when sand and broken bottles were used in equal proportions. Density did not appear to have a discernible trend. For structural concrete, the proportion of broken bottles should be limited to 30% for early strength concrete and 40% when ...

  10. Reotemp Pressure Indicator - Local Pressure Indication to Monitor the SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    1999-01-01

    These 0-3000 psig range pressure indicators are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. These accident monitoring local pressure indicators monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure. There is one pressure indicator for each SCHe supply (4)

  11. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  12. Optical vault: a reconfigurable bottle beam based on conical refraction of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Shvedov, V; Hnatovsky, C; Loiko, Yu V; Mompart, J; Krolikowski, W

    2013-11-04

    We employ conical refraction of light in a biaxial crystal to create an optical bottle for photophoretic trapping and manipulation of particles in gaseous media. We show that by only varying the polarization state of the input light beam the optical bottle can be opened and closed in order to load and unload particles in a highly controllable manner.

  13. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for early identification of bacteria grown in blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbe, Jean-Benoît; Zanardo, Laura; Mégraud, Francis; Bessède, Emilie

    2015-08-01

    This note reports an interesting way to rapidly identify bacteria grown from blood culture bottles. Chocolate agar plates were inoculated with 1 drop of the positive blood bottle medium. After a 3-hour incubation, the growth veil was submitted to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: 77% of the bacteria present have been correctly identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 27 CFR 19.402 - Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of bottled and... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.402 Inventories of bottled and packaged...

  15. Color sorter for waste bottles; Hai garasu bin no iro senbetsu sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, M. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-12

    The recycling business about glass bottles having extended widely, ratio of recycled materials has come up to 55% out of all raw materials for bottle manufacturing. For the purpose of effective reuse, sorting by color into colorless, brown, green, etc. is indispensable. But, at present, this sorting work relies solely upon manpower. In response to the demand for automation of the above work, automatic color sorting system has been developed. In the first place, a pre-sorter can divide bottles into large ones (larger than 10cm in diameter), small ones and cullets. Bottles from the pre-sorter are arranged horizontally on a conveyer, and then light is shined in the direction from each bottle neck. By a color camera, each light permeated through a bottle bottom is caught. Next, by means of an image processing unit, bottles are gathered by color. Cullets are put on several conveyers and are separated by means of color sensors and air nozzles. Disposing capacity of one unit is 5,000 bottles/hr by each size, and one ton of cullets/hr. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa. Marthie M Ehlers, Walda B Van Zyl, Dobromir N Pavlov, Etienne E Muller. Abstract. Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product.

  17. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total and faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci, C. perfringens, bacteriophages or enteric viruses were not detected in any of the ten bottled water samples analysed. It can be concluded that the microbial quality of eight of the ten selected bottled water samples analysed was within the acceptable limits set by the SABS ...

  18. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  19. Green synthesis of graphene from recycled PET bottle wastes for use in the adsorption of dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Ali, Safa M; Farag, Hassan A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Hamad, Hesham A

    2017-11-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is an important component of post-consumer plastic waste. This study focuses on the potential of utilizing "waste-treats-waste" by synthesis of graphene using PET bottle waste as a source material. The synthesized graphene is characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, Raman, TGA, and FT-IR. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 25 (AB25) by graphene is studied and parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage were optimized. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to investigate the effect of three variables (dye concentration, time and temperature) and their interaction on the removal efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm are followed a pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that adsorption of dye is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The plastic waste can be used after transformation into valuable carbon-based nanomaterials for use in the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  1. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.

    2007-01-01

    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  2. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  3. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  4. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  5. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending... test procedure for energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines shall...

  6. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  7. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  8. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.

  9. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  10. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  11. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  12. 21 CFR 178.3010 - Adjuvant substances used in the manufacture of foamed plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvant substances used in the manufacture of... substances used in the manufacture of foamed plastics. The following substances may be safely used as adjuvants in the manufacture of foamed plastics intended for use in contact with food, subject to any...

  13. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-06-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 226Ra and natural uranium in egyptian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and natural uranium have been analysed bottled mineral water commercially available in egypt. 226 Ra was determined by applying a chemical procedure in which Ra was coprecipitated with Ba as sulphate. The precipitate was then dissolved with EDTA and then measured by liquid scintillation system, after mixing with a scintillation cocktail. Natural uranium was determined by applying a chemical procedure for uranium extraction using MIBK and then measured using laser fluorimeter system. The concentration values obtained were compared with concentrations reported by other countries and with reference values accepted for drinking water. Based on the consumption rate and the measured concentrations, the collective committed effective doses were calculated. In addition, Ca, Mg and Na were measured using Icp system and compared with some worldwide values

  15. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-01-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365 days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility.

  16. Growth of Scytalidium sp. in a counterfeit bevacizumab bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After drawing a dose from an closed bevacizumab (Avastin bottle, a fungus-like foreign body was observed inside. Samples from the vial were cultured in Sabouraud Emmons media. Growth of multiple light brown colonies with dark pigment was observed after 10 days. The species was identified as Scytalidium sp.Vial, analysis reported that the seal was lacking proper identification measures and that the label, batch number and expiry date did not correspond to a genuine product. Chemical analysis showed no protein, but 3% of polyethylene glycol, citrate and ethanol. Counterfeit bevacizumab is a real situation that poses a significant risk for ophthalmology and oncology patients. The medical community should be aware of this situation in order to enforce adequate preventive measures.

  17. Biochemical monitoring of sweet fruit flavoured glass bottled soft drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, M.H.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Bhanger, M.I.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Iqbal, J.; Porgar, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flavored glass bottled soft drinks are widely used in developing countries including Pakistan. People suffer greatly both in terms of health and economy if soft drinks are contaminated with microbes and toxic metals. Samples of sixteen different brands of soft drinks were analyzed for microbial and trace elemental study. Microbial study included identification of different coliforms like E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Klebsiela, and total Coliforms. Only seven samples were found to be free from investigated microbes. Contamination in other samples was probably due to improper handling and storage and could be dangerous to human health. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following improved ash digestion method. The level of Al, Fe, Na, K, Ni, Pb and Cd was found to be higher in investigated samples than the international safety limits of WHO. Other elements investigated in all the samples were below the WHO maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. (author)

  18. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  19. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  20. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  1. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  2. White HDPE bottles as source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Grimstvedt, Andreas; Frengstad, Bjørn; Finne, Tor Erik

    2007-03-15

    During a recent study of surface water quality factory new white high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were used for collecting the water samples. According to the established field protocol of the Geological Survey of Norway the bottles were twice carefully rinsed with water in the field prior to sampling. Several blank samples using milli-Q (ELGA) water (>18.2 MOmega) were also prepared. On checking the analytical results the blanks returned values of Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Zn and Zr. For Ba and Zn the values (c. 300 microg/l and 95 microg/l) were about 10 times above the concentrations that can be expected in natural waters. A laboratory test of the bottles demonstrated that the bottles contaminate the samples with significant amounts of Ba and Zn and some Sr. Simple acid washing of the bottles prior to use did not solve the contamination problem for Ba and Zn. The results suggest that there may exist "clean" and "dirty" HDPE bottles depending on manufacturer/production process. When collecting water samples it is mandatory to check bottles regularly as a possible source of contamination.

  3. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  5. Ceramic balsamaria-bottles: The example of Viminacium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest balsamaria to appear in the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods are ceramic and seldom over 10 cm in height. On the Southern Necropolis of Viminacium (sites Više grobalja and Pećine 21 vessels of this type have been found. The features they have in common are a long slender neck and the absence of handles. Based on the shape of their bodies nine groups have been identified. Although they are similar to glass balsamaria, the term bottle seems more appropriate chiefly on account of their size. Of several proposed suggestions about their basic function, the most plausible seems to be that their primary use was as containers for products packed in small amounts. Although most published finds come from burials, the question of their significance and use in funerary rituals remains inadequately elucidated. It is impossible to say with certainty whether the larger-sized vessels of a later date had the same function as the smaller Hellenistic and Early Roman ones. What is certain is that they are usually found in cremation burials, as shown by both Viminacium's Southern Necropolis, the necropolises of Poetovio and Emona, and individual graves on other sites. To judge from the clay fabric and colour and the manner of manufacture, the ceramic bottles from Viminacium come from different and as yet unidentified production centres. From the stratigraphic data and the grave goods they were found in association with they can be dated to the end of the first and first half of the second century, tentatively regarded as a later phase in their production.

  6. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  7. Malfunctioning Plastic Biliary Endoprosthesis: Percutaneous Transhepatic Balloon Pulling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto G. Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transhepatic removal techniques for malfunctioning plastic biliary endoprosthesis are considered safe and efficient second-line strategies, when endoscopic procedures are not feasible. We describe the percutaneous transhepatic balloon pulling technique in a patient with an unresectable malignant hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  8. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    -stageprocess, where the wood fibers are first thermoformed in the desired shape followed by drying of theformed geometry [2]. To ensure the robustness of the bottle and to avoid shrinkage of cellulose fibers,the wet-formed bottle is pressurized using a silicone core. The core is inserted inside the drying tooland......). To simulate the inflation action of the core, Yeoh’s model is used for modelling of W. Thestrength of the GFB is correlated with the pressure the bottle can hold and the cut off burst pressurefrom experiments is also reported in this work....

  9. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  10. Plastics: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics has been playing a very significant role in our life. Being light weight, inexpensive and heving good insulating properties it is being used in all aspects of life, from clothes to contact lenses and from mobile phones to automobiles as well as in medical equipments, However it is not biodegradable, and while degrading to fragments it gets converted in to microplastics and nanoplastics The plastic waste is being recognized as an environmental hazard, since these micr- and nanoplastics find way from landfills to water and foods, It is said that we are not only using, but we are eating, drinking and even braething the plastics. These microplastics in body release certain hazardous chemicals and found to be disrupting functions of certain endocrine organs. Whether the rising prevalence of Diabetes, thyroid disorders or infirtility etc., are realated to the plastics?

  11. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  12. Art and Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Julio Wilson; Metka, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    The roots of science and art of plastic surgery are very antique. Anatomy, drawing, painting, and sculpting have been very important to the surgery and medicine development over the centuries. Artistic skills besides shape, volume, and lines perception can be a practical aid to the plastic surgeons' daily work. An overview about the interactions between art and plastic surgery is presented, with a few applications to rhinoplasty, cleft lip, and other reconstructive plastic surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  13. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  15. Dukovany NPP - Safely 16 TERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation increasing of power output of the Dukovany NPP is reviewed. To operate all Dukovany Units safely with the perspective of long-term operation (LTO) of 50 - 60 years it is proposed.

  16. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  17. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  18. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  19. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  20. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  1. Recycling of plastic wastes with poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer as compatibilizer and their conversion into high-end product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Divya; Maji, Pradip K

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the utilization of plastic wastes to a useful product. The major plastic pollutants that are considered to be in maximum use i.e. PET bottle and PE bags have been taken for consideration for recycling. As these two plastic wastes are not compatible, poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer has been used as compatibilizer to process these two plastic wastes. Effect of dose of poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer as compatibilizer has been studied here. It has been shown that only 3 wt% of poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer is sufficient to make 3:1 mass ratio of PET bottle and polyethylene bags compatible. Compatibility has been examined through mechanical testing, thermal and morphological analysis. After analysing the property of recyclates, better mechanical and thermal property has been observed. Almost 500% of tensile property has been improved by addition of 3 wt% of poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer in 3:1 mass ratio blend of PET bottle and PE bags than that of pristine blend. Morphological analysis by FESEM and AFM has also confirmed the compatibility of the blend. Experimental data showed better performance than available recycling process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija Đ

    2015-01-01

    Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  3. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  4. Pyrolysis of plastic waste using alumina-pumice as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnijati, S.; Agra, I.B.; Wibowo, W.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to convert plastic waste to liquid fuel have been carried out, but the yield was not so promising yet. Various catalysts have been studied to drive the product more to the liquid fuel. In this study, alumina-pumice produced from cheap local materials, was used as catalyst. Solid polyethylene plastic waste was melted in a feed compartment surrounding the tube reactor, and the vapor flowed downward through the catalyst bed which was supported by small glass marbles. Air and water coolers were used to cool and condense the product. Liquid and uncondensable gas were collected in receivers and bottle filled with brine, respectively. The physical properties of a specific liquid product were tested according to the ASTM methods. Liquid and gas products increased with time and temperature, and the rate of liquid and gas formations followed first order reaction. Using 100 g of plastic waste and 40 g of catalyst, the favorable time and temperature of pyrolysis were 105 minutes and 653-673 K, respectively. Under this condition, 86 - 87 % of liquid, 45 - 53 mL/g of gas, and 1% of solid residue were obtained. The quantity of liquid product was higher than the previous work (which was just 70-75 %) and its physical properties were between those of kerosene and diesel oil. The gross heating value of the liquid was 49 796.03 J/g, and the gas burnt with yellow flame and some soot. (Author)

  5. Willingness to pay for safe drinking water: Evidence from Parral, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, William F; Mozumder, Pallab; Hernández-Arce, Jesús; Berrens, Robert P

    2009-08-01

    A referendum-format contingent valuation (CV) survey is used to elicit household willingness to pay responses for safe and reliable drinking water in Parral, Mexico. Households currently adopt a variety of averting and private investment choices (e.g., bottled water consumption, home-based water treatment, and installation of water storage facilities) to adapt to the existing water supply system. These revealed behaviors indicate the latent demand for safer and more reliable water services, which is corroborated by the CV survey evidence. Validity findings include significant scope sensitivity in WTP for water services. Further, results indicate that households are willing to pay from 1.8% to 7.55% of reported household income above their current water bill for safe and reliable drinking water services, depending upon the assumptions about response uncertainty.

  6. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay can ... should encourage their children to drink from a cup by their first birthday. As you make the ...

  7. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  8. Message in a bottle: learning our way out of unsustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Wals, A.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Inaugural lecture of Prof. dr. ir. Arjen E.J. Wals upon taking up the posts of Professor of Social Learning and Sustainable Development, and UNESCO Chair at Wageningen University on May 27th 2010. Lecture about the consequences of unsustainable usage of plastics.

  9. Tooling for Production of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Bedka, Filip J.

    2018-01-01

    Ever since the invention of plastics, packaging has become extremely cheap and efficient. In recent times, the demand for more ecological packaging is increasing leading back to the roots of using naturally available resources, which are biodegradable. The manufacturing process of the Green Fiber...

  10. Pengaruh Implementasi CSR Yang Dilakukan Oleh PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Terhadap Pengembangan Masyarakat Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulfizar Syahputra

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of the problem in this research is: Is CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. The purpose of this research is to study and analyze how CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. This study is associative, ie research that connects two or more variables to see the effect of these variables. The data used in this study is primary data and secon...

  11. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of HDPE bottles for pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Li, Yanxia

    2008-06-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimental conditions for measuring the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles using a steady-state sorption method. Bottles were filled with desiccant, closed with caps and heat induction sealed, and then stored in stability chambers at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Weight gain of the bottles was determined every 1 or 2 weeks until a linear weight gain profile was obtained. WVTR of the bottles was determined from the slope of the linear portion of the weight gain versus time profile. The effects of desiccants and temperature/humidity were studied. Results show that, with a sufficient amount of anhydrous calcium chloride in bottles, a negligibly low and sufficiently constant headspace humidity is maintained, and a steady-state permeation rate is achieved. For all 8 sizes of bottles used in this study, steady-state was achieved in 1 or 2 weeks after the experiment was started. This method provided reproducible WVTR data for HDPE bottles. Apparent moisture permeability of all 8 sizes of bottles was (2.3+/-0.3)x10(-7), (2.6+/-0.2)x10(-7), and (3.4+/-0.2)x10(-7)cm(2)/s at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, respectively. Moisture permeability determined from the current study was similar to data reported in the literature, indicating that the steady-state weight gain method can be used to obtain reliable WVTR of containers for pharmaceutical products.

  12. UHF RFID tag implementation on cork substrate for wine bottle monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rima Martí, Sergi; Georgiadis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    Wine industry is starting to deploy RFID technology for production control, logistics or innovative marketing. However, identifying wine bottles is difficult due to the unfavorable material content for the operation of the antennas. The thesis consists on the implementation of a UHF RFID tag placed on cork substrate in order to provide a feasible way of identifying wine packaged bottle. The proposed RFID tag consists on a meandered line dipole antenna, designed to be conformed so that it can ...

  13. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1987-01-01

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  14. The plasticity of clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  15. Plastics control paraffin buildup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    Paraffin buildup in producing oil wells has been virtually eliminated by the use of plastic-coated sucker rods. The payout of the plasticing process is generally reached in less than a year, and the paraffin buildup may be inhibited for 10 yr or longer. Most of the plants applying plastic coatings to sucker rods are now fully automated, though a few still offer the hand-sprayed coating that some operators prefer. The several steps involved are described. The ideal plastic for the job is resistant to chemicals at high and low temperatures, flexible, has good adhesion, abrasion resistance, impact resistance, and a smooth glossy finish. The phenol aldehyde and epoxy resins presently offered by the industry fulfill these specifications very well; the multicoating and multibaking techniques improve their performance. Due to wide variations in the severity of the paraffin problem from one oil field to another, there is no general rule to estimate the possible savings from using plastic-coated sucker rods. The process, however, does appear to do a remarkable job in controlling paraffin buildup wherever it is a problem in producing oil by pump.

  16. An experiment on the use of disposable plastics as a reinforcement in concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mostafiz R.

    1992-01-01

    Illustrated here is the concept of reinforced concrete structures by the use of computer simulation and an inexpensive hands-on design experiment. The students in our construction management program use disposable plastic as a reinforcement to demonstrate their understanding of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete beams. The plastics used for such an experiment vary from plastic bottles to steel reinforced auto tires. This experiment will show the extent to which plastic reinforcement increases the strength of a concrete beam. The procedure of using such throw-away plastics in an experiment to explain the interaction between the reinforcement material and concrete, and a comparison of the test results for using different types of waste plastics are discussed. A computer analysis to simulate the structural response is used to compare the test results and to understand the analytical background of reinforced concrete design. This interaction of using computers to analyze structures and to relate the output results with real experimentation is found to be a very useful method for teaching a math-based analytical subject to our non-engineering students.

  17. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  18. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Álvaro; Smith, Bruce D.; Gifford, John A.; Green, Richard E.; Newsom, Lee A.; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315–18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication. PMID:24516122

  20. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  1. Post-consumer plastic packaging waste in England: Assessing the yield of multiple collection-recycling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Purnell, Phil; Iacovidou, Eleni; Velis, Costas A; Atseyinku, Maryann

    2018-05-01

    The European Commission (EC) recently introduced a 'Circular Economy Package', setting ambitious recycling targets and identifying waste plastics as a priority sector where major improvements are necessary. Here, the authors explain how different collection modalities affect the quantity and quality of recycling, using recent empirical data on household (HH) post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PCPP) collected for recycling in the devolved administration of England over the quarterly period July-September 2014. Three main collection schemes, as currently implemented in England, were taken into account: (i) kerbside collection (KS), (ii) household waste recycling centres (HWRCs) (also known as 'civic amenity sites'), and (iii) bring sites/banks (BSs). The results indicated that: (a) the contribution of KS collection scheme in recovering packaging plastics is higher than HWRCs and BBs, with respective percentages by weight (wt%) 90%, 9% and 1%; (b) alternate weekly collection (AWC) of plastic recyclables in wheeled bins, when collected commingled, demonstrated higher yield in KS collection; (c) only a small percentage (16%) of the total amount of post-consumer plastics collected in the examined period (141 kt) was finally sent to reprocessors (22 kt); (c) nearly a third of Local Authorities (LAs) reported insufficient or poor data; and (d) the most abundant fractions of plastics that finally reached the reprocessors were mixed plastic bottles and mixed plastics. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  3. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  4. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  5. Determination of Perchlorate in Bottled Water from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Iannece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence in commercially available bottled waters purchased in different regions of Italy was investigated. Perchlorate was measured using the rapid, sensitive, and selective LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM of the transition 98.8→82.8, which corresponds to the loss of one oxygen atom in the perchlorate ion (ClO4−→ClO3−. The chlorine isotope ratio (35Cl/37Cl was used as a confirmation tool. The limit of quantification (LOQ for this method was 5 ng/L, and the recovery ranged from 94% to 108%. Perchlorate was detected in 44 of the 62 drinking waters tested, with concentrations ranging from <5 to 75 ng/L. These values are similar in magnitude to those reported in drinking water from the USA and do not pose an immediate health concern.

  6. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  7. Investigation into Plastic Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Stašelytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strength of laminating plastic cards at different lamination temperatures. For investigation purposes, two types of plastic substrate and films have been used. Laminate strength has been tested (CMYK to establish the impact of colours on the strength of laminate. The paper compares inks supplied by two different producers. The colour characteristics of CIE L*a*b* space before and after the lamination process have been found. According to lamination strength and characteristics of the colours, the most suitable inks, temperature and films have been chosen.

  8. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  9. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  10. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  11. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  12. How Safe Are Our Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues of safety and security in libraries. Topics discussed include keeping library collections safe; patron behavioral problems; factoring loss into the budget; staff theft; access versus security; apathy regarding library crime; a need for a unified security apparatus; preventive measures; staff and patron safety; and a…

  13. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  14. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  15. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  16. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  17. Recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbo, Helena; Poliakova, Valeria; Mylläri, Ville; Sahimaa, Olli; Anderson, Reetta

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is urged by the need for closing material loops to maintain our natural resources when striving towards circular economy, but also by the concern raced by observations of plastic scrap in oceans and lakes. Packaging industry is the sector using the largest share of plastics, hence packaging dominates in the plastic waste flow. The aim of this paper was to sum up the recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland. This potential was evaluated based on the quantity, composition and mechanical quality of the plastic packaging waste generated by consumers and collected as a source-separated fraction, within the mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) or within energy waste. Based on the assessment 86,000-117,000 tons (18 kg/person/a) of post-consumer plastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. The majority, 84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. Due to the launching of new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumer plastic packaging in 2016, almost 40% of the post-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. However, a 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plastic packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. The share of monotype plastics in the overall MSW plastics fraction was 80%, hence by volume the recycling potential of MSW plastics is high. Polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were the most common plastic types present in mixed MSW, followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). If all the Finnish plastic packaging waste collected through the three collection types would be available for recycling, then 19,000-25,000 tons of recycled PP and 6000-8000 tons of recycled HDPE would be available on the local market. However, this assessment includes uncertainties due to performing the

  18. A survey of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Peshawar city of north west frontier province of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.; Abid, H.; Ali, J.; Ibrahim, M.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brands of domestic bottled water purchased from various locations of Peshawar City were microbiological analysed with in three hours of collection for the test (i.e.) Total Coliforms, Total Fecal Coliform, E,coli and Total Plant Count. The results indicated that 33.3% of bottled water was within the acceptable limit set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) guideline whereas 66.6% bottled water samples were unsafe for human consumption. (author)

  19. Blood culture bottles are superior to lysis-centrifugation tubes for bacteriological diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siersema, P D; de Marie, S; van Zeijl, J H; Bac, D J; Wilson, J H

    1992-01-01

    The conventional method of ascitic fluid culturing was compared with the bedside inoculation of ascites into blood culture bottles and into lysis-centrifugation tubes. The conventional culture method was compared with the blood culture bottle method in 31 episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cultures were positive with the conventional culture method in 11 (35%) episodes and with the blood culture bottle method in 26 (84%) episodes (P less than 0.001). The lysis-centrifugation...

  20. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  1. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  2. Plastic Surgery: Tackling Misconceptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will succeed. First impressions tend to last, and if young people's first impression of plastic surgeons is that they spend much of their time doing cosmetic surgery then this is a first impression that might be long ... Res 2014;4 Suppl S3:169‑70. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.amhsr.org. DOI:.

  3. Biobased Plastics 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.; Ravenstijn, J.; Molenveld, K.; Harmsen, P.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Dit boek geeft inzicht in de huidige op de markt verkrijgbare biobased plastics en de te verwachten ontwikkelingen. Er wordt gekeken naar zowel thermoplastische als thermohardende materialen. Het boek biedt inzicht in de productie, verwerking en eigenschappen van de verschillende types. Daarnaast

  4. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  5. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  6. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  7. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  8. Laboratory Workflow Analysis of Culture of Periprosthetic Tissues in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Sedarski, John A; Dylla, Brenda L; Shannon, Samantha K; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hughes, John G; Cheng, Allen C; Patel, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than conventional techniques, but the impact on laboratory workflow has yet to be addressed. Herein, we examined the impact of culture of periprosthetic tissues in blood culture bottles on laboratory workflow and cost. The workflow was process mapped, decision tree models were constructed using probabilities of positive and negative cultures drawn from our published study (T. N. Peel, B. L. Dylla, J. G. Hughes, D. T. Lynch, K. E. Greenwood-Quaintance, A. C. Cheng, J. N. Mandrekar, and R. Patel, mBio 7:e01776-15, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01776-15), and the processing times and resource costs from the laboratory staff time viewpoint were used to compare periprosthetic tissues culture processes using conventional techniques with culture in blood culture bottles. Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of positive cultures. Annualized labor savings were estimated based on salary costs from the U.S. Labor Bureau for Laboratory staff. The model demonstrated a 60.1% reduction in mean total staff time with the adoption of tissue inoculation into blood culture bottles compared to conventional techniques (mean ± standard deviation, 30.7 ± 27.6 versus 77.0 ± 35.3 h per month, respectively; P < 0.001). The estimated annualized labor cost savings of culture using blood culture bottles was $10,876.83 (±$337.16). Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of culture positivity (5 to 50%). Culture in blood culture bottles was cost-effective, based on the estimated labor cost savings of $2,132.71 for each percent increase in test accuracy. In conclusion, culture of periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles is not only more accurate than but is also cost-saving compared to conventional culture methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Infant bottle propping among a low-income urban population in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Segura-Millán, S; Dewey, K G

    1995-06-01

    The prevalence of bottle propping (permitting an infant to drink from a bottle unattended) and the determinants of this practice at 1 week and 4 months of life were studied in a selected sample of urban women in Hermosillo, Mexico. The sample (n = 165) consisted of mothers planning to breast-feed who gave birth to healthy infants at one of two public hospitals. Data were obtained by interviewing women shortly before they were discharged from the hospital and at about 1 week and 4 months postpartum. Among those mothers giving liquid breast milk substitutes to their infants, the percentage practicing bottle propping increased from 27% at 1 week (n = 20/74) to 67% at 4 months (n = 87/130). Women who practiced bottle propping at 1 week were significantly more likely to continue this practice at 4 months. Bottle propping was significantly more common, both at 1 week and 4 months, among women who had completely weaned their infants than among those who were still combining breast and formula feeding. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that 1-week risk factors for bottle propping were low socioeconomic status, being a multiparous single mother, and being a young mother (< or = 18 years old) with a female infant, while 4-month risk factors were complete weaning, delivery in a "nursery" (versus a "rooming-in") hospital, and lack of support by the mother's partner for breast-feeding. While the possible health risks associated with early bottle propping have not been well defined, the extent of the practice observed in this study suggests that such risks deserve further investigation.

  10. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  11. Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Ly

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds. Our results underscore the therapeutic potential of psychedelics and, importantly, identify several lead scaffolds for medicinal chemistry efforts focused on developing plasticity-promoting compounds as safe, effective, and fast-acting treatments for depression and related disorders. : Ly et al. demonstrate that psychedelic compounds such as LSD, DMT, and DOI increase dendritic arbor complexity, promote dendritic spine growth, and stimulate synapse formation. These cellular effects are similar to those produced by the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine and highlight the potential of psychedelics for treating depression and related disorders. Keywords: neural plasticity, psychedelic, spinogenesis, synaptogenesis, depression, LSD, DMT, ketamine, noribogaine, MDMA

  12. Plasticity characteristic obtained by indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'man, Yu.V.; Chugunova, S.I.; Goncharova, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Methods for determination plasticity characteristic δH in the measurement of hardness and nanohardness are considered. Parameter δH characterizes the plasticity of a material by the part of plastic deformation in the total elastic-plastic deformation. The value of δH is defined for metals with different types of crystal lattice, covalent and partially covalent crystals, intermetallics, metallic glasses and quasicrystals. It is discussed the dependence of the plasticity characteristic δH on structural factors and temperature. Parameter δH allows to analyze and compare the plasticity of materials which are brittle at standard mechanical tests. The combination of hardness H, as the strength characteristic, and the plasticity characteristic δH makes possible the better characterization of mechanical behavior of materials than only the hardness H. The examples of plasticity characteristic δH application are represented.

  13. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm). Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment....

  14. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  15. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water in three sites of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Huruy, Kahsay; Anagaw, Belay; Mulu, Andargachew

    2009-10-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking water is becoming increasing in Ethiopia. As a result there has been a growing concern about the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of this product. Studies on the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of bottled water is quite scarce in Ethiopia. This study was therefore aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of three factories of bottled drinking water products produced in Amhara region. A Laboratory based comparative study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of three factories of bottled drinking water produced in Amhara region. Analysis on the quality of bottled drinking water from the sources, wholesalers and retailers were made with World Health Organization and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia recommendations. Triplicate samples from three types of bottled drinking water were randomly collected and analyzed from June, 2006 to December, 2006. A total of 108 commercial bottled drinking water samples were analyzed. The result showed that except pH of factory A all the physicochemical parameters analyzed were with in the recommended limits. The pH value of factory A tested from sources is 5.3 and from wholesalers and retailers is 5.5 and 5.3, respectively, which is below the normal value set by World Health Organization (6.5-8.0) and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (6.0-8.5). Our analyses also demonstrated that 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from sources and 1 (8.3%) from wholesalers of factory B were contaminated with total coliforms, where as 2 (16.7%) samples from retailers were also contaminated with total coliforms. On the other hand, 1 (8.3%) of the samples tested from wholesalers and 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from retailers of factory A were also contaminated with total coliforms. Total coliforms were not detected from all samples of factory C, fecal coliforms were not also isolated from all samples

  16. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  17. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  18. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  20. Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper explores the possible use of d‑excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from Brencic and Vreca’s paper (2006. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d‑excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d‑excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and flavoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d‑excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰ exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d‑excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰. More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.

  1. A new technology for automatic identification and sorting of plastics for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S R

    2004-10-01

    A new technology for automatic sorting of plastics, based upon optical identification of fluorescence signatures of dyes, incorporated in such materials in trace concentrations prior to product manufacturing, is described. Three commercial tracers were selected primarily on the basis of their good absorbency in the 310-370 nm spectral band and their identifiable narrow-band fluorescence signatures in the visible band of the spectrum when present in binary combinations. This absorption band was selected because of the availability of strong emission lines in this band from a commercial Hg-arc lamp and high fluorescence quantum yields of the tracers at this excitation wavelength band. The plastics chosen for tracing and identification are HDPE, LDPE, PP, EVA, PVC and PET and the tracers were compatible and chemically non-reactive with the host matrices and did not affect the transparency of the plastics. The design of a monochromatic and collimated excitation source, the sensor system are described and their performances in identifying and sorting plastics doped with tracers at a few parts per million concentration levels are evaluated. In an industrial sorting system, the sensor was able to sort 300 mm long plastic bottles at a conveyor belt speed of 3.5 m.sec(-1) with a sorting purity of -95%. The limitation was imposed due to mechanical singulation irregularities at high speed and the limited processing speed of the computer used.

  2. Plastic pollution in freshwater ecosystems: macro-, meso-, and microplastic debris in a floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettler, Martin C M; Ulla, Maria Alicia; Rabuffetti, Ana Pia; Garello, Nicolás

    2017-10-23

    Plastic pollution is considered an important environmental problem by the United Nations Environment Programme, and it is identified, alongside climate change, as an emerging issue that might affect biological diversity and human health. However, despite research efforts investigating plastics in oceans, relatively little studies have focused on freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial distribution, types, and characteristics of macro-, meso-, and microplastic fragments in shoreline sediments of a freshwater lake. Food wrappers (mainly polypropylene and polystyrene), bags (high- and low-density polyethylene), bottles (polyethylene terephthalate), and disposable Styrofoam food containers (expanded polystyrene) were the dominant macroplastics recorded in this study. Contrary to other studies, herein macroplastic item surveys would not serve as surrogates for microplastic items. This is disadvantageous since macroplastic surveys are relatively easier to conduct. Otherwise, an average of 25 mesoplastics (mainly expanded polystyrene) and 704 microplastic particles (diverse resins) were recorded per square meter in sandy sediments. Comparisons with other studies from freshwater and marine beaches indicated similar relevance of plastic contamination, demonstrating for the first time that plastic pollution is a serious problem in the Paraná floodplain lakes. This study is also valuable from a social/educational point of view, since plastic waste has been ignored in the Paraná catchment as a pollutant problem, and therefore, the outcome of the current study is a relevant contribution for decision makers.

  3. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  4. The effects of adding waste plastic fibers on some properties of roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Adil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to produce of roller compacted concrete (RCC improved by adding waste plastic fibers (WPFs resulting from cutting the PET beverage bottles was recorded in this study. The method which is used for production of RCC is an approved design method for ACI committee (5R-207,1980[1]. WPF was added by volumetric percentages ranging between (0.5 to 2 % and reference concrete mix was produced for comparison reason. Many tests were conducted on the models produced by rolling compacted concrete like compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, dry density, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity. The analysis of the results showed that the use of plastic waste fibers (1% had led to improvement in the properties of each of the compressive strength and flexural strength compared with reference concrete. Results also showed that the addition of these, fibers increase water absorption and reduce the speed of Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  5. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  6. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  7. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  8. Compensatory plasticity: time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa eLazzouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioural outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioural enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with neurochemical and morphological changes; both intrinsic connectivity and functional coupling at rest are altered but are likewise dependent on different sensory

  9. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  10. Plastic footwear for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, N H

    1990-03-01

    The anaesthetic foot in leprosy poses the most major problem in the rehabilitation of its patients. Various attempts have been made to produce protective footwear such as the microcellular rubber-car-tyre sandals. Unfortunately these attempts have had little success on a large scale because of the inability to produce them in large numbers and the stigma attached to such unusual footwear. While such footwear may be superior to the 'tennis' shoe in protecting the foot from injury by the penetration of sharp objects, it fails to distribute the weight-bearing forces which is the major cause of plantar damage and ulceration in the anaesthetic foot. This can be achieved by providing rigidity to the sole, as demonstrated by the healing of ulcers in plaster of paris casts or the rigid wooden clog. A new type of moulded plastic footwear has been evolved in conjunction with the plastic footwear industry which provides footwear that can be mass produced at a low price and which overcomes the stigma of leprosy. Controlled rigidity is provided by the incorporation of a spring steel shank between the sponge insole and the hard wearing plastic sole. Trials have demonstrated both the acceptability of the footwear and its protective effects as well as its hard wearing properties.

  11. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  12. Performance of molded plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gen, N.S.; Leman, V.E.; Solomonov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of molded plastic scintillators is studied. The plastic scintillators studied were formed by transfer molding and intrusion from a scintillation composition consisting of polystyrene and a standard system of luminescent additives: 2 mass % of paraterphenyl + 0.06 mass % 1,4-di-/2-[5-phenyloxazoyly]/benzene and a plasticizer. The combined effect of mechanical load and temperature was studied. The effect of radiation on molded plastic scintillators was studied using gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. The studies show that the main operating characteristics of molded plastic scintillators are on a par with those of polymerized plastic scintillators. At the same time, molded plastic scintillators are superior in thermal stability at temperatures below the glass transition temperature and with respect to their working temperature range

  13. How safe are nuclear plants? How safe should they be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1988-01-01

    It has become customary to think about safety of nuclear plants in terms of risk as defined by the WASH-1400 study that some of the implications for the non-specialist escape our attention. Yet it is known that a rational program to understand safety, to identify unsafe events, and to use this kind of information or analysis to improve safety, requires us to use the methods of quantitative risk assessment. How this process can be made more understandable to a broader group of nontechnical people and how can a wider acceptance of the results of the process be developed have been questions under study and are addressed in this report. These are questions that have been struggled with for some time in the world of nuclear plant safety. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission examined them for several years as it moved toward developing a position on safety goals for nuclear plants, a requirement that had been assigned it by Congress. Opinion was sought from a broad spectrum of individuals, within the field of nuclear power and outside it, on the topic that was popularly called, ''How safe is safe enough?'' Views were solicited on the answer to the question and also on the way the answer should be framed when it was adopted. This report discusses the public policy and its implementation

  14. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nippert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket with a model using virtual reality and a photorealistic simulation of the launch that allows the students to appreciate the optimization problems associated with water and air pressure and launch angle. Our usage data indicates that students easily adapt to the virtual reality simulation and use our simulation for intuitive experiments on their own to optimize launch conditions.

  15. SmartStuff: A case study of a smart water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Nallathimmareddygari, Vindhya R; Pryor, Jonathan E

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) and miniature wearable biosensors have generated new opportunities for personalized eHealth and mHealth services. Smart objects equipped with physiological sensors can provide robust monitoring of activities of daily living and context for wearable physiological sensors. We present a case study of an intelligent water bottle that can precisely measure the amount of liquid in the bottle, monitor activity using inertial sensors, and physiological parameters using a touch and photoplethysmographic sensor. We evaluate two system configurations: a smart water bottle integrated into a personal body sensor network and a cloud based device. This paper presents system organization and the results from preliminary field testing of the prototype device.

  16. A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, Pauline L.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bottled waters from the UK have major-ion compositions that broadly reflect the compositions of groundwaters abstracted directly from the corresponding host aquifers. → Many trace elements differ in composition from in situ groundwaters due to post-abstraction modifying processes. → All parameters analysed comply with European and national limits for drinking water and with WHO guideline values; elements that most closely approach the limits include U, Ba. → Bottled water compositions clearly show the influence of contamination with Sb from PET bottles, although concentrations do not exceed drinking-water limits. - Abstract: The inorganic chemistry of 85 samples of bottled natural mineral waters and spring waters has been investigated from 67 sources across the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland). Sources include boreholes, springs and wells. Waters are from a diverse range of aquifer lithologies and are disproportionately derived from comparatively minor aquifers, the most represented being Lower Palaeozoic (10 sources), Devonian Sandstone (10 sources) and Carboniferous Limestone (9 sources). The waters show correspondingly variable major-ion compositions, ranging from Ca-HCO 3 , through mixed-cation-mixed-anion to Na-HCO 3 types. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are mostly low to very low (range 58-800 mg/L). All samples analysed in the study had concentrations of inorganic constituents well within the limits for compliance with European and national standards for bottled waters. Concentrations of NO 3 -N reached up to half the limit of 11.3 mg/L, although 62% of samples had concentrations 10 μg/L, both being from the Welsh Devonian Sandstone. The highest observed U concentration was 13.6 μg/L. Solute concentrations in waters contained in glass bottles compared with waters in PET showed slightly though significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Mn, Sn, W, Zn and

  17. Thermal Jacket Design Using Cellulose Aerogels for Heat Insulation Application of Water Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai M. Duong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal jacket design using eco-friendly cellulose fibers from recycled paper waste is developed in this report. Neoprene as an outmost layer, cellulose aerogels in the middle and Nylon as an innermost layer can form the best sandwiched laminate using the zigzag stitching method for thermal jacket development. The temperature of the ice slurry inside the water bottle covered with the designed thermal jackets remains at 0.1 °C even after 4 h, which is the average duration of an outfield exercise. Interestingly, the insulation performance of the designed thermal jackets is much better than the commercial insulated water bottles like FLOE bottles and is very competition to that of vacuum flasks for a same period of 4 h and ambient conditions.

  18. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  19. Plastic Pollution to Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Laura; Pomba, Elizabeth; Davis, Tina

    2018-01-01

    Makerspaces have become very popular in education because they "provide hands-on, creative ways to encourage students to design, experiment, build, and invent as they deeply engage in science, engineering, and tinkering" (Cooper 2013). Not only do makerspaces provide a safe learning environment for students to develop their 21st century…

  20. [Development of a screening scale for children at risk of baby bottle tooth decay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P

    2012-03-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.