WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic bottle dynamics

  1. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  2. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  3. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  4. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  5. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  6. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  7. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  8. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental pro...

  9. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  10. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  11. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  12. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  13. Comparison of detection threshold values determined using glass sniff bottles and plastic squeeze bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarski, Thomas J; Doty, Richard L

    2004-02-01

    Olfactory threshold measures are influenced by such factors as odorant species, diluent type, psychophysical paradigm, and stimulus-presentation procedure. In this study, we compared phenyl ethyl alcohol odor-detection thresholds obtained using 120-ml glass sniff bottles to those obtained using 120-ml plastic squeeze bottles. Although these presentation media are commonly employed in published studies, there has never been a formal comparison of values obtained using them. 10 male and 10 female subjects were tested on two threshold test sessions, one for each type of bottle. Order of sessions was systematically counterbalanced and completed on the same day for a given subject, with a minimum of 30 min. elapsing between sessions. A seven-reversal, single-staircase threshold procedure was employed. Although the threshold values were similar for the two procedures, slightly lower thresholds were obtained using the glass sniff bottles [respective M (SEM) log vol/vol values = -6.61 (.20) and -6.13 (.24)]. These data suggest that, while threshold values using these two presentation procedures can be roughly compared across studies, accurate comparisons may require a slight mathematical adjustment.

  14. Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed from I.V. Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    i D-153 652 RAPID DRINKING DEVICES CONSTRUCTED FROM IY BAS AND 1/1 I PLASTIC SQUEEZE BOTTLES (U) A MY RESEARCH INST OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLf Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed Fram I.V. ( Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles 6...running. The primary problem with using a plastic water bottle during a race is that it ~ must be held upright and squeezed tightly while the runner

  15. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  16. Comparative recovery of microorganisms from BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA and FN blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J A; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-07-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorganisms with 359 judged to be clinically significant. Of the 359 significant organisms, 255 were recovered in either one or two bottles from both pairs of bottles in a set while 56 organisms were recovered only from the glass bottles and 48 were recovered only from the plastic bottles (P, not significant [NS]). Of the 286 significant organisms recovered only in the FA bottles (glass and plastic), 180 were recovered in both bottles, 57 in the plastic bottles only, and 49 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). Of the 303 significant organisms recovered in the FN bottles only (glass and plastic), 212 were recovered in both bottles, 46 in the plastic bottles only, and 45 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). For individual organisms, the only significant difference in recovery was obtained for Escherichia coli, with more isolates recovered in the FN plastic than in the FN glass bottles (P = 0.02). These data suggest that recovery of microorganisms with plastic FA/FN bottles is at least equal to that with glass FA/FN bottles while offering greater safety for users.

  17. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  18. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  19. Comparative Recovery of Microorganisms from BacT/ALERT Plastic and Glass FA and FN Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, J. A.; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-01-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorga...

  20. Validation of Performance of Plastic versus Glass Bottles for Culturing Anaerobes from Blood in BacT/ALERT SN Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  1. Validation of performance of plastic versus glass bottles for culturing anaerobes from blood in BacT/ALERT SN medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J; Reller, L Barth

    2005-12-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  2. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borde, Preeti; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; McGuigan, Kevin G; Keogh, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    .... The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l). Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities...

  3. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  4. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  5. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic versus glass bottles of BacT/ALERT PF medium for culturing blood from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-01-01

    The plastic pediatric BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, N.C.) PF (PPF) is a new nonvented aerobic culture medium in a clear plastic bottle designed to prevent breakage. We compared the performance of the new PPF bottle to that of the present glass BacT/ALERT PF bottle for the recovery of microorganisms as well as for the time to detection of growth in samples of blood obtained for culture from children. We found that the PPF and PF bottles were comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  6. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  7. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  8. Application of automated image analysis to the identification and extraction of recyclable plastic bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edgar SCAVINO; Dzuraidah Abdul WAHAB; Aini HUSSAIN; Hassan BASRI; Mohd Marzuki MUSTAFA

    2009-01-01

    An experimental machine vision apparatus was used to identify and extract recyclable plastic bottles out of a conveyor belt. Color images were taken with a commercially available Webcam, and the recognition was performed by our homemade software, based on the shape and dimensions of object images. The software was able to manage multiple bottles in a single image and was additionally extended to cases involving touching bottles. The identification was fulfilled by comparing the set of measured features with an existing database and meanwhile integrating various recognition techniques such as minimum distance in the feature space, self-organized maps, and neural networks. The recognition system was tested on a set of 50 different bottles and provided so far an accuracy of about 97% on bottle identification. The extraction of the bottles was performed by means of a pneumatic arm, which was activated according to the plastic type; polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles were left on the conveyor belt, while non-PET boules were extracted. The software was designed to provide the best compromise between reliability and speed for real-time applications in view of the commercialization of the system at existing recycling plants.

  9. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  10. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  11. Trash + Creativity = Problem Solved: Award Winners Give Plastic Bottles Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor, has selected the best of the crop in the 2006/2007 Tech Directions Inventors Award Competition. The challenge this year called on students to slow the filling of landfills by devising uses for discarded plastic water, juice, soda, and sports-drink bottles. Judge Roman noted "many common…

  12. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  13. How consumers of plastic water bottles are responding to environmental policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orset, Caroline; Barret, Nicolas; Lemaire, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic and the consumption never stops increasing. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to consumers allowing explaining the influence of information on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a manifest effect on the WTP. We show there is a significant premium associated with recycled plastic packaging and biodegradable bioplastic packaging. As there is no consensus on the plastic which is the most or the least dangerous for the environment, we propose different policies for protecting the environment. We discuss about the impact of these policies on consumer's purchasing decisions: switching one plastic packaging for another, or leaving water plastic bottles market. We present the environmental policies that are effective according to the point of view adopted. Choosing between these policies then depends on the priorities of the regulator and pressure of lobbies.

  14. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the release of combustion products, i.e., a "whoosh rocket." My recommendation is that the standard fuel for pedagogical whoosh demonstrations be isopropanol, and the recommended vessel is the 3.8-L high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle.

  15. Histogram of Intensity Feature Extraction for Automatic Plastic Bottle Recycling System Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaimah Ramli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many recycling activities adopt manual sorting for plastic recycling that relies on plant personnel who visually identify and pick plastic bottles as they travel along the conveyor belt. These bottles are then sorted into the respective containers. Manual sorting may not be a suitable option for recycling facilities of high throughput. It has also been noted that the high turnover among sorting line workers had caused difficulties in achieving consistency in the plastic separation process. As a result, an intelligent system for automated sorting is greatly needed to replace manual sorting system. The core components of machine vision for this intelligent sorting system is the image recognition and classification. In this research, the overall plastic bottle sorting system is described. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithm used is discussed in detail since it is the core component of the overall system that determines the success rate. The performance of the proposed feature extractions were evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and result obtained showed an accuracy of more than 80%.

  16. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic and glass bottles of BacT/ALERT FA medium for culturing organisms from blood of adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-04-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  17. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  18. Plastic Bottle Cutter:能瞬间将塑料瓶变成塑料绳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    近日法国两名设计者开发了一款Plastic BottleCutter塑料瓶切割器,能瞬间将各种塑料瓶变成可再利用的塑料绳。这款切割器的设计十分简单,由一根木棍及一个可替换的刀片组成。Plastic BottleCutter能将塑料瓶转换成各种宽度的塑料绳,在回收后能重新被用于制造出各种物品,包括扫帚、篮子、门帘等等日常用品。这些塑料绳甚至能被当成汽车拉绳使用。

  19. Plastic bottle oscillator as an on-off-type oscillator: Experiments, modeling, and stability analyses of single and coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    An oscillatory system called a plastic bottle oscillator is studied, in which the downflow of water and upflow of air alternate periodically in an upside-down plastic bottle containing water. It is demonstrated that a coupled two-bottle system exhibits in- and antiphase synchronization according to the nature of coupling. A simple ordinary differential equation is deduced to interpret the characteristics of a single oscillator. This model is also extended to coupled oscillators, and the model reproduces the essential features of the experimental observations.

  20. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  1. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  2. Controlled Clinical Comparison of Plastic and Glass Bottles of BacT/ALERT FA Medium for Culturing Organisms from Blood of Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Cathy A.; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery ...

  3. Solar detoxification plant for a hazardous plastic bottle recycling plant in El Ejido: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), Tabernas (Spain); Richter, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The removal of persistent organic chemicals from water is a pressing ecological problem. Persistent contaminants, such as pesticides, solvents, detergents and a variety of industrial chemicals, are capable of deep penetration into the soil and reach groundwater due to combination of chemical stability, resistance to biodegradation and sufficient water solubility. The Spanish province of Almeria has experienced an important economical growth during the last 20 years due to the installation of a large number of greenhouses, which benefit from the extremely sunny climate for production of vegetables and fruits. Unfortunately, this development is accompanied by an intensive use of a wide variety of pesticides with the subsequent problem of empty plastic bottles. Unitl now these plaguicide containers have usually been burnt or buried. Since the problem has been growing in the last years, a parallel environmental consciousness has been rising in the region concerning the recycling of these pesticide bottles; this process includes washing of the shredded plastic containers, which gives rise to relatively small quantities of water contaminated with toxic and persistent compounds at a concentration level of some hundred mg/l of total organic carbon content. This appears to be a very promising application for TiO{sub 2} - Solar Photocatalytic Detoxification, which provides an adequate solution as there is no clear alternative way to solve the problem. (orig.)

  4. Effect of reduced pressure, vibration and orientation to simulate high altitude testing of liquid pharmaceutical glass and plastic bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S. Paul; Burgess, Gary; Kremer, Matt; Lockhart, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of high-altitude shipments of glass and plastic bottles on package integrity. High altitudes are encountered when trucks travel over mountain passes and when cargo and feeder aircraft transport packages in non-pressurized or partially pressurized cargo holds. This is

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of plastic bottle sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and structural properties of plastic bottle sheets have been studied. Bottle sheets were exposed with 1.25 MeV 60Co γ-ray's source at various dose levels within the range from 0 to 670 kGy. The changes so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectra show the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation. With increasing γ-dose, the values of the direct and indirect band gap are found to be decreased. These results are in good agreement with the corresponding results published previously for polyethylene terephthalate polymer. We also calculated numbers of carbon atoms per conjugation length. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity after gamma irradiation. Furthermore, the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size for pristine and irradiated sample have been calculated. It has been found that both crystallinity and crystallite size increase due to irradiation. In addition, interchain distances, micro strain, inter planar distance, dislocation density and distortion parameters were calculated. The analysis revealed there is the significant decrease in micro strain, dislocation density and distortion parameters with an increase of gamma dose, which is in line with the crystallinity calculation. Moreover, Interchain and Interplanar distances were marginally changed. These results demonstrated the applicability of sheets as a cost-effective dosimeter.

  6. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  7. Microbiological Investigations of ReNu Plastic Bottles and the 2004 to 2006 ReNu With MoistureLoc-Related Worldwide Fusarium Keratitis Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, John D; Warwar, Ronald E; Elder, B Laurel; Khamis, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the contact lens solution RevitaLens Ocutec (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in ReNu plastic bottles; whether alexidine would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in non-ReNu plastic bottles; and whether an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaches from heated ReNu bottles. RevitaLens and an alexidine solution (0.00045%), previously stored in ReNu bottles at room temperature (RT) and 56°C, were incubated with 7 different Fusarium organisms. The alexidine solution was similarly stored in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles and incubated with these same organisms. To determine if an alexidine-neutralizing compound might be leaching from heated ReNu bottles, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was incubated at RT and 56°C in ReNu bottles, combined with alexidine, and then tested for anti-Fusarium capability. After being heated in ReNu bottles, RevitaLens retained its anti-Fusarium capability, whereas the alexidine solution did not. The alexidine solution heated in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles retained its anti-Fusarium capability. The alexidine solution retained its anti-Fusarium capability when incubated with a PBS solution that had been heated in ReNu bottles, indicating, microbiologically, that an alexidine-neutralizing compound did not leach from the heated ReNu bottle. Alexidine uniquely fails to inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in a plastic ReNu bottle, but not in seven other plastic bottles, whereas the anti-Fusarium capability of RevitaLens (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) is unaffected by heating in a ReNu bottle. There does not seem to be an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaching from heated ReNu bottles. An interaction between alexidine and its heated ReNu bottle may have been a critical factor in the worldwide ReNu with MoistureLoc-related Fusarium keratitis event of 2004 to 2006.

  8. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  9. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  10. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  11. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  12. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  13. [Simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.

  14. Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate from the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Exline, Jennifer A.; Warner, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory procedure involving the chemical recycling of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) from 2-L pop bottles is described. A transesterification reaction is employed to depolymerize PET. At atmospheric pressure in refluxing benzyl alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, PET is converted to dibenzyl terephthalate in moderate yields. This procedure models an industrial process that involves the transesterification reaction of PET with methanol at high temperature and pressure, conditions not normally accessible in an undergraduate laboratory, to yield dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol. A second method of preparing dibenzyl terephthalate starting with terephthaloyl chloride is also described. The diester from these two approaches is characterized using melting points, TLC, and IR and NMR spectroscopy. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that has sections on organic chemistry and polymer chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course or a polymer chemistry laboratory course. This lab experiment is part of a larger effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of chemistry and the automobile. Student results are presented.

  15. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  16. 塑料啤酒瓶的制造方案%Manufacturing Scheme of Plastic Beer Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    The status and prospect of the material and processing forplastic beer bottle at home and abroad are introduced.The new fruits as well as PACVD techniqne and nano-polymer to improve the barrier property are described.It will be a great foreground that the plastic beer bottle is domestically developed.%介绍了国内外制造塑料啤酒瓶的材料及其加工工艺的现状和发展前景,提出了用PACVD(等离子辅助化学气相沉积)技术与纳米聚合物提高啤酒瓶阻隔性的新成果,指出在国内发展塑料啤酒瓶包装的伟大前景。

  17. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  18. Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; van Hoeck, Els; Vervliet, Philippe; Scippo, Marie Louise; Simon, Coraline; van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg⁻¹). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg⁻¹) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg⁻¹); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg⁻¹), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg⁻¹); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg⁻¹)), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg⁻¹) or 2

  19. Synchronization in multicell systems exhibiting dynamic plasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Suguna; Somdatta Sinha

    2008-08-01

    Collective behaviour in multicell systems arises from exchange of chemicals/signals between cells and may be different from their intrinsic behaviour. These chemicals are products of regulated networks of biochemical pathways that underlie cellular functions, and can exhibit a variety of dynamics arising from the non-linearity of the reaction processes. We have addressed the emergent synchronization properties of a ring of cells, diffusively coupled by the end product of an intracellular model biochemical pathway exhibiting non-robust birhythmic behaviour. The aim is to examine the role of intercellular interaction in stabilizing the non-robust dynamics in the emergent collective behaviour in the ring of cells. We show that, irrespective of the inherent frequencies of individual cells, depending on the coupling strength, the collective behaviour does synchronize to only one type of oscillations above a threshold number of cells. Using two perturbation analyses, we also show that this emergent synchronized dynamical state is fairly robust under external perturbations. Thus, the inherent plasticity in the oscillatory phenotypes in these model cells may get suppressed to exhibit collective dynamics of a single type in a multicell system, but environmental influences can sometimes expose this underlying plasticity in its collective dynamics.

  20. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  1. Dynamics and plasticity of spinal locomotor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2014-12-01

    Spinal circuits generate coordinated locomotor movements. These hardwired circuits are supplemented with neuromodulation that provide the necessary flexibility for animals to move smoothly through their environment. This review will highlight some recent insights gained in understanding the functional dynamics and plasticity of the locomotor circuits. First the mechanisms governing the modulation of the speed of locomotion will be discussed. Second, advantages of the modular organization of the locomotor networks with multiple circuits engaged in a task-dependent manner will be examined. Finally, the neuromodulation and the resulting plasticity of the locomotor circuits will be summarized with an emphasis on endocannabinoids and nitric oxide. The intention is to extract general principles of organization and discuss some onto-genetic and phylogenetic divergences.

  2. Unusual predator-prey dynamics under reciprocal phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougi, Akihiko

    2012-07-21

    Recent theories and experiments have shown that plasticity, such as an inducible defense or an inducible offense in predator-prey interactions, strongly influences the stability of the population dynamics. However, such plastic adaptation has not been expected to cause unusual dynamics such as antiphase cycles, which occur in experimental predator-prey systems with evolutionary adaptation in the defensive trait of prey. Here I show that antiphase cycles and cryptic cycles (a large population fluctuation in one species with almost no change in the population of the other species) can occur in a predator-prey system when both member species can change their phenotypes through adaptive plasticity (inducible defenses and offenses). I consider a familiar type of predator-prey system in which both species can change their morphology or behavior through phenotypic plasticity. The plasticity, that is, the ability to change between distinct phenotypes, is assumed to occur so as to maximize their fitness. I examined how the reciprocal adaptive plasticity influences the population dynamics. The results show that unusual dynamics such as antiphase population cycles and cryptic cycles can occur when both species show inducible plasticity. The unusual dynamics are particularly likely to occur when the carrying capacity of the prey is small (the density dependence of the prey's growth is strong). The unusual predator-prey dynamics may be induced by phenotypic plasticity as long as the phenotypic change occurs to maximize fitness.

  3. Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres for selective screening of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jindong; Wang, Mingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Yang, Gengliang

    2014-04-02

    A new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted dispersive solid-phase extraction (MAG-MIM-dSPE) coupled with gas chromatography-FID was developed for selective determination of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages. The new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres (MAG-MIM) using diisononyl phthalate as a template mimic were synthesized by coprecipitation coupled with aqueous suspension polymerization and were successfully applied as the adsorbents for MAG-MIM-dSPE to extract and isolate five phthalates from plastic bottled beverages. Validation experiments showed that the MAG-MIM-dSPE method had good linearity at 0.0040-0.40 μg/mL (0.9991-0.9998), good precision (3.1-6.9%), and high recovery (89.5-101.3%), and limits of detection were obtained in a range of 0.53-1.2 μg/L. The presented MAG-MIM-dSPE method combines the quick separation of magnetic particles, special selectivity of MIM, and high extraction efficiency of dSPE, which could potentially be applied to selective screening of phthalates in beverage products.

  4. Stability of Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet and Water in Unit-Dose Cups and Plastic Bottles at 4°C and 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lakhani, Anisha

    2010-09-01

    Solutions of vancomycin for oral administration are not available commercially in Canada or the United States but are needed for patients who cannot swallow capsules. To evaluate the stability of vancomycin solutions stored in unit-dose cups and plastic bottles under refrigeration (4°C) and at room temperature (25°C) for up to 75 days. Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet vehicle and water (1:1 ratio by volume) was dispensed into opaque blue polyethylene unit-dose cups with aluminum seal (14 replicates) or amber plastic prescription bottles (6 replicates). Seven cups and 3 bottles were refrigerated (4°C), and the remainder of the containers were stored at room temperature (25°C). At the time of preparation and at 15, 30, 40, 50, 63, and 75 days, 3 aliquots were collected from one of the cups and from every bottle and were stored frozen (-85°C) until the time of analysis. Physical characteristics were evaluated at each time point, including measurement of pH and visual assessment of colour and precipitation. After thawing, the samples were analyzed in triplicate by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. A solution was considered stable if 90% of the initial concentration of vancomycin was maintained. No notable changes in colour, taste, or pH were observed in vancomycin solutions stored in the unit-dose cups at 4°C or 25°C or in the plastic bottles stored at 4°C over the 75-day study period. Starting on day 63, a white precipitate was observed in the solutions stored in plastic bottles at 25°C, but there were no notable changes in taste or pH during the 75-day period. The 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time, determined by linear regression, indicated that vancomycin solutions stored in cups or bottles at 4°C would maintain at least 93.6% of the initial vancomycin concentration for 75 days and that solutions stored at 25°C would maintain at least 90.0% of the initial

  5. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  7. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  8. 储存条件对塑料瓶装大豆油中塑化剂含量影响的研究%Influence of storage condition on the contents of plasticizers in soybean oil packaged in plastic bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 张明明; 朱远坤; 杨书平

    2015-01-01

    The fresh soybean oils were stored respectively in PET plastic bottle and PE plastic bottle, and the influences of storage temperature, storage time and light on the contents of plasticizers in the soybean oil were investigated. The results showed that the contents of DBP and DEHP in soybean oils packaged in PE plastic bottle were obviously higher than those in PET plastic bottle when the storage temperature was above 27℃ and storage time was 20 d. The contents of DPP in soybean oils had no change when the tem-perature didn’t exceed 50℃, while it rose significantly when the temperature was above 50℃. Further-more, when stored at 65℃ for 90 d, the contents of DPP in the soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were up to 1 559. 3 μg/kg and 2 756. 8 μg/kg, respectively. In addition, when stored at 65℃ for 50 d, DMP could be detected in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle, and its contents were 43. 7(50 d),128. 7(70 d),114. 3 μg/kg(90 d). When stored at 50℃ for 90 d, the content of DBP in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle reached 452. 0μg/kg, 1. 5 times as high as the national standard limit for DBP. Compared with the lucifuge storage, light had no influence on DPP and small im-pacts on DBP and DEHP for a short time. Under the same storage temperature and light condition, as storage time prolonging, the content of DBP in soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were on a rise, and the content of DEHP presented a fluctuation trend.%以新鲜大豆油为原料,将其分别盛装于PET材质塑料瓶和PE材质塑料瓶中,研究不同储存温度、储存时间以及光照对大豆油中邻苯二甲酸酯类塑化剂含量变化的影响。结果表明:储存20 d且储存温度高于27℃时PE瓶装大豆油中DBP和DEHP含量明显高于PET瓶装大豆油的;大豆油中DPP含量在储存温度不超过50℃时基本无变化,但储存温度高于50℃时,其含量明显增加。65℃储存90 d后,PET、PE瓶

  9. Adsorbability Study of Plastic Transfusion Bottle and Infusion Set to Diazepam%塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清荣; 梁俊; 曹银

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the adsorbability of plastic transfusion bottle and infusion set to diazepam. METHODS:With the reference of plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection,HPLC was used to determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam adding into plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection at different time;disposable plastic infusion set was connected to simulate intrave-nous infusion and determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam in the liquid effluent at different time. RESULTS:The mass concentration of diazepam in glass infusion bottles group was higher than in plastic transfusion bottles group. The adsorbabili-ties of solutions showed the strongest at the time of 15-20 min. The mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bottle group was about 80% of the original concentration and plastic bottle group was about 67%. As the time went on,the adsorbability was gradually saturated at 60 min and the concentration rose again;the mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bot-tle group returned to 95%of the original concentration at 80 min and the plastic bottle group was about 75%of the original concen-tration. CONCLUSIONS:Both plastic infusion bottle and infusion set have strong adsorbability to diazepam. It is suggested that the dosage of diazepam should be increased by 25% to 33% while plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection is used as solvent for intrave-nous drip.%目的:考察塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性。方法:以玻璃瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液为对照,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定地西泮加入塑料瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液后放置不同时间的质量浓度变化;并连接一次性塑料输液器模拟静滴状态,于不同时间收集流出液体测定其中地西泮的质量浓度变化。结果:玻璃瓶组地西泮质量浓度高于塑料瓶组,两组溶液经过输液器15~20 min时吸附性最强,玻璃瓶组流出液体质

  10. Equivalent Plastic Strain Gradient Plasticity with Grain Boundary Hardening and Comparison to Discrete Dislocation Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bayerschen, E; Wulfinghoff, S; Weygand, D; Böhlke, T

    2015-01-01

    The gradient crystal plasticity framework of Wulfinghoff et al. [53] incorporating an equivalent plastic strain and grain boundary yielding, is extended with additional grain boundary hardening. By comparison to averaged results from many discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations of an aluminum type tricrystal under tensile loading, the new hardening parameter in the continuum model is calibrated. It is shown that although the grain boundaries (GBs) in the discrete simulations are impenetrable, an infinite GB yield strength corresponding to microhard GB conditions, is not applicable in the continuum model. A combination of a finite GB yield strength with an isotropic bulk Voce hardening relation alone also fails to model the plastic strain profiles obtained by DDD. Instead, a finite GB yield strength in combination with GB hardening depending on the equivalent plastic strain at the GBs is shown to give a better agreement to DDD results. The differences in the plastic strain profiles obtained in DDD simu...

  11. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.

  12. The Technical Study of Electromagnetic Forming Sealing for the Plastic Bottle%塑料瓶的电磁成形封口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱春城; 李洪涛

    2000-01-01

    对塑料瓶的电磁成形封接工艺进行研究,通过对放电电压、电容、线圈位置等参数进行调节,得出了优化的封口工艺。试验结果表明:线圈位置,电压对封口效果影响较大。%This paper introduces the research of electromagnetic forming sealing for the plastic bottle. The sealing technology is opimized by adjusting discharge voltage,capacitance、 coil position. The experiments show that coil position and voltage have larger influence to the sealing effect.

  13. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages using a molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Kuang, Yunfei

    2014-08-15

    Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on an acetylene black paste electrode modified with molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film for sensitive and selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimised. The imprinted sensor offers a fast response and sensitive BPA quantification. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 8.0 nM to 1.0 μM and 1.0 to 20 μM for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 6.0 nM (S/N=3). Meanwhile, the fabricated sensor showed excellent specific recognition to template molecule among the structural similarities and coexistence substances. Furthermore, this imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to detect BPA in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages.

  14. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  15. Snuff Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese snuff bottles are artistic curiosities enjoyed by connoisseurs and collectors alike. In the 17th century, artisans of the Chinese imperial court made several different kinds of snuff bottles with a superior aesthetic. Nowadays, China still

  16. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  17. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management.

  18. Plastic instabilities in statically and dynamically loaded spherical vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Edward A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes were made in design limits for pressurized vessels in the 2007 version of the ASME Code (Section VIII, Div. 3) and 2008 and 2009 Addenda. There is now a local damage-mechanics based strain-exhaustion limit as well as the well-known global plastic collapse limit. Moreover, Code Case 2564 (Section VIII, Div. 3) has recently been approved to address impulsively loaded vessels. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the plastic collapse limit as it applies to dynamically loaded spherical vessels. Plastic instabilities that could potentially develop in spherical shells under symmetric loading conditions are examined for a variety of plastic constitutive relations. First, a literature survey of both static and dynamic instabilities associated with spherical shells is presented. Then, a general plastic instability condition for spherical shells subjected to displacement controlled and impulsive loading is given. This instability condition is evaluated for six plastic and visco-plastic constitutive relations. The role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability point is investigated. Calculations for statically and dynamically loaded spherical shells are presented, illustrating the formation of instabilities as well as the role of imperfections. Conclusions of this work are that there are two fundamental types of instabilities associated with failure of spherical shells. In the case of impulsively loaded vessels, where the pulse duration is short compared to the fundamental period of the structure, one instability type is found not to occur in the absence of static internal pressure. Moreover, it is found that the specific role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability strain depends on the form of the constitutive relation assumed.

  19. Recrystallization kinetics of nanostructured copper processed by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin; Pantleon, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    The recrystallization kinetics of nanostructured copper samples processed by dynamic plastic deformation was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the evolution of the recrystallized volume fraction as a function of annealing time has a very low slope (n=0.37) when...

  20. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Caizhi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  1. Green’s function molecular dynamics meets discrete dislocation plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Syam P.; Müser, Martin H.; Nicola, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    Metals deform plastically at the asperity level when brought in contact with a counter body even when the nominal contact pressure is small. Modeling the plasticity of solids with rough surfaces is challenging due to the multi-scale nature of surface roughness and the length-scale dependence of plasticity. While discrete-dislocation plasticity (DDP) simulations capture size-dependent plasticity by keeping track of the motion of individual dislocations, only simple two-dimensional surface geometries have so far been studied with DDP. The main computational bottleneck in contact problems modeled by DDP is the calculation of the dislocation image fields. We address this issue by combining two-dimensional DDP with Green’s function molecular dynamics. The resulting method allows for an efficient boundary-value-method based treatment of elasticity in the presence of dislocations. We demonstrate that our method captures plasticity quantitatively from single to many dislocations and that it scales more favorably with system size than conventional methods. We also derive the relevant Green’s functions for elastic slabs of finite width allowing arbitrary boundary conditions on top and bottom surface to be simulated.

  2. Shaping the learning curve: epigenetic dynamics in neural plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Ziv Bronfman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A key characteristic of learning and neural plasticity is state-dependent acquisition dynamics reflected by the non-linear learning curve that links increase in learning with practice. Here we propose that the manner by which epigenetic states of individual cells change during learning contributes to the shape of the neural and behavioral learning curve. We base our suggestion on recent studies showing that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and RNA-mediated gene regulation are intimately involved in the establishment and maintenance of long-term neural plasticity, reflecting specific learning-histories and influencing future learning. Our model, which is the first to suggest a dynamic molecular account of the shape of the learning curve, leads to several testable predictions regarding the link between epigenetic dynamics at the promoter, gene-network and neural-network levels. This perspective opens up new avenues for therapeutic interventions in neurological pathologies.

  3. Microglia: Dynamic Mediators of Synapse Development and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuwen; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; MacVicar, Brian A; Stevens, Beth

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal communication underlies all brain activity and the genesis of complex behavior. Emerging research has revealed an unexpected role for immune molecules in the development and plasticity of neuronal synapses. Moreover microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, express and secrete immune-related signaling molecules that alter synaptic transmission and plasticity in the absence of inflammation. When inflammation does occur, microglia modify synaptic connections and synaptic plasticity required for learning and memory. Here we review recent findings demonstrating how the dynamic interactions between neurons and microglia shape the circuitry of the nervous system in the healthy brain and how altered neuron-microglia signaling could contribute to disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Studying plastic shear localization in aluminum alloys under dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalov, D. A.; Sokovikov, M. A.; Chudinov, V. V.; Oborin, V. A.; Bayandin, Yu. V.; Terekhina, A. I.; Naimark, O. B.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of plastic shear localization mechanisms observed under dynamic deformation using the shear-compression scheme on a Hopkinson-Kolsky bar has been carried out using specimens of AMg6 alloy. The mechanisms of plastic shear instability are associated with collective effects in the microshear ensemble in spatially localized areas. The lateral surface of the specimens was photographed in the real-time mode using a CEDIP Silver 450M high-speed infrared camera. The temperature distribution obtained at different times allowed us to trace the evolution of the localization of the plastic strain. Based on the equations that describe the effect of nonequilibrium transitions on the mechanisms of structural relaxation and plastic flow, numerical simulation of plastic shear localization has been performed. A numerical experiment relevant to the specimen-loading scheme was carried out using a system of constitutive equations that reflect the part of the structural relaxation mechanisms caused by the collective behavior of microshears with the autowave modes of the evolution of the localized plastic flow. Upon completion of the experiment, the specimens were subjected to microstructure analysis using a New View-5010 optical microscope-interferometer. After the dynamic deformation, the constancy of the Hurst exponent, which reflects the relationship between the behavior of defects and roughness induced by the defects on the surfaces of the specimens is observed in a wider range of spatial scales. These investigations revealed the distinctive features in the localization of the deformation followed by destruction to the script of the adiabatic shear. These features may be caused by the collective multiscale behavior of defects, which leads to a sharp decrease in the stress-relaxation time and, consequently, a localized plastic flow and generation of fracture nuclei in the form of adiabatic shear. Infrared scanning of the localization zone of the

  5. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  6. Dislocation dynamics: simulation of plastic flow of bcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, D H

    2001-02-20

    This is the final report for the LDRD strategic initiative entitled ''Dislocation Dynamic: Simulation of Plastic Flow of bcc Metals'' (tracking code: 00-SI-011). This report is comprised of 6 individual sections. The first is an executive summary of the project and describes the overall project goal, which is to establish an experimentally validated 3D dislocation dynamics simulation. This first section also gives some information of LLNL's multi-scale modeling efforts associated with the plasticity of bcc metals, and the role of this LDRD project in the multiscale modeling program. The last five sections of this report are journal articles that were produced during the course of the FY-2000 efforts.

  7. SOME IMPROVEMENTS IN VISCO-PLASTIC MODEL CONSIDERING DYNAMIC RECRYSTALLIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jie; JIN Quanlin; XU Bingye

    2004-01-01

    Some improvements in Jin's thermal visco-plastic constitutive model considering dynamic recrysytallization is presented in this paper. By introducing the influence of the strain rate on the mobility of dynamic recovery, the improved model can be more smoothly applied to numerical simulation of material flow behaviour and microstructure prediction during hot working. Another improvement is to consider the accumulated dislocation energy in the newly recrystallized grains as a resistance to the driving force of dynamic recrystallization volume. This improvement makes the predicted results of dynamic recrystallization progress agree better with the actual physical process.Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the advantages of the improved model and the ability to predict the dynamic recrystallization.

  8. Mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal injury, development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kyle H; Strack, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Mitochondria fulfill numerous cellular functions including ATP production, Ca(2+) buffering, neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation, ROS production and sequestration, apoptosis and intermediate metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics, a collective term for the processes of mitochondrial fission, fusion and transport, governs mitochondrial function and localization within the cell. Correct balance of mitochondrial dynamics is especially important in neurons as mutations in fission and fusion enzymes cause peripheral neuropathies and impaired development of the nervous system in humans. Regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is partly accomplished through post-translational modification of mitochondrial fission and fusion enzymes, in turn influencing mitochondrial bioenergetics and transport. The importance of post-translational regulation is highlighted by numerous neurodegenerative disorders associated with post-translational modification of the mitochondrial fission enzyme Drp1. Not surprisingly, mitochondrial dynamics also play an important physiological role in the development of the nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Here, we highlight recent findings underlying the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in relation to neurological disease, as well as the development and plasticity of the nervous system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature.

  10. Analysis of Phthalic Acid Esters in Plastic Bottled Beverages%塑料瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸醋的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荔群; 陈蓉芳; 高强; 厉曙光

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the concentrations of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in beverages bottled in plastic containers and to analyze the effect of some factors on the concentration of phthalates. [ Methods ] Forty-nine different brands of beverage were selected from the market and gas chromatography was applied to determine the level of phthalates in the beverage. The differences between three sorts of beverages (tea, juice, and dairy drinks) were tested by ANOVA and the effects of storage time and pH value on the concentration of phthalates in beverage were analyzed using Linear Regression Model. [ Results ] DEP wasn't found while the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in samples were 98.0% and 100% respectively with the average concentrations of 0.038 mg/L and 0.071 mg/L respectively. The detection range of DBP and DEHP in tea drinks were 0-0.047 mg/L and 0.045-0.146 mg/L respectively. The highest detection level of DBP in juice drinks was 0.127mg/L, and DEHP was found in the range from 0.060mg/L to 0.371 mg/L. The maximum concentrations of DBP and DEHP in dairy drinks were 0.081 mg/L and 0.089 mg/L respectively, and the minimum concentrations were 0.032 mg/L and 0.033 mg/L respectively. The levels of DBP in juice and dairy drinks were significantly higher than those in tea drinks (p=0.003 and P=0.002). The levels of DEHP in juice drinks were higher than those in tea and dairy drinks (P=0.00l and P=0.002). The fixed multivariate linear model showed that, the logarithms of DBP concentrations of juice and dairy drinks were 0.36 and 0.50 units higher than that of tea drinks, the logarithm of DEHP concentration of juice drinks was 0.47 units higher than that of tea drinks, and the logarithm of DEHP concentration of acid drinks was 0.30 units higher than that of weak acid drinks.[ Conclusion ] It can be concluded that the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in plastic bottled beverages were fairly high and

  11. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  12. Accurate direct Eulerian simulation of dynamic elastic-plastic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of dynamic, large strain deformation is an important, difficult, and unsolved computational challenge. Existing Eulerian schemes for dynamic material response are plagued by unresolved issues. We present a new scheme for the first-order system of elasto-plasticity equations in the Eulerian frame. This system has an intrinsic constraint on the inverse deformation gradient. Standard Godunov schemes do not satisfy this constraint. The method of Flux Distributions (FD) was devised to discretely enforce such constraints for numerical schemes with cell-centered variables. We describe a Flux Distribution approach that enforces the inverse deformation gradient constraint. As this approach is new and novel, we do not yet have numerical results to validate our claims. This paper is the first installment of our program to develop this new method.

  13. Dendritic spine actin dynamics in neuronal maturation and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlushchenko, Iryna; Koskinen, Mikko; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2016-09-01

    The majority of the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system exist on small bulbous structures on dendrites known as dendritic spines. The actin cytoskeleton is a structural element underlying the proper development and morphology of dendritic spines. Synaptic activity patterns rapidly change actin dynamics, leading to morphological changes in dendritic spines. In this mini-review, we will discuss recent findings on neuronal maturation and synaptic plasticity-induced changes in the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton. We propose that actin dynamics in dendritic spines decrease through actin filament crosslinking during neuronal maturation. In long-term potentiation, we evaluate the model of fast breakdown of actin filaments through severing and rebuilding through polymerization and later stabilization through crosslinking. We will discuss the role of Ca(2+) in long-term depression, and suggest that actin filaments are dissolved through actin filament severing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics in neurodegeneration and neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, A M; Delerue, T; Millet, A M; Moulis, M F; David, C; Daloyau, M; Arnauné-Pelloquin, L; Davezac, N; Mils, V; Miquel, M C; Rojo, M; Belenguer, P

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually move, fuse and divide. The dynamic balance of fusion and fission of mitochondria determines their morphology and allows their immediate adaptation to energetic needs, keeps mitochondria in good health by restoring or removing damaged organelles or precipitates cells in apoptosis in cases of severe defects. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are essential in mammals and their disturbances are associated with several diseases. However, while mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics, and the proteins that control these processes, are ubiquitous, associated diseases are primarily neurological disorders. Accordingly, inactivation of the main actors of mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics is associated with defects in neuronal development, plasticity and functioning, both ex vivo and in vivo. Here, we present the central actors of mitochondrial fusion and fission and review the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal physiology and pathophysiology. Particular emphasis is placed on the three main actors of these processes i.e. DRP1,MFN1-2, and OPA1 as well as on GDAP1, a protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane preferentially expressed in neurons. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria & Brain.

  15. 塑料瓶中双酚A的电化学测定方法研究%Study on Electrochemical Determination of Biphenonl A in Plastic Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余辉; 何凤云; 卞育蓉

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A(BPA) at a carbon paste electrode(CPE) modified with a multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) film was studied with cyclic voltammetry(CV). Results showed that the MWCNTs-CPE had a strong electrocatalytic effect on BPA. In phospate buffer solution(PBS) of pH 7.0, BPA exhibited a significant oxidation peak at 0.504 V. Based on this, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of BPA in plastic bottle. The experimental parameters, such as the pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate and accumulation time were optimized. The defferential pulse current of BPA was linear with its concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10-7-2.0 × 10-5 mol / L ( r=0.995 45 ). The detection limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L at the signal-to-noise of 3. The established methods was applied to determine bisphenol A in plastic cup sample with recovery of 104.4%, and the RSD was 3.9%(n=6).%制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极( MWCNTs/CPE),用循环伏安法(CV)和差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)研究了环境激素双酚A在多壁碳纳米管修饰电极上的电化学行为.结果表明,多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极对双酚A有明显的电催化作用,在pH 7.0的磷酸盐缓冲溶液(PBS)中,双酚A在0.504 V处有1个明显的氧化峰.实验考察了底液的pH值、扫描速度、富集时间等因素的影响.在优化的条件下,双酚A的示差脉冲峰电流与其浓度在5.0×10-7~2.0×10-5范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.995 45),检出限为1.0×10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).该法用于实际样品中双酚A含量的测定,回收率为104.4%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为3.9%(n=6).

  16. 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面无菌可靠性调查%The asepsis security of the interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪芬

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面的无菌可靠性.方法 将聚丙烯塑料输液瓶随机分为2组:对照组42瓶用生理盐水棉签直接采集开启后的聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面样本,实验组42瓶分别用0.5%碘伏、75%乙醇棉签常规消毒开启后的聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面,待干燥后用生理盐水棉签采集样本.所取样本均由主管检验师接种于无菌普通琼脂营养平板.置于37℃恒温培养箱内培养,以观察细菌生长情况.结果 2组细菌生长差异有统计学意义,X2=46.791,P<0.01.结论 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面必须严格执行常规消毒后方能应用于临床.%Objective To study the asepsis security of the interior cover of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle.Methods The whole samples were divided randomly into two groups,each group included 42 polypropylene plastic dropping bottles,Samples of the control group were collected from the interior covers of dropping bottles wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs.Samples of the experimental group were also collected from the interior covers wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs aher disinfected by 0.5%iodophors and 75%alcohol respectively.All samples were inoculated on the aseptic plain agar nutrition flat plate.then incubated in 37℃ incubaton to observe the growth of bacteria.Results There Was statistical significance between the two groups in the growth of bacteria,χ2=46.791,P<0.01.Conclusions The interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle should be disinfected strictly before they are used in clinic.

  17. Bottled Water Mania: Americas Misguided Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    to remove pathogens. There are no requirements for filtration of bottled water. Tap water must be tested for cryptosporidium, giardia, and viruses ...Plastic bottles in landfills can take hundreds of years to decompose, causing a profound environmental impact. The oceans are another victim of

  18. DMPD: Developmental plasticity of lymphocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18472258 Developmental plasticity of lymphocytes. Cobaleda C, Busslinger M. Curr Op...in Immunol. 2008 Apr;20(2):139-48. Epub 2008 May 9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Developmental plastic...ity of lymphocytes. PubmedID 18472258 Title Developmental plasticity of lymphocytes. Authors Cobaleda C, Bus

  19. A novel method for diagnosing seasonal to inter-annual surface ocean carbon dynamics from bottle data using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Sasse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean's role in modulating the observed 1–7 Pg C yr−1 inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO2 growth rate is an important, but poorly constrained process due to current spatio-temporal limitations in ocean carbon measurements. Here, we investigate and develop a non-linear empirical approach to predict inorganic CO2 concentrations (total carbon dioxide (CT and total alkalinity (AT in the global ocean mixed layer from hydrographic properties (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The benefit of this approach is that once the empirical relationship is established, it can be applied to hydrographic datasets that have better spatio-temporal coverage, and therefore provide an additional constraint to diagnose ocean carbon dynamics globally. Previous empirical approaches have employed multiple linear regressions (MLR and relied on ad hoc geographic and temporal partitioning of carbon data to constrain complex global carbon dynamics in the mixed layer. Synthesizing a new global CT/AT carbon bottle dataset consisting of ~33 000 measurements in the open ocean mixed layer, we develop a neural network based approach to better constrain the non-linear carbon system. The approach classifies features in the global biogeochemical dataset based on their similarity and homogeneity in a self-organizing map (SOM; Kohonen, 1988. After the initial SOM analysis, which includes geographic constraints, we apply a local linear optimizer to the neural network, which considerably enhances the predictive skill of the new approach. We call this new approach SOMLO, or self-organizing multiple linear output. Using independent bottle carbon data, we compare a traditional MLR analysis to our SOMLO approach to capture the spatial CT and AT distributions. We find the SOMLO approach improves predictive skill globally by 19% for CT, with a global capacity to predict CT to within 10.9 μmol kg−1 (9.2 μmol kg−1 for AT. The non-linear SOMLO approach is

  20. Key Questions on the Role of Phenotypic Plasticity in Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Ecology and evolution have long been recognized as reciprocally influencing each other, with recent research emphasizing how such interactions can occur even on very short (contemporary) time scales. Given that these interactions are mediated by organismal phenotypes, they can be variously shaped by genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, or both. I here address 8 key questions relevant to the role of plasticity in eco-evolutionary dynamics. Focusing on empirical evidence, especially from natural populations, I offer the following conclusions. 1) Plasticity is--not surprisingly--sometimes adaptive, sometimes maladaptive, and sometimes neutral. 2) Plasticity has costs and limits but these constraints are highly variable, often weak, and hard to detect. 3) Variable environments favor the evolution of increased trait plasticity, which can then buffer fitness/performance (i.e., tolerance). 4) Plasticity sometimes aids colonization of new environments (Baldwin Effect) and responses to in situ environmental change. However, plastic responses are not always necessary or sufficient in these contexts. 5) Plasticity will sometimes promote and sometimes constrain genetic evolution. 6) Plasticity will sometimes help and sometimes hinder ecological speciation but, at present, empirical tests are limited. 7) Plasticity can show considerable evolutionary change in contemporary time, although the rates of this reaction norm evolution are highly variable among taxa and traits. 8) Plasticity appears to have considerable influences on ecological dynamics at the community and ecosystem levels, although many more studies are needed. In summary, plasticity needs to be an integral part of any conceptual framework and empirical investigation of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  1. Performance of funnel-shaped plastic bottle for water saving cultivation in extreme arid region%极端干旱区漏斗状塑料瓶的节水栽培性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林涛; 高斌; 王前道; 曹亦斌

    2012-01-01

    为解决缺水高渗透地区新栽植物难以存活问题,该文通过室内实验与现场试验研究了塑料瓶的节水栽培性能.室内模拟不同的水分散失条件,连续多U定时测试塑料瓶内砂土的含水量,回归分析剩余含水量随时问的变化函数.结果表明:温度越高,水分散失速度越大;由饱和含水量至萎蔫含水量,在室温(22±1)℃下可以间隔9d浇水1次;漏斗状比直筒状瓶有利于延迟水分渗透;砂粒与有机肥比黏粒有利于锁住水分,可用以调节水分散失速度.现场栽植试验(有瓶与无瓶)比较亦证实该方法的有效性.由于漏斗状塑料瓶具有留存水流与延迟渗透的节水功效,有利于缺水或高渗透地区草、灌木植物的栽培.%In order to resolve the plants survival difficulty in high permeability or water-shortage area, the water-saving cultivation by funnel-shaped plastic bottle was studied through laboratory and field tests. Different water losing conditions were simulated in the laboratory to continuously test water content of sandy soil in the plastic bottle every day. Then, the regressive function was built to describe the relationship between remaining water content in sandy soil and time. Testing Results showed that the higher the environment temperature was, the greater the rate of water loss. From the saturated water content to the wilting water content, an interval of watering could be 9 days at room temperature((22±l)°C).The funnel-shaped bottles could delay water loss compared to straight cylinder-shaped bottles. Sand particles combined with organic fertilizers were more facilitated to conserve water than clay soil, and they could be used to adjust the rate of water loss. Field planting tests (with bottles and without bottles) confirmed its water-saving effectiveness. Due to high efficiency of water accumulation and saving, funnel-shaped bottles can benefit plants cultivation in high permeability or water-shortage area.

  2. Dynamic learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales eStuchlik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian memory is the result of the interaction of millions of neurons in the brain and their coordinated activity. Candidate mechanisms for memory are synaptic plasticity changes, such as long-term potentiation (LTP. LTP is essentially an electrophysiological phenomenon manifested in hours-lasting increase on postsynaptic potentials after synapse tetanization. It is thought to ensure long-term changes in synaptic efficacy in distributed networks, leading to persistent changes in the behavioral patterns, actions and choices, which are often interpreted as the retention of information, i.e., memory. Interestingly, new neurons are born in the mammalian brain and adult hippocampal neurogenesis is proposed to provide a substrate for dynamic and flexible aspects of behavior such as pattern separation, prevention of interference, flexibility of behavior and memory resolution. This work provides a brief review on the memory and involvement of LTP and adult neurogenesis in memory phenomena.

  3. Snuff bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Snuff bottles first appeared in China in the Ming dynasty(1368-1644) and, as their name suggests, were originally indeed used as a container for snuff tobacco, first of all by the Manchu, Mongols and Tibetans. The reason for their popularity at that time is to be found in the customs of those ethnic minorities: because those ethnic groups mainly led a nomadic life that entailed frequent use of hay or firewood.

  4. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try ...

  5. A novel method for diagnosing seasonal to inter-annual surface ocean carbon dynamics from bottle data using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Sasse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean's role in modulating the observed 1–7 Pg C yr−1 inter-annual variability in atmospheric CO2 growth rate is an important, but poorly constrained process due to sparse spatio-temporal ocean carbon measurements. Here, we investigate and develop a non-linear empirical approach to predict inorganic CO2 concentrations (total carbon dioxide (CT and total alkalinity (AT in the global ocean mixed-layer from hydrographic properties (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The benefit of this approach is that once the empirical relationship is established, it can be applied to hydrographic datasets that have better spatio-temporal coverage, and therefore provide an additional constraint to diagnose ocean carbon dynamics globally. Previous empirical approaches have employed multiple linear regressions (MLR, and relied on ad-hoc geographic and temporal partitioning of carbon data to constrain complex global carbon dynamics in the mixed-layer. Synthesising a new global CT/AT carbon bottle dataset consisting of ~33 000 measurements in the open ocean mixed-layer, we develop a neural network based approach to better constrain the non-linear carbon system. The approach classifies features in the global biogeochemical dataset based on their similarity and homogeneity in a self-organizing map (SOM; Kohonen, 1988. After the initial SOM analysis, which includes geographic constraints, we apply a local linear optimizer to the neural network which considerably enhances the predictive skill of the new approach. We call this new approach SOMLO, or self-organizing multiple linear output. Using independent bottle carbon data, we compare a traditional MLR analysis to our SOMLO approach to capture the spatial CT and AT distributions. We find the SOMLO approach improves predictive skill globally by 19% for

  6. Circuit reactivation dynamically regulates synaptic plasticity in neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, Peter B.; Li, Lucy; Maclean, Jason N.

    2013-10-01

    Circuit reactivations involve a stereotyped sequence of neuronal firing and have been behaviourally linked to memory consolidation. Here we use multiphoton imaging and patch-clamp recording, and observe sparse and stereotyped circuit reactivations that correspond to UP states within active neurons. To evaluate the effect of the circuit on synaptic plasticity, we trigger a single spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) pairing once per circuit reactivation. The pairings reliably fall within a particular epoch of the circuit sequence and result in long-term potentiation. During reactivation, the amplitude of plasticity significantly correlates with the preceding 20-25 ms of membrane depolarization rather than the depolarization at the time of pairing. This circuit-dependent plasticity provides a natural constraint on synaptic potentiation, regulating the inherent instability of STDP in an assembly phase-sequence model. Subthreshold voltage during endogenous circuit reactivations provides a critical informative context for plasticity and facilitates the stable consolidation of a spatiotemporal sequence.

  7. New alternatives in construction: earth filled pet bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Valencia, Daniel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; López Pérez, Cecilia;; Cortes, Eliana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Froese, Andreas; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTTwo of the main problems of mankind are the lack of housing and the accumulation of solid waste and garbage thatultimately brings environmental problems. Within this solid waste are plastics such as the PET bottles (for examplesoda bottles). In order to try to solve both problems, since 2001 Eco-Tec Soluciones has pioneered in the constructionof houses and water storage structures with PET bottles filled with rammed earth. Groups GRIME and Estructuras yConstrucción of the Pontificia U...

  8. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  9. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  10. Contact dynamics of elasto-plastic thin beams simulated via absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Tao Wang; Qiang Tian; Hai-Yan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Under the frame of multibody dynamics, the contact dynamics of elasto-plastic spatial thin beams is numerically studied by using the spatial thin beam elements of absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). The inter-nal force of the elasto-plastic spatial thin beam element is derived under the assumption that the plastic strain of the beam element depends only on its longitudinal deformation. A new body-fixed local coordinate system is introduced into the spatial thin beam element of ANCF for efficient con-tact detection in the contact dynamics simulation. The linear isotropic hardening constitutive law is used to describe the elasto-plastic deformation of beam material, and the classical return mapping algorithm is adopted to evaluate the plastic strains. A multi-zone contact approach of thin beams previ-ously proposed by the authors is also introduced to detect the multiple contact zones of beams accurately, and the penalty method is used to compute the normal contact force of thin beams in contact. Four numerical examples are given to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the pro-posed elasto-plastic spatial thin beam element of ANCF for flexible multibody system dynamics.

  11. The Plastic and Liquid Phases of CCl$_3$Br Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Nirvana; Carignano, Marcelo; Serra, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the liquid and plastic crystalline phases of CCl$_3$Br. We investigated the short-range orientational order using a recently developed classification method and we found that both phases behave in a very similar way. The only differences occur at very short molecular separations, which are shown to be very rare. The rotational dynamics was explored using time correlation functions of the molecular bonds. We found that the relaxation dynamics corresponds to an isotropic diffusive mode for the liquid phase, but departs from this behavior as the temperature is decreased and the system transitions into the plastic phase.

  12. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams

    2010-01-01

    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  13. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  14. Plasticity-mediated collapse and recrystallization in hollow copper nanowires: a molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amlan; Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermal stability of hollow copper nanowires using molecular dynamics simulation. We find that the plasticity-mediated structural evolution leads to transformation of the initial hollow structure to a solid wire. The process involves three distinct stages, namely, collapse, recrystallization and slow recovery. We calculate the time scales associated with different stages of the evolution process. Our findings suggest a plasticity-mediated mechanism of collapse and recrystallization. This contradicts the prevailing notion of diffusion driven transport of vacancies from the interior to outer surface being responsible for collapse, which would involve much longer time scales as compared to the plasticity-based mechanism.

  15. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  16. Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflection spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Jensen, Jens K.; Møller, Uffe

    2008-01-01

    be classified as either harmless or inflammable. The method operates in reflection mode with the result that liquids opaque to THz radiation can be characterized with little influence of the bottle shape. The method works with plastic bottles as well as glass bottles, with absorption of THz radiation...... by the plastic or the glass being the limiting factor. The reflection mode allows for automatic control of the validity of the measurement. The method will be useful in liquid scanning systems at security checkpoints....

  17. Non-invasive determination of ethanol, propylene glycol and water in a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by direct measurement through amber plastic bottles using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, N W; Jee, R D; Moffat, A C; Eaves, M J; Mann, W C; Dziki, W

    2000-11-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify rapidly the ethanol (34-49% v/v), propylene glycol (20-35% v/v) and water (11-20% m/m) contents within a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by measurement directly through the amber plastic bottle packaging. Spectra were collected in the range 7302-12,000 cm-1 and calibration models set-up using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and multiple linear regression. Reference values for the three components were measured using capillary gas chromatography (ethanol and propylene glycol) and Karl Fischer (water) assay procedures. The calibration and test sets consisted of production as well as laboratory batches that were made to extend the concentration ranges beyond the natural production variation. The PLSR models developed gave standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 1.1% v/v for ethanol, 0.9% v/v for propylene glycol and 0.3% m/m for water. For each component the calibration model was validated in terms of: linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision and robustness. All the methods produced statistically favourable outcomes. Ten production batches independent of the calibration and test sets were also challenged against the PLSR models, giving SEP values of 1.3% v/v (ethanol), 1.0% v/v (propylene glycol) and 0.2% m/m (water). NIR transmission spectroscopy allowed all three liquid constituents to be non-invasively measured in under 1 min.

  18. A viscoelastic-plastic constitutive model with Mohr-Coulomb yielding criterion for sea ice dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new viscoelastic-plastic (VEP) constitutive model for sea ice dynamics was developed based on continuum mechanics. This model consists of four components: Kelvin-Vogit viscoelastic model, Mohr-Coulomb yielding criterion, associated normality flow rule for plastic rehololgy, and hydrostatic pressure. The numerical simulations for ice motion in an idealized rectangular basin were made using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and compared with the analytical solution as well as those based on the modified viscous plastic(VP) model and static ice jam theory. These simulations show that the new VEP modelcan simulate ice dynamics accurately. The new constitutive model was further applied to simulate ice dynamics of the Bohai Sea and compared with the traditional VP, and modified VP models. The results of the VEP model are compared better with the satellite remote images, and the simulated ice conditions in the JZ20-2 oil platform area were more reasonable.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of the plastic behavior anisotropy of shock-compressed monocrystal nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Zhou; Zhou, Liu-Cheng; He, Wei-Feng; Sun, Yu; Li, Ying-Hong; Jiao, Yang; Luo, Si-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the plastic behavior of monocrystalline nickel under shock compression along the [100] and [110] orientations. The shock Hugoniot relation, local stress curve, and process of microstructure development were determined. Results showed the apparent anisotropic behavior of monocrystalline nickel under shock compression. The separation of elastic and plastic waves was also obvious. Plastic deformation was more severely altered along the [110] direction than the [100] direction. The main microstructure phase transformed from face-centered cubic to body-centered cubic and generated a large-scale and low-density stacking fault along the family of { 111 } crystal planes under shock compression along the [100] direction. By contrast, the main mechanism of plastic deformation in the [110] direction was the nucleation of the hexagonal, close-packed phase, which generated a high density of stacking faults along the [110] and [1̅10] directions.

  20. Dynamic Elasto-Plastic Model for Reinforced Concrete Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, C.; Blaauwendraad. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly necessary to investigate the strength of reinforced concrete structures subjected to dynamic loading. Experience and knowledge relating to the non-linear dynamic behaviour of such structures is still limited, however. Attempts to solve this type of problems with the aid o

  1. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Study on the Distributed Plasticity of Penta-twinned Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangryun eLee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The distributed plasticity of pentatwinned silver nanowires has been revealed in recent computational and experimental studies. However, the molecular dynamics (MD simulations have not considered the imperfections seen in experiments, such as irregular surface undulations, the high aspect ratio of nanowires, and the stiffness of loading devices. In this work, we report the effect of such inherent imperfections on the distributed plasticity of penta-twinned silver nanowires in MD simulations. We find that the distributed plasticity occurs for nanowires having undulations that are less than 5% of the nanowire diameter. The elastic stress field induced by a stacking fault promotes the nucleation of successive stacking fault decahedrons (SFDs at long distance, making it hard for necking to occur. By comparing the tensile simulation using the steered molecular dynamics (SMD method with the tensile simulation with periodic boundary condition (PBC, we show that a sufficiently long nanowire must be used in the constant strain rate simulations with PBC, because the plastic displacement burst caused by the SFD formation induces compressive stress, promoting the removal of other SFDs. Our finding can serve as a guidance for the molecular dynamics simulation of crystalline materials with large plastic deformation, and in the design of mechanically reliable devices based on silver nanowires.

  3. PLASTICITY OF SELECTED METALLIC MATERIALS IN DYNAMIC DEFORMATION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of a modernized flywheel machine has been presented in the paper. The laboratory stand enables to perform dynamic tensile tests and impact bending with a linear velocity of the enforcing element in the range of 5÷40 m/s. A new data acquisition system, based on the tensometric sensors, allows for significant qualitative improvement of registered signals. Some preliminary dynamic forming tests were performed for the selected group of metallic materials. Subsequent microstruct...

  4. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  5. Plastic compression technology and mold design of HDPE closures for beverage bottles%低磨损HDPE饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达; 梁文杰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具中存在的内衬套与螺纹型芯采用滑动摩擦结构,摩擦表面容易拉毛、卡死,模具容易磨损等问题,将磨损小、运动阻力小的滚动摩擦技术应用到压塑成型模具中,开展了能否在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个滚动部件代替原来滑动摩擦的分析,建立了滑动摩擦、滚动摩擦与磨损速度之间的关系,提出了在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个钢球保持圈,将原来的滑动摩擦改为滚动摩擦的方法,以达到减少磨损、提高模具寿命的目的.在提高模具寿命、瓶盖质量上,对模具的结构、制造技术、经济效益等方面进行了评价.开展了新结构压塑成型模具的设计、制造工作,并在原制盖机上进行了长期试验.研究结果表明,该模具磨损非常小,瓶盖质量比以前更好;且与传统的压塑成型模具相比寿命可提高1倍以上.%Aiming that the sliding friction structure in the inner lining sleeve and the screw thread core of the traditional beverage bottle cap pressing forming mould caused the friction surfaces to nap,blocking,easy wear etc., the rolling friction technology with wear small, small movement resistance was applied to the compression molding mould. Whether a rolling member was inserted between the inner bushing and the screw thread core in place of the original sliding friction was discussed.The relationship between the sliding friction, rolling friction and the wear speed was established, a ball retainer ring was added between the inner bushing and the screw thread core. The original sliding friction was changed into the rolling friction, thereby reducing wear and improving the life of the mould. The mould structure, manufacturing technology, economic benefits etc. were evaluated on the mould life and the cap quality. New structure of compression molding mold was designed and manufactured, and the long term test was developed on the original

  6. Effect of dynamic plastic deformation on microstructure and annealing behaviour of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, N. R.;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dynamic plastic deformation on the microstructure of a modified 9Cr - 1Mo steel has been investigated in comparison with the effect of quasi- static compression. It is found that the boundary spacing after dynamic plastic deformation is smaller and the hardness is higher than those ...

  7. ELASTIC-PLASTIC DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO OBLIQUE IMPACT AT ITS TIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Feng; Liu Feng

    2005-01-01

    By employing large deformation governing equations expressed in the form of finite difference, the dynamic responses of an elastic, perfectly plastic cantilever subjected to an oblique impact at its tip was numerically studied. Through analyzing the instantaneous distribution of the yield function (ψ= |M/Mo|+ (N/No)2), bending moment and axial force during the early stage of the response, the elastic-plastic deformation mechanism and the influence of axial component of an oblique impact on the dynamic response of a cantilever beam were discussed. The present analysis shows that the deformation mechanism of an elastic-plastic cantilever subjected to an obtained by using the rigid, perfectly plastic approach, the mode of shrinking plastic region that occurred instantly after the oblique impact and the mode of stationary hinge were both confirmed.The primary features of the deformation mechanism are captured by both analysis methods. It has also been found that the beam's deformation is mainly controlled by the axial component of the oblique impact in the early phase of the dynamic response, the deformation mechanism is obviously different from the case of a transverse impact. With further development of the response,the axial component attenuates rapidly and gives negligible contribution to the yielding of the beam cross-section. At the same time, the bending moments along the cantilever develop gradually and dominate the beam's deformation. The numerical results indicate that the mass, impact speed and oblique angle are the important factors that influence the elastic-plastic dynamic response of a cantilever beam.

  8. Evaluation of the inelastic heat fraction in the context of microstructure supported dynamic plasticity modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Longère, Patrice; Dragon, A. André

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the inelastic heat fraction in the context of microstructure supported dynamic plasticity modelling correspondence: Corresponding author. (Longere, Patrice) (Longere, Patrice) (Dragon, A. Andre) Laboratoire de Genie Mecanique et Materiaux ? Universite de Bretagne Sud ? Rue de Saint-Maude - BP 92116--> , 56321 LORIENT Cedex--> - FRANCE (Longere, Patrice)...

  9. An Earth multi-body system elasticity and plasticity dynamics model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingxian; BI Siwen; GONG Huili

    2006-01-01

    Research on the elasticity and plasticity dynamics of the Earth multi-body system, including the Earth multi-body system stratum-block's equivalent inertia force system and generalized inertia force, the Earth multi-body system stratum-block's equivalent inertia force system expressed with partial velocity and partial palstance, and Earth multi-body system generalized inertia force expressed with partial velocity and partial palstance. This research provides a theoretical foundation for further investigation of Earth multi-body dynamics.

  10. PLASTICITY OF SELECTED METALLIC MATERIALS IN DYNAMIC DEFORMATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek PAWLICKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of a modernized flywheel machine has been presented in the paper. The laboratory stand enables to perform dynamic tensile tests and impact bending with a linear velocity of the enforcing element in the range of 5÷40 m/s. A new data acquisition system, based on the tensometric sensors, allows for significant qualitative improvement of registered signals. Some preliminary dynamic forming tests were performed for the selected group of metallic materials. Subsequent microstructural examinations and identification of the fracture type enabled to describe a correlation between strain rate, strain and microstructure.

  11. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  12. Source properties of dynamic rupture pulses with off-fault plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.

    2013-08-01

    Large dynamic stresses near earthquake rupture fronts may induce an inelastic response of the surrounding materials, leading to increased energy absorption that may affect dynamic rupture. We systematically investigate the effects of off-fault plastic energy dissipation in 2-D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations under velocity-and-state-dependent friction with severe weakening at high slip velocity. We find that plasticity does not alter the nature of the transitions between different rupture styles (decaying versus growing, pulse-like versus crack-like, and subshear versus supershear ruptures) but increases their required background stress and nucleation size. We systematically quantify the effect of amplitude and orientation of background shear stresses on the asymptotic properties of self-similar pulse-like ruptures: peak slip rate, rupture speed, healing front speed, slip gradient, and the relative contribution of plastic strain to seismic moment. Peak slip velocity and rupture speed remain bounded. From fracture mechanics arguments, we derive a nonlinear relation between their limiting values, appropriate also for crack-like and supershear ruptures. At low background stress, plasticity turns self-similar pulses into steady state pulses, for which plastic strain contributes significantly to the seismic moment. We find that the closeness to failure of the background stress state is an adequate predictor of rupture speed for relatively slow events. Our proposed relations between state of stress and earthquake source properties in the presence of off-fault plasticity may contribute to the improved interpretation of earthquake observations and to pseudodynamic source modeling for ground motion prediction.

  13. Recent Progress in Discrete Dislocation Dynamics and Its Applications to Micro Plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Po, Giacomo

    2014-09-27

    We present a self-contained review of the discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) method for the numerical investigation of plasticity in crystals, focusing on recent development and implementation progress. The review covers the theoretical foundations of DDD within the framework of incompatible elasticity, its numerical implementation via the nodal method, the extension of the method to finite domains and several implementation details. Applications of the method to current topics in micro-plasticity are presented, including the size effects in nano-indentation, the evolution of the dislocation microstructure in persistent slip bands, and the phenomenon of dislocation avalanches in micro-pillar compression.

  14. Dynamic Plastic Deformation (DPD): A Novel Technique for Synthesizing Bulk Nanostructured Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    While some superior properties of nanostructured materials (with structural scales below 100 nm) have attracted numerous interests of material scientists, technique development for synthesizing nanostructured metals and alloys in 3-dimensional (3D) bulk forms is still challenging despite of extensive investigations over decades.Here we report a novel synthesis technique for bulk nanostructured metals based on plastic deformation at high Zener-Hollomon parameters (high strain rates or low temperatures), i.e., dynamic plastic deformation (DPD).The basic concept behind this approach will be addressed together with a few examples to demonstrate the capability and characteristics of this method. Perspectives and future developments of this technique will be highlighted.

  15. Serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing carbonated drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F; Mester, V; Morris, R; Dalma, J

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To analyse serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing pressurised drinks. Methods: Retrospective review of the databases of US, Hungarian, and Mexican eye injury registries. Results: In the combined database (12 889 injuries), 90 cases (0.7%) were caused by bottle tops or glass splinters. The incidence varied widely: 0.3% (United States), 3.1% (Hungary), and 0.9% (Mexico), as did the agent. Champagne bottle corks were responsible in 20% (United States), 71% (Hungary; p<0.0001), and 0% (Mexico). Most eyes improved, but 26% remained legally blind. Conclusions: The presence of warning labels on champagne bottles appears to reduce cork related eye injuries, as does using plastic bottles and caps. PMID:14693777

  16. DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC COLUMN IMPACTED BY RIGID BODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic buckling of an elastic-plastic column subjected to an axial impact by a rigid body was discussed by using the energy law. The traveling process of elastic-plastic waves under impact action was analyzed by characteristics method. The equation of lateral disturbance used to analyze the problem was developed by taking into account the effect of elastic-plastic stress wave. The power series solution of this problem has been the power series approach. The buckling criterion of this problem was proposed by analyzing the characteristics of the solution. The relationship among critical velocity and impact mass, critical buckling length, hardening modulus was given by using theoretical analysis and numerical computation.

  17. A large dynamic range readout design for the plastic scintillator detector of DAMPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-08-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) to detect particles from electron to heavy ions with Z ≤ 20. To expand the dynamic range, the readout design based on the double-dynodes signal extraction from the photomultiplier tube has been proposed and adopted by PSD. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic ray and relativistic ion beam. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range of about 4 orders of magnitude.

  18. The overshoot and phenotypic equilibrium in characterizing cancer dynamics of reversible phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiufang; Wang, Yue; Feng, Tianquan; Yi, Ming; Zhang, Xingan; Zhou, Da

    2016-02-07

    The paradigm of phenotypic plasticity indicates reversible relations of different cancer cell phenotypes, which extends the cellular hierarchy proposed by the classical cancer stem cell (CSC) theory. Since it is still questionable if the phenotypic plasticity is a crucial improvement to the hierarchical model or just a minor extension to it, it is worthwhile to explore the dynamic behavior characterizing the reversible phenotypic plasticity. In this study we compare the hierarchical model and the reversible model in predicting the cell-state dynamics observed in biological experiments. Our results show that the hierarchical model shows significant disadvantages over the reversible model in describing both long-term stability (phenotypic equilibrium) and short-term transient dynamics (overshoot) in cancer cell populations. In a very specific case in which the total growth of population due to each cell type is identical, the hierarchical model predicts neither phenotypic equilibrium nor overshoot, whereas the reversible model succeeds in predicting both of them. Even though the performance of the hierarchical model can be improved by relaxing the specific assumption, its prediction to the phenotypic equilibrium strongly depends on a precondition that may be unrealistic in biological experiments. Moreover, it still does not show as rich dynamics as the reversible model in capturing the overshoots of both CSCs and non-CSCs. By comparison, it is more likely for the reversible model to correctly predict the stability of the phenotypic mixture and various types of overshoot behavior.

  19. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppert, M. M. J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F. H.; Viergever, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric γ-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (Ih) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their

  20. Computer Modeling of the Dynamic Strength of Metal-Plastic Cylindrical Shells Under Explosive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrosimov, N. A.; Novosel'tseva, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    A technique for numerically analyzing the dynamic strength of two-layer metal-plastic cylindrical shells under an axisymmetric internal explosive loading is developed. The kinematic deformation model of the layered package is based on a nonclassical theory of shells. The geometric relations are constructed using relations of the simplest quadratic version of the nonlinear elasticity theory. The stress and strain tensors in the composite macrolayer are related by Hooke's law for an orthotropic body with account of degradation of the stiffness characteristics of the multilayer package due to local failure of some its elementary layers. The physical relations in the metal layer are formulated in terms of a differential theory of plasticity. An energy-correlated resolving system of dynamic equations for the metal-plastic cylindrical shells is derived by minimizing the functional of total energy of the shells as three-dimensional bodies. The numerical method for solving the initial boundary-value problem formulated is based on an explicit variational-difference scheme. The reliability of the technique considered is verified by comparing numerical results with experimental data. An analysis of the ultimate strains and strength of one-layer basalt-and glass-fiber-reinforced plastic and two-layer metalplastic cylindrical shells is carried out.

  1. Time-resolved plastic scintillator dosimetry in a dynamic thorax phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Andersen, Claus E.; Ottosson, Wiviann

    2017-01-01

    Motion managed and dynamic radiotherapy of lung cancer patients is increasingly complex and subject to challenges related to respiratory motion and heterogeneous tissue densities. This puts high demands on methods for quality assurance and especially time-resolved dose verification of the treatment...... in a lung. The phantom motion was controlled by a script in-house developed using LabVIEW (National Instruments) and synchronized with the in-house developed ME40 scintillator dosimetry system (DTU Nutech). The dose in the center of the tumor was measured, using a BCF-60 plastic scintillator detector (Saint......-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics Inc.), during dynamic 6 MV half-arc treatments on a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Deviations of ∼2% from the corresponding dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS) were detected. The results emphasize the shortcomings of commercial TPSs to handle...

  2. Dynamic visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model of soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyang ZHUANG; Guoxing CHEN; Dinghua ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Under cyclic loadings, the plastic strain of soft soil will take place under very small shear strain. So the viscoplastic model is appropriate to be used to model the dynamic characteristics of soft soil. Based on the principles of geotechnical plastic mechanics, the incremental visco-plastic memorial nested yield surface model is developed by using the field theory of nonlinear isotropic materials and the theory of kinematical hardening modulus. At the end of anyone time increment, the inverted loading surface, the damaged surface and the initial loading surface which is tangent with the inside of inverted loading surface are memorized respectively. The kinematical behavior of yield surface is defined by using these three surfaces. The developed model in this paper is successfully implemented in ABAQUS using FORTRAN subroutine. The predicted stress-strain relationships of soft soil are compared with the test results given by dynamic triaxial tests. It is proved that the cyclic undrained stress-strain relation of soils can be fairly simulated by the model. At last, the nonlinear earthquake response of a representative soft site in Nanjing city is calculated with the dynamic behavior of soils modeled by the new developed model. The results are accordant to the earthquake response of soft site given by other scholars.

  3. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Due to its chemical inertness and physical properties PET is particularly suitable for food packaging applications, especially for drinking water. More bottled water is consumed than other bottled beverages. This article is a survey and toxicological investigation of chemical compounds, which are able to diffuse from PET bottles to water. The exact detailed chemical composition of plastic materials is known only from information provided by manufacturers. A declaration...

  4. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  5. Elastic-Plastic Strain Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.R. Solonick

    2003-04-01

    Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

  6. Dynamic recrystallization of electroformed copper liners of shaped charges in high—strain—rate plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenhuaiTian; QiSun; 等

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges after high-strain-rate plastic deformation were in vestigated by transmission microscopy(TEM).Meanwhile,the orientation distribution of the grains in the recovered slug was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern(EBSP) technique.EBSP analysis illustrated that unlike the as-formed electroformed copper liners of shaped charges the grain orientations in the recovered slug are distributed along randomly all the directions after undergoing heavily strain deformation at high-strain rate.Optical microscopy shows a typical recrystallization structure,and TEM examination reveals dislocation cells existed in the thin foil specimen.These results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occur during this plastic deformation process,and the associated deformation temperature is considered to be higher than 0.6 times the melting point of copper.

  7. Dynamic recrystallization of electroformed copper liners of shaped charges in high-strain-rate plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges after high-strain-rate plastic deformation were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the orientation distribution of the grains in the recovered slug was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern (EBSP) technique. EBSP analysis illustrated that unlike the as-formed electroformed copper linersof shaped charges the grain orientations in the recovered slug are distributed along randomly all the directions after undergoing heavily strain deformation at high-strain rate. Optical microscopy shows a typical recrystallization structure, and TEM examination reveals dislocation cells existed in the thin foil specimen. These results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occur during this plastic deformation process, and the associated deformation temperature is considered to be higher than 0.6 times the melting point of copper.

  8. THE DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC COLUMN SUBJECTED TO AXIAL IMPACT BY A RIGID BODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhijun; Wang Jingchao; Cheng Guoqiang; Ma Hongwei; Zhang Shanyuan

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic buckling of an elastic-plastic column subjected to axial impact by a rigid body has been discussed in this paper. The whole traveling process of elastic-plastic waves under impact action is analyzed with the characteristics method. The regularity of stress changes in both column ends and the first separating time of a rigid body and column are obtained. By using the energy principle and taking into account the propagation and reflection of stress waves the lateral disturbance equation is derived and the power series solution is given. In addition,the critical buckling condition can be obtained from the stability analysis of the solution. By numerical computation and analysis, the relationship among critical velocity and impact mass,hardening modulus, and buckling time is given.

  9. Rigid-Plastic Dynamic Response of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier Impacted by Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiaoning; DIAO Bo; YE Yinghua

    2006-01-01

    Bridge piers are impacted by autos sometimes.The pier usually has not been destroyed after once impact by auto.But there are few research on damage which will affect pier's capability,and most relative studies have focused the problems on piers impacted by vessels.The methods involve mainly sutra experience theory,numerical analysis,and experimental method.Owing to the complicacy of the bridge pier impacted by a vessel,there are few research derived with the sutra mechanics model and the piers impacted by autos.The dynamic response is studied here under the assumption of the rigid-plastic small-deformation for the pier impacted by auto.According to the Parkes beam model,the rigid-plastic theoretical solution is deduced.The final deformation is calculated by a practical example for the pier impacted by auto.

  10. A Nonlocal Peridynamic Plasticity Model for the Dynamic Flow and Fracture of Concrete.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, Tracy; Lammi, Christopher James

    2014-10-01

    A nonlocal, ordinary peridynamic constitutive model is formulated to numerically simulate the pressure-dependent flow and fracture of heterogeneous, quasi-brittle ma- terials, such as concrete. Classical mechanics and traditional computational modeling methods do not accurately model the distributed fracture observed within this family of materials. The peridynamic horizon, or range of influence, provides a characteristic length to the continuum and limits localization of fracture. Scaling laws are derived to relate the parameters of peridynamic constitutive model to the parameters of the classical Drucker-Prager plasticity model. Thermodynamic analysis of associated and non-associated plastic flow is performed. An implicit integration algorithm is formu- lated to calculate the accumulated plastic bond extension and force state. The gov- erning equations are linearized and the simulation of the quasi-static compression of a cylinder is compared to the classical theory. A dissipation-based peridynamic bond failure criteria is implemented to model fracture and the splitting of a concrete cylinder is numerically simulated. Finally, calculation of the impact and spallation of a con- crete structure is performed to assess the suitability of the material and failure models for simulating concrete during dynamic loadings. The peridynamic model is found to accurately simulate the inelastic deformation and fracture behavior of concrete during compression, splitting, and dynamically induced spall. The work expands the types of materials that can be modeled using peridynamics. A multi-scale methodology for simulating concrete to be used in conjunction with the plasticity model is presented. The work was funded by LDRD 158806.

  11. A COMBINED PARAMETRIC QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING AND PRECISE INTEGRATION METHOD BASED DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC-PLASTIC HARDENING/SOFTENING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪武; 张新伟

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to develop a new algorithm for numericalsolution of dynamic elastic-plastic strain hardening/softening problems. The gradientdependent model is adopted in the numerical model to overcome the result mesh-sensitivity problem in the dynamic strain softening or strain localization analysis.The equations for the dynamic elastic-plastic problems are derived in terms of theparametric variational principle, which is valid for associated, non-associated andstrain softening plastic constitutive models in the finite element analysis. The preciseintegration method, which has been widely used for discretization in time domain ofthe linear problems, is introduced for the solution of dynamic nonlinear equations.The new algorithm proposed is based on the combination of the parametric quadraticprogramming method and the precise integration method and has all the advantagesin both of the algorithms. Results of numerical examples demonstrate not only thevalidity, but also the advantages of the algorithm proposed for the numerical solutionof nonlinear dynamic problems.

  12. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  13. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  14. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  15. Nanostructures in a ferritic and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel induced by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo

    fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...... place, when both steels after DPD are annealed. Both oriented nucleation and oriented growth of oriented lamellae are demonstrated to account for such an orientation dependence. The underlying mechanisms are discussed, including the differences in stored energy, structural variation, and recovery...

  16. Short-Term Plasticity of a Thalamocortical Pathway Dynamically Modulated by Behavioral State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.; Connors, Barry W.

    1996-04-01

    The neocortex receives information about the environment and the rest of the brain through pathways from the thalamus. These pathways have frequency-dependent properties that can strongly influence their effect on the neocortex. In 1943 Morison and Dempsey described "augmenting responses," a form of short-term plasticity in some thalamocortical pathways that is triggered by 8- to 15-hertz activation. Results from anesthetized rats showed that the augmenting response is initiated by pyramidal cells in layer V. The augmenting response was also observed in awake, unrestrained animals and was found to be dynamically modulated by their behavioral state.

  17. Orientation-dependent recrystallization in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel after dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Tao, N.R.; Mishin, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    dynamic plastic deformation. Different boundary spacings and different stored energy densities for regions belonging to either of the two fibre texture components result in a quite heterogeneous deformation microstructure. Upon annealing, preferential recovery and preferential nucleation...... of recrystallization are found in the 〈111〉- oriented lamellae, which had a higher stored energy density in the as-deformed condition. In the course of recrystallization, the initial duplex fibre texture is replaced by a strong 〈111〉 fibre recrystallization texture....

  18. Effects of heterogeneity on recrystallization kinetics of nanocrystalline copper prepared by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin; Tao, Nairong;

    2014-01-01

    Recrystallization and mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline copper prepared by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) and DPD with additional cold-rolling (DPD+CR) were investigated, with an emphasis on the effects of heterogeneity within the deformation microstructure. The DPD sample was found...... than 1, which is explained using a two-stage kinetics model incorporating the heterogeneity. The heterogeneity of the DPD sample is largely reduced by applying additional rolling. This change in deformation path leads to a more random distribution of the recrystallized grains and more conventional...

  19. Evolution of oxide nanoparticles during dynamic plastic deformation of ODS steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, Nairong;

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure as well as the deformation behavior of oxide nanoparticles has been analyzed in the ferritic ODS steel PM2000 after compression by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains. A dislocation cell structure forms after deformation to a strain of 1.0. DPD to a strain of 2.......1 results in nanoscale lamellae with an average lamellar spacing of approximately 70 nm. During DPD oxide nanoparticles, identified as yttrium aluminum perovskite YAlO3, are found to deform differently depending on their size. Whereas particles with a size of less than 15 nm change their shape and aspect...

  20. A Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity study of elastodynamic shielding of stationary cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrutxaga-Lerma, B.; Balint, D. S.; Dini, D.; Sutton, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Employing Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity (D3P), an elastodynamic analysis of the shielding of a stationary crack tip by dislocations is studied. Dislocations are generated via Frank-Read sources, and make a negligible contribution to the shielding of the crack tip, whereas dislocations generated at the crack tip via homogeneous nucleation dominate the shielding. Their effect is found to be highly localised around the crack, leading to a magnification of the shielding when compared to time-independent, elastostatic predictions. The resulting attenuation of KI(t) is computed, and is found to be directly proportional to the applied load and to √{ t }.

  1. Simultaneous imaging of structural plasticity and calcium dynamics in developing dendrites and axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Friederike; Lohmann, Christian

    2013-11-01

    During nervous system development, the formation of synapses between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is a remarkably specific process. Both structural and functional plasticity are critical for the selection of synaptic partners and for the establishment and maturation of synapses. To unravel the respective contributions of structural and functional mechanisms as well as their interactions during synaptogenesis, it is important to directly observe structural changes and functional signaling simultaneously. Here, we present an imaging approach to simultaneously follow changes in structure and function. Differential labeling of individual cells and the neuronal network with distinct dyes allows the study of structural plasticity and changes in calcium signaling associated with neural activity at the same time and with high resolution. This is achieved by bulk loading of neuronal populations with a calcium-sensitive indicator in combination with electroporation of individual cells with a calcium indicator and an additional noncalcium-sensitive dye with a different excitation spectrum. Recordings of the two differently labeled structures can be acquired simultaneously using confocal microscopy. Thus, structural plasticity and calcium dynamics of the individually labeled neuron and the surrounding network can be related to each other. This combined imaging approach can be applied to virtually all systems of neuronal networks to study structure and function. We provide a comprehensive description of the labeling procedure, the imaging parameters, and the important aspects of analysis for simultaneous recordings of structure and function in individual neurons.

  2. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules: complementary mediators of plasticity in development and evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stuart A Newman; Ramray Bhat; Nadejda V Mezentseva

    2009-10-01

    Ancient metazoan organisms arose from unicellular eukaryotes that had billions of years of genetic evolution behind them. The transcription factor networks present in single-celled ancestors at the origin of the Metazoa (multicellular animals) were already capable of mediating the switching of the unicellular phenotype among alternative states of gene activity in response to environmental conditions. Cell differentiation, therefore, had its roots in phenotypic plasticity, with the ancient regulatory proteins acquiring new targets over time and evolving into the ``developmental transcription factors” (DTFs) of the ``developmental-genetic toolkit.” In contrast, the emergence of pattern formation and morphogenesis in the Metazoa had a different trajectory. Aggregation of unicellular metazoan ancestors changed the organisms’ spatial scale, leading to the first ``dynamical patterning module” (DPM): cell-cell adhesion. Following this, other DPMs (defined as physical forces and processes pertinent to the scale of the aggregates mobilized by a set of toolkit gene products distinct from the DTFs), transformed simple cell aggregates into hollow, multilayered, segmented, differentiated and additional complex structures, with minimal evolution of constituent genes. Like cell differentiation, therefore, metazoan morphologies also originated from plastic responses of cells and tissues. Here we describe examples of DTFs and most of the important DPMs, discussing their complementary roles in the evolution of developmental mechanisms. We also provide recently characterized examples of DTFs in cell type switching and DPMs in morphogenesis of avian limb bud mesenchyme, an embryo-derived tissue that retains a high degree of developmental plasticity.

  3. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  4. Dynamic plasticity: the role of glucocorticoids, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other trophic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J D; Milner, T A; McEwen, B S

    2013-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Stress-induced remodeling of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala is coincident with changes in the levels of BDNF, which has been shown to act as a trophic factor facilitating the survival of existing and newly born neurons. Initially, hippocampal atrophy after chronic stress was associated with reduced BDNF, leading to the hypothesis that stress-related learning deficits resulted from suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis. However, recent evidence suggests that BDNF also plays a rapid and essential role in regulating synaptic plasticity, providing another mechanism through which BDNF can modulate learning and memory after a stressful event. Numerous reports have shown BDNF levels are highly dynamic in response to stress, and not only vary across brain regions but also fluctuate rapidly, both immediately after a stressor and over the course of a chronic stress paradigm. Yet, BDNF alone is not sufficient to effect many of the changes observed after stress. Glucocorticoids and other molecules have been shown to act in conjunction with BDNF to facilitate both the morphological and molecular changes that occur, particularly changes in spine density and gene expression. This review briefly summarizes the evidence supporting BDNF's role as a trophic factor modulating neuronal survival, and will primarily focus on the interactions between BDNF and other systems within the brain to facilitate synaptic plasticity. This growing body of evidence suggests a more nuanced role for BDNF in stress-related learning and memory, where it acts primarily as a facilitator of plasticity and is dependent upon the coactivation of glucocorticoids and other factors as the determinants of the final cellular response.

  5. Atomic and dislocation dynamics simulations of plastic deformation in reactor pressure vessel steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Ghiath; Domain, Christophe; Queyreau, Sylvain; Naamane, Sanae; Devincre, Benoit

    2009-11-01

    The collective behavior of dislocations in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel involves dislocation properties on different phenomenological scales. In the multiscale approach, adopted in this work, we use atomic simulations to provide input data for larger scale simulations. We show in this paper how first-principles calculations can be used to describe the Peierls potential of screw dislocations, allowing for the validation of the empirical interatomic potential used in molecular dynamics simulations. The latter are used to compute the velocity of dislocations as a function of the applied stress and the temperature. The mobility laws obtained in this way are employed in dislocation dynamics simulations in order to predict properties of plastic flow, namely dislocation-dislocation interactions and dislocation interactions with carbides at low and high temperature.

  6. Atomic and dislocation dynamics simulations of plastic deformation in reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, Ghiath, E-mail: ghiathmonnet@yahoo.f [EDF-R and D, MMC, Avenue des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Domain, Christophe; Queyreau, Sylvain; Naamane, Sanae [EDF-R and D, MMC, Avenue des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Devincre, Benoit [LEM, CNRS-ONERA, 29 av. de la division Leclerc, 92130 Chatillon (France)

    2009-11-15

    The collective behavior of dislocations in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel involves dislocation properties on different phenomenological scales. In the multiscale approach, adopted in this work, we use atomic simulations to provide input data for larger scale simulations. We show in this paper how first-principles calculations can be used to describe the Peierls potential of screw dislocations, allowing for the validation of the empirical interatomic potential used in molecular dynamics simulations. The latter are used to compute the velocity of dislocations as a function of the applied stress and the temperature. The mobility laws obtained in this way are employed in dislocation dynamics simulations in order to predict properties of plastic flow, namely dislocation-dislocation interactions and dislocation interactions with carbides at low and high temperature.

  7. Dynamic impact of temporal context of Ca²⁺ signals on inhibitory synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Shin-Ya; Nagasaki, Nobuhiro; Hirano, Tomoo

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, a basis for learning and memory, is tightly correlated with the pattern of increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Here, using combined application of electrophysiological experiments and systems biological simulation, we show that such a correlation dynamically changes depending on the context of [Ca(2+)](i) increase. In a cerebellar Purkinje cell, long-term potentiation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptor responsiveness (called rebound potentiation; RP) was induced by [Ca(2+)](i) increase in a temporally integrative manner through sustained activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). However, the RP establishment was canceled by coupling of two patterns of RP-inducing [Ca(2+)](i) increase depending on the temporal sequence. Negative feedback signaling by phospho-Thr305/306 CaMKII detected the [Ca(2+)](i) context, and assisted the feedforward inhibition of CaMKII through PDE1, resulting in the RP impairment. The [Ca(2+)](i) context-dependent dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity might contribute to the temporal refinement of information flow in neuronal networks.

  8. Dynamic analysis of fault rockburst based on gradient-dependent plasticity and energy criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebin Wang; Xiaobin Yang; Zhihui Zhang; Yishan Pan

    2004-01-01

    Fault rockburst is treated as a strain localization problem under dynamic loading condition considering strain gradient and strain rate. As a kind of dynamic fracture phenomena, rockburst has characteristics of strain localization, which is considered as a one-dimensional shear problem subjected to normal compressive stress and tangential shear stress. The constitutive relation of rock material is bilinear (elastic and strain softening) and sensitive to shear strain rate. The solutions proposed based on gradientdependent plasticity show that intense plastic strain is concentrated in fault band and the thickness of the band depends on the characteristic length of rock material. The post-peak stiffness of the fault band was determined according to the constitutive parameters of rock material and shear strain rate. Fault band undergoing strain softening and elastic rock mass outside the band constitute a system and the instability criterion of the system was proposed based on energy theory. The criterion depends on the constitutive relation of rock material, the structural size and the strain rate. The static result regardless of the strain rate is the special case of the present analytical solution. High strain rate can lead to instability of the system.

  9. Dynamic neural networking as a basis for plasticity in the control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, G; Armour, J A; Zamir, M

    2013-01-21

    A model is proposed in which the relationship between individual neurons within a neural network is dynamically changing to the effect of providing a measure of "plasticity" in the control of heart rate. The neural network on which the model is based consists of three populations of neurons residing in the central nervous system, the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system, and the intrinsic cardiac nervous system. This hierarchy of neural centers is used to challenge the classical view that the control of heart rate, a key clinical index, resides entirely in central neuronal command (spinal cord, medulla oblongata, and higher centers). Our results indicate that dynamic networking allows for the possibility of an interplay among the three populations of neurons to the effect of altering the order of control of heart rate among them. This interplay among the three levels of control allows for different neural pathways for the control of heart rate to emerge under different blood flow demands or disease conditions and, as such, it has significant clinical implications because current understanding and treatment of heart rate anomalies are based largely on a single level of control and on neurons acting in unison as a single entity rather than individually within a (plastically) interconnected network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCRPET. Upon quantitative validation of PBDE leaching from certain plastic bottles into water, a revisit to existing PBDE exposure assessment reports will be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Cait M; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression.

  12. Simulating the Effects of Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity on Postsynaptic Dynamics in the Globus Pallidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran eBrody

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rat globus pallidus (GP is one of the nuclei of the basal ganglia and plays an important role in a variety of motor and cognitive processes. In vivo studies have shown that repetitive stimulation evokes complex modulations of GP activity. In vitro and computational studies have suggested that short-term synaptic plasticity (STP could be one of the underlying mechanisms. The current study used simplified single compartment modeling to explore the possible effect of STP on the activity of GP neurons during low and high frequency stimulation. To do this we constructed a model of a GP neuron connected to a small network of neurons from the three major input sources to GP neurons: striatum (Str, subthalamic nucleus (STN and GP collaterals. All synapses were implemented with a kinetic model of STP. The in vitro recordings of responses to low frequency repetitive stimulation were highly reconstructed, including rate changes and locking to the stimulus. Mainly involved were fast forms of plasticity which have been found at these synapses. . The simulations were qualitatively compared to a data set previously recorded in vitro in our lab. Reconstructions of experimental responses to high frequency stimulation required adding slower forms of plasticity to the STN and GP collateral synapses, as well as adding metabotropic receptors to the STN-GP synapses. These finding suggest the existence of as yet unreported slower short-term dynamics in the GP. The computational model made additional predictions about GP activity during low and high frequency stimulation that may further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying repetative stimulation of the GP.

  13. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF A RIGID,PERFECTLY PLASTIC FREE-FREE BEAM STRUCK BY A PROJECTILE ATANY CROSS-SECTION ALONG ITS SPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJialing; LiuXuhong

    2004-01-01

    The rigid, perfectly plastic dynamic response of a free-free beam subjected to impact by a projectile at any cross-section is studied. The instantaneous deformations of the beam are given through an analysis of the complete solution for rigid plastic structures. The influence of some parameters such as the input energy and mass ratio on the plastic deformation, travelling plastic hinge position and energy partitioning of the beam are discussed.

  14. Shock Waves Propagation in Scope of the Nonlocal Theory of Dynamical Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantuleva, Tatyana A.

    2004-07-01

    From the point of view of the modern statistical mechanics the problems on shock compression of solids require a reformulation in terms of highly nonequilibrium effects arising inside the wave front. The self-organization during the multiscale and multistage momentum and energy exchange are originated by the correlation function. The theory of dynamic plasticity has been developed by the author on the base of the self-consistent nonlocal hydrodynamic approach had been applied to the shock wave propagation in solids. Nonlocal balance equations describe both the reversible wave type transport at the initial stage and the diffusive (dissipative) one in the end. The involved inverse influence of the mesoeffects on the wave propagation makes the formulation of problems self-consistent and involves a concept of the cybernetic control close-loop.

  15. TIME DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSES IN SATURATED PORO-ELASTO-PLASTIC MEDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xikui; YAO Dongmei

    2004-01-01

    A time-discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for dynamic analyses in saturated poro-elasto-plastic medium is proposed. As compared with the existing discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, the distinct feature of the proposed method is that the continuity of the displacement vector at each discrete time instant is automatically ensured, whereas the discontinuity of the velocity vector at the discrete time levels still remains. The computational cost is then obviously reduced,particularly, for material non-linear problems. Both the implicit and explicit algorithms to solve the derived formulations for material non-linear problems are developed. Numerical results show a good performance of the present method in eliminating spurious numerical oscillations and providing with much more accurate solutions over the traditional Galerkin finite element method using the Newmark algorithm in the time domain.

  16. Dynamic regulation of midbrain dopamine neuron activity: intrinsic, synaptic, and plasticity mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, H; Paladini, C A

    2011-12-15

    Although the roles of dopaminergic signaling in learning and behavior are well established, it is not fully understood how the activity of dopaminergic neurons is dynamically regulated under different conditions in a constantly changing environment. Dopamine neurons must integrate sensory, motor, and cognitive information online to inform the organism to pursue outcomes with the highest reward probability. In this article, we provide an overview of recent advances on the intrinsic, extrinsic (i.e., synaptic), and plasticity mechanisms controlling dopamine neuron activity, mostly focusing on mechanistic studies conducted using ex vivo brain slice preparations. We also hope to highlight some unresolved questions regarding information processing that takes place at dopamine neurons, thereby stimulating further investigations at different levels of analysis.

  17. Dynamic Microenvironment Induces Phenotypic Plasticity of Esophageal Cancer Cells Under Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calibasi Kocal, Gizem; Güven, Sinan; Foygel, Kira; Goldman, Aaron; Chen, Pu; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Baskin, Yasemin; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-12-01

    Cancer microenvironment is a remarkably heterogeneous composition of cellular and non-cellular components, regulated by both external and intrinsic physical and chemical stimuli. Physical alterations driven by increased proliferation of neoplastic cells and angiogenesis in the cancer microenvironment result in the exposure of the cancer cells to elevated levels of flow-based shear stress. We developed a dynamic microfluidic cell culture platform utilizing eshopagael cancer cells as model cells to investigate the phenotypic changes of cancer cells upon exposure to fluid shear stress. We report the epithelial to hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal transition as a result of decreasing E-Cadherin and increasing N-Cadherin and vimentin expressions, higher clonogenicity and ALDH positive expression of cancer cells cultured in a dynamic microfluidic chip under laminar flow compared to the static culture condition. We also sought regulation of chemotherapeutics in cancer microenvironment towards phenotypic control of cancer cells. Such in vitro microfluidic system could potentially be used to monitor how the interstitial fluid dynamics affect cancer microenvironment and plasticity on a simple, highly controllable and inexpensive bioengineered platform.

  18. Plasticity of 150-loop in influenza neuraminidase explored by Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanyu Han

    Full Text Available Neuraminidase (NA of influenza is a key target for antiviral inhibitors, and the 150-cavity in group-1 NA provides new insight in treating this disease. However, NA of 2009 pandemic influenza (09N1 was found lacking this cavity in a crystal structure. To address the issue of flexibility of the 150-loop, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed on different groups of NAs. Free energy landscape calculated based on the volume of 150-cavity indicates that 09N1 prefers open forms of 150-loop. The turn A (residues 147-150 of the 150-loop is discovered as the most dynamical motif which induces the inter-conversion of this loop among different conformations. In the turn A, the backbone dynamic of residue 149 is highly related with the shape of 150-loop, thus can function as a marker for the conformation of 150-loop. As a contrast, the closed conformation of 150-loop is more energetically favorable in N2, one of group-2 NAs. The D147-H150 salt bridge is found having no correlation with the conformation of 150-loop. Instead the intimate salt bridge interaction between the 150 and 430 loops in N2 variant contributes the stabilizing factor for the closed form of 150-loop. The clustering analysis elaborates the structural plasticity of the loop. This enhanced sampling simulation provides more information in further structural-based drug discovery on influenza virus.

  19. Plasticity of 150-loop in influenza neuraminidase explored by Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nanyu; Mu, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) of influenza is a key target for antiviral inhibitors, and the 150-cavity in group-1 NA provides new insight in treating this disease. However, NA of 2009 pandemic influenza (09N1) was found lacking this cavity in a crystal structure. To address the issue of flexibility of the 150-loop, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed on different groups of NAs. Free energy landscape calculated based on the volume of 150-cavity indicates that 09N1 prefers open forms of 150-loop. The turn A (residues 147-150) of the 150-loop is discovered as the most dynamical motif which induces the inter-conversion of this loop among different conformations. In the turn A, the backbone dynamic of residue 149 is highly related with the shape of 150-loop, thus can function as a marker for the conformation of 150-loop. As a contrast, the closed conformation of 150-loop is more energetically favorable in N2, one of group-2 NAs. The D147-H150 salt bridge is found having no correlation with the conformation of 150-loop. Instead the intimate salt bridge interaction between the 150 and 430 loops in N2 variant contributes the stabilizing factor for the closed form of 150-loop. The clustering analysis elaborates the structural plasticity of the loop. This enhanced sampling simulation provides more information in further structural-based drug discovery on influenza virus.

  20. High-rate Plastic Deformation of Nanocrystalline Tantalum to Large Strains: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E

    2009-02-05

    Recent advances in the ability to generate extremes of pressure and temperature in dynamic experiments and to probe the response of materials has motivated the need for special materials optimized for those conditions as well as a need for a much deeper understanding of the behavior of materials subjected to high pressure and/or temperature. Of particular importance is the understanding of rate effects at the extremely high rates encountered in those experiments, especially with the next generation of laser drives such as at the National Ignition Facility. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the high-rate deformation of nanocrystalline tantalum to investigate the processes associated with plastic deformation for strains up to 100%. We use initial atomic configurations that were produced through simulations of solidification in the work of Streitz et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, (2006) 225701]. These 3D polycrystalline systems have typical grain sizes of 10-20 nm. We also study a rapidly quenched liquid (amorphous solid) tantalum. We apply a constant volume (isochoric), constant temperature (isothermal) shear deformation over a range of strain rates, and compute the resulting stress-strain curves to large strains for both uniaxial and biaxial compression. We study the rate dependence and identify plastic deformation mechanisms. The identification of the mechanisms is facilitated through a novel technique that computes the local grain orientation, returning it as a quaternion for each atom. This analysis technique is robust and fast, and has been used to compute the orientations on the fly during our parallel MD simulations on supercomputers. We find both dislocation and twinning processes are important, and they interact in the weak strain hardening in these extremely fine-grained microstructures.

  1. Dynamic and buckling analysis of a thin elastic-plastic square plate in a uniform temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifu Xiao; Bin Chen

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear models of the elastic and elasticlinear strain-hardening square plates with four immovably simply-supported edges are established by employing Hamilton's Variational Principle in a uniform temperature field. The unilateral equilibrium equations satisfied by the plastically buckled equilibria are also established. Dynamics and stability of the elastic and plastic plates are investigated analytically and the buckled equilibria are investigated by employing Galerkin-Ritz's method. The vibration frequencies, the first critical temperature differences of instability or buckling, the elastically buckled equilibria and the extremes depending on the final loading temperature difference of the plastically buckled equillibria of the plate are obtained. The results indicate that the critical buckling value of the plastic plate is lower than its critical instability value and the critical value of its buckled equilibria turning back to the trivial equilibrium are higher than the value. However, three critical values of the elastic plate are equal. The unidirectional snap-through may occur both at the stress-strain boundary of elasticity and plasticity and at the initial stage of unloading of the plastic plate.

  2. Multiscale Analysis of Structurally-Graded Microstructures Using Molecular Dynamics, Discrete Dislocation Dynamics and Continuum Crystal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Mishin, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    A multiscale modeling methodology is developed for structurally-graded material microstructures. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed at the nanoscale to determine fundamental failure mechanisms and quantify material constitutive parameters. These parameters are used to calibrate material processes at the mesoscale using discrete dislocation dynamics (DD). Different grain boundary interactions with dislocations are analyzed using DD to predict grain-size dependent stress-strain behavior. These relationships are mapped into crystal plasticity (CP) parameters to develop a computationally efficient finite element-based DD/CP model for continuum-level simulations and complete the multiscale analysis by predicting the behavior of macroscopic physical specimens. The present analysis is focused on simulating the behavior of a graded microstructure in which grain sizes are on the order of nanometers in the exterior region and transition to larger, multi-micron size in the interior domain. This microstructural configuration has been shown to offer improved mechanical properties over homogeneous coarse-grained materials by increasing yield stress while maintaining ductility. Various mesoscopic polycrystal models of structurally-graded microstructures are generated, analyzed and used as a benchmark for comparison between multiscale DD/CP model and DD predictions. A final series of simulations utilize the DD/CP analysis method exclusively to study macroscopic models that cannot be analyzed by MD or DD methods alone due to the model size.

  3. Integrated isotachophoretic stacking and gel electrophoresis on a plastic substrate and variations in detection dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Che; Hsu, Bi-Kei; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrated an integrated ITP-gel electrophoresis (GE) device on a plastic substrate, in which 50 nL of samples could be hydrodynamically or electrokinetically injected and enriched by ITP into narrow bands and then subsequently introduced into a homogeneous GE channel for separation and detection. This microchip design rendered a simple introduction scheme for creating sandwiched stacking buffer system and flexibilities in choosing separation and stacking buffers independently. We used gel sieving buffers which compositions were different from those for stacking buffers to separate DNA and protein molecules based on sizing mechanism. Compared to conventional microchip GE, the sensitivity of microchip ITP-GE was estimated to increase by one to two orders of magnitude based on the dilution factor of the injected sample and the S/N ratio detected from the electropherogram. Moreover, it is interesting to note that ITP stacking leads to a preferential enhancement for analytes with lower concentrations compared to those with higher concentrations. Therefore, a reduction in the detection dynamic range for ITP-GE was gained. We demonstrated that ITP-GE could lead to 2-4-folds of reduction in the signal dynamic range for two PCR products in a mixture. Such advantage is demonstrated to be useful for the detection of two products amplified from a multiplex PCR in which one product is poorly amplified compared to the other.

  4. High purity ultrafine-grained nickel processed by dynamic plastic deformation: microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbaniec, Lukasz; Dirras, Guy [Universite Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cite LSPM-CNRS, 99, Avenue J. B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Abdul-Latif, Akrum [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Mecaniques et des Materiaux 3, Rue Fernand Hainaut, 93407 St. Ouen Cedex (France); Gubicza, Jeno [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University Budapest, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 (Hungary)

    2012-11-15

    Bulk ultrafine-grained samples are processed by dynamic plastic deformation at an average strain rate of 3.3 x 10{sup 2} s{sup -1} from bulk coarse-grained nickel with purity higher than 98.4 wt.%. The obtained microstructure is investigated by electron backscattering diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray line profile analysis. After dynamic deformation the microstructure evolves into submicron-size lamellar and subgrain structures. Evaluation of average grain size shows a heterogeneous microstructure along both the diameter and the thickness of the sample. X-ray line profile analysis reveals high dislocation density of about 13 {+-} 2 x 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} in the impacted material. The mechanical properties are investigated by means of uniaxial quasi-static compression tests conducted at room temperature. The stress-strain behavior of the impacted Ni depends on the location in the impacted disk and on the orientation of the compression axis relative to the impact direction. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  6. Dynamics of supercooled liquid and plastic crystalline ethanol: Dielectric relaxation and AC nanocalorimetry distinguish structural α- and Debye relaxation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Y. Z.; Young-Gonzales, A. R.; Richert, R.; Ediger, M. D.; Schick, C.

    2017-07-01

    Physical vapor deposition has been used to prepare glasses of ethanol. Upon heating, the glasses transformed into the supercooled liquid phase and then crystallized into the plastic crystal phase. The dynamic glass transition of the supercooled liquid is successfully measured by AC nanocalorimetry, and preliminary results for the plastic crystal are obtained. The frequency dependences of these dynamic glass transitions observed by AC nanocalorimetry are in disagreement with conclusions from previously published dielectric spectra of ethanol. Existing dielectric loss spectra have been carefully re-evaluated considering a Debye peak, which is a typical feature in the dielectric loss spectra of monohydroxy alcohols. The re-evaluated dielectric fits reveal a prominent dielectric Debye peak, a smaller and asymmetrically broadened peak, which is identified as the signature of the structural α-relaxation and a Johari-Goldstein secondary relaxation process. This new assignment of the dielectric processes is supported by the observation that the AC nanocalorimetry dynamic glass transition temperature, Tα, coincides with the dielectric structural α-relaxation process rather than the Debye process. The combined results from dielectric spectroscopy and AC nanocalorimetry on the plastic crystal of ethanol suggest the occurrence of a Debye process also in the plastic crystal phase.

  7. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  8. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  9. Modelling plastic deformation in BCC metals: Dynamic recovery and cell formation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo-Nava, E.I. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, CB2 3QZ, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2 2628 CD, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, CB2 3QZ, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    A recently developed model for describing plasticity in FCC metals (E.I., Galindo-Nava, P.E.J., Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 543 (2012) 110-116; E.I. Galindo-Nava, P.E.J. Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Acta Mater. 60 (2012) 4370-4378) has now been applied to BCC. The core of the theory is the thermostatistical description of dislocation annihilation paths, which determines the dynamic recovery rate of the material. Input to this is the energy for the formation, migration and ordering of dislocation paths; the latter term corresponds to the statistical entropy which features strongly on the solution. The distinctions between FCC and BCC stem primarily from the possible directions and planes for dislocation slip and cross-slip, as well as from the presence of the kink-pair mechanism for dislocation migration in BCC, which are incorporated to the mathematical formulation of the model. The theory is unique in describing the stress-strain response for pure iron, molybdenum, tantalum, vanadium and tungsten employing physical parameters as input; the description is made for wide ranges of temperature and strain rate. Additionally, succinct equations to predict dislocation cell size variation with strain, strain rate and temperature are provided and validated for pure iron.

  10. Microstructure characterization of high-purity aluminum processed by dynamic severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, Guy; Chauveau, Thierry; Ramtani, Salah; Bui, Quang-Hien [LPMTM, CNRS, UPR 9001, Universite Paris 13, 99 avenue J. B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Abdul-Latif, Akrum [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Mecaniques et des Materiaux, 3 rue Fernand Hainaut, 93407 St Ouen Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    Fine-grained aluminum (700-1000 nm) was processed by dynamic severe plastic deformation of coarse-grained (3 mm) pure aluminum (99.999 wt.%). The resulting microstructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray profile analyses. It is observed that the grain size determined by TEM departs from measurements made by X-ray profile analysis. In the latter case, the average crystallite size determined over the global crystallographic or on the deformation-induced texture components, namely {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 751 right angle, {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 011 right angle, and {l_brace}223{r_brace} left angle 154 right angle, yields similar values ({proportional_to}225 nm). By contrast, the dislocation density determined on these texture components is about two times higher than the one measured on the global texture. The difference might be related to the specificities of the induced crystallographic texture. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of RDX and RDX-based plastic-bonded explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Jijun; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming

    2009-05-30

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate well-known energetic material cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) crystal and RDX-based plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) with four typical fluorine-polymers, polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF), polychlorotri-fluoroethylene (PCTFE), fluorine rubber (F(2311)), and fluorine resin (F(2314)). The elastic coefficients, mechanical properties, binding energies, and detonation performances are obtained for the RDX crystal and RDX-based PBXs. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of RDX can be effectively improved by blending with a small amount of fluorine polymers and the overall effect of fluorine polymers on the mechanical properties of the PBXs along three crystalline surfaces is (001)>(010) approximately (100) and PVDF is regarded to best improve the mechanical properties of the PBXs on three surfaces. The order of the improvement in the ductibility made by the fluorine polymers on different surfaces is (001) approximately (010)>(100). The average binding energies between different RDX crystalline surfaces and different polymer binders are obtained, and the sequence of the binding energies of the PBXs with the four fluorine polymers on the three different surfaces is varied. Among the polymer binders, PVDF is considered as best one for RDX-based PBXs. The detonation performances of the PBXs decrease in comparison with the pure crystal but are superior to those of TNT.

  12. A model for plasticity kinetics and its role in simulating the dynamic behavior of Fe at high strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, J D; Minich, R W; Kalantar, D H

    2007-03-29

    The recent diagnostic capability of the Omega laser to study solid-solid phase transitions at pressures greater than 10 GPa and at strain rates exceeding 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} has also provided valuable information on the dynamic elastic-plastic behavior of materials. We have found, for example, that plasticity kinetics modifies the effective loading and thermodynamic paths of the material. In this paper we derive a kinetics equation for the time-dependent plastic response of the material to dynamic loading, and describe the model's implementation in a radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. This model for plasticity kinetics incorporates the Gilman model for dislocation multiplication and saturation. We discuss the application of this model to the simulation of experimental velocity interferometry data for experiments on Omega in which Fe was shock compressed to pressures beyond the {alpha}-to-{var_epsilon} phase transition pressure. The kinetics model is shown to fit the data reasonably well in this high strain rate regime and further allows quantification of the relative contributions of dislocation multiplication and drag. The sensitivity of the observed signatures to the kinetics model parameters is presented.

  13. Dynamic behavior of oscillatory plastic flow in a smectic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Richard A.; Clark, 1., Noel A.; Handschy, Mark A.

    1997-09-01

    Dynamic surface force measurements are used to study the response of a smectic-A liquid crystal under layer-normal stress. The smectic A is confined in a spherical wedge between crossed cylindrical surfaces having a minimum gap spacing of 0.5-4 μm. The force transmitted between the surfaces by the liquid crystal is measured vs surface spacing using a capacitance micrometer-based surface force apparatus. Above a threshold stress plastic flow results, consisting of individual layers being excluded or included. Each layer flow event has an intriguing dynamical structure, beginning with an enhanced drift rate, which can last for many minutes, accelerating to a rapid separation change of ~1 or 2 s duration wherein the bulk of the relaxation occurs, and tapering off to a background drift rate over a period of a 100 s or more. The single-layer nature of the observed jumps in liquid crystal thickness indicates that they are topological in origin, i.e., slippage events in the phase of the smectic-A order parameter that must necessarily involve edge or screw dislocations. A model based on the Glaberson-Clem-Oswald-Kléman helical instability in screw dislocations is the only one found to explain the data, the layering events arising from a cascade of these helical instabilities sweeping radially outward through the smectic-A sample. The slow precursor acceleration is due to the nucleation of a few helices in the thin central portion of the sample. As time goes on, the force relieved is transferred to the rest of the sample, pushing larger and larger amounts of the area into the unstable regime, and a type of chain reaction occurs whereby the bulk of a layer is removed. In the end only the material at the edge of the droplet, where the thickness is largest, is left to slowly continue to nucleate, producing a long-term tail.

  14. The brain decade in debate: VI. Sensory and motor maps: dynamics and plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an edited transcription of a virtual symposium promoted by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC. Although the dynamics of sensory and motor representations have been one of the most studied features of the central nervous system, the actual mechanisms of brain plasticity that underlie the dynamic nature of sensory and motor maps are not entirely unraveled. Our discussion began with the notion that the processing of sensory information depends on many different cortical areas. Some of them are arranged topographically and others have non-topographic (analytical properties. Besides a sensory component, every cortical area has an efferent output that can be mapped and can influence motor behavior. Although new behaviors might be related to modifications of the sensory or motor representations in a given cortical area, they can also be the result of the acquired ability to make new associations between specific sensory cues and certain movements, a type of learning known as conditioning motor learning. Many types of learning are directly related to the emotional or cognitive context in which a new behavior is acquired. This has been demonstrated by paradigms in which the receptive field properties of cortical neurons are modified when an animal is engaged in a given discrimination task or when a triggering feature is paired with an aversive stimulus. The role of the cholinergic input from the nucleus basalis to the neocortex was also highlighted as one important component of the circuits responsible for the context-dependent changes that can be induced in cortical maps.

  15. Modeling the population dynamics and community impacts of Ambystoma tigrinum: A case study of phenotype plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maeve L; Wallace, Dorothy; Whiteman, Howard H; Rheingold, Evan T; Dunham, Ann M; Prosper, Olivia; Chen, Michelle; Hu-Wang, Eileen

    2017-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment. General mathematical descriptions of the phenomenon rely on an abstract measure of "viability" that, in this study, is instantiated in the case of the Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. This organism has a point in its development when, upon maturing, it may take two very different forms. One is a terrestrial salamander (metamorph)that visits ponds to reproduce and eat, while the other is an aquatic form (paedomorph) that remains in the pond to breed and which consumes a variety of prey including its own offspring. A seven dimensional nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations is developed, incorporating small (Z) and large (B) invertebrates, Ambystoma young of the year (Y), juveniles (J), terrestrial metamorphs (A) and aquatic paedomorphs (P). One parameter in the model controls the proportion of juveniles maturing into A versus P. Solutions are shown to remain non-negative. Every effort was made to justify parameters biologically through studies reported in the literature. A sensitivity analysis and equilibrium analysis of model parameters demonstrate that morphological choice is critical to the overall composition of the Ambystoma population. Various population viability measures were used to select optimal percentages of juveniles maturing into metamorphs, with optimal choices differing considerably depending on the viability measure. The model suggests that the criteria for viability for this organism vary, both from location to location and also in time. Thus, optimal responses change with spatiotemporal variation, which is consistent with other phenotypically plastic systems. Two competing hypotheses for the conditions under which metamorphosis occurs are examined in light of the model and data from an Ambystoma tigrinum population at Mexican Cut, Colorado. The model clearly supports one of these over the other for this data set

  16. Closed-form dynamic stability criterion for elastic-plastic structures under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic stability criterion for elastic-plastic structures under near-fault ground motions is derived in closed-form. A negative post-yield stiffness is treated in order to consider the P-delta effect. The double impulse is used as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. Since only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse, the energy approach plays a critical role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response of structures with the P-delta effect. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the closed-form dynamic stability criterion on the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that several patterns of unstable behaviors exist depending on the ratio of the input level of the double impulse to the structural strength and on the ratio of the negative post-yield stiffness to the initial elastic stiffness. The validity of the proposed dynamic stability criterion is investigated by the numerical response analysis for structures under double impulses with stable or unstable parameters. Furthermore the reliability of the proposed theory is tested through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  17. Fluctuations in population composition dampen the impact of phenotypic plasticity on trait dynamics in superb fairy-wrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Osmond, Helen L; Cockburn, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    1. In structured populations, phenotypic change can result from changes throughout an individual's lifetime (phenotypic plasticity, age-related changes), selection and changes in population composition (environment- or density-driven fluctuations in age-structure). 2. The contribution of population dynamics to phenotypic change has often been ignored. However, for understanding trait dynamics, it is important to identify both the individual- and population-level mechanisms responsible for trait change, because they potentially reinforce or counteract each other. 3. We use 22 years of field data to investigate the dynamics of a sexually selected phenological trait, the timing of nuptial moult in superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus. 4. We show that trait expression is both climate- and age-dependent, but that phenotypic plasticity in response to climate variability also varies with age. Old males can acquire nuptial plumage very early after high rainfall, but 1- to 2-year-olds cannot. However, males of all ages that defer moult to later in the year acquire nuptial plumage earlier when conditions are warmer. 5. The underlying mechanism appears to be that old males may risk moulting in the most challenging period of the year: in autumn, when drought restricts food abundance and during the cold winter. By contrast, young males always moult during the spring transition to benign - warmer and generally wetter - conditions. Temperature changes dominate this transition that heralds the breeding season, thereby causing both young and late-moulting older birds to be temperature sensitive. 6. Climate and age also affect trait dynamics via a population dynamical pathway. The same high rainfall that triggers early moulting in old males concurrently increases offspring recruitment and thereby reduces the average age of males in the population. Consequently, effects of rainfall on trait dynamics through phenotypic plasticity of old males are dampened by synchronous rejuvenation of

  18. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of...

  19. A molecular dynamics study of dislocation density generation and plastic relaxation during shock of single crystal Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichani, Mehrdad M.; Spearot, Douglas E.

    2016-07-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation method is used to investigate the dependence of crystal orientation and shock wave strength on dislocation density evolution in single crystal Cu. Four different shock directions , , , and are selected to study the role of crystal orientation on dislocation generation immediately behind the shock front and plastic relaxation as the system reaches the hydrostatic state. Dislocation density evolution is analyzed for particle velocities between the Hugoniot elastic limit ( up H E L ) for each orientation up to a maximum of 1.5 km/s. Generally, dislocation density increases with increasing particle velocity for all shock orientations. Plastic relaxation for shock in the , , and directions is primarily due to a reduction in the Shockley partial dislocation density. In addition, plastic anisotropy between these orientations is less apparent at particle velocities above 1.1 km/s. In contrast, plastic relaxation is limited for shock in the orientation. This is partially due to the emergence of sessile stair-rod dislocations with Burgers vectors of 1/3 and 1/6. The nucleation of 1/6 dislocations at lower particle velocities is mainly due to the reaction between Shockley partial dislocations and twin boundaries. On the other hand, for the particle velocities above 1.1 km/s, the nucleation of 1/3 dislocations is predominantly due to reaction between Shockley partial dislocations at stacking fault intersections. Both mechanisms promote greater dislocation densities after relaxation for shock pressures above 34 GPa compared to the other three shock orientations.

  20. Dynamic Plasticity and Fracture in High Density Polycrystals: Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    polycrystalline WHA specimens on the response under combined compressive -shear loading and found that a certain degree of pre-twisting of the...conducted via isostatic pressing and sintering of a mixture of W, Ni, and Fe powders, followed by annealing to remove absorbed hydrogen and then possible...this ‘‘stored energy of cold work’’ can be viewed as an extension to finite crystal plasticity theory of the macroscopic, linearized elastic–plastic

  1. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  2. Various sizes of sliding event bursts in the plastic flow of metallic glasses based on a spatiotemporal dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jingli, E-mail: renjl@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: g.wang@shu.edu.cn; Chen, Cun [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: renjl@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: g.wang@shu.edu.cn [Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheung, Wing-Sum [Department of Mathematics, The University of HongKong, HongKong (China); Sun, Baoan; Mattern, Norbert [IFW-dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Siegmund, Stefan [Department of Mathematics, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW-dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    This paper presents a spatiotemporal dynamic model based on the interaction between multiple shear bands in the plastic flow of metallic glasses during compressive deformation. Various sizes of sliding events burst in the plastic deformation as the generation of different scales of shear branches occurred; microscopic creep events and delocalized sliding events were analyzed based on the established model. This paper discusses the spatially uniform solutions and traveling wave solution. The phase space of the spatially uniform system applied in this study reflected the chaotic state of the system at a lower strain rate. Moreover, numerical simulation showed that the microscopic creep events were manifested at a lower strain rate, whereas the delocalized sliding events were manifested at a higher strain rate.

  3. Dynamic rupture simulations on complex fault zone structures with off-fault plasticity using the ADER-DG method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Igel, Heiner

    2015-04-01

    In dynamic rupture models, high stress concentrations at rupture fronts have to to be accommodated by off-fault inelastic processes such as plastic deformation. As presented in (Roten et al., 2014), incorporating plastic yielding can significantly reduce earlier predictions of ground motions in the Los Angeles Basin. Further, an inelastic response of materials surrounding a fault potentially has a strong impact on surface displacement and is therefore a key aspect in understanding the triggering of tsunamis through floor uplifting. We present an implementation of off-fault-plasticity and its verification for the software package SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method. The software recently reached multi-petaflop/s performance on some of the largest supercomputers worldwide and was a Gordon Bell prize finalist application in 2014 (Heinecke et al., 2014). For the nonelastic calculations we impose a Drucker-Prager yield criterion in shear stress with a viscous regularization following (Andrews, 2005). It permits the smooth relaxation of high stress concentrations induced in the dynamic rupture process. We verify the implementation by comparison to the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Benchmarks. The results of test problem TPV13 with a 60-degree dipping normal fault show that SeisSol is in good accordance with other codes. Additionally we aim to explore the numerical characteristics of the off-fault plasticity implementation by performing convergence tests for the 2D code. The ADER-DG method is especially suited for complex geometries by using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Local adaptation of the mesh resolution enables a fine sampling of the cohesive zone on the fault while simultaneously satisfying the dispersion requirements of wave propagation away from the fault. In this context we will investigate the influence of off-fault-plasticity on geometrically complex fault zone structures like subduction

  4. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  5. Chemometrics-enhanced fiber optic Raman detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical agents simulants concealed in commercial bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly J. Galan-Freyle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric techniques such as partial least squares combined with discriminant analysis (PLS–DA and artificial neural networks (ANN analysis were used to enhance the detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical warfare agents simulants. Triethyl phosphate (TEP mixed with commercial products in their original containers was analyzed through the container walls using fiber-optic-coupled Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were performed by employing a custom built optical fiber probe operating at 488 nm. Detection was accomplished using mixtures of the contents of the commercial bottles and water. The bottle materials included green plastic, green glass, clear plastic, clear glass, amber glass and white plastic. To account for the low scattering-peak intensities of some bottle materials, integration times were increased. Short integration times provided no information for amber glass and white plastic. The limits of detection were on the order of 1–5%, depending on bottle materials and contents. Good discrimination was achieved with PLS–DA when models were generated from a dataset originating from the same type of bottle material. ANN performed better when large sets of data were used, discriminating TEP from bottle materials and contents, as well as accurately classifying over 90% of the data.

  6. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于201 3年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互动,最终得到年轻人们的自愿持续关注。每日新闻社还利用AR技术,让人们能通过移动

  7. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于2013年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互

  8. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environment conservation have grown in recent years, mainly in industrialized countries, due to growing awareness in these societies regarding the importance of environment quality as the basis for the preservation of future generations. Thus, rather than viewing the environment as a good to be consumed by the productive sector, it is seen as world heritage of humanity. Although lubricant oil represents a small percentage of the waste generated by humans, its impact is very great. One ton of lubricant oil dumped into water systems is equivalent to the pollution caused by 40,000 inhabitants. Thus, only one liter of oil is able to consume the oxygen of a million liters of water, forming, in few days, a fine layer on the surface of 1000 m2 which blocks the passage of air and light for the aquatic organisms. In this context, a study was carried out to collect empty plastic automotive lubricant oil bottles at various gasoline stations in Rio Claro-SP to verify the final destination and determine the volume of lubricant remaining in the bottles. = As preocupações com a conservação do meio ambiente têm crescido nos últimos anos, principalmente em países industrializados, devido à consciência que tem sido construída nessas sociedades sobre a importância da qualidade ambiental como base para a preservação da vida das futuras gerações. A sua carga poluidora é equivalente a 40.000 habitantes por tonelada de óleo despejada em corpos d’água. Apenas um litro de óleo é capaz de esgotar o oxigênio de um milhão de litros de água, formando, em poucos dias, uma fina camada sobre a superfície de 1.000 m2, o que bloqueia a passagem de ar e luz, impedindo a respiração e a fotossíntese. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma pesquisa nos centros de lubrificação e postos de combustíveis do município de Rio Claro-SP para verificar o destino final das embalagens já utilizadas, teoricamente vazias, e também houve coleta destas

  9. Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ooka, Yuta; Ward, Jonathan; Chromaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a hollow microcapillary, and the realisation of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ and $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. Third-order cascaded Raman lasing was observed when pumped at $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. The aerostatic pressure tunability of the Raman laser was also investigated. Thence, we demonstrate that a high dynamic range, high resolution pressure sensor can be realised using the Raman spectrum of the hollow, bottle-like microresonator.

  10. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  11. Microstructure and annealing behavior of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel after dynamic plastic deformation to different strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N.R.;

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level...... of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization...

  12. Dynamic buckling of elastic-plastic cylindrical shells and axial stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新生; 苏先樾; 王仁

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism for bifurcation of elastic-plastic buckling of the semi-infinite cylindrical shell under impacting axial loads is proposed based on the theory of stress wave. Numerical results on three kinds of end supports and step and impulse loads are given.

  13. Nogo-A controls structural plasticity at dendritic spines by rapidly modulating actin dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellner, Yves; Fricke, Steffen; Kramer, Stella; Iobbi, Cristina; Wierenga, Corette J; Schwab, Martin E; Korte, Martin; Zagrebelsky, Marta

    Nogo-A and its receptors have been shown to control synaptic plasticity, including negatively regulating long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cortex and hippocampus at a fast time scale and restraining experience-dependent turnover of dendritic spines over days. However, the molecular mechanisms and

  14. Modeling water flow and nitrate dynamics in a plastic mulch vegetable cultivation system using HYDRUS-2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Romić, Davor; Romić, Marija; Matijević, Lana; Mallmann, Fábio J. K.; Robinson, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Growing vegetables commercially requires intensive management and involves high irrigation demands and input of agrochemicals. Plastic mulch application in combination with drip irrigation is a common agricultural management technique practiced due to variety of benefits to the crop, mostly vegetable biomass production. However, the use of these techniques can result in various impacts on water and nutrient distribution in underlying soil and consequently affect nutrient leaching towards groundwater resources. The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of plastic mulch cover in combination with drip irrigation on water and nitrate dynamics in soil using HYDRUS-2D model. The field site was located in Croatian costal karst area on a Gleysol (WRB). The experiment was designed according to the split-plot design in three repetitions and was divided into plots with plastic mulch cover (MULCH) and control plots with bare soil (CONT). Each of these plots received applications of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer: 70, 140, and 210 kg per ha. All plots were equipped with drip irrigation and cropped with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bianca F1). Lysimeters were installed at 90 cm depth in all plots and were used for monitoring the water and nitrate outflow. HYDRUS-2D was used for modeling the water and nitrogen outflow in the MULCH and CONT plots, implementing the proper boundary conditions. HYDRUS-2D simulated results showed good fitting to the field site observed data in both cumulative water and nitrate outflow, with high level of agreement. Water flow simulations produced model efficiency of 0.84 for CONT and 0.56 for MULCH plots, while nitrate simulations showed model efficiency ranging from 0.67 to 0.83 and from 0.70 to 0.93, respectively. Additional simulations were performed with the absence of the lysimeter, revealing faster transport of nitrates below drip line in the CONT plots, mostly because of the increased surface area subjected to precipitation

  15. The HPLC Detection Method of DNOP and DBP in the Beverage of Plastic Bottle Packing%瓶装饮料中DNOP、DBP类增塑剂的液相色谱检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 王伟; 张玉; 葛杭丽; 黎天天

    2012-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯类是一类重要的增塑剂,也是环境类激\\素,会影响动物内分泌系统;对人不仅有慢性毒性,致突变、致癌作用,还有生殖、发育毒性.本文研究高效液相色谱检测瓶装饮料中两种邻苯二甲酸酯(DNOP、DBP)的方法.样品经过滤、浓缩后过柱净化、富集,用50℃氮吹仪吹干,甲醇定容后过膜(0.22 μm),在UV 225nm处检测.以ProELUT PLS GLASS 200 mg/6mL小柱作为样品前处理净化柱,结果对DBP的加标回收率在83.4%~93.4%之间,对DBP的加标回收率在80.4%~86.0%之间.本实验条件下DBP和DNOP的仪器检出限均为0.01 μg/mL,说明用液相色谱法检测瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质含量是可行的.且快速、有效.%Phthalate esters (PAEs) were a class of important plasticizers, and it also were the environmental estrogens, it affects the animal endocrine system. PAEs were not only with chronic toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic effects to people, but also with reproductive and upgrowth toxicity. This study focused on the method of detection of DNOP and DBP in plastic packing beverage by HPLC. The sample were filtrated and enrichment by clean up column, and nitrogen drying at 50℃, and pass through 0.22 u,m film after fixed volume with methanol, and detected at 225 nm by HPLC. ProELUT PLS G1ASS 200 mg/6 mL as the clean up column, the recovery rate of DBP was 83.4%-93.4%, DNOP was 80.4%~86.0%. The detection limit of instrument was 0.01μg/mL. The results showed that the HPLC method was effective and convenient for the detection of DNOP and DBP in beverage.

  16. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  17. Discovery Bottles: A Unique Inexpensive Tool for the K-2 Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Discover discovery bottles! These wide-mouth plastic containers of any size filled with objects of different kinds can be terrific tools for science explorations and a great way to cultivate science minds in a K-2 science classroom. In addition, the author has found them to be a useful, inexpensive, and engaging way to help students develop skills…

  18. DYNAMIC PLASTICITY: THE ROLE OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AND OTHER TROPHIC FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, J. D.; MILNER, T. A.; MCEWEN, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Stress-induced remodeling of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala is coincident with changes in the levels of BDNF, which has been shown to act as a trophic factor facilitating the survival of existing and newly born neurons. Initially, hippocampal atrophy after chronic stress was associated with reduced BDNF, leading to the hypo...

  19. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed...

  20. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  1. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  2. Dynamic Measurements of Plastic Deformation in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube in Response to Detonation of a Small Explosives Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Sandusky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of explosions in water with structures. Aluminum cylinders with a length slightly more than twice their diameter were oriented vertically, sealed on the bottom by a thin plastic sheet, and filled with distilled water. An explosive charge suspended in the center of the tube plastically deformed but did not rupture the wall. Tube wall velocity, displacement, and strain were directly measured. The agreement among the three sets of dynamic data and the agreement of the terminal displacement measurements with the residual deformation were excellent.

  3. A Computational Model of the Temporal Dynamics of Plasticity in Procedural Learning: Sensitivity to Feedback Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian V. Valentin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evidence is now good that different memory systems mediate the learning of different types of category structures. In particular, declarative memory dominates rule-based (RB category learning and procedural memory dominates information-integration (II category learning. For example, several studies have reported that feedback timing is critical for II category learning, but not for RB category learning – results that have broad support within the memory systems literature. Specifically, II category learning has been shown to be best with feedback delays of 500ms compared to delays of 0 and 1000ms, and highly impaired with delays of 2.5 seconds or longer. In contrast, RB learning is unaffected by any feedback delay up to 10 seconds. We propose a neurobiologically detailed theory of procedural learning that is sensitive to different feedback delays. The theory assumes that procedural learning is mediated by plasticity at cortical-striatal synapses that are modified by dopamine-mediated reinforcement learning. The model captures the time-course of the biochemical events in the striatum that cause synaptic plasticity, and thereby accounts for the empirical effects of various feedback delays on II category learning.

  4. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  5. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  6. DRUCKER-PRAGER YIELD CRITERIA IN VISCOELASTIC-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR THE STUDY OF SEA ICE DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; JI Shun-ying; LV He-xiang; YUE Qian-jin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of sea ice drifting and ridging at meso-small scale, the Drucker-Prager (D-P) yield criteria was introduced into the Viscoelastic-Plastic (VEP) constitutive model for the study of sea ice dynamics. In this model, the Kelvin-Vogit viscoelastic model was adopted in the elastic stage, and the associated normal flow rule was used in the plastic stage. Using the VEP model, the sea ice ridging process was simulated in an idealized rectangular basin, and the simulation results show that the simulated ice ridge thickness is consistent with the analytical solution. Moreover, the VEP model with the D-P yield criteria was also applied for the sea ice simulation of Bohai Sea, and the ice thickness, concentration, velocity, and ice stress were obtained in 48 h. The simulated thickness distributions agree well with the satellite images. The singular problem in the Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) yield criteria was overcome by the D-P yield criteria, and the computational efficiency was also improved. In the numerical simulations described above, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics was applied.

  7. Qualitative Assessment Of Bottled Water In The Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, S.; Saleem, Abdul

    1996-01-01

    Many brands of bottled water are being produced in the Middle East including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Over fourteen brands of bottled water could be found in the market of Doha. Use of bottled water has kept on increasing in this region. Reasons for the increase in use of bottled water for drinking have been discussed. The raw water source for the bottled water is groundwater. Most of the manufacturers of the bottled water claim bottled water as "Natural Mineral Water...

  8. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  9. Modelling the time dependent movements of the La Saxe Rockslide by a dynamic visco-plastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico; Frigerio, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    A challenging issue in geological and geotechnical problems associated with slope stability concerns the analysis of sliding masses subject to continuous slow movements and intermittent stages of slowing and accelerating motion. In this work an attempt for simulating and forecasting the movement of the La Saxe rockslide (Aosta valley; Italian Western Alps; volume: about 8*10e6 m3) will be shown. The La Saxe rockslide movement could be interpreted as the result of two specific behaviours: i) a continuous creep-like movement occurring independently on groundwater conditions, even under dry-winter conditions, when the water table is mainly below or close to the failure surface; ii) a superimposed acceleration-exhaustion trend, occurring during the snow melting period (late spring-early summer) and directly related to the associated water table fluctuations, which disappears when the water inputs are reduced (late summer and winter conditions). A reliable, monitoring-driven approach to model such rockslide behaviour should account for: a) the time-dependent behaviour by means of a viscous-plastic constitutive law reproducing the creep behaviour; b) the water table fluctuation as main input to reproduce the late spring - early summer acceleration; c) 3D rockslide behaviour maintaining at the same time an high level of simplicity so to allow implementation within EWS (Early Warning System) for risk management. To this purpose a 1D pseudo-dynamic visco-plastic Newmark approach, based on Perzyna's theory (Secondi et. al 2011) has been applied. Newmark's approach considers the slope as a rigid block placed in the centre of mass of the rock slide, where the active forces are: the landslide weight, the inertial forces and the seepage force deriving from the water table level which is a function of time. All the non-linearities are condensed in an interface thin layer between the rigid block and the bedrock, whose mechanical response is assumed to be visco-plastic. In order to

  10. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Due to ever-increasing demand of sustainable products, eco-friendly packaging solutions are finding their importance in the paper packaging industry. Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is an alternative to plastic, glass and metal based packaging for beverages. The tool concept for manufacturing of paper...... bottle uses a silicone based elastomer as the core. The expansion of core in the tool resists shrinkage of paper during drying as well as helps in obtaining good fiber compaction. The feasibility of the tool concept in the production of GFB is discussed in this work....

  11. Novel Gas Barrier SiOC Coating to PET Bottles through a Hot Wire CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to enhance the gas barrier enhancement of plastic containers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles, a novel method was found using a hot wire CVD technique, where tantalum wire is heated and exposed to a gas flow of vinyl silane. The resultant SiOC thin film was confirmed to characteristically contain Si-Si bonds in its surface and demonstrate a remarkably and highly practical decrease of the permeation of various gas through poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles.

  12. Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arman, Bedri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cagin, Tahir [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

  13. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppert, M.M.J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scena

  14. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppert, M.M.J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This

  15. Conformational Plasticity in Glycomimetics: Fluorocarbamethyl-L-idopyranosides Mimic the Intrinsic Dynamic Behaviour of Natural Idose Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unione, Luca; Xu, Bixue; Díaz, Dolores; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Poveda, Ana; Sardinha, João; Rauter, Amelia Pilar; Blériot, Yves; Zhang, Yongmin; Cañada, F Javier; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesus

    2015-07-13

    Sugar function, structure and dynamics are intricately correlated. Ring flexibility is intrinsically related to biological activity; actually plasticity in L-iduronic rings modulates their interactions with biological receptors. However, the access to the experimental values of the energy barriers and free-energy difference for conformer interconversion in water solution has been elusive. Here, a new generation of fluorine-containing glycomimetics is presented. We have applied a combination of organic synthesis, NMR spectroscopy and computational methods to investigate the conformational behaviour of idose- and glucose-like rings. We have used low-temperature NMR spectroscopic experiments to slow down the conformational exchange of the idose-like rings. Under these conditions, the exchange rate becomes slow in the (19) F NMR spectroscopic chemical shift timescale and allows shedding light on the thermodynamic and kinetic features of the equilibrium. Despite the minimal structural differences between these compounds, a remarkable difference in their dynamic behaviour indeed occurs. The importance of introducing fluorine atoms in these sugars mimics is also highlighted. Only the use of (19) F NMR spectroscopic experiments has permitted the unveiling of key features of the conformational equilibrium that would have otherwise remained unobserved.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Dynamics of Th17 Differentiation and its Developmental Plasticity in the Intestinal Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Suniti; Basu, Rajatava

    2017-01-01

    After emerging from the thymus, naive CD4 T cells circulate through secondary lymphoid tissues, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the intestine. The activation of naïve CD4 T cells by antigen-presenting cells offering cognate antigen initiate differentiation programs that lead to the development of highly specialized T helper (Th) cell lineages. Although initially believed that developmental programing of effector T cells such as T helper 1 (Th1) or T helper 2 (Th2) resulted in irreversible commitment to a fixed fate, subsequent studies have demonstrated greater flexibility, or plasticity, in effector T cell stability than originally conceived. This is particularly so for the Th17 subset, differentiation of which is a highly dynamic process with overlapping developmental axes with inducible regulatory T (iTreg), T helper 22 (Th22), and Th1 cells. Accordingly, intermediary stages of Th17 cells are found in various tissues, which co-express lineage-specific transcription factor(s) or cytokine(s) of developmentally related CD4 T cell subsets. A highly specialized tissue like that of the intestine, which harbors the largest immune compartment of the body, adds several layers of complexity to the intricate process of Th differentiation. Due to constant exposure to millions of commensal microbes and periodic exposure to pathogens, the intestinal mucosa maintains a delicate balance between regulatory and effector T cells. It is becoming increasingly clear that equilibrium between tolerogenic and inflammatory axes is maintained in the intestine by shuttling the flexible genetic programming of a developing CD4 T cell along the developmental axis of iTreg, Th17, Th22, and Th1 subsets. Currently, Th17 plasticity remains an unresolved concern in the field of clinical research as targeting Th17 cells to cure immune-mediated disease might also target its related subsets. In this review, we discuss the expanding sphere of Th17 plasticity through its shared

  17. Microscopic dynamics of AC{sub 60} compounds in the plastic, polymer, and dimer phases investigated by inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, H.; Toelle, A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Gompf, F. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany)

    1997-09-01

    We present inelastic neutron-scattering results for AC{sub 60} (A=K,Rb,Cs) compounds. The spectra of the high-temperature fcc phases strongly resemble the ones of pristine C{sub 60} in the plastic phase. At equal temperatures we find identical rotational diffusion constants for pristine C{sub 60} and Rb{sub 1}C{sub 60} (D{sub r}=2.4 10{sup 10} s{sup {minus}1} at 400 K). The changes taking place in the inelastic part of the spectra on cooling AC{sub 60} indicate the formation of strong intermolecular bonds. The buildup of intensities in the gap region separating internal and external vibrations in pure C{sub 60} is the most prominent signature of this transition. The spectra of the low-temperature phases depend on their thermal history. The differences can be explained by the formation of a polymer phase (upon slow cooling from the fcc phase) and a dimer phase (upon fast cooling), respectively. The experimental data are analyzed on the basis of lattice dynamical calculations. The density-of-states are well modeled assuming a [2+2] bond for the polymer and a single intercage bond for the dimer. Indications for different intercage bonding are also found in the internal mode spectra, which, on the other hand, react only weakly to the charge transfer. The dimer phase is metastable and converts into the polymer phase with a strongly temperature-dependent time constant. The transition from the polymer to the fcc phase is accompanied by inelastic precursor effects which are interpreted as the signature of inhomogeneities arising from plastic monomer regions embedded in the polymer phase. In the polymer phase AC{sub 60} compounds show strong anharmonic behavior in the low-temperature region. The possible connection with the metal-to-insulator transition is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status......This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  19. LTS and FS inhibitory interneurons, short-term synaptic plasticity, and cortical circuit dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Hayut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin-expressing, low threshold-spiking (LTS cells and fast-spiking (FS cells are two common subtypes of inhibitory neocortical interneuron. Excitatory synapses from regular-spiking (RS pyramidal neurons to LTS cells strongly facilitate when activated repetitively, whereas RS-to-FS synapses depress. This suggests that LTS neurons may be especially relevant at high rate regimes and protect cortical circuits against over-excitation and seizures. However, the inhibitory synapses from LTS cells usually depress, which may reduce their effectiveness at high rates. We ask: by which mechanisms and at what firing rates do LTS neurons control the activity of cortical circuits responding to thalamic input, and how is control by LTS neurons different from that of FS neurons? We study rate models of circuits that include RS cells and LTS and FS inhibitory cells with short-term synaptic plasticity. LTS neurons shift the RS firing-rate vs. current curve to the right at high rates and reduce its slope at low rates; the LTS effect is delayed and prolonged. FS neurons always shift the curve to the right and affect RS firing transiently. In an RS-LTS-FS network, FS neurons reach a quiescent state if they receive weak input, LTS neurons are quiescent if RS neurons receive weak input, and both FS and RS populations are active if they both receive large inputs. In general, FS neurons tend to follow the spiking of RS neurons much more closely than LTS neurons. A novel type of facilitation-induced slow oscillations is observed above the LTS firing threshold with a frequency determined by the time scale of recovery from facilitation. To conclude, contrary to earlier proposals, LTS neurons affect the transient and steady state responses of cortical circuits over a range of firing rates, not only during the high rate regime; LTS neurons protect against over-activation about as well as FS neurons.

  20. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  1. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  2. Molecular Dynamics for Elastic and Plastic Deformation of a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Under Nanoindentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Te-Hua; JIAN Sheng-Rui; CHUU Der-San

    2004-01-01

    @@ Mechanical characteristics of a suspended (10, 10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) during atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation are investigated at different temperatures by molecular dynamics simulations.The results indicate that the Young modulus of the (10, 10) SWCNT under temperatures of 300-600K is 1.2-1.3 TPa. As the temperature increases, the Young modulus of the SWCNT increases, but the axial strain of the SWCNT decreases. The strain-induced spontaneous formation of the Stone-Wales defects and the rippled behaviour under inhomogeneous stress are studied. The rippled behaviour of the SWCNT is enhanced with the increasing axial strain. The adhesive phenomenon between the probe and the nanotube and the elastic recovery of the nanotube during the retraction are also investigated.

  3. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  4. Microstructure and annealing behavior of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel after dynamic plastic deformation to different strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Mishin, O. V.; Tao, N. R.; Pantleon, W.

    2015-03-01

    The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization takes place during annealing of the low-strain and high-strain samples for 1 h at 650 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Both coarsening and partial recrystallization occur in the high-strain sample during annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. For this sample, it is found that whereas coarsening alone results in a loss of strength with only a small gain in ductility, coarsening combined with pronounced partial recrystallization enables a combination of appreciably increased ductility and comparatively high strength.

  5. Microstructure and annealing behavior of a modified 9Cr−1Mo steel after dynamic plastic deformation to different strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.B.; Mishin, O.V. [Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals, Section for Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Tao, N.R. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark); Pantleon, W., E-mail: pawo@dtu.dk [Section for Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    The microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of a modified 9Cr−1Mo steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to different strains (0.5 and 2.3) have been investigated in the as-deformed and annealed conditions. It is found that significant structural refinement and a high level of strength can be achieved by DPD to a strain of 2.3, and that the microstructure at this strain contains a large fraction of high angle boundaries. The ductility of the DPD processed steel is however low. Considerable structural coarsening of the deformed microstructure without pronounced recrystallization takes place during annealing of the low-strain and high-strain samples for 1 h at 650 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Both coarsening and partial recrystallization occur in the high-strain sample during annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. For this sample, it is found that whereas coarsening alone results in a loss of strength with only a small gain in ductility, coarsening combined with pronounced partial recrystallization enables a combination of appreciably increased ductility and comparatively high strength.

  6. Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in bilinear elastic-plastic media, and the implications to short-pulsed laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujan, E.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.

  7. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  8. Single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption on activated carbon of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel daiem, Mahmoud M; Rivera-Utrilla, José; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2015-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption of phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on two activated carbons with different chemical natures and similar textural characteristics. The adsorption mechanism was also elucidated by analyzing the influence of solution pH and ionic strength. The activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption capacity to remove all micropollutants due to the presence of active sites on their surfaces, which increase dispersive interactions between the activated carbon graphene layers and the aromatic ring of pollutants. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons increased in the order: DPAadsorption of contaminants is favored at acid pH (pHactivated carbon decreased by around 50% and 70% in the presence of DPA and BPA, respectively, indicating that both compounds are adsorbed on the same adsorption sites of the activated carbon.

  9. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby (Texas-MED)

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  10. Revisiting the fog bottle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P-T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.

  11. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: influence of reuse on intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, J; de, Kruijf N

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects by reuse on the intrinsic properties of plastics in more detail. The plastic articles investigated were bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) and vending cups of polypropylene (PP). The influence of repeated use on the migration of plastic constituents, degradation products of plastic additives, barrier properties and surface characteristics were investigated. The overall conclusion was that the investigated intrinsic properties of the refillable articles were not significantly influenced by repeated use. Only the hydrophobicity of the refillable PC and PP articles seemed to be influenced by repeated washing. PC bottles washed 15 times were significantly less hydrophobic than unwashed bottles.

  12. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis and dynamic vascular plasticity in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shoko; Furube, Eriko; Mannari, Tetsuya; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Wanaka, Akio; Miyata, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    The sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), which comprise the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the area postrema (AP), lack a typical blood-brain barrier (BBB) and monitor directly blood-derived information to regulate body fluid homeostasis, inflammation, feeding and vomiting. Until now, almost nothing has been documented about vascular features of the sensory CVOs except fenestration of vascular endothelial cells. We therefore examine whether continuous angiogenesis occurs in the sensory CVOs of adult mouse. The angiogenesis-inducing factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and the VEGF-A-regulating transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were highly expressed in neurons of the OVLT and SFO and in both neurons and astrocytes of the AP. Expression of the pericyte-regulating factor platelet-derived growth factor B was high in astrocytes of the sensory CVOs. Immunohistochemistry of bromodeoxyuridine and Ki-67, a nuclear protein that is associated with cellular proliferation, revealed active proliferation of endothelial cells. Moreover, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 and the basement membrane marker laminin showed the presence of apoptosis and sprouting of endothelial cells, respectively. Treatment with the VEGF receptor-associated tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZD2171 significantly reduced proliferation and filopodia sprouting of endothelial cells, as well as the area and diameter of microvessels. The mitotic inhibitor cytosine-b-D-arabinofuranoside reduced proliferation of endothelial cells and the vascular permeability of blood-derived low-molecular-weight molecules without changing vascular area and microvessel diameter. Thus, our data indicate that continuous angiogenesis is dependent on VEGF signaling and responsible for the dynamic plasticity of vascular structure and permeability.

  15. Resonance in Bottles with Different Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Helmholtz Resonance equation derived in the 1800’s describes the nature of resonance in narrow-necked vessels, known as Helmholtz Resonators. It is commonly accepted that when air is blown across the opening of a bottle, the resonance can be modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Resonance was studied in two differently shaped bottles as the volume of the air cavity was varied. It was found that resonance in one of the bottles was accurately modeled by the Helmholtz equation but not in the other.

  16. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  17. Static and dynamic flow analysis of PBDEs in plastics from used and end-of-life TVs and computer monitors by life cycle in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Shin, Sun-Kyoung

    2015-02-15

    This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plastics from obsolete TVs and computer monitors that often contain large amounts of the flame retardants. According to the results of the static SFA study, 1.87 tons and 0.28 tons of PBDEs from newly manufactured TVs and computer monitors were introduced into households in 2011 in Korea, respectively. There were approximately 924 tons and 90.3 tons of PBDEs present in TVs and computer monitors in households during product use, respectively. The results of the dynamic SFA study indicated that in 2017 the amount of PBDEs from TVs and computer monitors in the recycling stage is expected to be 2.63 tons and 0.1 tons, respectively. Large fractions of PBDEs from used TVs are present in recycled plastics, while PBDE-containing computer monitors are exported to Southeast Asian countries. This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the most from recycled plastic pellet processes upon recycling. Further study may be warranted to focus the flow of PBDEs in recycled plastic products in order to determine the final destination and disposal of these chemicals in the environment.

  18. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  19. 废旧塑料改性沥青混合料动态模量研究%Research on dynamic modulus of waste plastic modified asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 谢来斌; 李彦伟; 何勇海; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    Waste plastic is reused in pavement engineering in this research. The purpose of the study is to probe the possibility of using waste plastic in asphalt mixture as a kind of modifier so as to find a way to solve the problem of the waste plastic disposal. High Density Polyethylene plastic bags obtained from supermarket were shredded into pieces and were added into asphalt mixture at three percentages of 2%, 5% and 8%. The corresponding control samples were also made and tested. Three different temperatures were used (4°C, 21. 3°C and 39. 2°C) and the frequencies ranged from 0. 1 Hz to 25 Hz in this dynamic modulus test. When compared with the test results of the control samples, almost all the dynamic modulus of the plastic modified samples( except 4 results) are greater than those of the control samples. No regular pattern is shown in the test results of the phase angle. Modified asphalt mixture with 2% plastic is of the greatest dynamic modulus and phase angle.%针对目前大量废旧塑料处置问题,尝试将其用于改性沥青混合料,以探索其在道路工程中使用的可能性.采用超市废旧高密度聚乙烯购物塑料袋,将其切碎后按照2%.5%和8%的掺量制作沥青混合料试件,采用三种试验温度在六种加载频率下进行动态模量试验,与未掺加塑料混合料的相应指标进行对比.试验结果显示在各个试验温度和加载频率下,掺加塑料屑的混合料动态模量普遍提高.掺加塑料与否对相位角指标的影响未呈现一定规律.在各个试验温度和加载频率下,2%塑料掺量混合料均具有较高的动态模量和相位角.

  20. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  1. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  2. The research of clean bottle and bottle embryo recycle in the PP bottle infusion production%洁净瓶胚料在塑瓶大输液生产中回收利用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔良峰; 黄桂华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Crush the clean plastic bottles and bottle embryos into a certain size of particles,add new pp ag-gregate mixed according to certain proportion,blow them into PP bottles again,the pp bottles will be used in the production of pp bottle infusions. Through the identification of the risk and influence factor during the recycle of the pp materials,take corresponding control measures to ensure the quality of the final products not be affected. Methods ①Identify the risk,re-search in the risk control and production process according the risk point. ②Select pp aggregate from 3 different manufactur-ers,research the different proportions of making pp bottles. ③Use the pp bottles in the production of 0. 9% sodium chloride injection and 5% glucose injection,test,research the accelerated stability study and the package material compatibili-ty. Make sure if there is quality difference between the new products which uses mixing aggregate and original products. Re-sults and Conclusion Recycle the homogeneous clean plastic bottles and bottle embryos with a certain propor-tion. Research the accelerated stability study and the package material compatibility,and compared with normal production, there is no obvious difference in the data,and the biological experiments meet the requirement at the same time. This method can ensure the product safety and stability.%目的:将塑瓶大输液生产中灌装药液前产生的洁净瓶、胚,重新粉碎成一定粒径的颗粒后,与新 PP 粒料按一定比例混合后,重新吹制成 PP 输液瓶,用于 PP 塑瓶大输液产品的生产。通过对回收利用过程中的各种风险和影响因素进行识别,采取针对性的控制措施,确保最终产品质量不受影响。方法①进行风险识别,确定风险点并据此进行风险控制与工艺研究;②选取3个不同厂家的 PP 粒料,进行不同混合比例的制瓶研究;③将不同混合比例的 PP 瓶分别用于0.9%

  3. A novel one-step synthesis for carbon-based nanomaterials from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Farag, Hassan A

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays our planet suffers from an accumulation of plastic products that have the potential to cause great harm to the environment in the form of air, water, and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the large numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent-free process that converts polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst, which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. This research succeeded in producing and controlling the microstructure of various forms of carbon nanoparticles from the PET waste by optimizing the preparation parameters in terms of time, additives, and amounts of catalyst. Plastic water bottles are becoming a growing segment of the municipal solid waste stream in the world; some are recycled but many are left in landfill sites. Recycling PET bottles waste can positively impact the environment in several ways: for instance, reduced waste, resource conservation, energy conservation, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and decreasing the amount of pollution in air and water sources. The main novelty of the present work is based on the acquisition of high-value carbon-based nanomaterials from PET waste by a simple solvent-free chemical technique. Thus, the prepared materials are considered to be promising, cheap, eco-friendly materials that may find use in different applications.

  4. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  5. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  6. Dynamic earthquake sequence simulations with fault constitutive law accounting for brittle-plastic transition and pressure solution-precipitation creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Fault mechanical behavior is presumably dictated by a pressure-sensitive friction law in the brittle regime where cataclastic deformation dominates, and by a pressure-insensitive flow law in the plastic regime where milonytes are generated. A fault constitutive law in the transitional regime is of great importance in considering earthquake cycles as evidenced by field observations of repeating brittle and ductile deformations [e.g., Sibson 1980]. Shimamoto and Noda [2014] proposed an empirical method of connecting the friction law and the flow law without introducing a new parameter, and demonstrated 2-D dynamic earthquake sequence simulations for a strike-slip fault [e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000] with the friction-to-flow law. A logarithmic rate- and state-dependent friction law (aging law) and a rate- and state-dependent flow law (power law) [Noda and Shimamoto, 2010] with a quartzite steady-state flow law (power exponent n = 4) [Hirth et al., 2001] were adopted for the friction law and the flow law, respectively. Our numerical models are realization of conceptual fault models [e.g., Scholz, 1988]. "Christmas tree" stress profiles appear as a result of evolution of the system, and fluctuate with time. During the interseismic periods, creep fronts penetrated into the locked depth, slow slip events were generated, and then nucleation of dynamic rupture took place either in the shallower or deeper creeping region. The dynamic ruptures spanned the locked depth, reaching the ground surface and extending downwards even deeper than the depth of maximum pre-stress where the deformation mode was in the transitional regime preseismically where S-C mylonitic texture was expected [Shimamoto, 1989]. The coseismic deformation was in the frictional regime because the pure flow law predicts tremendously high flow stress at high strain rate and "the weaker wins". Our simulations reproduced repeating overprint of brittle and ductile deformations. We attempt here to include pressure

  7. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  8. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  9. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  10. Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The measurements presented here represent a special case of similar experiments described by K.A. Jackson et al. (see Ref. 1 and references within). There exists also a report by Kagan describing the motion of soda cans rolling on an incline. In our case we investigate motion of the fully filled bottle. We demonstrate that within accuracy of our experiment the motion of the bottle can be described by a simple "frictionless water" model. The analysis of the dynamics of the bodies sliding and rolling on a ramp is a standard component of introductory physics classes, and a required component of the Advanced Placement (AP) Physics curriculum.

  11. Dynamic metabolic adjustments and genome plasticity are implicated in the heat shock response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Sabrina; Kelly, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    Approximately one-third of the open reading frames encoded in the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome were differentially expressed within 5 min following an 80 to 90 degrees C temperature shift at pH 4.0. This included many toxin-antitoxin loci and insertion elements, implicating a connection between genome plasticity and metabolic regulation in the early stages of stress response.

  12. Experimental and modeling analysis of asymmetrical on-off oscillation in coupled non-identical inverted bottle oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ji; Shangguan, Zhichun; Li, Haihong; Wu, Ye; Liu, Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Upside-down bottles containing water which are common in our daily life exhibit rich vibration dynamics. Rich dynamic regimes are observed in bottle oscillators by directly measuring the pressure difference between inside and outside of a bottle with the aid of pressure sensors. We observe experimentally that an asymmetrical oscillation process between the outflow of water and the inflow of air is formed in a single bottle oscillator and, in addition, a kind of 2:1 frequency synchronization occurs in a coupled system of two non-identical bottle oscillators. The peak values of the oscillation of pressure differences between inside and outside of the bottle decease as the height of the liquid surface steps down, while the oscillation period increases gradually. The theoretical model of the oscillator is amended to understand the regimes in the experiment by introducing time-dependent parameters related to the asymmetrical oscillation processes. Our numerical results based on the model fit well with the experimental ones.

  13. Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

  14. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  15. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  16. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  17. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  18. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nipples. References American Academy of Pediatrics. Practical Bottle Feeding Tips. Available at: www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/feeding-nutrition/Pages/Practical-Bottle-Feeding-Tips.aspx. Accessed April 7, 2015. Stettler N, ...

  19. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  20. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  1. Dynamic Metabolic Adjustments and Genome Plasticity Are Implicated in the Heat Shock Response of the Extremely Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Sabrina; Kelly, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the open reading frames encoded in the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome were differentially expressed within 5 min following an 80 to 90°C temperature shift at pH 4.0. This included many toxin-antitoxin loci and insertion elements, implicating a connection between genome plasticity and metabolic regulation in the early stages of stress response. PMID:16740961

  2. Formation of Small Bottle Light Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Lian-zhou; PU Ji-Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A method for obtaining small bottle light beams,e.g.0.92λ×0.4λ,in a high numerical-aperture lens system is proposed and numerically demonstrated.This can be achieved by changing the radius of each zone of the binary element and polarization rotation angle of the cylindrically polarized vectorial vortex beam.It is found that the transversal and axial sizes of this bottle bearn are equal to about 0.92λ and 0.4λ,respectively.In addition,the connection between angular momentum and topological Pancharatnam charge is also shown.

  3. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  4. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared...

  5. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2012-01-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle...

  6. 27 CFR 28.102 - Bottles to have closures affixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to have closures... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.102 Bottles to have closures affixed. Every bottle containing distilled spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of this subpart shall have a closure...

  7. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  8. Plasticization effect of C{sub 60} on the fast dynamics of polystyrene and related polymers: an incoherent neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ruppel, Markus; Cabral, Joao T [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Douglas, Jack F [Polymers Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: j.cabral@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-03-12

    We utilize inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS) to quantify how fullerenes affect the 'fast' molecular dynamics of a family of polystyrene related macromolecules. In particular, we prepared bulk nanocomposites of (hydrogenous and ring-deuterated) polystyrene and poly(4-methyl styrene) using a rapid precipitation method where the C{sub 60} relative mass fraction ranged from 0% to 4%. Elastic window scan measurements, using a high resolution (0.9 {mu}eV) backscattering spectrometer, are reported over a wide temperature range (2-450 K). Apparent Debye-Waller (DW) factors , characterizing the mean-square amplitude of proton displacements, are determined as a function of temperature, T. We find that the addition of C{sub 60} to these polymers leads to a progressive increase in relative to the pure polymer value over the entire temperature range investigated, where the effect is larger for larger nanoparticle concentration. This general trend seems to indicate that the C{sub 60} nanoparticles plasticize the fast ({approx}10{sup -15} s) local ({approx}1 A) dynamics of these polymer glasses. Generally, we expect nanoparticle additives to affect polymer dynamics in a similar fashion to thin films in the sense that the high interfacial area may cause both a speeding up and slowing down of the glass state dynamics depending on the polymer-surface interaction.

  9. 洗发水瓶揭盖式瓶盖注塑模设计%Design of Injection Mould for Shampoo Bottle Uncovery Type Bottle Cap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亮; 喻慧文; 曾雪东

    2015-01-01

    洗发水瓶揭盖式瓶盖的结构比较复杂,应用Pro/E软件的塑料顾问模块对塑料件进行分析,确定合适的点浇口位置,并着重阐述了滑块斜顶抽芯机构、顶管二次脱模的设计要点和模具工作原理。应用结果表明,该模具结构动作准确、可靠,成型的塑料件质量较好,具有良好的经济效益。%The structure of shampoo bottle uncovery type bottle cap is complex. The pin gate position was determined by using the plastic advisor of Pro/E software. The design points of lifter slider core pulling mechanism and ejector sleeve using to secondary stripping were mainly described,in addition the mould working principle were too discussed. Production practice prove that the design of the mould structure is reasonable and reliable,the plastic parts have good quality,and it has the good economic efficiency.

  10. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila P

  11. IS BOTTLE GOURD A NATURAL GUARD??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Satbir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae, popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound, flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content. In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.

  12. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  13. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  14. Universal features of amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Castellanos, David Fernandez; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics. It captures the complex shear patterning observed for a wide variety of deformation modes, as well as the avalanche dynamics of plastic flow. Avalanches are described by universal size exponents and scaling functions, avalanche shapes, and local stability distributions, independent of system dimensionality, boundary and loading conditions, and stress state. Our predictions consistently differ from those of mean-field depinning models, providing evidence that plastic yielding is a distinct type of critical phenomenon.

  15. A physically-based and fully coupled model of elasto-plasticity and damage for dynamic failure in ductile metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussouaddi, O.; Campagne, L.; Daridon, L.; Ahzi, S.

    2006-08-01

    It is well established that spall fracture and other rapid failures in ductile materials are often dominated by nucleation and growth of micro-voids. In the present work, a mechanistic model for failure by cumulative nucleation and growth of voids is fully coupled with the thermo-elastoplastic constitutive equations of the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) which is used to model the evolution of the flow stress. The damage modeling includes both ductile and brittle mechanisms. It accounts for the effects of inertia, rate sensitivity, fracture surface energy, and nucleation frequency. The MTS model used for plasticity includes the superposition of different thermal activation barriers for dislocation motion. Results obtained in the case of uncoupled and coupled model of plasticity and damage from the simulations of the planar impact with cylindrical target, are presented and compared with the experimental results for OFHC copper. This comparison shows the model capabilities in predicting the experimentally measured free surface velocity profile as well as the observed spall and other damage patterns in the material under impact loading. These results are obtained using the finite element code Abaqus/Explicit.

  16. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  17. Dynamic control of synaptic vesicle replenishment and short-term plasticity by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-Munc13-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Noa; Sakaba, Takeshi; Cooper, Benjamin H; Lin, Kun-Han; Strenzke, Nicola; Ashery, Uri; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Taschenberger, Holger; Neher, Erwin; Brose, Nils

    2013-07-10

    Short-term synaptic plasticity, the dynamic alteration of synaptic strength during high-frequency activity, is a fundamental characteristic of all synapses. At the calyx of Held, repetitive activity eventually results in short-term synaptic depression, which is in part due to the gradual exhaustion of releasable synaptic vesicles. This is counterbalanced by Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle replenishment, but the molecular mechanisms of this replenishment are largely unknown. We studied calyces of Held in knockin mice that express a Ca(2+)-Calmodulin insensitive Munc13-1(W464R) variant of the synaptic vesicle priming protein Munc13-1. Calyces of these mice exhibit a slower rate of synaptic vesicle replenishment, aberrant short-term depression and reduced recovery from synaptic depression after high-frequency stimulation. Our data establish Munc13-1 as a major presynaptic target of Ca(2+)-Calmodulin signaling and show that the Ca(2+)-Calmodulin-Munc13-1 complex is a pivotal component of the molecular machinery that determines short-term synaptic plasticity characteristics.

  18. Comparative study of sea ice dynamics simulations with a Maxwell elasto-brittle rheology and the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology in NEMO-LIM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulier, Jonathan; Dansereau, Véronique; Fichefet, Thierry; Legat, Vincent; Weiss, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice is a highly dynamical environment characterized by a dense mesh of fractures or leads, constantly opening and closing over short time scales. This characteristic geomorphology is linked to the existence of linear kinematic features, which consist of quasi-linear patterns emerging from the observed strain rate field of sea ice. Standard rheologies used in most state-of-the-art sea ice models, like the well-known elastic-viscous-plastic rheology, are thought to misrepresent those linear kinematic features and the observed statistical distribution of deformation rates. Dedicated rheologies built to catch the processes known to be at the origin of the formation of leads are developed but still need evaluations on the global scale. One of them, based on a Maxwell elasto-brittle formulation, is being integrated in the NEMO-LIM3 global ocean-sea ice model (www.nemo-ocean.eu; www.elic.ucl.ac.be/lim). In the present study, we compare the results of the sea ice model LIM3 obtained with two different rheologies: the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology commonly used in LIM3 and a Maxwell elasto-brittle rheology. This comparison is focused on the statistical characteristics of the simulated deformation rate and on the ability of the model to reproduce the existence of leads within the ice pack. The impact of the lead representation on fluxes between ice, atmosphere and ocean is also assessed.

  19. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  20. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  1. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  2. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  3. Leaching of styrene and other aromatic compounds in drinking water from PS bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S.Bajahlan

    2007-01-01

    Bottled water may not be safer, or healthier, than tap water. The present studies have proved that styrene and some other aromatic compounds leach continuously from polystyrene (PS) bottles used locally for packaging. Water sapmles in contact with PS were extracted by a preconcentration technique called as "purge and trap" and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Eleven aromatic compounds were identified in these studies. Maximum concentration of styrene in PS bottles was 29.5 μg/L. Apart from styrene, ethyl benzene, toluene and benzene were also quantified but their concentrations were much less than WHO guide line values. All other compounds were in traces. Quality of plastic and storage time were the major factor in leaching of styrene. Concentration of styrene was increased to 69.53 μg/L after one-year storage time. In Styrofoam and PS cups studies, hot water was found to be contaminated with styrene and other aromatic compounds. It was observed that temperature played a major role in the leaching of styrene monomer from Styrofoam cups. Paper cups were found to be safe for hot drinks.

  4. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  5. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  6. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  7. Conformational plasticity and dynamics in the generic protein folding catalyst SlyD unraveled by single-molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahra, Dana; Kovermann, Michael; Löw, Christian; Hirschfeld, Verena; Haupt, Caroline; Balbach, Jochen; Hübner, Christian Gerhard

    2011-08-26

    The relation between conformational dynamics and chemistry in enzyme catalysis recently has received increasing attention. While, in the past, the mechanochemical coupling was mainly attributed to molecular motors, nowadays, it seems that this linkage is far more general. Single-molecule fluorescence methods are perfectly suited to directly evidence conformational flexibility and dynamics. By labeling the enzyme SlyD, a member of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases of the FK506 binding protein type with an inserted chaperone domain, with donor and acceptor fluorophores for single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we directly monitor conformational flexibility and conformational dynamics between the chaperone domain and the FK506 binding protein domain. We find a broad distribution of distances between the labels with two main maxima, which we attribute to an open conformation and to a closed conformation of the enzyme. Correlation analysis demonstrates that the conformations exchange on a rate in the 100 Hz range. With the aid from Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there must be conformational flexibility beyond the two main conformational states. Interestingly, neither the conformational distribution nor the dynamics is significantly altered upon binding of substrates or other known binding partners. Based on these experimental findings, we propose a model where the conformational dynamics is used to search the conformation enabling the chemical step, which also explains the remarkable substrate promiscuity connected with a high efficiency of this class of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases.

  8. Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with non-compact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles". The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebanski-Demianski solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.

  9. Isolation of Leptospira from blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Dominique; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Geroult, Sophie; Colot, Julien; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-01-31

    With the increasing use of real-time PCR techniques, Leptospira isolation has mostly been abandoned for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis. However, there is a great value of collecting Leptospira isolates to better understand the epidemiology of this complex zoonosis and to provide the researchers with different isolates. In this study, we have successfully isolated different Leptospira strains from BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture bottles and suggest that this privileged biological material offers an opportunity to isolate leptospires.

  10. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  11. Dynamics and plasticity of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by miR-200 family inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Kondo, Masayuki; Uchikawa, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Chit, Ung Weng; Shimizu, Takanobu; Iba, Hideo

    2016-02-18

    Whereas miR-200 family is known to be involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial biological process observed in normal and pathological contexts, it has been largely unclear how far the functional levels of these tiny RNAs alone can propagate the molecular events to accomplish this process within several days. By developing a potent inhibitor of miR-200 family members (TuD-141/200c), the expression of which is strictly regulatable by the Tet (tetracycline)-On system, we found using a human colorectal cell line, HCT116, that several direct gene target mRNAs (Zeb1/Zeb2, ESRP1, FN1and FHOD1) of miR-200 family were elevated with distinct kinetics. Prompt induction of the transcriptional suppressors, Zeb1/Zeb2 in turn reduced the expression levels of miR-200c/-141 locus, EpCAM, ESRP1 and E-Cad. The loss of ESRP1 subsequently switched the splicing isoforms of CD44 and p120 catenin mRNAs to mesenchymal type. Importantly, within 9 days after the release from the inhibition of miR-200 family, all of the expression changes in the 14 genes observed in this study returned to their original levels in the epithelial cells. This suggests that the inherent epithelial plasticity is supported by a weak retention of key regulatory gene expression in either the epithelial or mesenchymal states through epigenetic regulation.

  12. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles.

  13. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  14. Adsorption of xenobiotics to plastic tubing incorporated into dynamic in vitro systems used in pharmacological research--limits and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J K; Kuehlein, G; Schroers, A; Gerlach, J C; Rossaint, R

    2001-07-01

    Commonly used materials incorporated into dynamic culture systems typically show the feature of adsorption of lipophilic xenobiotics. Yet, this phenomenon is strongly limiting the use of dynamic culture models and ex vivo organ perfusions in pharmacological and toxicological research. The aim of the study was to characterize different materials with respect to their capacity for drug adsorption and to find methods or materials to reduce the loss of substrate by adsorption in order to improve the use of dynamic in vitro systems. The adsorption of different xenobiotics (lidocaine, midazolam, lormetazepam, phenobarbital, testosterone, ethoxyresoroufine) to tubes used in dynamic in vitro systems (polyvinyl-chloride, silicone) were investigated and compared to a new material (silicone-caoutchouc-mixture). In addition, the role of protein deposition onto the tubing was studied and it was investigated whether it was possible to reach saturation of the inner tube surface by pre-loading it with the test compound. We found that silicone tubes provided the highest comfort with respect to handling and reusability, but they also demonstrated the highest capacity for substrate adsorption. Polyvinyl-chloride was the second best in handling but also demonstrated a high complexity in its adsorption behavior. The silicone-caoutchouc-mixture reached acceptable experimental results with respect to its handling and demonstrated a very low capacity for substrate adsorption.

  15. Effects of bursting dynamic features on the generation of multi-clustered structure of neural network with symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui; Song, Yongduan; Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Xiumin, E-mail: xmli@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Dependable Service Computing in Cyber Physical Society of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, the generation of multi-clustered structure of self-organized neural network with different neuronal firing patterns, i.e., bursting or spiking, has been investigated. The initially all-to-all-connected spiking neural network or bursting neural network can be self-organized into clustered structure through the symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning for both bursting and spiking neurons. However, the time consumption of this clustering procedure of the burst-based self-organized neural network (BSON) is much shorter than the spike-based self-organized neural network (SSON). Our results show that the BSON network has more obvious small-world properties, i.e., higher clustering coefficient and smaller shortest path length than the SSON network. Also, the results of larger structure entropy and activity entropy of the BSON network demonstrate that this network has higher topological complexity and dynamical diversity, which benefits for enhancing information transmission of neural circuits. Hence, we conclude that the burst firing can significantly enhance the efficiency of clustering procedure and the emergent clustered structure renders the whole network more synchronous and therefore more sensitive to weak input. This result is further confirmed from its improved performance on stochastic resonance. Therefore, we believe that the multi-clustered neural network which self-organized from the bursting dynamics has high efficiency in information processing.

  16. Effects of bursting dynamic features on the generation of multi-clustered structure of neural network with symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Song, Yongduan; Xue, Fangzheng; Li, Xiumin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the generation of multi-clustered structure of self-organized neural network with different neuronal firing patterns, i.e., bursting or spiking, has been investigated. The initially all-to-all-connected spiking neural network or bursting neural network can be self-organized into clustered structure through the symmetric spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning for both bursting and spiking neurons. However, the time consumption of this clustering procedure of the burst-based self-organized neural network (BSON) is much shorter than the spike-based self-organized neural network (SSON). Our results show that the BSON network has more obvious small-world properties, i.e., higher clustering coefficient and smaller shortest path length than the SSON network. Also, the results of larger structure entropy and activity entropy of the BSON network demonstrate that this network has higher topological complexity and dynamical diversity, which benefits for enhancing information transmission of neural circuits. Hence, we conclude that the burst firing can significantly enhance the efficiency of clustering procedure and the emergent clustered structure renders the whole network more synchronous and therefore more sensitive to weak input. This result is further confirmed from its improved performance on stochastic resonance. Therefore, we believe that the multi-clustered neural network which self-organized from the bursting dynamics has high efficiency in information processing.

  17. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, K N; Karapanagioti, H K; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G

    2016-03-22

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  19. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  20. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  1. Tiny Gems of Chinese Handicraft:Snuff Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    THE snuff bottle, a kind of handicraft introduced to China from abroad along with the habit of sniffing powdered tobacco, has a history of more than 200 years. Despite the fact that the practice of taking snuff has long since disappeared, Chinese snuff bottles have become precious collector’s items because of their exquisite artistry. The snuff bottle was especially popular in the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723-1735) during the Qing

  2. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  3. Oceanographic Station Data from CTD and bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 15 March 1976 to 06 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7800333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from CTD and bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 15 March 1976 to 06 April 1976. Data were collected by the Woods...

  4. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the ATLANTIS II as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 19 January 1980 to 15 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8500055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the ATLANTIS II from 19 January 1980 to 15 February 1980. Data were collected by Texas A&M...

  5. Oceanographic Station Data from meteorological sensors and bottle casts from the MELVILLE as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 21 February 1975 to 30 March 1975 (NODC Accession 7700538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from meteorological sensors and bottle casts from the MELVILLE from 21 February 1975 to 30 March 1975. Data were collected...

  6. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 14 July 1967 to 04 May 1979 (NODC Accession 8700063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from 14 July 1967 to 04 May 1979....

  7. Temperature profile and sound velocity data collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 19 March 1973 to 03 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7600779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and sound velocity data were collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic...

  8. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the ICE ISLAND as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 12 September 1974 to 06 October 1974 (NODC Accession 7700357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the ICE ISLAND from 12 September 1974 to 06 October 1974. Data were collected by Oregon State...

  9. Oceanographic Station Data and temperature profiles from bottle and XBT casts from the ALMIRANTE IRIZAR and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 1975-01-18 to 1982-11-06 (NCEI Accession 8700110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data and temperature profiles were collected from bottle and XBT casts from the ALMIRANTE IRIZAR and other platforms from 18 January 1975 to 06...

  10. Oceanographic Station Data from meteorological sensors, CTD, and bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 06 February 1976 to 07 March 1976 (NODC Accession 7800191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from meteorological sensors, CTD, and bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 06 February 1976 to 07 March 1976. Data...

  11. MAT 300  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

     MAT 300  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/mat-300-assignment-1-bottling-company-case-study/   Due Week 10 and worth 140 points Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investig...

  12. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  13. Chronic alcohol alters rewarded behaviors and striatal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    DePoy, Lauren; Daut, Rachel; Wright, Tara; Camp, Marguerite; Crowley, Nicole; Noronha, Bianca; Lovinger, David; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) alters neural functions and behaviors mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged (16-bout) CIE on DLS plasticity and DLS-mediated behaviors. Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings revealed loss in efficacy of DLS synaptically induced activation and absent long-term depression after CIE. CIE increased two-bottle choice drinking and impaired Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer but not discrimin...

  14. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  15. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water...

  16. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  17. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  20. Mathematical modeling of phenomena of dynamic recrystallization during hot plastic deformation in high-carbon bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dembiczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results, coefficients were determined in constitutive equations, describing the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization in high-carbon bainitic steel during hot deformation. The developed mathematical model takes into account the dependence of changing kinetics in the size evolution of the initial austenite grains, the value of strain, strain rate, temperature and time. Physical simulations were carried out on rectangular specimens measuring 10 × 15 × 20 mm. Compression tests with a plane state of deformation were carried out using a Gleeble 3800.

  1. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  2. Bottle filling machine bottle holder stainless steel prop Process Analysis%灌瓶机不锈钢托瓶支架加工工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易忠奇; 陈平华

    2013-01-01

    针对ASY1/20塑料安瓿制瓶、灌装、封口一体机不锈钢托瓶支架零件机械加工工艺方案的确定方法、理论依据及对各加工工序所需的工装夹具设计进行了详细的阐述。同时,在机械加工中不锈钢材质零件属难加工材料,就如何确保零件的加工质量和提高加工效率,对切削用的刀具材料、参数选择及加工工艺进行探讨,并在实际生产中得到了应用,有效的提高产品质量和经济效益。%For ASY1/20 plastic ampoule bottle, filling and sealing machine stainless steel prop bottle holder parts ma-chining process plan determination methods, theoretical basis and the various processing steps required for fixture design was elaborated. Meanwhile, in machining stainless steel parts are difficult to machine materials, on how to ensure part quality and improve processing efficiency, cutting tool material selection and processing parameters are discussed, and in the actual production has been applied, effectively improve the product quality and economic efficiency.

  3. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  4. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  5. THE HISTORY OF BORSEC MINERAL WATER BOTTLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The History of Borsec Mineral Water Bottling. The mineral water springs of Borsec have been known to exist since ancient times. It started as a legend, presented by Orbán Balász, who mentions an author named Salzer. In his „Voyage Diaries in Transylvania”, Salzer recounts the discovery of healing springs in the area, and attributes it, like many other authors, to a Romanian shepherd called Gheorghe, who, suffering from ulcer, returning home one day, drank from one of the Borsec springs. Drinking the sour water, he felt better. Consequently, he remained there for a couple of days, drinking water from the same spot and curing his ailment. Written documents date back from the 16th century, when Bethlen Farkas, in the historical novel „Historia”, recounts that, in 1594, Sigismund Bathory, who resided in Alba Iulia, suffered from nervous exhaustion. His Italian doctor, Bucello, who knew about the curing effects of the Borsec mineral waters, prescribed a treatment using the water from the „Lobogó” spring. The water, transported to the princely estate in large covered barrels, eventually healed Sigismund Bathory. It is easy to see why, at the end of the 16th century, the mineral water of Borsec, with its miracle properties, was well known in Transylvania and at the imperial court of Vienna. The above mentioned spring, used from the 19th century onwards, for spas and for bottling, earned great renown, especially due to the high concentration of CO2 (over 2.5 g/l. The bottled sparkling water, due to its pleasant taste and its chemical stability, is the most sought after table water. This explains why, in most cases, the notion of mineral water is associated with „Borsec”.

  6. Little bottles and the promise of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Moreira, Tiago; Murtagh, Madeleine

    2009-03-01

    In this article we explore; regimes of hope' in contemporary bioscience as articulated in spaces of health consumption. We use the case study of probiotic little bottles, highlighting their promissory branding as consumer products, to consider how hope and truth play out across different spaces of health care - the supermarket, media and laboratory. Drawing on work within both sociological and geographic literatures to think about hope, truth and probiotics, this article explores their ambiguous promise through an analysis of their biomedical and popular representation. The seemingly incommensurate promise of probiotics between popular and medical spheres provides the point of departure for an examination of the geographies of hope, truth and selfhood.

  7. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  8. Dynamic Shear Modulus Prediction of Wood Plastic Composite Materials Based on Gray Neural Network%基于灰色神经网络木塑复合材料动态剪切模量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦楠; 马莉英; 王琳

    2015-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of wood-plastic composite materials processing technology, this paper designed the wood-plastic composite materials processing experiment under different process conditions, and obtained the mechanical properties under different conditions. Based on gray neural network forecasting model, this paper established the prediction model of wood-plastic composite materials dynamic shear modulus. The results show that this model can predict the wood-plastic composite materials dynamic shear modulus well, and the prediction maximum error is 0.69%, which achieves practical engineering requirements.%基于木塑复合材料加工工艺的特点,设计了不用工艺条件下的木塑复合材料工艺实验,并得到了不同条件下的力学性能。本文在灰色神经网络组合预测模型的基础上,建立了木塑复合材料动态剪切模量的预测模型。结果表明:该模型能够较好地预测出木塑复合材料动态剪切模量,预测最大误差为0.69%,能够达到工程实际要求。

  9. Steady-state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer 4/5a pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Miquelajauregui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steady state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer (L 2/3 and L5B cortical pyramidal neurons have recently been assessed using in vivo two-photon microscopy (Trachtenberg et al., 2002; Zuo et al., 2005; Holtmaat et al., 2006. In contrast, not much is known about spine dynamics in L4/5a neurons, regarded as direct recipients of thalamocortical input (Constantinople and Bruno, 2013. In the adult mouse somatosensory cortex (SCx, the transcription factor Ebf2 is enriched in excitatory neurons of L4/5a, including pyramidal neurons. We assessed the molecular and electrophysiological properties of these neurons as well as the morphology of their apical tufts (Scholl analysis and cortical outputs (optogenetics within the SCx. To test the hypothesis that L4/5a pyramidal neurons play an important role in sensory processing (given their key laminar position; soma depth ~450-480 µm, we successfully labeled them in Ebf2-Cre mice with EGFP by expressing recombinant rAAV vectors in utero. Using longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy through a craniotomy (Mostany and Portera-Cailliau, 2008, we repeatedly imaged spines in apical dendritic tufts of L4/5a neurons under basal conditions and after sensory deprivation. Under steady-state conditions in adults, the morphology of the apical tufts and the mean spine density were stable at 0.39 ± 0.05 spines/μm (comparable to L5B, Mostany et al., 2011. Interestingly, spine elimination increases 4-8 days after sensory deprivation, probably due to input loss. This suggests that Ebf2+ L4/5a neurons could be involved in early steps of processing of thalamocortical information.

  10. 27 CFR 19.394 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.394 Section 19.394 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... which are labeled as bottled-in-bond for domestic consumption shall meet the requirements in 27 CFR...

  11. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... officer that such bottle is not an approved container for distilled spirits for consumption in the...

  12. Filling or draining a water bottle with two holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-07-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli’s equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  13. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results, o

  14. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  15. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  16. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  17. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel vision-based PET bottle recycling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyu; He, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Xinyue

    2017-02-01

    Post-consumer PET bottle recycling is attracting increasing attention due to its value as an energy conservation and environmental protection measure. Sorting by color is a common method in bottle recycling; however, manual operations are unstable and time consuming. In this paper, we design a vision-based facility to perform high-speed bottle sorting. The proposed facility consists mainly of electric and mechanical hardware and image processing software. To solve the recognition problem of isolated and overlapped bottles, we propose a new shape descriptor and utilize the support vector data description classifier. We use color names to represent the colors in the real world in order to avoid problems introduced by colors that are similar. The facility is evaluated by the target error, outlier error and total error. The experimental results demonstrate that the facility we developed is capable of recycling various PET bottles.

  19. Elastic-plastic dynamic time-history analysis of tall frame-corewall structure%某超限高层框筒结构弹塑性动力时程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程柯; 桂国强

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic elastic-plastic analyses are carried out for a tall frame-corewall structure by the commercial FE program MIDAS BUILDING. The structural dynamic response and member plastic developing process are investigated under practical earthquake effects, and seismic perform- ance of structure is meanwhile evaluated. Proposals are also put forward for improvement of engineering design.%应用MIDAS BUILDING结构软件对一个高层框筒结构进行了罕遇地震下的动力弹塑性分析,给出了结构在实际地震作用下的动力响应及各部位、构件的塑性发展情况,对结构的抗震性能做出评价,并对工程设计提出改进建议。

  20. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  1. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association, bottled water was the second most popular beverage in the U.S. in 2005, with Americans consuming more than 7.5 million gallons of bottled water - an average of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled ...

  2. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  3. Indications and Complications of Tube Thoracostomy with Improvised Underwater Seal Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaigbini, Sunday A; Delia, Ibrahim Z; Aminu, Muhammad B; Orogade, Abosede A; Anumenechi, Ndubuisi; Aliyu, Ibrahim D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013). The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5%) males and 61 (36.5%) females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%). Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%), Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%), postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%), empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%), heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6%) each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8%) and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%). A hundred and one (60.5%) of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6%) by consultants, house officers 15 (9%) and senior registrars 10 (6%). The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6%) and pneumothorax (3.6%). The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion: Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles. PMID:25191098

  4. Sustainable Recycling of PET Bottles in Rio de Janeiro Title: Reciclaje Sostenible de Botellas de PET en Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Edmundo Costa Leite; José Henrique Penido Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a case study on solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro. This privately-owned initiative involves the application of market instruments to boost the recycling of used plastic bottles.Abstract: Este trabajo presenta un estudio de caso exitoso implementado en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, evidenciando la utilización de un instrumento basado en el mercado con el propósito de perfeccionar la calidad de los servicios de aseo urbano de la ciudad. En esto estud...

  5. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  6. Recycling policies and programmes for PET drink bottles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanse, Elvira

    2011-09-01

    Transition and emerging economies confront a steadily increasing generation of municipal solid waste in the form of disposable packaging. The following article reports the situation of soft drink bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in Mexico. Since 2002 schemes following the European Green Dot principle have been partly implemented to place responsibility on the producer, mainly soft drink bottlers. Private stakeholders are responsible for national recovery activities. Meanwhile Government presence to promote recovery is absent. Of post-consumer PET 75% is exported, and the newly created bottle-to-bottle (BTB) PET industry is confronted with bottlenecks in their post-consumer PET supply.

  7. Flutist produces four resonances with a single bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-03-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22 cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22 cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat is provided (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Four Resonances with a 12-ounce Soda Bottle (https://youtu.be/ibtVrp2NF_k)). The video also reveals that a flutist can bend resonance pitches by as much as 10% through control of air speed.

  8. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic.

  9. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P 85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  10. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  11. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  12. Risk Perceptions of Arsenic in Tap Water and Consumption of Bottled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Shaw, W. Douglass; Nguyen, To N.; Walker, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The demand for bottled water has increased rapidly over the past decade, but bottled water is extremely costly compared to tap water. The convenience of bottled water surely matters to consumers, but are others factors at work? This manuscript examines whether purchases of bottled water are associated with the perceived risk of tap water. All of the past studies on bottled water consumption have used simple scale measures of perceived risk that do not correspond to risk measures used by risk ...

  13. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  14. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  15. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  16. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, and other data from CTD and bottle casts in coastal California/Oregon/Washington and NE Pacific (limit-180) from the R/V NEW HORIZON in support of the GLOBal oceans ECosystems dynamics research (GLOBEC) project from 31 May 2000 to 12 August 2000 (NODC Accession 0000675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the R/V New Horizon in coastal California/Washington/Oregon and NE Pacific (limit-180) from 31 May 2000 to 12 August...

  17. Bottler of the Year: Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Fuhrman

    2010-01-01

    .... Coca-Cola Bottling Co Consolidated, Charlotte, NC, has built its core business this year through innovative pricing strategies, enabling its sales force with new technology, grass roots marketing...

  18. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  19. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  20. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  1. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bison, G; Daum, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Meier, M; Ries, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCN) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments 32 liter e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  2. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  3. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  4. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  5. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  6. Rare earth elements in some bottled waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one bottled mineral and spring waters from Serbia were analyzed for 16 inorganic chemical parameters, including lanthanides and yttrium which belong to the group of so-called rare earth elements (REE. REE concentrations in the bottled water samples varied over a broad range, from 5.39 to 1585.82 ng/L. Total concentrations in the bottled water samples were calculated taking into account the classification of lanthanides into heavy (HREE and light (LREE, with yttrium added to the HREE group. The LREE concentrations ranged from 3.62 to 1449.63 ng/L, while those of the HREE were from 0 to 136.19 ng/L. Distinct REE signatures were observed in waters that drained specific rocks. The REE patterns in groundwater from granitic and related rocks showed LREE and HREE enrichment, while groundwater with mafic rock influence exhibited slightly LREE enrichment. Several bottled water samples featured naturally-occurring carbon dioxide, whose solutional capacity contributed to the highest REE concentrations in the analyzed samples. High REE concentrations are also a result of sudden changes in oxidation-reduction conditions, which particularly affect La, Ce and Eu. Aquifers developed in granitic and related rocks (methamorphic and sedimentary rocks constitute favorable environments for HREE in groundwater, corroborated by the occurrence of HREE in bottled water samples. The bottled water samples largely exhibited a negative cerium anomaly and nearly all the samples showed a positive europium anomaly.

  7. A self-feeding roller bottle for continuous cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, R Eric; Friederichs, Goetz

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a self-feeding roller bottle that delivers a continuous supply of fresh media to cells in culture, which is mechanically simplistic and works with existing roller apparatuses, is presented here. A conventional roller bottle is partitioned into two chambers; one chamber contains the fresh culture media reservoir, and the other contains the cell culture chamber. A spiroid of tubing inside the fresh media reservoir acts as a pump when the bottle rotates on its horizontal axis, continuously delivering fresh media through an opening in the partition to the cell culture chamber. The modified bottle proved capable of maintaining steady-state cell densities of a hybridoma cell line over the 10-day period tested, although at lower densities than reached during batch operation due to the continuous volume dilution. Steady-state density proved to be controllable by adjusting the perfusion rate, which changes with the rotation rate of the bottle. Specific antibody production rate is as much as 3.7 times the rate in conventional roller bottles operating with intermittent batch feeding.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a twisted airfoil shaped two-bladed H-Darrieus rotor made from fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Gupta, Sukanta Roy, Agnimitra Biswas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available H-Darrieus rotor is a lift type device having two to three blades designed as airfoils. The blades are attached vertically to the central shaft through support arms. The support to vertical axis helps the rotor maintain its shape. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis of an airfoil shaped two-bladed H-Darrieus rotor using Fluent 6.2 software was performed. Based on the CFD results, a comparative study between experimental and computational works was carried out. The H-Darrieus rotor was 20cm in height, 5cm in chord and twisted with an angle of 30° at the trailing end. The blade material of rotor was Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP. The experiments were earlier conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel for various height-to-diameter (H/D ratios. A two dimensional computational modeling was done with the help of Gambit tool using unstructured grid. Realistic boundary conditions were provided for the model to have synchronization with the experimental conditions. Two dimensional steady-state segregated solver with absolute velocity formulation and cell based grid was considered, and a standard k-epsilon viscous model with standard wall functions was chosen. A first order upwind discretization scheme was adopted for pressure velocity coupling of the flow. The inlet velocities and rotor rotational speeds were taken from the experimental results. From the computational analysis, power coefficient (Cp and torque coefficient (Ct values at ten different H/D ratios namely 0.85, 1.0, 1.10, 1.33, 1.54, 1.72, 1.80, 1.92, 2.10 and 2.20 were calculated in order to predict the performances of the twisted H-rotor. The variations of Cp and Ct with tip speed ratios were analyzed and compared with the experimental results. The standard deviations of computational Cp and Ct from experimental Cp and Ct were obtained. From the computational analysis, the highest values of Cp and Ct were obtained at H/D ratios of 1.0 and 1.54 respectively. The

  9. Flotation separation of waste plastics for recycling-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jian-gang; Liu, You-nian

    2015-07-01

    The sharp increase of plastic wastes results in great social and environmental pressures, and recycling, as an effective way currently available to reduce the negative impacts of plastic wastes, represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Froth flotation is a promising method to solve the key problem of recycling process, namely separation of plastic mixtures. This review surveys recent literature on plastics flotation, focusing on specific features compared to ores flotation, strategies, methods and principles, flotation equipments, and current challenges. In terms of separation methods, plastics flotation is divided into gamma flotation, adsorption of reagents, surface modification and physical regulation.

  10. VISCO-ELASTIC (PLASTIC) EFFECTS AND FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF PUR FOAMED PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The viscous effects and failure behavior of PUR foamed plastics are investigated by the cycling loading and preloading experiments. On the basis of static and dynamic compressive experiments, the SEM analysis is given for the PUR foamed plastics specimens which have been tested and the deformation as well as failure mechanisms are determined at the same time. In addition, the relaxation characteristics and the failure criterion of foamed plastics are discussed adequately.

  11. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  12. Regulation of a dynamic interaction between two microtubule-binding proteins, EB1 and TIP150, by the mitotic p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) orchestrates kinetochore microtubule plasticity and chromosome stability during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Wang, Zhikai; Xia, Peng; Chu, Youjun; Wang, Xiwei; Liu, Lifang; Jiang, Kai; Yu, Huijuan; Yan, Maomao; Wang, Jianyu; Hill, Donald L; Huang, Yuejia; Zhu, Tongge; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-05-31

    The microtubule cytoskeleton network orchestrates cellular dynamics and chromosome stability in mitosis. Although tubulin acetylation is essential for cellular plasticity, it has remained elusive how kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) acetylation in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the plus-end tracking protein, TIP150, regulates dynamic kinetochore-microtubule attachments by promoting the stability of spindle microtubule plus-ends. Suppression of TIP150 by siRNA results in metaphase alignment delays and perturbations in chromosome biorientation. TIP150 is a tetramer that binds an end-binding protein (EB1) dimer through the C-terminal domains, and overexpression of the C-terminal TIP150 or disruption of the TIP150-EB1 interface by a membrane-permeable peptide perturbs chromosome segregation. Acetylation of EB1-PCAF regulates the TIP150 interaction, and persistent acetylation perturbs EB1-TIP150 interaction and accurate metaphase alignment, resulting in spindle checkpoint activation. Suppression of the mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine protein kinase, BubR1, overrides mitotic arrest induced by impaired EB1-TIP150 interaction, but cells exhibit whole chromosome aneuploidy. Thus, the results identify a mechanism by which the TIP150-EB1 interaction governs kinetochore microtubule plus-end plasticity and establish that the temporal control of the TIP150-EB1 interaction by PCAF acetylation ensures chromosome stability in mitosis.

  13. Regulation of a Dynamic Interaction between Two Microtubule-binding Proteins, EB1 and TIP150, by the Mitotic p300/CBP-associated Factor (PCAF) Orchestrates Kinetochore Microtubule Plasticity and Chromosome Stability during Mitosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Wang, Zhikai; Xia, Peng; Chu, Youjun; Wang, Xiwei; Liu, Lifang; Jiang, Kai; Yu, Huijuan; Yan, Maomao; Wang, Jianyu; Hill, Donald L.; Huang, Yuejia; Zhu, Tongge; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton network orchestrates cellular dynamics and chromosome stability in mitosis. Although tubulin acetylation is essential for cellular plasticity, it has remained elusive how kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) acetylation in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the plus-end tracking protein, TIP150, regulates dynamic kinetochore-microtubule attachments by promoting the stability of spindle microtubule plus-ends. Suppression of TIP150 by siRNA results in metaphase alignment delays and perturbations in chromosome biorientation. TIP150 is a tetramer that binds an end-binding protein (EB1) dimer through the C-terminal domains, and overexpression of the C-terminal TIP150 or disruption of the TIP150-EB1 interface by a membrane-permeable peptide perturbs chromosome segregation. Acetylation of EB1-PCAF regulates the TIP150 interaction, and persistent acetylation perturbs EB1-TIP150 interaction and accurate metaphase alignment, resulting in spindle checkpoint activation. Suppression of the mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine protein kinase, BubR1, overrides mitotic arrest induced by impaired EB1-TIP150 interaction, but cells exhibit whole chromosome aneuploidy. Thus, the results identify a mechanism by which the TIP150-EB1 interaction governs kinetochore microtubule plus-end plasticity and establish that the temporal control of the TIP150-EB1 interaction by PCAF acetylation ensures chromosome stability in mitosis. PMID:23595990

  14. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the ...

  15. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the particles of a given Kaluza-Klein tier, which gives a very important role to co-annihilation effects. Finally the role of higher Kaluza-Klein tiers is also important and is discussed together with a detailed numerical description of the influence of the resonances.

  16. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mukhopadhyay

    2003-06-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources.

  17. Disorientations and work-hardening behaviour during severe plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Orientation differences develop during plastic deformation even in grains of originally uniform orientation. The evolution of these disorientations is modelled by dislocation dynamics taking into account different storage mechanisms. The predicted average disorientation angles across different...... types of boundaries are in agreement with experimental data for small and moderate plastic strains. At large plastic strains after severe plastic deformation, saturation of the measured average disorientation angle is observed. This saturation is explained as an immediate consequence of the restriction...

  18. Effects of Planting Density, Duration of Disclosing Plastic Film and Nitrogen Fertilization on the Growth Dynamics of Rapeseed under No-tillage Cultivation%不同密度·揭膜时间和施氮量对免耕油菜生育动态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志三; 艾复清; 张一帆

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to understend the optimized combination of planting density, duration of disclosing plastic film and nitrogen fertilization under no-tillage cultivation. [Method] Quadratic polynomial regression and saturated D-optimal design were employed to investigate the effects of planting density, duration of disclosing plastic film and nitrogen fertilization on the dynamics growth of rapeseed under no-tillage cultivation. [Result] Within the experimental range, the growth dynamics of no-tillage cultivated rapeseed assumed a rise-fall tend. For the effects to the growth dynamics of no-tillage cultivated rapeseed, nitrogen application amount was higher than planting density and duration of disclosing plastic film. The interaction effect between planting density and duration of disclosing plastic film was higher than that between nitrogen application amount and planting density, and between nitrogen application amount and duration of disclosing plastic film. [Conclusion] The optimized combination of these factors for dynamic growth of rapeseed under no-tillage cultivation was determined to be: planting density of per hectare 154 925 individuals, duration of disclosing plastic film of 110 d, nitrogen application amount of 315 kg/hm2.

  19. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  20. The Genetics of Phenotypic Plasticity. XIV. Coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Holt, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Plastic changes in organisms' phenotypes can result from either abiotic or biotic effectors. Biotic effectors create the potential for a coevolutionary dynamic. Through the use of individual-based simulations, we examined the coevolutionary dynamic of two species that are phenotypically plastic. We explored two modes of biotic and abiotic interactions: ecological interactions that determine the form of natural selection and developmental interactions that determine phenotypes. Overall, coevolution had a larger effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity than plasticity had on the outcome of coevolution. Effects on the evolution of plasticity were greater when the fitness-maximizing coevolutionary outcomes were antagonistic between the species pair (predator-prey interactions) than when those outcomes were augmenting (competitive or mutualistic). Overall, evolution in the context of biotic interactions reduced selection for plasticity even when trait development was responding to just the abiotic environment. Thus, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity must always be interpreted in the full context of a species' ecology. Our results show how the merging of two theory domains--coevolution and phenotypic plasticity--can deepen our understanding of both and point to new empirical research.

  1. Neuronal cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-04-01

    During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  3. [Safety verification for reuse of PET and glass bottles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eiichi; Imai, Toshio; Niimi, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the safety associated with reusing PET and glass bottles, a challenge test was conducted with five surrogate contaminants: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzophenone and phenyl cyclohexane. Bottles were filled with a cocktail solution of these contaminants and stored at 50 °C for 7 days, then washed with water and alkaline solutions. Material and migration tests were conducted at each step. The material test results showed that 430-1,440 µg/g of the contaminants were retained after water washing, and that even after washing with a 3.5% NaOH solution, 225-925 µg/g of the contaminants were retained. The migration tests revealed that 0.095-7.35 µg/mL of the contaminants were eluted. Similar tests were conducted with a soft drink ingredient, limonene. The results revealed that 48 µg/g of limonene was retained even after washing with NaOH solution, and that 0.16 µg/mL of limonene was eluted. Conversely, no contaminants were eluted from glass bottles after washing with the NaOH solution. Thus, from the viewpoint of safety and the preservation of content quality, PET bottles are not considered suitable for reuse when compared with glass bottles.

  4. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  5. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  6. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  7. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  8. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mahler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  9. PET/PEN瓶注拉吹成型工艺研究%Study on Injection-Stretch-Blow Forming Process for PET/PEN Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海东

    2011-01-01

    The Moldflow software was used to analyze the injection molding process of a 2-cavity hot runner injection mould for PET/PEN bottle-blank. The mold filling, flowing and cooling processes were visually simulated and the parameters under the conditions of the molding process were obtained. It predicted the potential defects of plastic parts during forming process. The aim was to optimize the cooling channels' diameter,layout and gating system size to propose a better injection scheme;then high-quality bottle-blank was to be injected and finally PET/PEN bottle was made though stretch-blow molding process. Thus it could ensure the even-distributed thickness of the bottle and make it a qualified bottle.%利用Moldflow软件模拟分析了一模两腔PET/PEN瓶坯的注射成型过程,预测塑件成型过程中可能出现的缺陷,优化冷却水道直径、布局和浇注系统尺寸,提出优化的注射成型方案,然后利用注塑机和PET/PEN瓶坯模具注射成型高质量的瓶坯,再利用吹瓶机等设备拉伸-吹塑成型PET/PEN瓶,这样可确保成型瓶子的厚度均匀分布,以生产合格的PET/PEN瓶.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  11. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  12. Bottle atom trapping configuration by optical dipole forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Aldossary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bottle beam configuration is a light field created by the interference of a pair of Laguerre–Gauss light beams with zero orbital angular momentum. In this work we show the theoretical study of the bottle beam as well as the use of this beam for the creation of a novel atom optical dipole trap namely the bottle atom trap. In such a trap the resulting dark trapping region is three-dimensional and has a cylindrical symmetry. These promising results show that this trap is a nice candidate for trapping Bose–Einstein condensates and may serve as an optical tweezer mechanism potentially useful for trapping micron-sized dielectric particles.

  13. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutytė, Indrė; Narbutytė, Agnė; Linkevičienė, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The importance of breastfeeding to the child's psychological and physical development is evidence-based. However, scientific literature contains controversial opinions on its influence to the development of maxillofacial system. This article aims at reviewing the effects of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding to the development of malocclusion and non-nutritive sucking habits. Thirty-four articles analyzing the above mentioned associations were selected from Pubmed database. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may have different impact on the development of maxillofacial system due to unequal functional load of certain facial muscles involved in the feeding processes. Shortage of scientific research prevents from relating bottle-feeding with the development of skeletal malocclusions. Prolonged breastfeeding may have protective effect on developing posterior crossbite and anterior openbite. However, conflicting opinions have been observed. It has been stated that longer duration of breastfeeding diminishes the risk of acquiring non - nutritive sucking habits.

  14. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  15. Designing a Closed Loop System for PET Bottles Recovery in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The project is to design a closed loop system for PET bottle recovery. The purpose is to tackle the issue of indiscriminate dumping of PET bottles and to build a sustainable long term design to enable manufacturing companies reclaim used PET bottles, recycle and reuse the bottles in their manufacturing operations The thesis consist of the theoretical and the empirical sections which helped the author to divide the project into two different design options to fit the Nigerian context. In o...

  16. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  17. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  18. 塑料啤酒瓶的开发途径%DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICS BEER BOTTLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    简述了目前国际上塑料啤酒瓶的开发情况,分析其材料和构成特点,尤其对重要性能指标--优良的气体阻隔性的获得方式作了归纳,并介绍了国际上在此方面的技术进展和工业化情况.

  19. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  20. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  1. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Work Plan Review Workshop.... SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 16 and 17, 2012. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is planning to develop the reference...

  2. 78 FR 47674 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Progress and Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Progress and Planning... workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 15 and 16, 2013. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is developing the reference...

  3. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  4. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  5. 75 FR 16363 - Beverages: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed... 4, 1993 (58 FR 41612), amending the quality standard for bottled water (currently in 21 CFR 165.110(b)). In the 1993 proposed rule, FDA proposed to revise the bottled water quality standard...

  6. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  7. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  8. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  9. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  10. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  11. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  12. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  13. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenlight exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed.

  14. Making environmental sensors on plastic foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danick Briand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the printed electronics industry, the development of sensing technologies on non conventional substrates such as plastic foils is on-going. In this article, we review the work performed and the trends in the development of environmental sensors on plastic and flexible foils. Our main focus is on the integration of temperature, humidity, and gas sensors on plastic substrates targeting low-power operation for wireless applications. Some perspectives in this dynamic field are also provided showing the potential for the realization of several types of transducers on substrates of different natures and their combination with other components to realize smart systems.

  15. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  16. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  17. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  18. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyanide residues from disused gold mine dumps. There are various ... bottled in Zimbabwe has. African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 9 Number 1-2, January-June 2002 ... metabolism on triple sugar iron (TSI) afar. Bacillus species were ...

  19. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... not have labels affixed until the wine is removed for consumption or sale. However, the bins,...

  20. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  1. Blue Bottle Experiment: Learning Chemistry without Knowing the Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Areekul, Cherprang; Montriwat, Punchalee; Rajchakit, Urawadee

    2017-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment is a popular chemical demonstration because of its simplicity and visual appeal. Most papers on the topic focus on a new formulation or a new presentation, but only a few discuss pedagogical application for a full lab session. This article describes the use of this experiment in the first session of undergraduate…

  2. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  3. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  4. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  5. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  6. Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Josiane T Matos; Doria, Miguel de França; Rosenberg, Mark W; Heller, Léo; Zhouri, Andréa

    2013-09-01

    This study presents perceptions of consumers of bottled water in their households in three Brazilian municipalities. Data from interviews were analyzed using the Discourse Collective Subject method. Interviewees spent, on average, the equivalent of 40% of their water bill for the public water supply on the purchase of bottled water. The decision about water consumption in the household was predominantly made by women. Interviewees were particularly concerned with health risks and expressed a strong preference for the safety and organoleptic qualities of bottled water, particularly in cases where the tap water supply did not fully meet the regulated water quality standards. Interviewees were largely unaware of the origin, type, storage, and social and environmental impacts of bottled water. Results highlight the importance of water education efforts among the general population and the key role of women in the processes related to drinking water. The need for gender-specific interventions and the empowerment of women on water issues is noted. Results also strongly support the relevance of ensuring the provision of safe drinking water, from the source to the consumption point, with the trust of consumers.

  7. Classification of Lagrangian Fibrations over a Klein Bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Sepe, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper completes the classification of regular Lagrangian fibratiopns over compact surfaces. \\cite{misha} classifies regular Lagrangian fibrations over $\\mathbb{T}^2$. The main theorem in \\cite{hirsch} is used in order to classify integral affine structures on the Klein bottle $K^2$ and, hence, regular Lagrangian fibrations over this space.

  8. Chromatic Enumeration for Singular Maps on the Klein Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵祥; 刘彦佩

    2002-01-01

    A map is singular if each edge is on the same face on a surface (i.e.,it has only one face on a surface).In this paper we present the chromatic enumeration for rooted singular maps on the Klein bottle.

  9. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling...

  10. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  11. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  12. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    process. The Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is a freeform geometry consisting of cellulose fibers. Accurate dimensional measurements such as wall thickness of the GFB is not possible using Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs). XCT on one hand provides an effective means of measuring wall thickness...

  13. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  14. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  15. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  16. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  17. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  18. Dynamic range of GSK3α not GSK3β is essential for bidirectional synaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Lion; Plattner, Florian; Irvine, Elaine E; Cummings, Damian M; Edwards, Frances A

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), particularly the isoform GSK3β, has been implicated in a wide range of physiological systems and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's Disease. However, the functional importance of GSK3α has been largely untested. The multifunctionality of GSK3 limits its potential as a drug target because of inevitable side effects. Due to its greater expression in the CNS, GSK3β rather than GSK3α has also been assumed to be of primary importance in synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigate bidirectional long-term synaptic plasticity in knockin mice with a point mutation in GSK3α or GSK3β that prevents their inhibitory regulation. We report that only the mutation in GSK3α affects long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). This stresses the importance of investigating isoform specificity for GSK3 in all systems and suggests that GSK3α should be investigated as a drug target in cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's Disease. © 2014 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25208523

  19. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  20. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  1. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  2. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  3. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  4. A comparison of recent Standard Seawater and Quality Evaluation of the Standard Seawater supplied in a bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Takatsuki, Yasushi; Imai, Jun; Aoyama, Michio

    The results of IAPSO Standard Seawater (SSW) comparisons are presented for batches P 132 to P 140. We try to match up our data with the previous result of comparison experiment to make the newest "offset table". According to the newest "offset table" proposed in this study, the standard deviation of the batch to batch differences among batches P 132 to P 140 is calculated to be 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. This value is smaller than the value reported in the previous studies. The quality of SSW, from the point of view of batch to batch differences, has improved recently. The SSW batch P 138 and P 140 were stored in bottles made from borosilicate glass and closed with chemically resistant plastic stoppers, while batches P 133 to P 137 and P 139 were stored in glass ampoules. We measured 30 bottles of P 138 and P 140 along with several ampoules of other batches in order to check the quality, those are, within-batch difference and batch-to-batch difference. The standard deviations (1σ) of 30 repeat measurements on P 138 and P 140 were both 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. The difference between label-delived and measured salinity of P 138 referred to batch P 137 was -0.1 × 10-3 and that of P 140 reffered to batch P 139 was -0.5 × 10-3 in salinity. These values are comparable with other batches stored in a traditional glass ampoules. This result shows that SSW in a shot-bottle is, at least as for P 138 and P 140 at this moment, almost equivalent to SSW in a glass ampoule in quality.

  5. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity; Estudo da influencia do involucro protetor de contaminacao no frasco de radiofarmacos na medicao da atividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A, E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid {sup 137}Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine.

  6. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  7. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Srivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA. Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products including variety of modern goods, reusable food storage containers, eyeglass lenses, white dental fillings, sealants, medical equipments etc. In the body, BPA behaves as an estrogen receptor agonist and mimics estrogen hormone. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Children and unborn and new born babies are at high risk of unwanted effects of BPA. Children suffer from chronic exposure to bisphenol A with manifestation of gastrointestinal problems, adrenal stress, immune dysfunction, toxic over load and neurological disorders. Some study in Japan has observed that more BPA can leach from polycarbonate products that have been scratched or is more than 4 years old or used bottles that have been subjected to bottle brushing or dishwashing and sterilization. People exposed to higher levels of BPA due to use of plastic food and beverages containers are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic disorder. Recent studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in the development of weight gain, insulin resistance, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, thyroid hormone disruption, and several other mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes. Urinary BPA levels are found to be associated with diabetes mellitus independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. There is a concern of exposure of BPA to pregnant women that can

  8. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  9. Pathological Plasticity in Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in neuronal plasticity are common hallmarks of many neurodevelopmental disorders. In the case of fragile-X syndrome (FXS, disruption in the function of a single gene, FMR1, results in a variety of neurological consequences directly related to problems with the development, maintenance, and capacity of plastic neuronal networks. In this paper, we discuss current research illustrating the mechanisms underlying plasticity deficits in FXS. These processes include synaptic, cell intrinsic, and homeostatic mechanisms both dependent on and independent of abnormal metabotropic glutamate receptor transmission. We place particular emphasis on how identified deficits may play a role in developmental critical periods to produce neuronal networks with permanently decreased capacity to dynamically respond to changes in activity central to learning, memory, and cognition in patients with FXS. Characterizing early developmental deficits in plasticity is fundamental to develop therapies that not only treat symptoms but also minimize the developmental pathology of the disease.

  10. The water cycle in a bottle: simulation of a hydrogeological basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Castelló, M. R.; Leiva Hevia, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WATER CYCLE IN A BOTTLE: simulation of a hydrogeological basin Author: Mª Roser Nebot (Institut Manuel Blancafort, La Garriga, Barcelona, Spain) Co-author: Sílvia Leiva Hevia (Institut Llicà d'Amunt, Lliça d'Amunt, Barcelona, Spain) The activity can be implemented in a great range of ages, because it has many different levels of depth. It is based on the construction of an analogical model of a hydrogeological basin using a 5L or 8L empty bottle. There are also other hands-on experiences that can be done in relation to the central one, such as creating a fountain, making a cloud, fog, a breeze… The use of a model that the students have to build and interact with enhances the possibility of cooperative and dialogic learning. The set of activities begins with an introduction to see what the students know about the water cycle and to focus on what they are going to work on. It also makes them think about underground water, which is frequently forgotten when drawing and studying the water cycle. Then, the building of the water cycle simulation from an empty bottle is presented, see http://www.xtec.cat/cirel/pla_le/nottingham/roser_nebot/index.htm (Unit 5). You will also find other activities related to the water cycle at the site. The students build the model, water the soil, and observe infiltration and the formation of a lake. Using a syringe they overexploit the well and dry the lake. By making the students label the underground water level and observe how water percolates through the holes in the aquifer we are making them aware that underground water doesn't circulate in rivers inside underground tunnels, but through the interconnected holes and crevices. Inside the bottle there is a little plant to observe evapotranspiration but, because it is very difficult to see the water droplets in the small plant that is inside the set-up, it is advisable to do a parallel experiment using bigger plants in a pot, covering them with a plastic bag tied around the

  11. Astrocyte and Neuronal Plasticity in the Somatosensory System

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Robert E.; Butcher, John B.; Parri, H. Rheinallt; Glazewski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Changing the whisker complement on a rodent's snout can lead to two forms of experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) in the neurons of the barrel cortex, where whiskers are somatotopically represented. One form, termed coding plasticity, concerns changes in synaptic transmission and connectivity between neurons. This is thought to underlie learning and memory processes and so adaptation to a changing environment. The second, called homeostatic plasticity, serves to maintain a restricted dynamic...

  12. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  13. The Effect of two kinds of replacement transfusion bottle method for neonatal transfusion residual%两种更换输液瓶法对新生儿输液残留量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:控制新生儿静脉输液过程中输液瓶药液残留量,最大限度地保证药物剂量准确.方法:将需要输注的54瓶,容量为100 ml,装有50 ml 10%葡萄糖塑料材质输液瓶,随机分为对照组和观察组,每组27瓶,对照组在更换输液瓶时,待输液瓶内液体滴至瓶颈处,莫菲氏滴管上段输液器内有空气时,即更换输液瓶.观察组在更换输液瓶时,待输液瓶内液体滴至瓶颈处,莫菲氏滴管上段输液器内有空气时,操作者左手拇指与示指捏住输液瓶颈,右手将输液器排气管反折,置于左手中指与无名指之间,右手拇指与示指将输液器轻轻拔出瓶口约0.5 cm,然后挤压莫菲氏滴管,使输液瓶颈部残存的液体流入输液器内,再更换输液瓶.比较两种更换输液瓶法液体残留量.结果:观察组输液瓶残留液体量低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:管理者必须关注新生儿输液的每一个环节,控制各环节的药液丢失量,确保新生儿用药量的准确性.%Objective:To control neonatal venous infusion bottles of liquid medicine residue, the maximum guarantee drug dosage is accurate. Methods:The required transfusion of 54 bottles, of capacity 100 ml, but with 50ml 10% GS plastic infusion bottle, were randomly divided into two groups: observation group and control group, each group have 27 bottles, The control group in the transfusion bottle was replaced, the infusion bottle drops of the liquid to the bottleneck, the murphy dropper infusion in upper air,replacement transfusion bottle. The observation group in the transfusion bottle is replaced, the infusion bottle drops of the liquid to the bottleneck, the murphy dropper infusion in upper air, the left thumb and index finger to pinch the infusion bottleneck, right hand infusion exhaust pipe reflexed , placed in the left hand middle finger and ring finger, right hand thumb and index finger will infusion bottle mouth gently pulled out by approx 0.5 cm, then squeeze the

  14. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  15. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  16. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  17. Bottle characteristics of topical international glaucoma medications versus local brands in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Jumaian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What Is Known and Objective: Physical bottle characteristics differ of brand name topical glaucoma medications and local generic equivalents. This study compares the bottle characteristics of international topical glaucoma brands versus local brands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected on bottle drum volume, drop volume, bottle "squeezability," bottle tip diameter, labels and instructions, cap color coding, and clarity of the drug label. Density-based calculations of drops in bottle volume were assessed using an analytic balance. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. A Likert scale-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective opinions of patients on bottle squeezability, clarity of usage and storage instructions, and the consistency of the cap color coding. Results: The volumes of international brands were statistically significantly higher than the local brands (P < 0.001. A number of drops per bottle and tip diameter were comparable between the international local brands. Cap color coding was inconsistent for international and local brands. Patients were dissatisfied with the label font size. Patients reported that the international and local brands were similar in terms of the ease of opening the bottle, instilling a drop, and the clarity of the instructions; but the local brands were subjectively easier to squeeze than international brands. What Is New and Conclusions: This is the first study to compare bottle characteristics of local Saudi Arabia brands with international brands. The bottle characteristics and patient feedback were similar between the local and international topical glaucoma medications. However, there were differences between the local and international brands in drug volume, bottle squeezability. Hence, patient compliance and drop dosage may differ based on the origin of manufacture.

  18. Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Sekitoleko, P; Estrella Garcia, A A; Huyghebaert, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study several types of bottle materials (glass, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride)) were evaluated in order to be used as food refillables, comparing the residual chemical contamination after classical caustic washing. Bottles were contaminated with model chemicals (chloroxylenol and d-limonene) and caustic washed with varied process parameters using a simulated laboratory-scale washing procedure. After washing, the chemical-contaminated bottles were filled with water and stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The concentrations of the model chemicals in the water after storage were taken as a measure of chemical contamination. The influence of the cleaning parameters (temperature, caustic and commercial additive concentration) was studied using response surface methodology. Washing temperature showed a significant influence on the removal of absorbed chemicals from surfaces compared with the effect of the caustic and especially the additive concentration. Optimization of caustic cleaning for the cleaning process in question led to better cleaning effectiveness, although none of the different washing conditions were able to remove all absorbed chemicals out of the polymeric resins. Commercially available plastic refillables (PET and PC) showed the best chemical rinsability. Glass bottles, however, had in every case the best rinsing characteristics.

  19. CHARACTER DETECTION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM OF BEER BOTTLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Bangxing; Wu Wenjun; Zhang Yepeng; Shen Gang; Yang Liangen

    2005-01-01

    An optical imaging system and a configuration characteristic algorithm are presented to reduce the difficulties in extracting intact characters image with weak contrast, in recognizing characters on fast moving beer bottles. The system consists of a hardware subsystem, including a rotating device, CCD, 16 mm focus lens, a frame grabber card, a penetrating lighting and a computer, and a software subsystem. The software subsystem performs pretreatment, character segmentation and character recognition. In the pretreatment, the original image is filtered with preset threshold to remove isolated spots. Then the horizontal projection and the vertical projection are used respectively to retrieve the character segmentation. Subsequently, the configuration characteristic algorithm is applied to recognize the characters. The experimental results demonstrate that this system can recognize the characters on beer bottles accurately and effectively; the algorithm is proven fast, stable and robust, making it suitable in the industrial environment.

  20. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  1. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  2. The torus and the Klein Bottle amplitude of permutation orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Z

    2000-01-01

    The torus and the Klein bottle amplitude coefficients are computed in permutation orbifolds of RCFT-s in terms of the same quantities in the original theory and the twist group. An explicit expression is presented for the number of self conjugate primaries in the orbifold as a polynomial of the total number of primaries and the number of self conjugate ones in the parent theory. The formulae in the $Z_2$ orbifold illustrate the general results.

  3. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  4. Bottling plant location of microbreweries in East Midlands area, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions are critical in real-life projects, which impact on profitability of investment and service levels from demand side. In this paper, a project-based facility location problem should be resolved which refers to the establishment of a centralized bottling plant to serve microbreweries in East Midlands area of UK. This problem will be structured by firstly finding a mathematically theoretical location using the centre-of-gravity method and then formulate the problem as...

  5. Permeation barrier coating and plasma sterilization of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) offer various advantages over glass or metal containers. Beside this they only offer poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf-live of packaged food is reduced. Additionally, common sterilization methods like heat, hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid may not be applicable due to reduced heat or chemical resistance of the plastic packaging material. For the plasma sterilization and permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils, a microwave driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna. The dependencies of important plasma parameters, such as gas mixture, process pressure, power and pulse conditions on oxygen permeation through packaging foil are investigated. A residual permeation as low as J = 1.0 ±0.3 cm^3m-2day-1bar-1 for 60 nm thick silicon oxide (SiOx) coated PET foils is achieved. To discuss this residual permeation, coating defects are visualized by capacitively coupled atomic oxygen plasma etching of coated substrate. A defect density of 3000 mm-2 is revealed responsible for permeation. For plasma sterilization, optimized plasma parameters based on fundamental research of plasma sterilization mechanisms permit short treatment times of a few seconds.

  6. Glassy features of crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Arttu; Costantini, Giulio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Crystal plasticity occurs by deformation bursts due to the avalanchelike motion of dislocations. Here we perform extensive numerical simulations of a three-dimensional dislocation dynamics model under quasistatic stress-controlled loading. Our results show that avalanches are power-law distributed and display peculiar stress and sample size dependence: The average avalanche size grows exponentially with the applied stress, and the amount of slip increases with the system size. These results suggest that intermittent deformation processes in crystalline materials exhibit an extended critical-like phase in analogy to glassy systems instead of originating from a nonequilibrium phase transition critical point.

  7. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  8. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  9. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) toxicity: a "bitter" diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Khalid Ismail; Borawake, Kapil Sharad

    2014-12-01

    Consumption of a glass of bottle gourd juice is thought to work as a health "tonic" and part of traditional healthy living practices in India. The juice may in certain circumstances turn bitter with increased levels of the cytotoxic compound called Cucurbitacins. If the bitter juice is consumed it causes a toxic reaction in the gut, leading to abdominal discomfort/pain, vomiting, hematemesis, and hypotension which may be rarely fatal, especially in persons with pre-existing illness. In the absence of clear cut history regarding the consumption of the bitter bottle gourd juice and the initiation of symptoms, the differential diagnosis for the above symptoms will include diseases causing gastrointestinal bleed with hypotension and/or shock. We report a case of bitter bottle gourd poisoning presenting with abdominal symptoms, hematemesis and shock and with an initial differential diagnosis of septicemia with septic shock and multi-organ involvement. We conduct a literature review and ponder the various differential diagnoses of this clinical scenario.

  10. The synthesis of nanostructured SiC from waste plastics and silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhicheng; Xu, Liqiang; Pang, Qiaolian; Xing, Zheng; Ma, Xiaojian; Qian, Yitai

    2009-09-01

    Waste plastics constitute a growing environmental problem. Therefore, the treatment of waste plastics should be considered. Here we synthesize 3C-SiC nanomaterials coexisting with amorphous graphite particles utilizing waste plastics and Si powder at 350-500 °C in a stainless steel autoclave. 3C-SiC could be finally obtained after refluxing with aqueous HClO4 (70 wt%) at 180 °C. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate that the product is 3C-SiC with the calculated lattice constant a = 4.36 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the SiC samples presented two morphologies: hexagonal platelets prepared by the waste detergent bottles or beverage bottles and nanowires prepared by waste plastic bags respectively. The corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indicates that either the entire hexagonal platelet or the nanowire is single crystalline. High-resolution TEM shows the planar surfaces of the SiC platelet correspond to {111} planes; the lateral surfaces are {110} planes and the preferential growth direction of the nanowires is along [111]. The output of SiC was ~39% based on the amount of Si powder.

  11. "New" Compounds from Old Plastics: Recycling PET Plastics via Depolymerization. An Activity for the Undergraduate Organic Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Don; Wright, Geoff; Kroemer, Ryan; Engel, Josh

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes work done to develop a meaningful undergraduate organic lab activity that illustrates chemistry of the real world while utilizing reactions typically included in the organic lecture and lab. We show how a common plastic can be converted into several compounds using ester hydrolysis and SN2 reactions. Contributing to the critical shortage of landfill space faced by many communities is the large quantity of plastic refuse. Thus, there is a real need to recycle plastic products. One way to recycle plastics such as polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), the polyester from which numerous consumer products such as 2-liter soda bottles are made, is to depolymerize them and then to use the resulting monomers to produce new products. PET is industrially depolymerized via an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction conducted under conditions of high temperature and pressure that are not feasible in the undergraduate lab. Despite literature reports that PET is remarkably resistant to hydrolysis, we found that PET can be readily hydrolyzed by refluxing with potassium hydroxide or potassium tert-butoxide in amyl alcohol to give terephthalic acid in high yield. It is then possible to readily synthesize terephthalate diesters via SN2 reactions of ammonium terephthalate salts with alkyl halides. Fischer esterification can also be used to prepare the diesters, but yields are significantly lower.

  12. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  13. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  14. Human Maternal Brain Plasticity: Adaptation to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung

    2016-01-01

    New mothers undergo dynamic neural changes that support positive adaptation to parenting and the development of mother-infant relationships. In this article, I review important psychological adaptations that mothers experience during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. I then review evidence of structural and functional plasticity in human…

  15. Human Maternal Brain Plasticity: Adaptation to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung

    2016-01-01

    New mothers undergo dynamic neural changes that support positive adaptation to parenting and the development of mother-infant relationships. In this article, I review important psychological adaptations that mothers experience during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. I then review evidence of structural and functional plasticity in human…

  16. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  17. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  18. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  19. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society.

  20. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of bottled waters of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel J; Winter, David A; Spero, Howard J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Reeder, Mathew D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Bottled and packaged waters are an increasingly significant component of the human diet. These products are regulated at the regional, national, and international levels, and determining the authenticity of marketing and labeling claims represents a challenge to regulatory agencies. Here, we present a dataset of stable isotope ratios for bottled waters sampled worldwide, and consider potential applications of such data for regulatory, forensic and geochemical standardization applications. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of 234 samples of bottled water range from -147 per thousand to +15 per thousand and from -19.1 per thousand to +3.0 per thousand, respectively. These values fall within and span most of the normal range for meteoric waters, indicating that these commercially available products represent a source of waters for use as laboratory working standards in applications requiring standardization over a large range of isotope ratios. The measured values of bottled water samples cluster along the global meteoric water line, suggesting that bottled water isotope ratios preserve information about the water sources from which they were derived. Using the dataset, we demonstrate how bottled water isotope ratios provide evidence for substantial evaporative enrichment of water sources prior to bottling and for the marketing of waters derived from mountain and lowland sources under the same name. Comparison of bottled water isotope ratios with natural environmental water isotope ratios demonstrates that on average the isotopic composition of bottled water tends to be similar to the composition of naturally available local water sources, suggesting that in many cases bottled water need not be considered as an isotopically distinct component of the human diet. Our findings suggest that stable isotope ratios of bottled water have the power to distinguish ultimate (e.g., recharge) and proximal (e.g., reservoir) sources of bottled water and constitute a potential