WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic beverage bottles

  1. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  2. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  3. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  4. Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres for selective screening of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jindong; Wang, Mingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Yang, Gengliang

    2014-04-02

    A new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted dispersive solid-phase extraction (MAG-MIM-dSPE) coupled with gas chromatography-FID was developed for selective determination of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages. The new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres (MAG-MIM) using diisononyl phthalate as a template mimic were synthesized by coprecipitation coupled with aqueous suspension polymerization and were successfully applied as the adsorbents for MAG-MIM-dSPE to extract and isolate five phthalates from plastic bottled beverages. Validation experiments showed that the MAG-MIM-dSPE method had good linearity at 0.0040-0.40 μg/mL (0.9991-0.9998), good precision (3.1-6.9%), and high recovery (89.5-101.3%), and limits of detection were obtained in a range of 0.53-1.2 μg/L. The presented MAG-MIM-dSPE method combines the quick separation of magnetic particles, special selectivity of MIM, and high extraction efficiency of dSPE, which could potentially be applied to selective screening of phthalates in beverage products.

  5. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  6. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages using a molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Kuang, Yunfei

    2014-08-15

    Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on an acetylene black paste electrode modified with molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film for sensitive and selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimised. The imprinted sensor offers a fast response and sensitive BPA quantification. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 8.0 nM to 1.0 μM and 1.0 to 20 μM for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 6.0 nM (S/N=3). Meanwhile, the fabricated sensor showed excellent specific recognition to template molecule among the structural similarities and coexistence substances. Furthermore, this imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to detect BPA in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages.

  7. Analysis of Phthalic Acid Esters in Plastic Bottled Beverages%塑料瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸醋的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荔群; 陈蓉芳; 高强; 厉曙光

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the concentrations of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in beverages bottled in plastic containers and to analyze the effect of some factors on the concentration of phthalates. [ Methods ] Forty-nine different brands of beverage were selected from the market and gas chromatography was applied to determine the level of phthalates in the beverage. The differences between three sorts of beverages (tea, juice, and dairy drinks) were tested by ANOVA and the effects of storage time and pH value on the concentration of phthalates in beverage were analyzed using Linear Regression Model. [ Results ] DEP wasn't found while the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in samples were 98.0% and 100% respectively with the average concentrations of 0.038 mg/L and 0.071 mg/L respectively. The detection range of DBP and DEHP in tea drinks were 0-0.047 mg/L and 0.045-0.146 mg/L respectively. The highest detection level of DBP in juice drinks was 0.127mg/L, and DEHP was found in the range from 0.060mg/L to 0.371 mg/L. The maximum concentrations of DBP and DEHP in dairy drinks were 0.081 mg/L and 0.089 mg/L respectively, and the minimum concentrations were 0.032 mg/L and 0.033 mg/L respectively. The levels of DBP in juice and dairy drinks were significantly higher than those in tea drinks (p=0.003 and P=0.002). The levels of DEHP in juice drinks were higher than those in tea and dairy drinks (P=0.00l and P=0.002). The fixed multivariate linear model showed that, the logarithms of DBP concentrations of juice and dairy drinks were 0.36 and 0.50 units higher than that of tea drinks, the logarithm of DEHP concentration of juice drinks was 0.47 units higher than that of tea drinks, and the logarithm of DEHP concentration of acid drinks was 0.30 units higher than that of weak acid drinks.[ Conclusion ] It can be concluded that the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in plastic bottled beverages were fairly high and

  8. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  9. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  10. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association, bottled water was the second most popular beverage in the U.S. in 2005, with Americans consuming more than 7.5 million gallons of bottled water - an average of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled ...

  11. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borde, Preeti; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; McGuigan, Kevin G; Keogh, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    .... The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l). Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities...

  12. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  13. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  14. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  15. Plastic compression technology and mold design of HDPE closures for beverage bottles%低磨损HDPE饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达; 梁文杰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具中存在的内衬套与螺纹型芯采用滑动摩擦结构,摩擦表面容易拉毛、卡死,模具容易磨损等问题,将磨损小、运动阻力小的滚动摩擦技术应用到压塑成型模具中,开展了能否在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个滚动部件代替原来滑动摩擦的分析,建立了滑动摩擦、滚动摩擦与磨损速度之间的关系,提出了在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个钢球保持圈,将原来的滑动摩擦改为滚动摩擦的方法,以达到减少磨损、提高模具寿命的目的.在提高模具寿命、瓶盖质量上,对模具的结构、制造技术、经济效益等方面进行了评价.开展了新结构压塑成型模具的设计、制造工作,并在原制盖机上进行了长期试验.研究结果表明,该模具磨损非常小,瓶盖质量比以前更好;且与传统的压塑成型模具相比寿命可提高1倍以上.%Aiming that the sliding friction structure in the inner lining sleeve and the screw thread core of the traditional beverage bottle cap pressing forming mould caused the friction surfaces to nap,blocking,easy wear etc., the rolling friction technology with wear small, small movement resistance was applied to the compression molding mould. Whether a rolling member was inserted between the inner bushing and the screw thread core in place of the original sliding friction was discussed.The relationship between the sliding friction, rolling friction and the wear speed was established, a ball retainer ring was added between the inner bushing and the screw thread core. The original sliding friction was changed into the rolling friction, thereby reducing wear and improving the life of the mould. The mould structure, manufacturing technology, economic benefits etc. were evaluated on the mould life and the cap quality. New structure of compression molding mold was designed and manufactured, and the long term test was developed on the original

  16. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  17. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  18. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  19. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  20. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental pro...

  1. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  2. The HPLC Detection Method of DNOP and DBP in the Beverage of Plastic Bottle Packing%瓶装饮料中DNOP、DBP类增塑剂的液相色谱检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 王伟; 张玉; 葛杭丽; 黎天天

    2012-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯类是一类重要的增塑剂,也是环境类激\\素,会影响动物内分泌系统;对人不仅有慢性毒性,致突变、致癌作用,还有生殖、发育毒性.本文研究高效液相色谱检测瓶装饮料中两种邻苯二甲酸酯(DNOP、DBP)的方法.样品经过滤、浓缩后过柱净化、富集,用50℃氮吹仪吹干,甲醇定容后过膜(0.22 μm),在UV 225nm处检测.以ProELUT PLS GLASS 200 mg/6mL小柱作为样品前处理净化柱,结果对DBP的加标回收率在83.4%~93.4%之间,对DBP的加标回收率在80.4%~86.0%之间.本实验条件下DBP和DNOP的仪器检出限均为0.01 μg/mL,说明用液相色谱法检测瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质含量是可行的.且快速、有效.%Phthalate esters (PAEs) were a class of important plasticizers, and it also were the environmental estrogens, it affects the animal endocrine system. PAEs were not only with chronic toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic effects to people, but also with reproductive and upgrowth toxicity. This study focused on the method of detection of DNOP and DBP in plastic packing beverage by HPLC. The sample were filtrated and enrichment by clean up column, and nitrogen drying at 50℃, and pass through 0.22 u,m film after fixed volume with methanol, and detected at 225 nm by HPLC. ProELUT PLS G1ASS 200 mg/6 mL as the clean up column, the recovery rate of DBP was 83.4%-93.4%, DNOP was 80.4%~86.0%. The detection limit of instrument was 0.01μg/mL. The results showed that the HPLC method was effective and convenient for the detection of DNOP and DBP in beverage.

  3. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  4. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  5. Comparison of detection threshold values determined using glass sniff bottles and plastic squeeze bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarski, Thomas J; Doty, Richard L

    2004-02-01

    Olfactory threshold measures are influenced by such factors as odorant species, diluent type, psychophysical paradigm, and stimulus-presentation procedure. In this study, we compared phenyl ethyl alcohol odor-detection thresholds obtained using 120-ml glass sniff bottles to those obtained using 120-ml plastic squeeze bottles. Although these presentation media are commonly employed in published studies, there has never been a formal comparison of values obtained using them. 10 male and 10 female subjects were tested on two threshold test sessions, one for each type of bottle. Order of sessions was systematically counterbalanced and completed on the same day for a given subject, with a minimum of 30 min. elapsing between sessions. A seven-reversal, single-staircase threshold procedure was employed. Although the threshold values were similar for the two procedures, slightly lower thresholds were obtained using the glass sniff bottles [respective M (SEM) log vol/vol values = -6.61 (.20) and -6.13 (.24)]. These data suggest that, while threshold values using these two presentation procedures can be roughly compared across studies, accurate comparisons may require a slight mathematical adjustment.

  6. Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed from I.V. Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    i D-153 652 RAPID DRINKING DEVICES CONSTRUCTED FROM IY BAS AND 1/1 I PLASTIC SQUEEZE BOTTLES (U) A MY RESEARCH INST OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLf Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed Fram I.V. ( Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles 6...running. The primary problem with using a plastic water bottle during a race is that it ~ must be held upright and squeezed tightly while the runner

  7. Comparative recovery of microorganisms from BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA and FN blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J A; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-07-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorganisms with 359 judged to be clinically significant. Of the 359 significant organisms, 255 were recovered in either one or two bottles from both pairs of bottles in a set while 56 organisms were recovered only from the glass bottles and 48 were recovered only from the plastic bottles (P, not significant [NS]). Of the 286 significant organisms recovered only in the FA bottles (glass and plastic), 180 were recovered in both bottles, 57 in the plastic bottles only, and 49 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). Of the 303 significant organisms recovered in the FN bottles only (glass and plastic), 212 were recovered in both bottles, 46 in the plastic bottles only, and 45 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). For individual organisms, the only significant difference in recovery was obtained for Escherichia coli, with more isolates recovered in the FN plastic than in the FN glass bottles (P = 0.02). These data suggest that recovery of microorganisms with plastic FA/FN bottles is at least equal to that with glass FA/FN bottles while offering greater safety for users.

  8. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  9. Comparative Recovery of Microorganisms from BacT/ALERT Plastic and Glass FA and FN Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, J. A.; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-01-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorga...

  10. Validation of Performance of Plastic versus Glass Bottles for Culturing Anaerobes from Blood in BacT/ALERT SN Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  11. Validation of performance of plastic versus glass bottles for culturing anaerobes from blood in BacT/ALERT SN medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J; Reller, L Barth

    2005-12-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  12. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  13. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  14. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic versus glass bottles of BacT/ALERT PF medium for culturing blood from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-01-01

    The plastic pediatric BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, N.C.) PF (PPF) is a new nonvented aerobic culture medium in a clear plastic bottle designed to prevent breakage. We compared the performance of the new PPF bottle to that of the present glass BacT/ALERT PF bottle for the recovery of microorganisms as well as for the time to detection of growth in samples of blood obtained for culture from children. We found that the PPF and PF bottles were comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  15. Application of automated image analysis to the identification and extraction of recyclable plastic bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edgar SCAVINO; Dzuraidah Abdul WAHAB; Aini HUSSAIN; Hassan BASRI; Mohd Marzuki MUSTAFA

    2009-01-01

    An experimental machine vision apparatus was used to identify and extract recyclable plastic bottles out of a conveyor belt. Color images were taken with a commercially available Webcam, and the recognition was performed by our homemade software, based on the shape and dimensions of object images. The software was able to manage multiple bottles in a single image and was additionally extended to cases involving touching bottles. The identification was fulfilled by comparing the set of measured features with an existing database and meanwhile integrating various recognition techniques such as minimum distance in the feature space, self-organized maps, and neural networks. The recognition system was tested on a set of 50 different bottles and provided so far an accuracy of about 97% on bottle identification. The extraction of the bottles was performed by means of a pneumatic arm, which was activated according to the plastic type; polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles were left on the conveyor belt, while non-PET boules were extracted. The software was designed to provide the best compromise between reliability and speed for real-time applications in view of the commercialization of the system at existing recycling plants.

  16. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  17. 75 FR 16363 - Beverages: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed... 4, 1993 (58 FR 41612), amending the quality standard for bottled water (currently in 21 CFR 165.110(b)). In the 1993 proposed rule, FDA proposed to revise the bottled water quality standard...

  18. Trash + Creativity = Problem Solved: Award Winners Give Plastic Bottles Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor, has selected the best of the crop in the 2006/2007 Tech Directions Inventors Award Competition. The challenge this year called on students to slow the filling of landfills by devising uses for discarded plastic water, juice, soda, and sports-drink bottles. Judge Roman noted "many common…

  19. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  20. How consumers of plastic water bottles are responding to environmental policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orset, Caroline; Barret, Nicolas; Lemaire, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic and the consumption never stops increasing. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to consumers allowing explaining the influence of information on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a manifest effect on the WTP. We show there is a significant premium associated with recycled plastic packaging and biodegradable bioplastic packaging. As there is no consensus on the plastic which is the most or the least dangerous for the environment, we propose different policies for protecting the environment. We discuss about the impact of these policies on consumer's purchasing decisions: switching one plastic packaging for another, or leaving water plastic bottles market. We present the environmental policies that are effective according to the point of view adopted. Choosing between these policies then depends on the priorities of the regulator and pressure of lobbies.

  1. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the release of combustion products, i.e., a "whoosh rocket." My recommendation is that the standard fuel for pedagogical whoosh demonstrations be isopropanol, and the recommended vessel is the 3.8-L high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle.

  2. Histogram of Intensity Feature Extraction for Automatic Plastic Bottle Recycling System Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaimah Ramli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many recycling activities adopt manual sorting for plastic recycling that relies on plant personnel who visually identify and pick plastic bottles as they travel along the conveyor belt. These bottles are then sorted into the respective containers. Manual sorting may not be a suitable option for recycling facilities of high throughput. It has also been noted that the high turnover among sorting line workers had caused difficulties in achieving consistency in the plastic separation process. As a result, an intelligent system for automated sorting is greatly needed to replace manual sorting system. The core components of machine vision for this intelligent sorting system is the image recognition and classification. In this research, the overall plastic bottle sorting system is described. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithm used is discussed in detail since it is the core component of the overall system that determines the success rate. The performance of the proposed feature extractions were evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and result obtained showed an accuracy of more than 80%.

  3. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic and glass bottles of BacT/ALERT FA medium for culturing organisms from blood of adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-04-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  4. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  5. Plastic Bottle Cutter:能瞬间将塑料瓶变成塑料绳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    近日法国两名设计者开发了一款Plastic BottleCutter塑料瓶切割器,能瞬间将各种塑料瓶变成可再利用的塑料绳。这款切割器的设计十分简单,由一根木棍及一个可替换的刀片组成。Plastic BottleCutter能将塑料瓶转换成各种宽度的塑料绳,在回收后能重新被用于制造出各种物品,包括扫帚、篮子、门帘等等日常用品。这些塑料绳甚至能被当成汽车拉绳使用。

  6. Plastic bottle oscillator as an on-off-type oscillator: Experiments, modeling, and stability analyses of single and coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    An oscillatory system called a plastic bottle oscillator is studied, in which the downflow of water and upflow of air alternate periodically in an upside-down plastic bottle containing water. It is demonstrated that a coupled two-bottle system exhibits in- and antiphase synchronization according to the nature of coupling. A simple ordinary differential equation is deduced to interpret the characteristics of a single oscillator. This model is also extended to coupled oscillators, and the model reproduces the essential features of the experimental observations.

  7. Effects of rooibos tea, bottled water, and a carbohydrate beverage on blood and urinary measures of hydration after acute dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Alan C; Quindry, John C; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Valiente, J Scott

    2010-04-01

    Rooibos tea contains polyphenol antioxidants, including flavonoids and phenolic acids that are potent free radical scavengers and has purported benefits for accelerated rehydration. The objective was to evaluate the effects of three different drinks (rooibos tea, bottled water, and a carbohydrate beverage) on blood and urinary markers of hydration after acute dehydration in collegiate wrestlers. Twenty-three athletes were recruited and followed a randomized, cross-over design with three different study arms comparing the effectiveness of rooibos tea, carbohydrate beverage (6% or 60 grams l(-1)), or bottled water (placebo) in promoting rehydration after a 3% reduction in body mass. Urine specific gravity (U(sg)) urine (U(osm)) and plasma osmolarity (P(osm)), and plasma volume were measured pre- and post dehydration and at 1-h after rehydration. Statistical analyses utilized a 3 (conditions) x 3 (times) repeated measures analysis of variance to test main effects. Significant interaction effects were found for P(osm) and U(osm), both of which remained below basleline after 1-h rehydration in the rooibos tea and water trials. No significant interaction effects were found for either urine U(sg) or plasma volume shift. The findings of this study demonstrate that rooibos tea was no more effective in promoting rehydration than plain water, with significant changes being found for P(osm) and U(osm) in the carbohydrate/electrolyte solution, in collegiate wrestlers after a 3% reduction in body mass and a rehydration period of 1-h when consuming 100% of their body weight loss.

  8. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  9. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  10. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  11. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  12. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Due to its chemical inertness and physical properties PET is particularly suitable for food packaging applications, especially for drinking water. More bottled water is consumed than other bottled beverages. This article is a survey and toxicological investigation of chemical compounds, which are able to diffuse from PET bottles to water. The exact detailed chemical composition of plastic materials is known only from information provided by manufacturers. A declaration...

  13. Controlled Clinical Comparison of Plastic and Glass Bottles of BacT/ALERT FA Medium for Culturing Organisms from Blood of Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Cathy A.; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery ...

  14. Solar detoxification plant for a hazardous plastic bottle recycling plant in El Ejido: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), Tabernas (Spain); Richter, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The removal of persistent organic chemicals from water is a pressing ecological problem. Persistent contaminants, such as pesticides, solvents, detergents and a variety of industrial chemicals, are capable of deep penetration into the soil and reach groundwater due to combination of chemical stability, resistance to biodegradation and sufficient water solubility. The Spanish province of Almeria has experienced an important economical growth during the last 20 years due to the installation of a large number of greenhouses, which benefit from the extremely sunny climate for production of vegetables and fruits. Unfortunately, this development is accompanied by an intensive use of a wide variety of pesticides with the subsequent problem of empty plastic bottles. Unitl now these plaguicide containers have usually been burnt or buried. Since the problem has been growing in the last years, a parallel environmental consciousness has been rising in the region concerning the recycling of these pesticide bottles; this process includes washing of the shredded plastic containers, which gives rise to relatively small quantities of water contaminated with toxic and persistent compounds at a concentration level of some hundred mg/l of total organic carbon content. This appears to be a very promising application for TiO{sub 2} - Solar Photocatalytic Detoxification, which provides an adequate solution as there is no clear alternative way to solve the problem. (orig.)

  15. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Torres-Mendoza, N; Borges-Yáñez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify dental fluorosis prevalence and to analyze its association with tap water fluoride concentration and beverage consumption in school children from the city of Oaxaca, who were receiving fluoridated salt. A cross-sectional study was performed on elementary public school children. Dean's Index was applied to assess dental fluorosis. The parents of the children who were studied completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and type of beverages consumed by their children. A total of 917 school children participated in this study. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 80.8%. The most frequent fluorosis category was very mild (41.0%), and 16.4% of the children were in the mild category. The mean water fluoride concentration was 0.43 ppm (±0.12). No association was detected between tap water fluoride concentration and fluorosis severity. The multinomial regression model showed an association among the mild fluorosis category and age (OR = 1.25, [95% CI 1.04, 1.50]) and better socio-economic status (OR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.21, 2.60]), controlling for fluoride concentration in water. Moderate and severe fluorosis were associated with soft drink consumption (OR = 2.26, [95% IC 1.01, 5.09]), controlling for age, socio-economic status, and water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was high. Mild fluorosis was associated with higher socio-economic status, while higher fluorosis severity was associated with soft drink consumption.

  16. Exposure to bisphenol A from drinking canned beverages increases blood pressure: randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely.

  17. Effect of reduced pressure, vibration and orientation to simulate high altitude testing of liquid pharmaceutical glass and plastic bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S. Paul; Burgess, Gary; Kremer, Matt; Lockhart, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of high-altitude shipments of glass and plastic bottles on package integrity. High altitudes are encountered when trucks travel over mountain passes and when cargo and feeder aircraft transport packages in non-pressurized or partially pressurized cargo holds. This is

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of plastic bottle sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and structural properties of plastic bottle sheets have been studied. Bottle sheets were exposed with 1.25 MeV 60Co γ-ray's source at various dose levels within the range from 0 to 670 kGy. The changes so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectra show the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation. With increasing γ-dose, the values of the direct and indirect band gap are found to be decreased. These results are in good agreement with the corresponding results published previously for polyethylene terephthalate polymer. We also calculated numbers of carbon atoms per conjugation length. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity after gamma irradiation. Furthermore, the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size for pristine and irradiated sample have been calculated. It has been found that both crystallinity and crystallite size increase due to irradiation. In addition, interchain distances, micro strain, inter planar distance, dislocation density and distortion parameters were calculated. The analysis revealed there is the significant decrease in micro strain, dislocation density and distortion parameters with an increase of gamma dose, which is in line with the crystallinity calculation. Moreover, Interchain and Interplanar distances were marginally changed. These results demonstrated the applicability of sheets as a cost-effective dosimeter.

  19. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  20. Microbiological Investigations of ReNu Plastic Bottles and the 2004 to 2006 ReNu With MoistureLoc-Related Worldwide Fusarium Keratitis Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, John D; Warwar, Ronald E; Elder, B Laurel; Khamis, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the contact lens solution RevitaLens Ocutec (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in ReNu plastic bottles; whether alexidine would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in non-ReNu plastic bottles; and whether an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaches from heated ReNu bottles. RevitaLens and an alexidine solution (0.00045%), previously stored in ReNu bottles at room temperature (RT) and 56°C, were incubated with 7 different Fusarium organisms. The alexidine solution was similarly stored in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles and incubated with these same organisms. To determine if an alexidine-neutralizing compound might be leaching from heated ReNu bottles, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was incubated at RT and 56°C in ReNu bottles, combined with alexidine, and then tested for anti-Fusarium capability. After being heated in ReNu bottles, RevitaLens retained its anti-Fusarium capability, whereas the alexidine solution did not. The alexidine solution heated in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles retained its anti-Fusarium capability. The alexidine solution retained its anti-Fusarium capability when incubated with a PBS solution that had been heated in ReNu bottles, indicating, microbiologically, that an alexidine-neutralizing compound did not leach from the heated ReNu bottle. Alexidine uniquely fails to inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in a plastic ReNu bottle, but not in seven other plastic bottles, whereas the anti-Fusarium capability of RevitaLens (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) is unaffected by heating in a ReNu bottle. There does not seem to be an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaching from heated ReNu bottles. An interaction between alexidine and its heated ReNu bottle may have been a critical factor in the worldwide ReNu with MoistureLoc-related Fusarium keratitis event of 2004 to 2006.

  1. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  2. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  3. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  4. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  5. Discussion on imported beverage bottle brick as raw material%关于进口废PET饮料瓶砖的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞堃; 池昌; 刘孟春; 包海涛

    2012-01-01

    从环保和经济的角度出发,我国已逐步放开废PET饮料瓶(砖)的进口。随着废PET饮料瓶(砖)的大量进口,相关问题也逐渐凸显出来。本文结合进口废PET饮料瓶(砖)监督管理工作实际,从检测指标、企业管理等方面进行探讨,提出相应意见和建议。%In consideration of environmental protection and economy, China has gradually liberalized the import of waste PET beverage bottle brick. While along with the large amount of import, some problems emerged. Combined with the administration and management practice, the paper discussed the detection index, enterprise management and other aspects of import waste PET beverage bottle brick, and put forward corresponding opinions and suggestions.

  6. The Bottle of Beverage Label Detection Device Based on Machine Vision%基于机器视觉的饮料瓶标签检测设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树君; 辛莹莹; 陈大千

    2014-01-01

    In the packaging testing industry, consumers pay attention to the quality of the products.How to realize the bottles and efficient full label detection is the important problems facing with the beverage industry. Basing on the above problem, The company developed to test the beverage bottle label of special equipment, the control system by TM258LD42DT,the main characteristic is to be able to elaborate testing (for example the tag of beverage bottle high or low, the tag such as crease, labels), and the equipment of detection have the high efficiency (its detection precision can be achieved 4 mm × 4 mm). This machine has the following functions, for example, the machine-vision detection for tag,the historical data display,the abnormal situation alarm and taking out of the unqualified bottle. And these functions used in the high-speed automatic production line , replace the artificial detection, improve the quality of the testing efficiency and testing,provide the basis for developing the more superior performance model.%在包装检测行业,产品的质量引起了广大消费者的关注。如何实现饮料瓶高效的全标签检测是饮料行业面临的重要问题。基于上述问题,研发了对饮料瓶标签进行检测的专用设备,其控制系统采用的是TM258LD42DT,主要特点是能够精细的检测缺陷(如饮料瓶上标签的高低、标签的破损、标签的折皱等现象),而且设备的检测效率高(其检测精度可达到4 mm×4 mm)。它是集机器视觉的标签检测、历史数据显示、异常情况报警和不合格瓶子的剔除等功能为一体,运用在高速自动化生产线上,代替了人工检测,提高了检测的效率和检测的质量,为开发性能更优越的机型提供基础。

  7. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  8. [Simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.

  9. Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate from the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Exline, Jennifer A.; Warner, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory procedure involving the chemical recycling of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) from 2-L pop bottles is described. A transesterification reaction is employed to depolymerize PET. At atmospheric pressure in refluxing benzyl alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, PET is converted to dibenzyl terephthalate in moderate yields. This procedure models an industrial process that involves the transesterification reaction of PET with methanol at high temperature and pressure, conditions not normally accessible in an undergraduate laboratory, to yield dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol. A second method of preparing dibenzyl terephthalate starting with terephthaloyl chloride is also described. The diester from these two approaches is characterized using melting points, TLC, and IR and NMR spectroscopy. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that has sections on organic chemistry and polymer chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course or a polymer chemistry laboratory course. This lab experiment is part of a larger effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of chemistry and the automobile. Student results are presented.

  10. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  11. 塑料啤酒瓶的制造方案%Manufacturing Scheme of Plastic Beer Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    The status and prospect of the material and processing forplastic beer bottle at home and abroad are introduced.The new fruits as well as PACVD techniqne and nano-polymer to improve the barrier property are described.It will be a great foreground that the plastic beer bottle is domestically developed.%介绍了国内外制造塑料啤酒瓶的材料及其加工工艺的现状和发展前景,提出了用PACVD(等离子辅助化学气相沉积)技术与纳米聚合物提高啤酒瓶阻隔性的新成果,指出在国内发展塑料啤酒瓶包装的伟大前景。

  12. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed...

  13. BOPP瓶装饮料货架期透氧性研究%A study on the penetration of oxygen during shelf-life for beverages packed in BOPP bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勤晋; 龚加顺; 吴文华; 陈文品; 齐冬梅

    2001-01-01

    The penetration of oxygen during shelf-life for beverages packed in BOPP bottles is studied with purified water, tea drinks, fruit juices and flavoured water as the objects of experiments. The pattern of the change in the penetration of oxygen for BOPP bottles is found out.%以纯净水、茶饮料、果汁和加味水为试验对象,对BOPP瓶装饮料货架期透氧性进行研究。找出了BOPP透氧性的变化规律。

  14. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  15. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  16. PET瓶香蕉乳饮料的研制%Study on the PET Bottled Banana Milk Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 廖萍; 聂远洋; 李启明

    2016-01-01

    以奶粉、香蕉浆、蔗糖、稳定剂为主要原料,对PET瓶香蕉乳饮料进行了配方设计,通过单因素实验和正交试验研究了PET瓶香蕉乳饮料的不同蛋白质含量、奶粉组合配比、缓冲盐对其风味的影响,确定了最佳配料方案。结果表明,蛋白质含量为1.8%;全脂奶粉∶脱脂奶粉∶乳清蛋白粉按照2∶1∶1比例添加磷酸氢二钾调节香蕉浆的产品风味最佳。香蕉浆添加量1.5%,蔗糖添加量6.5%,稳定剂0.2%,制得的产品口感细腻饱满,香气浓郁,品质稳定。%In this paper,milk powder,sugar,banana pulp were selected as the main raw material for the formula design of PET banana milk beverage. The effects of different milk powder combination,protein content and buffer salt on the flavor of PET banana milk drink were studied by single factor test and orthogonal test. The best ingredients program was determined in the end. The experimental results are as follows: whole milk powder,skimmed milk powder:whey protein powder in accordance with the ratio of 2∶1∶1;protein content is 1.8%;dipotassium hydrogen phosphate added to adjust banana pulp gives the best flavor. The product shows the full and smooth mouthfeel and rich aroma with the amount of 1.5%banana pulp,the amount of 6.5%sugar and the amount of 0.2%stabilizer.

  17. Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; van Hoeck, Els; Vervliet, Philippe; Scippo, Marie Louise; Simon, Coraline; van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg⁻¹). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg⁻¹) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg⁻¹); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg⁻¹), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg⁻¹); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg⁻¹)), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg⁻¹) or 2

  18. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  19. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  20. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  1. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Due to ever-increasing demand of sustainable products, eco-friendly packaging solutions are finding their importance in the paper packaging industry. Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is an alternative to plastic, glass and metal based packaging for beverages. The tool concept for manufacturing of paper...... bottle uses a silicone based elastomer as the core. The expansion of core in the tool resists shrinkage of paper during drying as well as helps in obtaining good fiber compaction. The feasibility of the tool concept in the production of GFB is discussed in this work....

  2. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending... test procedure for energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines shall...

  3. Stability of Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet and Water in Unit-Dose Cups and Plastic Bottles at 4°C and 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lakhani, Anisha

    2010-09-01

    Solutions of vancomycin for oral administration are not available commercially in Canada or the United States but are needed for patients who cannot swallow capsules. To evaluate the stability of vancomycin solutions stored in unit-dose cups and plastic bottles under refrigeration (4°C) and at room temperature (25°C) for up to 75 days. Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet vehicle and water (1:1 ratio by volume) was dispensed into opaque blue polyethylene unit-dose cups with aluminum seal (14 replicates) or amber plastic prescription bottles (6 replicates). Seven cups and 3 bottles were refrigerated (4°C), and the remainder of the containers were stored at room temperature (25°C). At the time of preparation and at 15, 30, 40, 50, 63, and 75 days, 3 aliquots were collected from one of the cups and from every bottle and were stored frozen (-85°C) until the time of analysis. Physical characteristics were evaluated at each time point, including measurement of pH and visual assessment of colour and precipitation. After thawing, the samples were analyzed in triplicate by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. A solution was considered stable if 90% of the initial concentration of vancomycin was maintained. No notable changes in colour, taste, or pH were observed in vancomycin solutions stored in the unit-dose cups at 4°C or 25°C or in the plastic bottles stored at 4°C over the 75-day study period. Starting on day 63, a white precipitate was observed in the solutions stored in plastic bottles at 25°C, but there were no notable changes in taste or pH during the 75-day period. The 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time, determined by linear regression, indicated that vancomycin solutions stored in cups or bottles at 4°C would maintain at least 93.6% of the initial vancomycin concentration for 75 days and that solutions stored at 25°C would maintain at least 90.0% of the initial

  4. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  6. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  7. 储存条件对塑料瓶装大豆油中塑化剂含量影响的研究%Influence of storage condition on the contents of plasticizers in soybean oil packaged in plastic bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 张明明; 朱远坤; 杨书平

    2015-01-01

    The fresh soybean oils were stored respectively in PET plastic bottle and PE plastic bottle, and the influences of storage temperature, storage time and light on the contents of plasticizers in the soybean oil were investigated. The results showed that the contents of DBP and DEHP in soybean oils packaged in PE plastic bottle were obviously higher than those in PET plastic bottle when the storage temperature was above 27℃ and storage time was 20 d. The contents of DPP in soybean oils had no change when the tem-perature didn’t exceed 50℃, while it rose significantly when the temperature was above 50℃. Further-more, when stored at 65℃ for 90 d, the contents of DPP in the soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were up to 1 559. 3 μg/kg and 2 756. 8 μg/kg, respectively. In addition, when stored at 65℃ for 50 d, DMP could be detected in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle, and its contents were 43. 7(50 d),128. 7(70 d),114. 3 μg/kg(90 d). When stored at 50℃ for 90 d, the content of DBP in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle reached 452. 0μg/kg, 1. 5 times as high as the national standard limit for DBP. Compared with the lucifuge storage, light had no influence on DPP and small im-pacts on DBP and DEHP for a short time. Under the same storage temperature and light condition, as storage time prolonging, the content of DBP in soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were on a rise, and the content of DEHP presented a fluctuation trend.%以新鲜大豆油为原料,将其分别盛装于PET材质塑料瓶和PE材质塑料瓶中,研究不同储存温度、储存时间以及光照对大豆油中邻苯二甲酸酯类塑化剂含量变化的影响。结果表明:储存20 d且储存温度高于27℃时PE瓶装大豆油中DBP和DEHP含量明显高于PET瓶装大豆油的;大豆油中DPP含量在储存温度不超过50℃时基本无变化,但储存温度高于50℃时,其含量明显增加。65℃储存90 d后,PET、PE瓶

  8. Numerical Simulation and Optimal Design of Beverage PET Bottle Preform%饮料PET瓶坯的数值模拟及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印雄飞; 苏良瑶

    2011-01-01

    A scope in the each parameter of the bottle perform according to relative blow molding process was limited, 8 bottle perform were designed, the injection molding process of every preform in the moldflow environment was simulated, the filling time and packing time of each one were got, the model by the BP algorithm was established, the total time of filling and packing as the target was set, the optimal design was got in the parameter scope. The result showed that this method can guide the bottle preform design with high practical value.%根据相应的吹塑成型工艺要求限定瓶坯各参数的范围,设计8个瓶坯,在Moldflow环境中模拟各个瓶坯的注塑成型过程,得到相应的充填和保压时间,通过BP算法建立模型,并以充填和保压的总时间为目标值,得到在参数范围内的最优设计方案.结果表明,该方法能够指导瓶坯设计,具有一定的实际意义.

  9. Adsorbability Study of Plastic Transfusion Bottle and Infusion Set to Diazepam%塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清荣; 梁俊; 曹银

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the adsorbability of plastic transfusion bottle and infusion set to diazepam. METHODS:With the reference of plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection,HPLC was used to determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam adding into plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection at different time;disposable plastic infusion set was connected to simulate intrave-nous infusion and determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam in the liquid effluent at different time. RESULTS:The mass concentration of diazepam in glass infusion bottles group was higher than in plastic transfusion bottles group. The adsorbabili-ties of solutions showed the strongest at the time of 15-20 min. The mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bottle group was about 80% of the original concentration and plastic bottle group was about 67%. As the time went on,the adsorbability was gradually saturated at 60 min and the concentration rose again;the mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bot-tle group returned to 95%of the original concentration at 80 min and the plastic bottle group was about 75%of the original concen-tration. CONCLUSIONS:Both plastic infusion bottle and infusion set have strong adsorbability to diazepam. It is suggested that the dosage of diazepam should be increased by 25% to 33% while plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection is used as solvent for intrave-nous drip.%目的:考察塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性。方法:以玻璃瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液为对照,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定地西泮加入塑料瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液后放置不同时间的质量浓度变化;并连接一次性塑料输液器模拟静滴状态,于不同时间收集流出液体测定其中地西泮的质量浓度变化。结果:玻璃瓶组地西泮质量浓度高于塑料瓶组,两组溶液经过输液器15~20 min时吸附性最强,玻璃瓶组流出液体质

  10. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.

  11. The Technical Study of Electromagnetic Forming Sealing for the Plastic Bottle%塑料瓶的电磁成形封口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱春城; 李洪涛

    2000-01-01

    对塑料瓶的电磁成形封接工艺进行研究,通过对放电电压、电容、线圈位置等参数进行调节,得出了优化的封口工艺。试验结果表明:线圈位置,电压对封口效果影响较大。%This paper introduces the research of electromagnetic forming sealing for the plastic bottle. The sealing technology is opimized by adjusting discharge voltage,capacitance、 coil position. The experiments show that coil position and voltage have larger influence to the sealing effect.

  12. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  13. Snuff Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese snuff bottles are artistic curiosities enjoyed by connoisseurs and collectors alike. In the 17th century, artisans of the Chinese imperial court made several different kinds of snuff bottles with a superior aesthetic. Nowadays, China still

  14. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  15. A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chibueze Izah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks. Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and the World Health Organization (WHO as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies.

  16. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  17. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management.

  18. Ozone processing of foods and beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone has a long history of use as a disinfectant in food and beverage processing. In the United States, the application of ozone to disinfect bottled water was approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in 1982. Later it was approved as a sanitizing agent for bottled water treatment lines. Ozo...

  19. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  20. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature.

  1. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  2. 塑料瓶中双酚A的电化学测定方法研究%Study on Electrochemical Determination of Biphenonl A in Plastic Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余辉; 何凤云; 卞育蓉

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A(BPA) at a carbon paste electrode(CPE) modified with a multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) film was studied with cyclic voltammetry(CV). Results showed that the MWCNTs-CPE had a strong electrocatalytic effect on BPA. In phospate buffer solution(PBS) of pH 7.0, BPA exhibited a significant oxidation peak at 0.504 V. Based on this, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of BPA in plastic bottle. The experimental parameters, such as the pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate and accumulation time were optimized. The defferential pulse current of BPA was linear with its concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10-7-2.0 × 10-5 mol / L ( r=0.995 45 ). The detection limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L at the signal-to-noise of 3. The established methods was applied to determine bisphenol A in plastic cup sample with recovery of 104.4%, and the RSD was 3.9%(n=6).%制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极( MWCNTs/CPE),用循环伏安法(CV)和差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)研究了环境激素双酚A在多壁碳纳米管修饰电极上的电化学行为.结果表明,多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极对双酚A有明显的电催化作用,在pH 7.0的磷酸盐缓冲溶液(PBS)中,双酚A在0.504 V处有1个明显的氧化峰.实验考察了底液的pH值、扫描速度、富集时间等因素的影响.在优化的条件下,双酚A的示差脉冲峰电流与其浓度在5.0×10-7~2.0×10-5范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.995 45),检出限为1.0×10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).该法用于实际样品中双酚A含量的测定,回收率为104.4%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为3.9%(n=6).

  3. 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面无菌可靠性调查%The asepsis security of the interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪芬

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面的无菌可靠性.方法 将聚丙烯塑料输液瓶随机分为2组:对照组42瓶用生理盐水棉签直接采集开启后的聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面样本,实验组42瓶分别用0.5%碘伏、75%乙醇棉签常规消毒开启后的聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面,待干燥后用生理盐水棉签采集样本.所取样本均由主管检验师接种于无菌普通琼脂营养平板.置于37℃恒温培养箱内培养,以观察细菌生长情况.结果 2组细菌生长差异有统计学意义,X2=46.791,P<0.01.结论 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面必须严格执行常规消毒后方能应用于临床.%Objective To study the asepsis security of the interior cover of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle.Methods The whole samples were divided randomly into two groups,each group included 42 polypropylene plastic dropping bottles,Samples of the control group were collected from the interior covers of dropping bottles wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs.Samples of the experimental group were also collected from the interior covers wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs aher disinfected by 0.5%iodophors and 75%alcohol respectively.All samples were inoculated on the aseptic plain agar nutrition flat plate.then incubated in 37℃ incubaton to observe the growth of bacteria.Results There Was statistical significance between the two groups in the growth of bacteria,χ2=46.791,P<0.01.Conclusions The interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle should be disinfected strictly before they are used in clinic.

  4. Bottled Water Mania: Americas Misguided Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    to remove pathogens. There are no requirements for filtration of bottled water. Tap water must be tested for cryptosporidium, giardia, and viruses ...Plastic bottles in landfills can take hundreds of years to decompose, causing a profound environmental impact. The oceans are another victim of

  5. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  6. Performance of funnel-shaped plastic bottle for water saving cultivation in extreme arid region%极端干旱区漏斗状塑料瓶的节水栽培性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林涛; 高斌; 王前道; 曹亦斌

    2012-01-01

    为解决缺水高渗透地区新栽植物难以存活问题,该文通过室内实验与现场试验研究了塑料瓶的节水栽培性能.室内模拟不同的水分散失条件,连续多U定时测试塑料瓶内砂土的含水量,回归分析剩余含水量随时问的变化函数.结果表明:温度越高,水分散失速度越大;由饱和含水量至萎蔫含水量,在室温(22±1)℃下可以间隔9d浇水1次;漏斗状比直筒状瓶有利于延迟水分渗透;砂粒与有机肥比黏粒有利于锁住水分,可用以调节水分散失速度.现场栽植试验(有瓶与无瓶)比较亦证实该方法的有效性.由于漏斗状塑料瓶具有留存水流与延迟渗透的节水功效,有利于缺水或高渗透地区草、灌木植物的栽培.%In order to resolve the plants survival difficulty in high permeability or water-shortage area, the water-saving cultivation by funnel-shaped plastic bottle was studied through laboratory and field tests. Different water losing conditions were simulated in the laboratory to continuously test water content of sandy soil in the plastic bottle every day. Then, the regressive function was built to describe the relationship between remaining water content in sandy soil and time. Testing Results showed that the higher the environment temperature was, the greater the rate of water loss. From the saturated water content to the wilting water content, an interval of watering could be 9 days at room temperature((22±l)°C).The funnel-shaped bottles could delay water loss compared to straight cylinder-shaped bottles. Sand particles combined with organic fertilizers were more facilitated to conserve water than clay soil, and they could be used to adjust the rate of water loss. Field planting tests (with bottles and without bottles) confirmed its water-saving effectiveness. Due to high efficiency of water accumulation and saving, funnel-shaped bottles can benefit plants cultivation in high permeability or water-shortage area.

  7. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of whiskey? Can the rate of alcohol-induced harm be affected by altering the population’s beverage choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Pia; Hellman, Matilda; Kerr, William; Room, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and puts into context the findings from the five articles contained in this thematic issue. The question of interest has been the connection between different beverage types and alcohol-induced harm. The key question is whether policy makers can affect rates of harm by affecting beverage choice. In the discussion, four different potential pathways for such an effect are differentiated. The first is the direct effect of the beverage over and above the effect of the ethanol it contains. The review of results suggests that the size of this effect may be modest, and it is clearly overmatched by cultural factors relating to who chooses to drink which beverage and how. However, even more relevant than the direct effect may be the other three mechanisms, which potentially affect the amounts of alcohol drunk or allow the influencing of drinker groups of interest. PMID:24431477

  8. Snuff bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Snuff bottles first appeared in China in the Ming dynasty(1368-1644) and, as their name suggests, were originally indeed used as a container for snuff tobacco, first of all by the Manchu, Mongols and Tibetans. The reason for their popularity at that time is to be found in the customs of those ethnic minorities: because those ethnic groups mainly led a nomadic life that entailed frequent use of hay or firewood.

  9. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try ...

  10. New alternatives in construction: earth filled pet bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Valencia, Daniel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; López Pérez, Cecilia;; Cortes, Eliana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Froese, Andreas; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTTwo of the main problems of mankind are the lack of housing and the accumulation of solid waste and garbage thatultimately brings environmental problems. Within this solid waste are plastics such as the PET bottles (for examplesoda bottles). In order to try to solve both problems, since 2001 Eco-Tec Soluciones has pioneered in the constructionof houses and water storage structures with PET bottles filled with rammed earth. Groups GRIME and Estructuras yConstrucción of the Pontificia U...

  11. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever-increasing demand of sustainable products, eco-friendly packaging solutions are findingtheir importance in the paper packaging industry [1]. Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is an alternative toplastic, glass and metal based packaging for beverages. The manufacturing of paper bottle is a two...

  12. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  14. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-01-01

    .... However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages...

  16. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  17. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society.

  18. Estudo do efeito do envelhecimento sob radiação UV no transporte de água em filmes de PET reciclados de bebidas carbonatadas Study of the UV ageing effect on water transport through PET films recycled from beverage bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. Vichessi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um estudo sobre o efeito do envelhecimento sob radiação UV no transporte de água em filmes planos de PET reciclados de garrafas de bebidas carbonatadas. A partir do formalismo termodinâmico utilizando a relação de Eyring e os resultados de coeficientes de permeabilidade, foram determinadas a entropia e a entalpia de ativação para o transporte da água. Estas funções representadas num gráfico de efeito de compensação termodinâmica permitiram correlacionar a degradação do material, avaliada via espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, com o transporte de água. Foram analisados os possíveis efeitos da presença de estabilizantes, pigmentos e história de processamento.This work describes a study about the UV ageing effect on water transport through PET film sheets recycled from beverage bottles. Using a thermodynamic formalism based on the Eyring relationship and results of water permeability coefficient, it is possible to determine the entropy and enthalpy of activation for the water transport process. These functions were correlated using the compensation thermodynamic plot and correlations were made between the degradation of the PET samples, measured by FTIR, and transport properties. Also, possible effects from the presence of stabilizers, pigments and processing history were analyzed.

  19. Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflection spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Jensen, Jens K.; Møller, Uffe

    2008-01-01

    be classified as either harmless or inflammable. The method operates in reflection mode with the result that liquids opaque to THz radiation can be characterized with little influence of the bottle shape. The method works with plastic bottles as well as glass bottles, with absorption of THz radiation...... by the plastic or the glass being the limiting factor. The reflection mode allows for automatic control of the validity of the measurement. The method will be useful in liquid scanning systems at security checkpoints....

  20. Non-invasive determination of ethanol, propylene glycol and water in a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by direct measurement through amber plastic bottles using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, N W; Jee, R D; Moffat, A C; Eaves, M J; Mann, W C; Dziki, W

    2000-11-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify rapidly the ethanol (34-49% v/v), propylene glycol (20-35% v/v) and water (11-20% m/m) contents within a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by measurement directly through the amber plastic bottle packaging. Spectra were collected in the range 7302-12,000 cm-1 and calibration models set-up using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and multiple linear regression. Reference values for the three components were measured using capillary gas chromatography (ethanol and propylene glycol) and Karl Fischer (water) assay procedures. The calibration and test sets consisted of production as well as laboratory batches that were made to extend the concentration ranges beyond the natural production variation. The PLSR models developed gave standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 1.1% v/v for ethanol, 0.9% v/v for propylene glycol and 0.3% m/m for water. For each component the calibration model was validated in terms of: linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision and robustness. All the methods produced statistically favourable outcomes. Ten production batches independent of the calibration and test sets were also challenged against the PLSR models, giving SEP values of 1.3% v/v (ethanol), 1.0% v/v (propylene glycol) and 0.2% m/m (water). NIR transmission spectroscopy allowed all three liquid constituents to be non-invasively measured in under 1 min.

  1. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  2. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  3. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  4. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  5. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P 85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  6. The synthesis of nanostructured SiC from waste plastics and silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhicheng; Xu, Liqiang; Pang, Qiaolian; Xing, Zheng; Ma, Xiaojian; Qian, Yitai

    2009-09-01

    Waste plastics constitute a growing environmental problem. Therefore, the treatment of waste plastics should be considered. Here we synthesize 3C-SiC nanomaterials coexisting with amorphous graphite particles utilizing waste plastics and Si powder at 350-500 °C in a stainless steel autoclave. 3C-SiC could be finally obtained after refluxing with aqueous HClO4 (70 wt%) at 180 °C. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate that the product is 3C-SiC with the calculated lattice constant a = 4.36 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the SiC samples presented two morphologies: hexagonal platelets prepared by the waste detergent bottles or beverage bottles and nanowires prepared by waste plastic bags respectively. The corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indicates that either the entire hexagonal platelet or the nanowire is single crystalline. High-resolution TEM shows the planar surfaces of the SiC platelet correspond to {111} planes; the lateral surfaces are {110} planes and the preferential growth direction of the nanowires is along [111]. The output of SiC was ~39% based on the amount of Si powder.

  7. Serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing carbonated drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F; Mester, V; Morris, R; Dalma, J

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To analyse serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing pressurised drinks. Methods: Retrospective review of the databases of US, Hungarian, and Mexican eye injury registries. Results: In the combined database (12 889 injuries), 90 cases (0.7%) were caused by bottle tops or glass splinters. The incidence varied widely: 0.3% (United States), 3.1% (Hungary), and 0.9% (Mexico), as did the agent. Champagne bottle corks were responsible in 20% (United States), 71% (Hungary; p<0.0001), and 0% (Mexico). Most eyes improved, but 26% remained legally blind. Conclusions: The presence of warning labels on champagne bottles appears to reduce cork related eye injuries, as does using plastic bottles and caps. PMID:14693777

  8. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  9. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  10. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  11. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  12. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  13. Development of a Filtration-Based Bioluminescence Assay for Detection of Microorganisms in Tea Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yohei; Igarashi, Toshinori; Harada, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The market for tea drinks as healthy beverages has been steadily expanding, and ready-to-drink beverages in polyethylene terephthalate bottles have been popular. To more rapidly and accurately test tea beverages bottled in polyethylene terephthalate for microbial contamination, a newly developed filtration device and a washing method with a commercial bioluminescence assay were combined to detect low numbers of bacterial spores, fungal conidia, and ascospores. Washing buffers were formulated with nonionic detergents from the Tween series. Commercially available tea beverages were used to evaluate the filtration capacity of the filtration device, the effect of washing buffers, and the performance of the assay. The assay was tested with serially diluted suspensions of colonies of two bacterial strains, spores of three Bacillus strains, conidia of five fungal strains, and ascospores of four fungal strains. The filtration device enabled filtration of a large sample volume (100 to 500 ml), and the washing buffer significantly decreased the background bioluminescence intensity of tea samples when compared with the no-washing method. Low numbers (1 to 10 CFU/100 ml) of the tested strains of bacteria were detected within 8 to 18 h of cultivation, and fungi were detected within 24 to 48 h. Furthermore, a whole bottle (500 ml) of mixed tea was filtered through the filtration device and microbes were detected. This method could be used for quality control of bottled beverages without preincubation.

  14. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  15. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collecte...

  16. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCRPET. Upon quantitative validation of PBDE leaching from certain plastic bottles into water, a revisit to existing PBDE exposure assessment reports will be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Srivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA. Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products including variety of modern goods, reusable food storage containers, eyeglass lenses, white dental fillings, sealants, medical equipments etc. In the body, BPA behaves as an estrogen receptor agonist and mimics estrogen hormone. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Children and unborn and new born babies are at high risk of unwanted effects of BPA. Children suffer from chronic exposure to bisphenol A with manifestation of gastrointestinal problems, adrenal stress, immune dysfunction, toxic over load and neurological disorders. Some study in Japan has observed that more BPA can leach from polycarbonate products that have been scratched or is more than 4 years old or used bottles that have been subjected to bottle brushing or dishwashing and sterilization. People exposed to higher levels of BPA due to use of plastic food and beverages containers are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic disorder. Recent studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in the development of weight gain, insulin resistance, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, thyroid hormone disruption, and several other mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes. Urinary BPA levels are found to be associated with diabetes mellitus independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. There is a concern of exposure of BPA to pregnant women that can

  18. Vision-based level control for beverage-filling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Dietmar; Braune, Ingolf

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a vision-based on-line level control system which is used in beverage filling machines. Motivation for the development of this sensor system was the need for an intelligent filling valve, which can provide constant filling levels for all container/product combinations (i.e. juice, milk, beer, water, etc. in glass or PET bottles with various transparency and shape) by using a non-tactile and completely sterile measurement method. The sensor concept being presented in this paper is based on several CCD-cameras imaging the moving containers from the outside. The stationary lighting system illuminating the bottles is located within the filler circle. The field of view covers between 5 and 8 bottles depending on the bottle diameter and the filler partitioning. Each filling element's number is identified by the signals of an angular encoder. The electro-pneumatic filling valves can be opened and closed by computer control The cameras continuously monitor the final stages of the filling process, i.e. after the filling height has reached the upper half of the bottle. The sensor system measures the current filling height and derives the filling speed. Based on static a priori- knowledge and dynamic process knowledge the sensor system generates a best estimate of the particular time when the single valve is to be closed. After every new level measurement the system updates the closing time. The measurement process continues until the result of the next level calculation would be available after the estimated closing time would have been passed. The vision-based filling valve control enables the filling machine to adapt the filling time of each valve to the individual bottle shape. Herewith a standard deviation between 2 and 4 mm (depending on the slew rate in the bottle neck) can be accomplished, even at filling speed > 70.000 bottles per hour. 0

  19. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pHwaters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW becomes a new entrant in the Philippine beverage industry.  As new player, penetrating the market of the giant beverage manufacturers seem to be risky and challenging.  The study aimed to determine the market potential of bottled pasteurized coconut water and to identify product positioning opportunity in the beverage market. The study employed random consumption survey and product test. Van Westerndorp price sensitivity meter was used in determining the ideal price for PCW.  The properties of PCW against the respondents’ top beverage were used as bases for product positioning.  The study revealed that PCW is widely accepted by the general consumers and the target market using common beverage attributes. PCW is positioned as a functional health drink that could serve as a substitute beverage to bottled water and sports drink.  The natural and functional appeal of PCW may serve as its product differentiation tool in penetrating the beverage market and attracting consumers with active and healthy lifestyle.  With high market acceptability, there is a huge potential for PCW to infiltrate the Philippine beverage industry.

  2. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    in the desired shape and structure. However, there are certain limitations associated to the product characterization using tactile measuring methods. In this work, a new approach has been applied for defect analysis and quality control of non-homogenous prototype paper products using computed tomography.......Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  3. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  4. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  5. A Systematic Approach to Marine Debris Reduction Efforts and Education in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    debris containing sharp glass , metal, or plastic . Marine debris also presents hazards to fishing and...Traps/pots Light sticks Beverage bottles ( glass ) Tampon applicators Gloves Cruiseline logo items Plastic bottles -other Condoms Straps-open Straps...1m Straws Plastic bags < 1m Plastic beverage bottles Figure 4: The Most Frequent Marine Debris Items found on Jenness Beach (2005)

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Kathleen A.; Schuman, James D.; Simpson, Peter G.; Taormina, Peter J.

    Commercially packaged, non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages comprise a diverse group of products, both carbonated (sparkling) and non-carbonated (still), that appeal to consumers of all ages and provide refreshment, hydration, energy, and nutrition at home and "on-the-go." Examples of such products include purified, mineral, and spring waters, flavored or enhanced waters, colas, fruit-flavored sodas, sports and energy drinks, fruit or vegetable juices, teas, coffees, smoothies, dairy and yogurt drinks, and fusion beverages (hybrid products that bridge multiple beverage categories).

  7. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  8. Industry Self-Regulation to Improve Student Health: Quantifying Changes in Beverage Shipments to Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Brendan M.; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a data collection and monitoring system to independently evaluate the self-regulatory effort to reduce the number of beverage calories available to children during the regular and extended school day. We have described the data collection procedures used to verify data supplied by the beverage industry and quantified changes in school beverage shipments. Methods. Using a proprietary industry data set collected in 2005 and semiannually in 2007 through 2010, we measured the total volume of beverage shipments to elementary, middle, and high schools to monitor intertemporal changes in beverage volumes, the composition of products delivered to schools, and portion sizes. We compared data with findings from existing research of the school beverage landscape and a separate data set based on contracts between schools and beverage bottling companies. Results. Between 2004 and the 2009–2010 school year, the beverage industry reduced calories shipped to schools by 90%. On a total ounces basis, shipments of full-calorie soft drinks to schools decreased by 97%. Conclusions. Industry self-regulation, with the assistance of a transparent and independent monitoring process, can be a valuable tool in improving public health outcomes. PMID:22897528

  9. Manufacture Processing and Applications of Polyester Bottle%PET聚酯瓶的制造工艺与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘焕玉

    2014-01-01

    PET聚酯具有良好的吹塑性,因此在瓶类包装上得到充分的推广。在耐热性上, PET聚酯瓶可分冷瓶和热瓶。本综述主要从原料选择、瓶坯加工、吹瓶过程三方面描述PET聚酯热瓶的制造工艺。此外,还列举PET聚酯瓶在饮用水、茶饮料、碳酸饮料、调味品、食用油、啤酒、医药、农药等八大生活日用品的包装应用以及PET聚酯瓶在各应用中的性能。%Due to the excellent blow molding property, polyester was widely used in bottle packing. Based on its thermal resistance, polyester could be divided into two different types of cool-type bottle and hot-type bottle. Cool-type bottle meant the bottle had no resistance to heat, and it was more appropriately utilized in normal atmospheric temperature. In contrast, hot-type bottle resisted heating to a certain extent. The manufacture processing of polyester bottle was introduced from three distinct aspects of selection of raw materials, manufacture of bottle embryo and procedure of blowing bottle respectively. In addition, eight different packing applications of polyester bottle for daily life necessities were clearly mentioned that was drinkable water, tea drinks, carbonic acid beverage, condiment, cooking oil, beer, medicine, and pesticide. Furthermore, kinds of properties of polyester bottle at each application were described.

  10. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of...

  11. 75 FR 80828 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 510.800 Beverages-Serving Size Labeling; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... calories on the PDP of the label per 12 ounces: (1) Sports drinks (this term is used by industry and has not been defined by the Agency), (2) bottled water and water beverages, (3) soft drinks and diet soft... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  12. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  13. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  14. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  15. Effects of initial air removal methods on microorganisms and characteristics of fermented plant beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan

    2008-01-15

    The effects of 3 different methods for removing the initial air on the properties of fermented plant beverages produced from phom-nang seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) and wild forest noni (Morinda coreia Ham.) were investigated. Only method M which covered the space above the fermentation liquid with a water filled plastic bag produced no surface film of yeast, had the highest acidity and also antibacterial activity from both plants after 90 days of fermentation. However, the yeast count still exceeded the standard guidelines for plant beverages. The fermented beverage from wild forest noni showed more antibacterial activity against 3 of 4 pathogenic bacteria tested than that from the phomnang seaweed, probably for its higher levels of acidity and ethanol content. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from the fermentation samples from days 1-5 using the method M from both fermented plant beverages were Leuconostoc mesenteroides supsp. mesenteroides and Leu. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum while presence of Lactobacilus plantarum was only recorded at days 4-5 in the wild forest noni beverage. From days 6-14 the isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus brevis from wild forest noni beverage, whereas only L. brevis was not detected in the seaweed beverage. During days 21-45 both beverages had a similar LAB population of L. plantarum and L. brevis while L. coryniformis was only found in the wild forest noni beverage. Between days 60-90 in both plant beverages only L. plantarum and Lactobacillius sp. were detected.

  16. Exploring the Limitations on RFID Technology in Traceability Systems at Beverage Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Expósito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of RFID in traceability of products in beverage factories is analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic conditions defined by the massive presence of metallic elements and liquids. Various experiments are reported to determine the maximum reading range from RFID tags installed on tanks or to read RFID information around bottles, both empty and full of wine, trying to put in context the possible problems that could appear when installing an RFID-based traceability system within a winery, a brewery, or any other beverage factory.

  17. Chemometrics-enhanced fiber optic Raman detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical agents simulants concealed in commercial bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly J. Galan-Freyle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric techniques such as partial least squares combined with discriminant analysis (PLS–DA and artificial neural networks (ANN analysis were used to enhance the detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical warfare agents simulants. Triethyl phosphate (TEP mixed with commercial products in their original containers was analyzed through the container walls using fiber-optic-coupled Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were performed by employing a custom built optical fiber probe operating at 488 nm. Detection was accomplished using mixtures of the contents of the commercial bottles and water. The bottle materials included green plastic, green glass, clear plastic, clear glass, amber glass and white plastic. To account for the low scattering-peak intensities of some bottle materials, integration times were increased. Short integration times provided no information for amber glass and white plastic. The limits of detection were on the order of 1–5%, depending on bottle materials and contents. Good discrimination was achieved with PLS–DA when models were generated from a dataset originating from the same type of bottle material. ANN performed better when large sets of data were used, discriminating TEP from bottle materials and contents, as well as accurately classifying over 90% of the data.

  18. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于201 3年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互动,最终得到年轻人们的自愿持续关注。每日新闻社还利用AR技术,让人们能通过移动

  19. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于2013年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互

  20. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environment conservation have grown in recent years, mainly in industrialized countries, due to growing awareness in these societies regarding the importance of environment quality as the basis for the preservation of future generations. Thus, rather than viewing the environment as a good to be consumed by the productive sector, it is seen as world heritage of humanity. Although lubricant oil represents a small percentage of the waste generated by humans, its impact is very great. One ton of lubricant oil dumped into water systems is equivalent to the pollution caused by 40,000 inhabitants. Thus, only one liter of oil is able to consume the oxygen of a million liters of water, forming, in few days, a fine layer on the surface of 1000 m2 which blocks the passage of air and light for the aquatic organisms. In this context, a study was carried out to collect empty plastic automotive lubricant oil bottles at various gasoline stations in Rio Claro-SP to verify the final destination and determine the volume of lubricant remaining in the bottles. = As preocupações com a conservação do meio ambiente têm crescido nos últimos anos, principalmente em países industrializados, devido à consciência que tem sido construída nessas sociedades sobre a importância da qualidade ambiental como base para a preservação da vida das futuras gerações. A sua carga poluidora é equivalente a 40.000 habitantes por tonelada de óleo despejada em corpos d’água. Apenas um litro de óleo é capaz de esgotar o oxigênio de um milhão de litros de água, formando, em poucos dias, uma fina camada sobre a superfície de 1.000 m2, o que bloqueia a passagem de ar e luz, impedindo a respiração e a fotossíntese. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma pesquisa nos centros de lubrificação e postos de combustíveis do município de Rio Claro-SP para verificar o destino final das embalagens já utilizadas, teoricamente vazias, e também houve coleta destas

  1. Surface-active proteins from Fusarium spp. and their role in gushing in carbonated beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Lutterschmid, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Gushing is the spontaneous over-foaming of bottled carbonated beverages, particularly of beer. Due to its negative economical and image-damaging consequences it is of great interest for the beverage industry. To clarify the molecular causes of malt-related gushing, five surface-active proteins from filamentous fungi and from barley were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The proteins were isolated and their gushing-inducing activity was determined. The protein FcHyd5p was identified...

  2. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  3. Evaluation of accelerated UV and thermal testing for benzene formation in beverages containing benzoate and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Patricia J; Wamer, Wayne G; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W; Perfetti, Gracia A

    2010-04-01

    Under certain conditions, benzene can form in beverages containing benzoic and ascorbic acids. The American Beverage Assn. (ABA) has published guidelines to help manufacturers mitigate benzene formation in beverages. These guidelines recommend accelerated testing conditions to test product formulations, because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and elevated temperature over the shelf life of the beverage may result in benzene formation in products containing benzoic and ascorbic acids. In this study, the effects of UVA exposure on benzene formation were determined. Benzene formation was examined for samples contained in UV stabilized and non-UV stabilized packaging. Additionally, the usefulness of accelerated thermal testing to simulate end of shelf-life benzene formation was evaluated for samples containing either benzoic or ascorbic acid, or both. The 24 h studies showed that under intense UVA light benzene levels increased by as much as 53% in model solutions stored in non-UV stabilized bottles, whereas the use of UV stabilized polyethylene terephthalate bottles reduced benzene formation by about 13% relative to the non-UV stabilized bottles. Similar trends were observed for the 7 d study. Retail beverages and positive and negative controls were used to study the accelerated thermal testing conditions. The amount of benzene found in the positive controls and cranberry juice suggests that testing at 40 degrees C for 14 d may more reliably simulate end of shelf-life benzene formation in beverages. Except for cranberry juice, retail beverages were not found to contain detectable amounts of benzene (<0.05 ng/g) at the end of their shelf lives.

  4. Discovery Bottles: A Unique Inexpensive Tool for the K-2 Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Discover discovery bottles! These wide-mouth plastic containers of any size filled with objects of different kinds can be terrific tools for science explorations and a great way to cultivate science minds in a K-2 science classroom. In addition, the author has found them to be a useful, inexpensive, and engaging way to help students develop skills…

  5. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  6. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R(2)>0.99), accuracy (94-104% recovery) and precision (RSD carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval = 0.01-0.54%). Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology.

  7. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  8. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

  9. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  10. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  11. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  12. Qualitative Assessment Of Bottled Water In The Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, S.; Saleem, Abdul

    1996-01-01

    Many brands of bottled water are being produced in the Middle East including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Over fourteen brands of bottled water could be found in the market of Doha. Use of bottled water has kept on increasing in this region. Reasons for the increase in use of bottled water for drinking have been discussed. The raw water source for the bottled water is groundwater. Most of the manufacturers of the bottled water claim bottled water as "Natural Mineral Water...

  13. Reverse osmosis influence over the content of metals and organic acids in low alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.

  14. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  15. REVERSE LOGISTICS OF PACKAGING AS A SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY FOR COST REDUCTION: A STUDY IN A BOTTLER BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laryssa Guedes de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the possibility of reducing production costs with the implementation of a program of reverse logistics packaging. Therefore we conducted a literature review focusing on reverse logistics, sustainability, packaging and glass recycling. The research was conducted through a descriptive case study, conducted from a survey and a semi structured interview. The study was developed in a beverage bottler, the Engarrafamento Coroa, a company that adopts in its bottling system using bottles purchased from recycling cooperatives. The results indicate that by reverse logistics is possible to reduce costs and environmental impact associated with the pollution and waste of materials, and provides revenue generation.

  16. Dibutyl Phthalate and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Contents in Plastic Packaged Beverages and Potential Exposure Risk to College Students%塑料瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸-(2-乙基己基)酯含量及其对大学生的潜在暴露风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉莉; 李荔群; 张励倩; 陈波; 厉曙光

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对大学生每日经由塑料瓶装饮料摄入邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸-(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)的暴露量进行风险评估.[方法]通过方便抽样的方法对196名大学生进行塑料瓶装饮料摄入情况在线问卷调查,结合114种市售塑料瓶装饮料中DBP及DEHP的检测数据,计算调查人群经塑料瓶装饮料摄入DBP和DEHP的慢性每日摄入值和安全限值分布,运用蒙特卡洛概率模型拟合大学生群体DBP和DEHP每日暴露情况并进行相应的敏感度分析.[结果]受访大学生不同种类饮料摄入量不同,但男、女生的塑料瓶装饮用水摄入量均居首位.DBP和DEHP含量亦因饮料种类而各异,其中咖啡类、乳类及果汁类相对较高.大学生经塑料瓶装饮料DBP和DEHP的暴露值均低于其每日允许摄入量,安全限值均小于1.蒙特卡洛概率模型显示99.90%的大学生经塑料瓶装饮料摄入DBP的暴露量是安全的,仅0.10%存在潜在生殖发育毒性风险,男、女生的生殖发育毒性风险分别为0.02%和0.09%;大学生经塑料瓶装饮料摄入DEHP的暴露量尚不存在健康风险.[结论]大学生经塑料瓶装饮料DBP的摄入水平可能存在一定的潜在生殖发育毒性风险,DEHP的摄入水平则处于安全范围.%[ Objective ] To estimate the exposure levels to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic packaged beverages among college students. [ Methods ] The chronic daily intake and margin of safety of DBP and DEHP were estimated by the gas-chromatography-determined concentrations of DBP and DEHP in 114 brands of plastic packaged beverages, and the drinking patterns among 196 college students were collected via an online questionnaire using convenience sampling strategy. Monte Carlo models were applied to simulate the daily exposures to DBP and DEHP in target students and related sensitive analyses were also performed. [ Results ] The daily intakes of

  17. Novel Gas Barrier SiOC Coating to PET Bottles through a Hot Wire CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to enhance the gas barrier enhancement of plastic containers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles, a novel method was found using a hot wire CVD technique, where tantalum wire is heated and exposed to a gas flow of vinyl silane. The resultant SiOC thin film was confirmed to characteristically contain Si-Si bonds in its surface and demonstrate a remarkably and highly practical decrease of the permeation of various gas through poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles.

  18. Links between purchase location and stable isotope ratios of bottled water, soda, and beer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the impact of purchase location on the stable isotope ratios of beverages by measuring the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of bottled water, soda, beer, and tap water collected across the contiguous United States. Measured beverage delta(2)H and delta(18)O values generally fit the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), suggesting region-of-origin information is recorded in beverage water. Tap water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were strongly correlated with the stable isotope ratios of bottled water and soda purchased in the same location. Beer water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were also correlated with tap water, although not as strongly. Variability in delta(2)H and delta(18)O values among beverages purchased at a single location ranged from 2 to 41 per thousand and from 0.3 to 5.2 per thousand, respectively, but was generally moderate in most locations. It was concluded that the isotopic composition of local tap water is a reasonable proxy for consumers' fluid intake in most U.S. cities.

  19. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. AIM: To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage...... outcomes in both children and adults were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50 methodology checklists. RESULTS: Six cohort studies and four RCTs were included in the systematic review with the quality rating ranging from acceptable...

  20. Tasty Business, Wine & Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone attracts many companies to settle down,and China International Exhibition and Trading Center of Wine & Beverage is one of them.It is said that when the first bunch of grapes fell down on the soil,it was the beginning of the art of winemaking.The win is not only the symbol of culture,history,trade,religion,art,etc.,but also one part or one style of our real life.When the technology has shortened the distance of the world,then wine,an important part of the trade in the past,today,or the future,becomes more and more international.

  1. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status......This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  2. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  3. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkala Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG and papaya. Aloe gel (30%, papaya pulp (15%, spice extract (5%, and citric acid (0.1% were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB. Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  4. Caregiver and adolescent responses to food and beverage marketing exposures through an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Zytnick, Deena; Onufrak, Stephen; Harris, Jennifer L; Wethington, Holly; Kingsley, Beverly; Park, Sohyun

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine noted that current food and beverage marketing practices promote unhealthful diets. However, little public health research has been conducted on food marketing directed toward adolescents, especially using caregiver- and adolescent-reported data. We assessed perceived frequency of food/beverage advertising exposure and common locations of food/beverage marketing exposure for adolescents using 2012 Summer ConsumerStyles and YouthStyles survey data on US adults ≥18 years of age and their children ages 12-17 (n=847), respectively. Exposure to advertisements for fast food, soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and bottled water were categorized as marketing most frequently on television followed by at the supermarket. Our study showed that adolescents reported lower frequency of food and beverage advertising exposure than their caregivers. Further research may be needed to verify self-reported exposure data on food and beverage advertising as a way to obtain data for use in research on its relationship with diet quality and obesity.

  5. A Nigerian Millet Based Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial and sensory qualities of freshly processed and reconstituted Kununzaki beverages prepared from steeped millet ... Materials and Methods. Préparation of .... computer package. .... Agboola, S.D. (1987): Srorage and preservation.

  6. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  7. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  8. Revisiting the fog bottle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P-T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.

  9. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: influence of reuse on intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, J; de, Kruijf N

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects by reuse on the intrinsic properties of plastics in more detail. The plastic articles investigated were bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) and vending cups of polypropylene (PP). The influence of repeated use on the migration of plastic constituents, degradation products of plastic additives, barrier properties and surface characteristics were investigated. The overall conclusion was that the investigated intrinsic properties of the refillable articles were not significantly influenced by repeated use. Only the hydrophobicity of the refillable PC and PP articles seemed to be influenced by repeated washing. PC bottles washed 15 times were significantly less hydrophobic than unwashed bottles.

  10. PECTIN BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogneva O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of pectins and its concentration on probiotic characteristics of the beverages has been studied for developing the formulation and technology of pectin beverages. Samples of sour-milk products with dry pectin (Unipectin OB 700 and liquid one (pectin apple extract is produced by SunLand was made. Sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content were defined. High sour milk microorganisms and bifidobacteria content as well as high rate in souring were revealed in the preparatory samples. However, liquid pectin is easier in use. Consequently, the formulation of pectin extract beverages was developed and optimized by using Mathematical Modeling. The samples of beverages were produced and their quality characteristics were evaluated. An optimal fruit/vegetable fillers / whey ration was defined to get the product which combined balanced micronutrient composition, its functional activities and gustatory qualities. For that a three-factor simplex-centroid design was used. The samples produced according to the design matrix were tasted and evaluated by color, flavor, aroma and consistency according to the ten score points scale. The findings were processed with statistical and graphical analysis. The last one used the construction of ternary graphs with the help of «Statistica 7,0» program that allowed to define the most acceptable ranges of fruit/vegetable fillers / whey components in the beverages: fruit juice – 4-16%; pumpkin juice-4-16%; whey -4%. Chemical composition, organoleptical indicators and physicochemical parameters of ready-to drink beverages were examined. As a result, these beverages have been recommended for school feeding as the source of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins

  11. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  12. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  13. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedman, Annika; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Drewnowski, Adam; Edman, Anna-Karin Modin

    2010-01-01

    The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI) index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28) and soy drink (0.25). Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54) than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account. PMID:20806074

  14. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P carbonation mouthfeel lovers, cluster 2 (C2) carbonation mouthfeel lovers, sweet and bitter taste acceptors, and cluster 3 (C3) bitter taste avoiders, mouthfeel and sweet taste lovers. User status (diet or regular beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  17. Resonance in Bottles with Different Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Helmholtz Resonance equation derived in the 1800’s describes the nature of resonance in narrow-necked vessels, known as Helmholtz Resonators. It is commonly accepted that when air is blown across the opening of a bottle, the resonance can be modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Resonance was studied in two differently shaped bottles as the volume of the air cavity was varied. It was found that resonance in one of the bottles was accurately modeled by the Helmholtz equation but not in the other.

  18. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  19. Why does a beer bottle foam up after a sudden impact on its mouth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Casado-Chacon, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A sudden vertical impact on the mouth of a beer bottle generates a compression wave that propagates through the glass towards the bottom. When this wave reaches the base of the bottle, it is transmitted to the liquid as an expansion wave that travels to free surface, where it bounces back as a compression wave. This train of expansion-compression waves drives the forced cavitation of existing air pockets, leading to their violent collapse. A cloud of very small daughter bubbles are generated upon these collapses, that expand much faster than their mothers due to their smaller size. These rapidly growing bubble clusters effectively act as buoyancy sources, what leads to the formation of bubble-laden plumes whose void fraction increases quickly by several orders of magnitude, eventually turning most of the beverage into foam. In this talk, we will analyze quantitatively these processes in order to explain the extremely high efficiency of the degasification process that occurs in the bottle within the few seconds that follow the impact. This work has been supported by Spanish Ministries of Science and of Economy and Competitiveness through grants: DPI2008-06369 and DPI2011-28356-C03-02.

  20. Effects of carbonation on probiotic survivability, physicochemical, and sensory properties of milk-based symbiotic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen; Cheng, Jianjun; Guo, Mingruo

    2014-04-01

    Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the United States and there may be a niche for carbonated drinkable yogurt in the functional foods market. Pomegranate (P) and vanilla (V) yogurt beverages were formulated, containing inulin as a prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, to produce symbiotic products. These beverages were stabilized with high-methoxyl pectin and whey protein concentrate and compared to samples with approximately 2 volumes of added carbon dioxide (CO2 ). Samples were stored in sealed glass bottles at 4 °C for 9 wk for evaluation of physicochemical and functional properties. Trials were carried out in triplicate and 3 replicates from each trial were analyzed. Physicochemical attributes were analyzed using standard AOAC methods. Survivability of the probiotics and changes in pH and viscosity were measured weekly. Chemical composition of the carbonated beverages was: protein: 1.58 ± 0.05%, 1.59 ± 0.06%, fat: 1.24 ± 0.2%, 1.18 ± 0.11%, total solids: 14.78 ± 0.11%, 14.93 ± 0.05%, ash: 0.49 ± 0.02%, 0.46 ± 0.03%, and carbohydrate (by difference): 11.47 ± 0.12%, 11.69 ± 0.14% for P and V, respectively. Both L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium were stable and remained above 10(6) CFU/g for both flavors of beverage both with and without carbonation. The new manufacturing technology for these prototypes may have potential for commercialization of carbonated symbiotic milk-based beverages. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Applications of soluble dietary fibers in beverages

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Beristain; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; F. Cruz-Sosa; R. Pedroza-Islas; J. R. Verde-Calvo

    2006-01-01

    In this work the importance of soluble dietary fibers in the human diet is discussed. Traditional and new sources of soluble dietary fiber are mentioned, and a description of how to apply them in different types of beverages such as energy drinks, sport drinks, carbonated beverages and protein-based beverages in order to achieve enhanced functional properties is given.

  2. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  3. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  4. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  5. The research of clean bottle and bottle embryo recycle in the PP bottle infusion production%洁净瓶胚料在塑瓶大输液生产中回收利用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔良峰; 黄桂华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Crush the clean plastic bottles and bottle embryos into a certain size of particles,add new pp ag-gregate mixed according to certain proportion,blow them into PP bottles again,the pp bottles will be used in the production of pp bottle infusions. Through the identification of the risk and influence factor during the recycle of the pp materials,take corresponding control measures to ensure the quality of the final products not be affected. Methods ①Identify the risk,re-search in the risk control and production process according the risk point. ②Select pp aggregate from 3 different manufactur-ers,research the different proportions of making pp bottles. ③Use the pp bottles in the production of 0. 9% sodium chloride injection and 5% glucose injection,test,research the accelerated stability study and the package material compatibili-ty. Make sure if there is quality difference between the new products which uses mixing aggregate and original products. Re-sults and Conclusion Recycle the homogeneous clean plastic bottles and bottle embryos with a certain propor-tion. Research the accelerated stability study and the package material compatibility,and compared with normal production, there is no obvious difference in the data,and the biological experiments meet the requirement at the same time. This method can ensure the product safety and stability.%目的:将塑瓶大输液生产中灌装药液前产生的洁净瓶、胚,重新粉碎成一定粒径的颗粒后,与新 PP 粒料按一定比例混合后,重新吹制成 PP 输液瓶,用于 PP 塑瓶大输液产品的生产。通过对回收利用过程中的各种风险和影响因素进行识别,采取针对性的控制措施,确保最终产品质量不受影响。方法①进行风险识别,确定风险点并据此进行风险控制与工艺研究;②选取3个不同厂家的 PP 粒料,进行不同混合比例的制瓶研究;③将不同混合比例的 PP 瓶分别用于0.9%

  6. A novel one-step synthesis for carbon-based nanomaterials from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Farag, Hassan A

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays our planet suffers from an accumulation of plastic products that have the potential to cause great harm to the environment in the form of air, water, and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the large numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent-free process that converts polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst, which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. This research succeeded in producing and controlling the microstructure of various forms of carbon nanoparticles from the PET waste by optimizing the preparation parameters in terms of time, additives, and amounts of catalyst. Plastic water bottles are becoming a growing segment of the municipal solid waste stream in the world; some are recycled but many are left in landfill sites. Recycling PET bottles waste can positively impact the environment in several ways: for instance, reduced waste, resource conservation, energy conservation, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and decreasing the amount of pollution in air and water sources. The main novelty of the present work is based on the acquisition of high-value carbon-based nanomaterials from PET waste by a simple solvent-free chemical technique. Thus, the prepared materials are considered to be promising, cheap, eco-friendly materials that may find use in different applications.

  7. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  8. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  9. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  10. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  11. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  12. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ....006 mg/L may have the potential to cause health effects in humans including damage to liver and testes... allowable levels for pesticides and other synthetic organic chemicals, an allowable level for DEHP at 0.006... affect the agency's previous determination that there is no significant impact on the human environment...

  13. Factors that Affect Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake in Rural, Southern College Students in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Chau, Tak Yan; Rutledge, Julie M; Erickson, Dawn; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate factors that affect sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in rural, southern college students in the US. The majority of the participants were male (58 %) and Caucasian (63 %). The average total SSB consumption was 79.4 fl oz/day (2.35 L/d). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total SSB intake greater than 57.4 fl oz/day (1.8 L/d) versus less than 57.4 fl oz/day showed that factors associated with greater odds for high SSB intake were age greater than 20 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.551, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.385 - 9.104, p = 0.008) and being African American (OR = 3.477, 95 % CI = 1.291 - 9.363, p = 0.013). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total bottled water intake greater than 39.4 fl oz/day (median) versus less than 39.4 fl oz/day showed that consuming alcohol was significantly related to an increased probability of drinking more than 39.4 fl oz (1.17 L/d) of bottled water per day (median; OR = 2.914, 95 % CI = 1.223 - 6.943, p = 0.016). Culturally sensitive strategies are needed to raise awareness for making healthy beverage choices when dining on campus to effectively reduce college student's SSB consumption.

  14. Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

  15. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  16. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  17. Energy Beverages: Content and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, John P.; Tuttle, Troy D.; Higgins, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by “weekend warriors” and those see...

  18. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  19. Energy beverages: content and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Tuttle, Troy D; Higgins, Christopher L

    2010-11-01

    Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"

  20. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nipples. References American Academy of Pediatrics. Practical Bottle Feeding Tips. Available at: www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/feeding-nutrition/Pages/Practical-Bottle-Feeding-Tips.aspx. Accessed April 7, 2015. Stettler N, ...

  1. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suree Nanasombat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other health-promoting activities. Thus, it is possible to use these plants for the development of new functional beverages. Methods: Ten formulations of beverages were produced. The 5 non-alcoholic beverages contained dried medicinal plants, fresh grapes and others and are as follows: beverage B1: 10.2% K. parviflora rhizomes, 5.1% brown sugar and 84.7% water; beverage B2: 0.45% Ardisia polycephala leaves, 0.45% C. asiatica leaves, 0.36% C. ternatea flowers, 0.45% C. sativus pollens, 0.45% G. biloba leaves, 0.45% Melodorum fruticosum flowers, 0.90% N. nucifera petals, 0.45% Nymphaea lotus petals, 5.43% crystalline sugar and 90.58% water; beverage B3: 0.62% A. polycephala fruits, 0.35% C. ternatea flowers, 0.44% G. biloba leaves, 2.64% K. parviflora rhizomes, 1.76% P. emblica fruits, 0.88% T. chebula fruits, 5.28% brown sugar and 88.03% water; beverage B4: 0.51% Acorus calamus stems, 0.68% C. ternatea flowers, 4.23% K. parviflora rhizomes, 0.85% N. nucifera petals, 0.85% N. lotus petals, 0.85% M. fruticosum flowers, 0.34% R. serpentina roots, 0.34% U. gambir, 1.69% Zingiber officinale rhizomes, 5.08% brown sugar and 84.60% water; beverage B5: 53.09% fresh grapes, 2.65% brown sugar and 44.25% water. After heating, filtering, and cooling, these beverages were put in sterile bottles. One part of each beverage was stored at 4C for 23 weeks before analyzing, but the other two parts were used to prepare the alcoholic beverage of each formulation. Grapes were mixed with the

  2. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  3. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  4. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, R P; Rafferty, K

    2001-09-01

    Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

  5. Stylistic analysis of songs in beverage advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双卉

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the advertisement,people tend to study the stylistic analysis of it.However,in this paper,the focus will be on the songs in beverage advertisement.The analysis will be focused on the features of the beverage advertisement songs and the stylistics of it.The aim of the paper is to improve the people and the scholars' understanding of the beverage advertisement songs.

  6. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  7. Formation of Small Bottle Light Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Lian-zhou; PU Ji-Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A method for obtaining small bottle light beams,e.g.0.92λ×0.4λ,in a high numerical-aperture lens system is proposed and numerically demonstrated.This can be achieved by changing the radius of each zone of the binary element and polarization rotation angle of the cylindrically polarized vectorial vortex beam.It is found that the transversal and axial sizes of this bottle bearn are equal to about 0.92λ and 0.4λ,respectively.In addition,the connection between angular momentum and topological Pancharatnam charge is also shown.

  8. Easy to open? Exploring the 'openability' of hospital food and beverage packaging by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison F; Walton, Karen L; Tapsell, Linda C

    2016-03-01

    Food is increasingly a packaged commodity, both in the community and in institutionalised settings such as hospitals, where many older people are malnourished. Previous research with patients aged over 65 years in NSW public hospitals identified difficulties opening milk, water, juices, cereal and tetra packs. The aim of this paper was to assess the ability of well older people living in the community to open food and beverage items routinely used in NSW hospitals in order to gain further insights into the older person/pack interaction and the role of hand and finger strength in pack opening. A sample of 40 older people in good health aged over 65 years from 3 community settings participated in the study. The attempts at pack opening were observed, the time taken to open the pack was measured and the correlation between grip and pinch strengths with opening times was determined. Tetra packs, water bottles, cereal, fruit cups, desserts, biscuits and cheese portions appeared to be the most difficult food products to open. Ten percent of the sample could not open the water bottles and 39% could not open cheese portions. The results were consistent with the previous research involving hospitalised older adults, adding emphasis to the conclusion that food and beverage packaging can be a potential barrier to adequate nutrition when particular types of packaged products are used in hospitals or the community. The ageing population is rapidly becoming a larger and more important group to consider in the provision of goods and services. Designers, manufacturers and providers of food and beverage products need to consider the needs and abilities of these older consumers to ensure good 'openability' and promote adequate nutritional intakes.

  9. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  10. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Mohn Paulsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787 in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  11. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M

    1996-11-01

    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  12. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  13. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared...

  14. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2012-01-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle...

  15. 27 CFR 28.102 - Bottles to have closures affixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to have closures... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.102 Bottles to have closures affixed. Every bottle containing distilled spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of this subpart shall have a closure...

  16. Green tea beverages enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety reduce body fat in moderately obese adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.

  17. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  18. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B. [Midwest Research Institute, Cary, NC (United States); Safriet, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  19. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (PAQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations.

  20. 洗发水瓶揭盖式瓶盖注塑模设计%Design of Injection Mould for Shampoo Bottle Uncovery Type Bottle Cap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亮; 喻慧文; 曾雪东

    2015-01-01

    洗发水瓶揭盖式瓶盖的结构比较复杂,应用Pro/E软件的塑料顾问模块对塑料件进行分析,确定合适的点浇口位置,并着重阐述了滑块斜顶抽芯机构、顶管二次脱模的设计要点和模具工作原理。应用结果表明,该模具结构动作准确、可靠,成型的塑料件质量较好,具有良好的经济效益。%The structure of shampoo bottle uncovery type bottle cap is complex. The pin gate position was determined by using the plastic advisor of Pro/E software. The design points of lifter slider core pulling mechanism and ejector sleeve using to secondary stripping were mainly described,in addition the mould working principle were too discussed. Production practice prove that the design of the mould structure is reasonable and reliable,the plastic parts have good quality,and it has the good economic efficiency.

  1. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila P

  2. IS BOTTLE GOURD A NATURAL GUARD??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Satbir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae, popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound, flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content. In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.

  3. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  4. Perry: american renaissance of an ancient beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeoning world interest in cider and perry (pear cider, which is an alcoholic beverage) has created a strong demand for unique perry pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars. The history of perry dates to the ancient Romans. This beverage has been very popular through the centuries in Europe. The U.S. Department...

  5. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  6. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  7. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  8. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  9. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  10. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  11. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  12. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  13. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  14. Leaching of styrene and other aromatic compounds in drinking water from PS bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S.Bajahlan

    2007-01-01

    Bottled water may not be safer, or healthier, than tap water. The present studies have proved that styrene and some other aromatic compounds leach continuously from polystyrene (PS) bottles used locally for packaging. Water sapmles in contact with PS were extracted by a preconcentration technique called as "purge and trap" and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Eleven aromatic compounds were identified in these studies. Maximum concentration of styrene in PS bottles was 29.5 μg/L. Apart from styrene, ethyl benzene, toluene and benzene were also quantified but their concentrations were much less than WHO guide line values. All other compounds were in traces. Quality of plastic and storage time were the major factor in leaching of styrene. Concentration of styrene was increased to 69.53 μg/L after one-year storage time. In Styrofoam and PS cups studies, hot water was found to be contaminated with styrene and other aromatic compounds. It was observed that temperature played a major role in the leaching of styrene monomer from Styrofoam cups. Paper cups were found to be safe for hot drinks.

  15. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  16. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  17. Home-made carbonated water and the consumption of water and other beverages in children and adolescents: results of the DONALD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M

    2004-12-01

    To determine differences in intake of water, drinking water and beverages between consumers (C) and non-consumers (NC) of carbonated water prepared at home. Matched pairs design; 3-d-weighed diet records; participants of the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study) aged 2-18 y (n = 550, mean: 8.2 y). The most important beverage was either carbonated (C: females 265, males 299 g/d) or bottled water (NC: males 267, females 282 g/d) followed by juice (120-174 g/d), soft drinks (134-167 g/d) and milk (84-149 g/d). Water intake from beverages was higher in males (NC: 902 and C: 906 g/d) than in females (NC: 789 and C: 771 g/d). However, total water intake per energy was higher in females (NC: 0.88 and C: 0.91 g/kcal) than in males (NC: 0.80 and C: 0.83 g/kcal). C had a significantly higher mean drinking water intake (tap + bottled + carbonated water) in percentage of total water intake (%TW) than NC, and lower mean intakes of milk, bottled water and tap water, respectively. There was a significantly lower mean fat intake in C (females: 32 and males: 33% of energy) versus NC (females: 34 and males: 36% of energy). Irrespective of carbonated water consumption, females had better drinking habits than males, with significantly higher mean intakes of water from food (%TW), water from beverages + food (%TW), and total water per energy. Drinking habits and total water intakes of consumers are quite similar to those of non-consumers of carbonated water. Females in general show more favourable drinking habits than males.

  18. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  19. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  20. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Effect of pasteurization temperature on stability of an acidified sugarcane juice beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kunitake

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh sugarcane juice is quite limited due to the high rates of microbiological and enzymatic reactions which take place after extraction. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization temperature on quality and stability of sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp, nine batches of sugarcane juice with 4g/100g passion fruit pulp were processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C for 30 s, in triplicate. The pasteurized beverage was aseptically packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and stored at 7 °C in the dark. The beverage was characterized by physicochemical tests. Activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were determined before and after processing. Coliforms and Salmonella tests were carried out to assure the beverage´s microbiological safety. Color parameters were measured in the processed juice throughout the storage period. Fifty panelists evaluated the beverage's appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall impression using seven-point hedonic scale tests. Sensory stability was estimated by considering score averages above four and percentages of acceptance above 60%. The pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity of end product ranged from 3.96 to 4.19, 19.7 to 20.1 ºBrix, and 0.163 to 0.175 g/100g citric acid, respectively. The three processing binomials were effective for PPO inactivation; however, complete POD inactivation was reached at 95 °C/30 s only. The estimated sensory shelf-lives for sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C/30 s were 30, 40 and 50 days, respectively. Thus, the increase of pasteurization temperature had a positive effect on product's stability.

  2. Young Adults' Knowledge of the Strength of Different Alcoholic Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined college students' (n=113) knowledge of the strength of malt beverages, wines, fortified wines, and distilled spirits. Results indicated rates of correct responses were well below 50 percent for each type of beverage. Alcohol content of malt beverages tended to be less accurately estimated than other beverages. Women's estimates were less…

  3. Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with non-compact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles". The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebanski-Demianski solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.

  4. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  5. Isolation of Leptospira from blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Dominique; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Geroult, Sophie; Colot, Julien; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-01-31

    With the increasing use of real-time PCR techniques, Leptospira isolation has mostly been abandoned for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis. However, there is a great value of collecting Leptospira isolates to better understand the epidemiology of this complex zoonosis and to provide the researchers with different isolates. In this study, we have successfully isolated different Leptospira strains from BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture bottles and suggest that this privileged biological material offers an opportunity to isolate leptospires.

  6. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  7. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  8. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, K N; Karapanagioti, H K; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G

    2016-03-22

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  10. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  11. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  12. Tiny Gems of Chinese Handicraft:Snuff Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    THE snuff bottle, a kind of handicraft introduced to China from abroad along with the habit of sniffing powdered tobacco, has a history of more than 200 years. Despite the fact that the practice of taking snuff has long since disappeared, Chinese snuff bottles have become precious collector’s items because of their exquisite artistry. The snuff bottle was especially popular in the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723-1735) during the Qing

  13. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  14. Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Tina M; Basso, Olga; Darden, Rebecca; Sandler, Dale P

    2007-07-01

    Carbonated beverage consumption has been linked with diabetes, hypertension, and kidney stones, all risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Cola beverages, in particular, contain phosphoric acid and have been associated with urinary changes that promote kidney stones. We examined the relationship between carbonated beverages (including cola) and chronic kidney disease, using data from 465 patients with newly diagnosed chronic kidney disease and 467 community controls recruited in North Carolina between 1980 and 1982. Drinking 2 or more colas per day was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-3.7). Results were the same for regular colas (2.1; 1.3-3.4) and artificially sweetened colas (2.1; 0.7-2.5). Noncola carbonated beverages were not associated with chronic kidney disease (0.94; 0.4-2.2). These preliminary results suggest that cola consumption may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

  15. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.

  16. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  17. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  18. MAT 300  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

     MAT 300  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/mat-300-assignment-1-bottling-company-case-study/   Due Week 10 and worth 140 points Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investig...

  19. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  20. Chronic alcohol alters rewarded behaviors and striatal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    DePoy, Lauren; Daut, Rachel; Wright, Tara; Camp, Marguerite; Crowley, Nicole; Noronha, Bianca; Lovinger, David; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) alters neural functions and behaviors mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged (16-bout) CIE on DLS plasticity and DLS-mediated behaviors. Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings revealed loss in efficacy of DLS synaptically induced activation and absent long-term depression after CIE. CIE increased two-bottle choice drinking and impaired Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer but not discrimin...

  1. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  2. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water...

  3. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85

  4. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  7. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  8. Bottle filling machine bottle holder stainless steel prop Process Analysis%灌瓶机不锈钢托瓶支架加工工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易忠奇; 陈平华

    2013-01-01

    针对ASY1/20塑料安瓿制瓶、灌装、封口一体机不锈钢托瓶支架零件机械加工工艺方案的确定方法、理论依据及对各加工工序所需的工装夹具设计进行了详细的阐述。同时,在机械加工中不锈钢材质零件属难加工材料,就如何确保零件的加工质量和提高加工效率,对切削用的刀具材料、参数选择及加工工艺进行探讨,并在实际生产中得到了应用,有效的提高产品质量和经济效益。%For ASY1/20 plastic ampoule bottle, filling and sealing machine stainless steel prop bottle holder parts ma-chining process plan determination methods, theoretical basis and the various processing steps required for fixture design was elaborated. Meanwhile, in machining stainless steel parts are difficult to machine materials, on how to ensure part quality and improve processing efficiency, cutting tool material selection and processing parameters are discussed, and in the actual production has been applied, effectively improve the product quality and economic efficiency.

  9. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  10. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  11. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  12. Beverage consumption and paediatric NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Antonella; Della Corte, Claudia; Sartorelli, Maria Rita; Ferretti, Francesca; Nicita, Francesco; Vania, Andrea; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. It is difficult to define the role of the various components of soft drinks and energy drinks in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression in NASH, but the major role is played by high calorie and high sugar consumption, mainly fructose. In addition, other components of these beverages (e.g. xanthine) seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, crucial pathways involved in NAFLD/NASH. The drastic reduction in the consumption of energy drinks and soft drinks is an appropriate intervention for the prevention of obesity and NAFLD in young people.

  13. Performance analysis and optimization for CSDGB filling system of a beverage plant using particle swarm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for Carbonated Soft Drink Glass Bottle (CSDGB filling system of a beverage plant using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO approach. The CSDGB system consists of seven main subsystems arranged in series namely Uncaser, Bottle Washer, Electronic Inspection Station, Filling Machine, Crowner, Coding Machine and Case Packer. Considering exponential distribution for probable failures and repairs, mathematical modeling is performed using Markov Approach (MA. The differential equations have been derived on the basis of probabilistic approach using transition diagram. These equations are solved using normalizing condition and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system i.e. system’s performance criterion. The performance optimization of system has been carried out by varying the number of particles and number of generations. It has been observed that the maximum availability of 90.27% is achieved at flock size of 55 and 90.84% at 300th generation. Thus, findings of the paper will be useful to the plant management for execution of proper maintenance decisions.

  14. THE HISTORY OF BORSEC MINERAL WATER BOTTLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The History of Borsec Mineral Water Bottling. The mineral water springs of Borsec have been known to exist since ancient times. It started as a legend, presented by Orbán Balász, who mentions an author named Salzer. In his „Voyage Diaries in Transylvania”, Salzer recounts the discovery of healing springs in the area, and attributes it, like many other authors, to a Romanian shepherd called Gheorghe, who, suffering from ulcer, returning home one day, drank from one of the Borsec springs. Drinking the sour water, he felt better. Consequently, he remained there for a couple of days, drinking water from the same spot and curing his ailment. Written documents date back from the 16th century, when Bethlen Farkas, in the historical novel „Historia”, recounts that, in 1594, Sigismund Bathory, who resided in Alba Iulia, suffered from nervous exhaustion. His Italian doctor, Bucello, who knew about the curing effects of the Borsec mineral waters, prescribed a treatment using the water from the „Lobogó” spring. The water, transported to the princely estate in large covered barrels, eventually healed Sigismund Bathory. It is easy to see why, at the end of the 16th century, the mineral water of Borsec, with its miracle properties, was well known in Transylvania and at the imperial court of Vienna. The above mentioned spring, used from the 19th century onwards, for spas and for bottling, earned great renown, especially due to the high concentration of CO2 (over 2.5 g/l. The bottled sparkling water, due to its pleasant taste and its chemical stability, is the most sought after table water. This explains why, in most cases, the notion of mineral water is associated with „Borsec”.

  15. Little bottles and the promise of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Moreira, Tiago; Murtagh, Madeleine

    2009-03-01

    In this article we explore; regimes of hope' in contemporary bioscience as articulated in spaces of health consumption. We use the case study of probiotic little bottles, highlighting their promissory branding as consumer products, to consider how hope and truth play out across different spaces of health care - the supermarket, media and laboratory. Drawing on work within both sociological and geographic literatures to think about hope, truth and probiotics, this article explores their ambiguous promise through an analysis of their biomedical and popular representation. The seemingly incommensurate promise of probiotics between popular and medical spheres provides the point of departure for an examination of the geographies of hope, truth and selfhood.

  16. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  17. 27 CFR 19.394 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.394 Section 19.394 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... which are labeled as bottled-in-bond for domestic consumption shall meet the requirements in 27 CFR...

  18. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... officer that such bottle is not an approved container for distilled spirits for consumption in the...

  19. Filling or draining a water bottle with two holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-07-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli’s equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  20. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results, o

  1. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  2. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  3. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  4. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel vision-based PET bottle recycling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyu; He, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Xinyue

    2017-02-01

    Post-consumer PET bottle recycling is attracting increasing attention due to its value as an energy conservation and environmental protection measure. Sorting by color is a common method in bottle recycling; however, manual operations are unstable and time consuming. In this paper, we design a vision-based facility to perform high-speed bottle sorting. The proposed facility consists mainly of electric and mechanical hardware and image processing software. To solve the recognition problem of isolated and overlapped bottles, we propose a new shape descriptor and utilize the support vector data description classifier. We use color names to represent the colors in the real world in order to avoid problems introduced by colors that are similar. The facility is evaluated by the target error, outlier error and total error. The experimental results demonstrate that the facility we developed is capable of recycling various PET bottles.

  6. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  7. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4-13 years in France: analyses of INCA 2 (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006-2007) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    To examine the consumption of plain water among children in France and compare total water intakes with guidelines issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group (4-8 years, 9-13 years), income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. Beverages were classified into nine groups: water (tap or bottled), milk, 100 % fruit juice, sodas, fruit drinks, hot beverages, sports drinks and flavoured waters. Total water volume in relation to energy intake (litres/kcal) was also examined. INCA 2 study (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006-2007). French children (n 835) aged 4-13 years. Total water intakes were accounted for by plain water (34 %), beverages (26 %) and food moisture (40 %). Plain water could be tap (18 %) or bottled (16 %). Older children drank more plain water than did younger children and boys drank more plain water than did girls. No socio-economic gradient for plain water consumption was observed. About 90 % of children did not meet the EFSA water intake recommendations. The daily water shortfall ranged from 367 to 594 ml/d. Water-to-energy ratio was 0·75-0·77 litres/1000 kcal (4184 kJ). Children drank milk at breakfast and plain water during lunch and dinner. Caloric beverages provided 10 % of dietary energy; consumption patterns varied by eating location. Total water intakes among young children in France were below EFSA-recommended levels. Analyses of beverage consumption patterns by eating occasion and location can help identify ways to increase water consumption among children.

  8. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the ... Zobo drink, a non alcoholic local beverage is produced ..... treatment on the shelf life of fermented African oil bean seed (Ugbu),.

  9. New Waste Beverage Cans Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah Burlian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary emphasis of this work is on the development of a new waste beverage cans identification method for automated beverage cans sorting systems known as the SVS system. The method described involved window-based subdivision of the image into X-cells, construction of X-candidate template for N-cells, calculation of matching scores of reference templates for the N-cells image, and application of matching score to identify the grade of the object. The SVS system performance for correct beverage cans grade identification is 95.17% with estimated throughput of 21,600 objects per hour with a conveyor belt width of 18˝. The weight of the throughput depends on the size and type of the objects.

  10. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  11. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    DENNIS, ELIZABETH A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the...

  12. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  13. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  14. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  15. Indications and Complications of Tube Thoracostomy with Improvised Underwater Seal Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaigbini, Sunday A; Delia, Ibrahim Z; Aminu, Muhammad B; Orogade, Abosede A; Anumenechi, Ndubuisi; Aliyu, Ibrahim D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013). The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5%) males and 61 (36.5%) females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%). Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%), Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%), postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%), empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%), heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6%) each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8%) and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%). A hundred and one (60.5%) of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6%) by consultants, house officers 15 (9%) and senior registrars 10 (6%). The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6%) and pneumothorax (3.6%). The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion: Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles. PMID:25191098

  16. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamis Jomaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates total water intake (TWI from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs. In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752. Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%. Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

  17. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4-13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-09-08

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

  18. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  19. Sustainable Recycling of PET Bottles in Rio de Janeiro Title: Reciclaje Sostenible de Botellas de PET en Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Edmundo Costa Leite; José Henrique Penido Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a case study on solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro. This privately-owned initiative involves the application of market instruments to boost the recycling of used plastic bottles.Abstract: Este trabajo presenta un estudio de caso exitoso implementado en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, evidenciando la utilización de un instrumento basado en el mercado con el propósito de perfeccionar la calidad de los servicios de aseo urbano de la ciudad. En esto estud...

  20. Recycling policies and programmes for PET drink bottles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanse, Elvira

    2011-09-01

    Transition and emerging economies confront a steadily increasing generation of municipal solid waste in the form of disposable packaging. The following article reports the situation of soft drink bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in Mexico. Since 2002 schemes following the European Green Dot principle have been partly implemented to place responsibility on the producer, mainly soft drink bottlers. Private stakeholders are responsible for national recovery activities. Meanwhile Government presence to promote recovery is absent. Of post-consumer PET 75% is exported, and the newly created bottle-to-bottle (BTB) PET industry is confronted with bottlenecks in their post-consumer PET supply.

  1. Flutist produces four resonances with a single bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-03-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22 cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22 cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat is provided (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Four Resonances with a 12-ounce Soda Bottle (https://youtu.be/ibtVrp2NF_k)). The video also reveals that a flutist can bend resonance pitches by as much as 10% through control of air speed.

  2. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic.

  3. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  4. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  5. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  6. Risk Perceptions of Arsenic in Tap Water and Consumption of Bottled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Shaw, W. Douglass; Nguyen, To N.; Walker, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The demand for bottled water has increased rapidly over the past decade, but bottled water is extremely costly compared to tap water. The convenience of bottled water surely matters to consumers, but are others factors at work? This manuscript examines whether purchases of bottled water are associated with the perceived risk of tap water. All of the past studies on bottled water consumption have used simple scale measures of perceived risk that do not correspond to risk measures used by risk ...

  7. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  8. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  9. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional foo

  10. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  11. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  12. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  13. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  14. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are

  15. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  16. Bottler of the Year: Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Fuhrman

    2010-01-01

    .... Coca-Cola Bottling Co Consolidated, Charlotte, NC, has built its core business this year through innovative pricing strategies, enabling its sales force with new technology, grass roots marketing...

  17. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  18. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bison, G; Daum, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Meier, M; Ries, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCN) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments 32 liter e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  19. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  20. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  1. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  2. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  3. Rare earth elements in some bottled waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one bottled mineral and spring waters from Serbia were analyzed for 16 inorganic chemical parameters, including lanthanides and yttrium which belong to the group of so-called rare earth elements (REE. REE concentrations in the bottled water samples varied over a broad range, from 5.39 to 1585.82 ng/L. Total concentrations in the bottled water samples were calculated taking into account the classification of lanthanides into heavy (HREE and light (LREE, with yttrium added to the HREE group. The LREE concentrations ranged from 3.62 to 1449.63 ng/L, while those of the HREE were from 0 to 136.19 ng/L. Distinct REE signatures were observed in waters that drained specific rocks. The REE patterns in groundwater from granitic and related rocks showed LREE and HREE enrichment, while groundwater with mafic rock influence exhibited slightly LREE enrichment. Several bottled water samples featured naturally-occurring carbon dioxide, whose solutional capacity contributed to the highest REE concentrations in the analyzed samples. High REE concentrations are also a result of sudden changes in oxidation-reduction conditions, which particularly affect La, Ce and Eu. Aquifers developed in granitic and related rocks (methamorphic and sedimentary rocks constitute favorable environments for HREE in groundwater, corroborated by the occurrence of HREE in bottled water samples. The bottled water samples largely exhibited a negative cerium anomaly and nearly all the samples showed a positive europium anomaly.

  4. A self-feeding roller bottle for continuous cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, R Eric; Friederichs, Goetz

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a self-feeding roller bottle that delivers a continuous supply of fresh media to cells in culture, which is mechanically simplistic and works with existing roller apparatuses, is presented here. A conventional roller bottle is partitioned into two chambers; one chamber contains the fresh culture media reservoir, and the other contains the cell culture chamber. A spiroid of tubing inside the fresh media reservoir acts as a pump when the bottle rotates on its horizontal axis, continuously delivering fresh media through an opening in the partition to the cell culture chamber. The modified bottle proved capable of maintaining steady-state cell densities of a hybridoma cell line over the 10-day period tested, although at lower densities than reached during batch operation due to the continuous volume dilution. Steady-state density proved to be controllable by adjusting the perfusion rate, which changes with the rotation rate of the bottle. Specific antibody production rate is as much as 3.7 times the rate in conventional roller bottles operating with intermittent batch feeding.

  5. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  6. Technical assessment of processing plants as exemplified by the sorting of beverage cartons from lightweight packaging wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, A; Thoden van Velzen, E U; Jansen, M; Vitz, P; Go, N; Pretz, T

    2016-02-01

    The recovery of beverage cartons (BC) in three lightweight packaging waste processing plants (LP) was analyzed with different input materials and input masses in the area of 21-50Mg. The data was generated by gravimetric determination of the sorting products, sampling and sorting analysis. Since the particle size of beverage cartons is larger than 120mm, a modified sampling plan was implemented and targeted multiple sampling (3-11 individual samplings) and a total sample size of respectively 1200l (ca. 60kg) for the BC-products and of about 2400l (ca. 120kg) for material-heterogeneous mixed plastics (MP) and sorting residue products. The results infer that the quantification of the beverage carton yield in the process, i.e., by including all product-containing material streams, can be specified only with considerable fluctuation ranges. Consequently, the total assessment, regarding all product streams, is rather qualitative than quantitative. Irregular operation conditions as well as unfavorable sampling conditions and capacity overloads are likely causes for high confidence intervals. From the results of the current study, recommendations can basically be derived for a better sampling in LP-processing plants. Despite of the suboptimal statistical results, the results indicate very clear that the plants show definite optimisation potentials with regard to the yield of beverage cartons as well as the required product purity. Due to the test character of the sorting trials the plant parameterization was not ideal for this sorting task and consequently the results should be interpreted with care.

  7. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the ...

  8. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the particles of a given Kaluza-Klein tier, which gives a very important role to co-annihilation effects. Finally the role of higher Kaluza-Klein tiers is also important and is discussed together with a detailed numerical description of the influence of the resonances.

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Determination of the Phthalate Esters in the Bottled Beverages by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Feng Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared in acetonitrile by bulk polymerization, using di-n-octylphthalate (DOP as a template molecular, α-methacrylic acid (MAA as a functional monomer, and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as a crosslinker. Characterization and evaluation of the prepared MIP were carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM, infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR, and the Scatchard analysis, respectively. Through the optimization of washing solvent, eluting solvent amount, flow rate of loading solution, and loading sample volume, an analysis method was established for DOP related compounds with high selectivity and sensitivity by using the selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MI-SPE technique. Moreover, under the optimal conditions, the extraction effects were comparatively investigated by using MIP cartridge, NIP cartridge, and the commercial PLS cartridge used especially for phthalic acid esters (PAEs, respectively. The results showed that the recoveries of spiked PAEs are in the range of 90.4%–97.8% with the relative standard deviation (RSD of 1.6%–3.8% on the resulted MIP cartridge, whilst lower recoveries were obtained ranging from 80.2% to 88.9% with an RSD of 1.4%–5.2% on the commercial PLS cartridge.

  10. Beverage Company:Hotter Competition in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Kaibiao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Due to the downturn in global economy, the economic growth rate in China sharply decreased in the first quarter of 2009. However, the fluctuating macro economy won't change the uptrend in food and beverage industry. The ratio between added-values of food industry and agriculture industry in China is 0.22 at present, but the ratio in developed western countries averages 1.2, meaning that there is still great potential and room in Chinese food industry. During the "11th five-year" period, the beverage industry is expected to grow at a rate of 15% or above. In this way, the production in this industry in 2010 will reach 68 million tons.

  11. Recycling and Treatment of Waste Beverage Packing%废弃饮料包装的回收处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海兵; 张援方

    2012-01-01

    阐述了废弃饮料包装对环境的影响及其回收处理技术现状;介绍了将组成饮料包装的纸浆、铝箔、塑料3种材料进行有效分离,实现资源再利用的废弃饮料包装回收处理工艺,并根据其工艺特点着重介绍了纸浆回收系统和热解法铝塑分离系统.%The environmental impact of waste beverage packing was expounded,as well as the status of recycling technology for waste beverage packing.According to the features of the process,it is mainly composed of paper pulp recycling system and aluminum-plastic separation system with pyrolysis method.The process can separate paper pulp,aluminium foil and plastic efficiently to realize resource reuse of waste beverage packing.

  12. Alcoholic beverages as determinants of traffic fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    José Mª Arranz; Gil, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    The most important contribution of this research lies in considering the impact of wine, beer and liquors on the ratio of traffic fatalities because each kind of alcoholic beverage is characterized by different ethanol content. The data, drawn for case of Spain, validate our theoretical hypothesis. Our findings support the strategy of incrementing alcohol taxes in order to reduce the negative externalities of alcohol abuse. However, it is necessary to implement non-economic policies because o...

  13. Presence of Arsenic in Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Roberge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study’s goal was to assess the arsenic concentration of various beverages and broths purchased from a local chain supermarket. A source of chronic arsenic exposure occurs via food and beverage consumption. Groundwater levels of total arsenic are regulated (-1 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA but few studies have examined arsenic concentrations in common beverages. Approach: In the initial analysis of 19 items, total arsenic concentration was assessed from a variety of fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas and broths. Items found to contain levels of total arsenic ≥5.0 µg L-1 were further evaluated. Additional analysis included purchasing multiple brands of items ≥5.0 µg L-1and analyzing them for total arsenic and chemical species of arsenic. Results: Among the beverages in the initial analysis, apple juice (10.79 µg L-1 and grape juice (49.87 µg L-1 contained the highest levels of total arsenic. Upon examination of items with As concentrations above 5.0 µg L-1, varying concentrations of total arsenic were found in apple cider (range: 5.41-15.27 µg L-1, apple juice (range: 10.67-22.35 µg L-1, baby fruit juice (range: 13.91-16.51 µg L-1 and grape juice (range: 17.69-47.59 µg L-1. Conclusion: Many commercially available juices contained concentrations of arsenic that were higher than the standard for total arsenic allowed in groundwater as set forth by the EPA. The concentration of As in these juices varied between and within brands. In general, those consuming apple and grape juices are the young and elderly and it is these populations that may be more vulnerable to over exposure of heavy metals.

  14. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  15. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars.

  16. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skryplonek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bac- teria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Material and methods. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lac- tobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Results. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all sam- ples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Conclusions. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk pow- der or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  17. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  18. Herbal beverages formulations and bioactive properties: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira, João C.M.; Morais, Ana L.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Herbal beverages are among the main products which claim medicinal benefits, specially related with antioxidant properties [1,2]. The definition of herbal beverages (“teas”) as functional drinks might be related with the plant species from which is prepared, formulation or preparation method. In this study the beverages were prepared from Camellia sinensis (black and green tea), Aspalathus linearis (red tea) and Cochlospermum angolensis (borututu tea), available in different formulations (bag...

  19. [Safety verification for reuse of PET and glass bottles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eiichi; Imai, Toshio; Niimi, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the safety associated with reusing PET and glass bottles, a challenge test was conducted with five surrogate contaminants: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzophenone and phenyl cyclohexane. Bottles were filled with a cocktail solution of these contaminants and stored at 50 °C for 7 days, then washed with water and alkaline solutions. Material and migration tests were conducted at each step. The material test results showed that 430-1,440 µg/g of the contaminants were retained after water washing, and that even after washing with a 3.5% NaOH solution, 225-925 µg/g of the contaminants were retained. The migration tests revealed that 0.095-7.35 µg/mL of the contaminants were eluted. Similar tests were conducted with a soft drink ingredient, limonene. The results revealed that 48 µg/g of limonene was retained even after washing with NaOH solution, and that 0.16 µg/mL of limonene was eluted. Conversely, no contaminants were eluted from glass bottles after washing with the NaOH solution. Thus, from the viewpoint of safety and the preservation of content quality, PET bottles are not considered suitable for reuse when compared with glass bottles.

  20. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  1. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  2. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  3. New Trends in Beverage Packaging Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influence their color and volatile composition are summarized. Finally, the description of the current situation of beverage packaging materials and new possible, emerging strategies to overcome some of the pending issues are discussed.

  4. Public Knowledge about Herbal Beverages in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munaver Nazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY:To explore public knowledge and perceptions of the efficacy, safety and reason to consume herbal beveragesincluding ginseng tea, gingko biloba tea and tongka ali tea.METHOD:This study was conducted in the state of Penang in June 2007. Participants were recruited at random;respondents were interviewed using a 19 item questionnaire. Non- parametric statistics was applied to analysethe data.RESULTS:Four hundred participants were recruited. Most of the respondents 228(57.0% were habitual consumers ofherbal beverages. 249(62.25% respondents believed that herbal beverages improved their health status.193(48.25% believed that herbal beverages boost the energy level of user and 120(30.0% used them toprevent diseases. 300(75% respondents agreed with the statement that herbal beverages are safe to use andthat they have less side effect than conventional medicines available on the market. Female respondents weremore likely to report using herbal beverages for slimming 78(19.5% and for cosmetic purposes 74(18.5%.However, the use of herbal beverages to boost energy levels was more frequent among male respondents.Respondents aged 18 – 25 years were significantly more likely to report the use of herbal beverages to preventcoughs and flu.CONCLUSION:This potentially ill advised and dangerous consumption of herbal beverages may delay appropriate help seekingfor various medical illnesses. In addition lack of knowledge about the side effects of herbal beverages may putusers at risk of side effects.

  5. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  6. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruopeng An

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting.

  7. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mahler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  8. PET/PEN瓶注拉吹成型工艺研究%Study on Injection-Stretch-Blow Forming Process for PET/PEN Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海东

    2011-01-01

    The Moldflow software was used to analyze the injection molding process of a 2-cavity hot runner injection mould for PET/PEN bottle-blank. The mold filling, flowing and cooling processes were visually simulated and the parameters under the conditions of the molding process were obtained. It predicted the potential defects of plastic parts during forming process. The aim was to optimize the cooling channels' diameter,layout and gating system size to propose a better injection scheme;then high-quality bottle-blank was to be injected and finally PET/PEN bottle was made though stretch-blow molding process. Thus it could ensure the even-distributed thickness of the bottle and make it a qualified bottle.%利用Moldflow软件模拟分析了一模两腔PET/PEN瓶坯的注射成型过程,预测塑件成型过程中可能出现的缺陷,优化冷却水道直径、布局和浇注系统尺寸,提出优化的注射成型方案,然后利用注塑机和PET/PEN瓶坯模具注射成型高质量的瓶坯,再利用吹瓶机等设备拉伸-吹塑成型PET/PEN瓶,这样可确保成型瓶子的厚度均匀分布,以生产合格的PET/PEN瓶.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  10. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  11. Bottle atom trapping configuration by optical dipole forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Aldossary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bottle beam configuration is a light field created by the interference of a pair of Laguerre–Gauss light beams with zero orbital angular momentum. In this work we show the theoretical study of the bottle beam as well as the use of this beam for the creation of a novel atom optical dipole trap namely the bottle atom trap. In such a trap the resulting dark trapping region is three-dimensional and has a cylindrical symmetry. These promising results show that this trap is a nice candidate for trapping Bose–Einstein condensates and may serve as an optical tweezer mechanism potentially useful for trapping micron-sized dielectric particles.

  12. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutytė, Indrė; Narbutytė, Agnė; Linkevičienė, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The importance of breastfeeding to the child's psychological and physical development is evidence-based. However, scientific literature contains controversial opinions on its influence to the development of maxillofacial system. This article aims at reviewing the effects of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding to the development of malocclusion and non-nutritive sucking habits. Thirty-four articles analyzing the above mentioned associations were selected from Pubmed database. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may have different impact on the development of maxillofacial system due to unequal functional load of certain facial muscles involved in the feeding processes. Shortage of scientific research prevents from relating bottle-feeding with the development of skeletal malocclusions. Prolonged breastfeeding may have protective effect on developing posterior crossbite and anterior openbite. However, conflicting opinions have been observed. It has been stated that longer duration of breastfeeding diminishes the risk of acquiring non - nutritive sucking habits.

  13. Compliance with New York City's beverage regulations and beverage consumption among children in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakietek, Jakub; Osuji, Thearis A; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Breck, Andrew; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    This article examines the association between the New York City regulations on beverages served in child care centers and beverage consumption among enrolled children. The regulations include requirements related to beverages served to children throughout the day. Beverage consumption data were collected on 636 children enrolled in 106 group child care centers in New York City. Data on compliance with the regulations were collected through direct observation, interviews with center staff, and a site inventory. Logistic regression for rare events was used to test associations between compliance with the regulations and beverage consumption. Compliance with the regulations was associated with lower odds of children consuming milk with more than 1% fat content and sugar-sweetened beverages during meals and snacks. There was not a significant relationship between compliance with the regulations and children's consumption of water. The findings suggest a strong, direct relationship between what a center serves and what a child consumes, particularly regarding consumption of higher-fat milk and sugar-sweetened beverages. Therefore, policies governing the types of beverages served in child care centers may increase children's consumption of more healthful beverages and reduce the consumption of less healthful ones.

  14. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  15. Designing a Closed Loop System for PET Bottles Recovery in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The project is to design a closed loop system for PET bottle recovery. The purpose is to tackle the issue of indiscriminate dumping of PET bottles and to build a sustainable long term design to enable manufacturing companies reclaim used PET bottles, recycle and reuse the bottles in their manufacturing operations The thesis consist of the theoretical and the empirical sections which helped the author to divide the project into two different design options to fit the Nigerian context. In o...

  16. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC-MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kächele, Martin; Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-04-11

    Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L(-1). Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L(-1)), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L(-1)), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L(-1)), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L(-1)) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L(-1)). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L(-1).

  17. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  18. Identification and quantification of oligomers as potential migrants in plastics food contact materials with a focus in polycondensates - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, M.; de Voogt, P.; Franz, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last years the variety of food and beverage packaging has increased with the development of new plastic materials and (co)polymer modifications. Oligomers which are always present in polymers evoke attention as potential migrants, from a qualitatively and quantitatively viewpoin

  19. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  20. Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ooka, Yuta; Ward, Jonathan; Chromaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a hollow microcapillary, and the realisation of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ and $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. Third-order cascaded Raman lasing was observed when pumped at $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. The aerostatic pressure tunability of the Raman laser was also investigated. Thence, we demonstrate that a high dynamic range, high resolution pressure sensor can be realised using the Raman spectrum of the hollow, bottle-like microresonator.

  1. 塑料啤酒瓶的开发途径%DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICS BEER BOTTLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    简述了目前国际上塑料啤酒瓶的开发情况,分析其材料和构成特点,尤其对重要性能指标--优良的气体阻隔性的获得方式作了归纳,并介绍了国际上在此方面的技术进展和工业化情况.

  2. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  3. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  4. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Work Plan Review Workshop.... SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 16 and 17, 2012. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is planning to develop the reference...

  5. 78 FR 47674 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Progress and Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Progress and Planning... workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 15 and 16, 2013. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is developing the reference...

  6. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  7. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  8. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  9. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  10. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  11. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  12. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  13. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  14. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  15. an Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of Borde, an Ethiopian ... information on the effects of various process ... earthenware pot with plastic jar; 2) maize fermented ..... Yeast and mould colonies were counted on YGC.

  16. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenlight exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed.

  17. China’s Red-Canned Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Herbal tea brand Wong Lo Kat gets global recognition for its product quality and embracing the traditional Chinese culture of health c oca Cola isn’t the only company with an iconic red can anymore-Wong Lo Kat herbal tea is gaining recognition worldwide. At the 15th World Congress of Food Science and Technology held on August 23 in Cape Town,South Africa,the canned Wong Lo Kat herbal tea,produced by The JDB Group,won the Global Food Industry Award.It is the first Chinese beverage brand to win this award.

  18. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  19. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  20. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  1. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  2. Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Brouwer, M.T.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Pretz, Th.; Feil, A.; Jansen, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with

  3. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

    2013-05-10

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable.

  4. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    . Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  5. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  6. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology.

  7. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.

  8. Fluoride assay methodology for carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Judith R; Levy, Steven M; Wefel, James S; Patterson, Kristine Y; Cutrufelli, Rena; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Holden, Joanne M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review different methodological techniques used for the assessment of fluoride in carbonated beverages, and compare results using a fluoride ion electrode direct read method with and without a prior decarbonation treatment. The carbonated beverages in this study were either purchased locally at grocery stores in Iowa City, Iowa, or purchased as part of a national representative sampling approach included in the National Fluoride Database and Intake Assessment Study (NFDIAS). The samples were compared with and without a decarbonating process. Soda pop and beer samples were analyzed by removing a 1-ml sample and adding a 1-ml buffer solution. The fluoride concentration of the sample and buffer combination was then determined using a fluoride ion specific electrode. There was no significant difference in the fluoride concentration of the samples with or without prior decarbonation. The mean absolute difference between the soda pop group with and without decarbonation was 0.01 ppm F, while results from the beer samples showed variation of 0.00 to 0.02 parts per million fluoride (ppm F). These differences were not statistically significant for the soda pop or beer groups (P=.50 and P=.74, respectively). Whether or not decarbonation was conducted prior to analysis, the fluoride assay results were the same. Therefore, decarbonation of soda pop and beer was deemed unnecessary prior to fluoride analysis.

  9. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  10. Flavonoids protecting food and beverages against light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, which are ubiquitously present in the plant kingdom, preserve food and beverages at the parts per million level with minor perturbation of sensory impressions. Additionally, they are safe and possibly contribute positive health effects. Flavonoids should be further exploited for the protection of food and beverages against light-induced quality deterioration through: (1) direct absorption of photons as inner filters protecting sensitive food components; (2) deactivation of (triplet-)excited states of sensitisers like chlorophyll and riboflavin; (3) quenching of singlet oxygen from type II photosensitisation; and (iv) scavenging of radicals formed as reaction intermediates in type I photosensitisation. For absorption of light, combinations of flavonoids, as found in natural co-pigmentation, facilitate dissipation of photon energy to heat thus averting photodegradation. For protection against singlet oxygen and triplet sensitisers, chemical quenching gradually decreases efficiency hence the pathway to physical quenching should be optimised through product formulation. The feasibility of these protection strategies is further supported by kinetic data that are becoming available, allowing for calculation of threshold levels of flavonoids to prevent beer and dairy products from going off. On the other hand, increasing understanding of the interplay between light and matrix physicochemistry, for example the effect of aprotic microenvironments on phototautomerisation of compounds like quercetin, opens up for engineering better light-to-heat converting channels in processed food to eventually prevent quality loss.

  11. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  12. Beverages in the diets of American teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, P M

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of beverages, particularly soft drinks, in the diets of American teenagers by analyzing data collected in the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78. Interviewers obtained 24-hour recalls of dietary intake, and respondents completed diet records for the following 2 days. Variation in beverage intake was examined by eating occasion, season, day of the week, region, urbanization, race, age, sex, and household income. Soft drink and milk intakes were negatively correlated (r = -.22). Soft drinks were just as likely to be drunk at lunch or supper as for snacks. Those results suggest that teenagers may have substituted soft drinks for milk at meals. The nutritional impact of soft drink consumption was assessed by determining the part correlations of soft drink intake with intakes of energy and 14 nutrients, while controlling for 19 variables related to time, location, and personal and household characteristics. The negative part correlations of soft drink intake with intakes of calcium (-0.11), magnesium (-0.06), riboflavin (-0.09), vitamin A (-0.08), and ascorbic acid (-0.06) indicate that soft drinks may contribute to low intakes of those nutrients by some teenagers.

  13. Associations between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of carbonated beverages was reported to be associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2010 were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 5517 respondents >19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of carbonated beverages or outcome variables. The community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontal treatment needs tended to increase with the consumption of carbonated beverages. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for various factors including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, dental checkup within a year, consumption of coffee of the individuals with the consumption of carbonated beverages once or less per month, once or less per week and twice or more per week were 1.109(0.804,1.528), 1.404(1.035,1.906), and 1.466(1.059,2.029), respectively. A subgroup analysis revealed that in individuals with body mass index carbonated beverages (P for trend carbonated beverages was positively associated with the risk of periodontal disease in Korean adults. In a subgroup analysis, the individuals consuming carbonated beverages with body mass index carbonated beverages may be considered to be an independent risk indicator for periodontal disease and periodontal health of nonobese individuals may benefit from reduction of carbonated beverage consumption. PMID:27428235

  14. Whey based beverages - new generation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good

  15. Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Johnny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO and the second a sodium group (Na. The CHO group ingested four different drinks with a stepped increase of 3% glucose from 0% to 9% while sodium concentration was 20 mmol/L. The Na group ingested four drinks with a stepped increase of 20 mmol/L from 0 mmol/L to 60 mmol/l while glucose concentration was 6%. All beverages contained 3 g of D2O. Subjects remained seated for two hours after ingestion of the experimental beverage, with blood taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 10 min in the second hour. Results Including 3% glucose in the beverage led to a significantly greater AUC 60 min (19640 ± 1252 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min than all trials. No carbohydrate (18381 ± 1198 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min had a greater AUC 60 min than a 6% (16088 ± 1359 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min and 9% beverage (13134 ± 1115 δ‰ vs. VSMOW.60 min; the 6% beverage had a significantly greater AUC 60 min than the 9% beverage. There was no difference in fluid delivery between the different sodium beverages. Conclusion In conclusion the present study showed that when carbohydrate concentration in an ingested beverage was increased above 6% fluid delivery was compromised. However, increasing the amount of sodium (0–60 mmol/L in a 6% glucose beverage did not lead to increases in fluid delivery.

  16. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyanide residues from disused gold mine dumps. There are various ... bottled in Zimbabwe has. African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 9 Number 1-2, January-June 2002 ... metabolism on triple sugar iron (TSI) afar. Bacillus species were ...

  17. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... not have labels affixed until the wine is removed for consumption or sale. However, the bins,...

  18. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  19. Blue Bottle Experiment: Learning Chemistry without Knowing the Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Areekul, Cherprang; Montriwat, Punchalee; Rajchakit, Urawadee

    2017-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment is a popular chemical demonstration because of its simplicity and visual appeal. Most papers on the topic focus on a new formulation or a new presentation, but only a few discuss pedagogical application for a full lab session. This article describes the use of this experiment in the first session of undergraduate…

  20. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  1. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  2. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  3. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  4. Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Josiane T Matos; Doria, Miguel de França; Rosenberg, Mark W; Heller, Léo; Zhouri, Andréa

    2013-09-01

    This study presents perceptions of consumers of bottled water in their households in three Brazilian municipalities. Data from interviews were analyzed using the Discourse Collective Subject method. Interviewees spent, on average, the equivalent of 40% of their water bill for the public water supply on the purchase of bottled water. The decision about water consumption in the household was predominantly made by women. Interviewees were particularly concerned with health risks and expressed a strong preference for the safety and organoleptic qualities of bottled water, particularly in cases where the tap water supply did not fully meet the regulated water quality standards. Interviewees were largely unaware of the origin, type, storage, and social and environmental impacts of bottled water. Results highlight the importance of water education efforts among the general population and the key role of women in the processes related to drinking water. The need for gender-specific interventions and the empowerment of women on water issues is noted. Results also strongly support the relevance of ensuring the provision of safe drinking water, from the source to the consumption point, with the trust of consumers.

  5. Classification of Lagrangian Fibrations over a Klein Bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Sepe, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper completes the classification of regular Lagrangian fibratiopns over compact surfaces. \\cite{misha} classifies regular Lagrangian fibrations over $\\mathbb{T}^2$. The main theorem in \\cite{hirsch} is used in order to classify integral affine structures on the Klein bottle $K^2$ and, hence, regular Lagrangian fibrations over this space.

  6. Chromatic Enumeration for Singular Maps on the Klein Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵祥; 刘彦佩

    2002-01-01

    A map is singular if each edge is on the same face on a surface (i.e.,it has only one face on a surface).In this paper we present the chromatic enumeration for rooted singular maps on the Klein bottle.

  7. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling...

  8. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  9. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  10. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    process. The Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is a freeform geometry consisting of cellulose fibers. Accurate dimensional measurements such as wall thickness of the GFB is not possible using Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs). XCT on one hand provides an effective means of measuring wall thickness...

  11. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  12. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  13. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  14. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  15. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  16. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  17. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  18. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  19. A comparison of recent Standard Seawater and Quality Evaluation of the Standard Seawater supplied in a bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Takatsuki, Yasushi; Imai, Jun; Aoyama, Michio

    The results of IAPSO Standard Seawater (SSW) comparisons are presented for batches P 132 to P 140. We try to match up our data with the previous result of comparison experiment to make the newest "offset table". According to the newest "offset table" proposed in this study, the standard deviation of the batch to batch differences among batches P 132 to P 140 is calculated to be 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. This value is smaller than the value reported in the previous studies. The quality of SSW, from the point of view of batch to batch differences, has improved recently. The SSW batch P 138 and P 140 were stored in bottles made from borosilicate glass and closed with chemically resistant plastic stoppers, while batches P 133 to P 137 and P 139 were stored in glass ampoules. We measured 30 bottles of P 138 and P 140 along with several ampoules of other batches in order to check the quality, those are, within-batch difference and batch-to-batch difference. The standard deviations (1σ) of 30 repeat measurements on P 138 and P 140 were both 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. The difference between label-delived and measured salinity of P 138 referred to batch P 137 was -0.1 × 10-3 and that of P 140 reffered to batch P 139 was -0.5 × 10-3 in salinity. These values are comparable with other batches stored in a traditional glass ampoules. This result shows that SSW in a shot-bottle is, at least as for P 138 and P 140 at this moment, almost equivalent to SSW in a glass ampoule in quality.

  20. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity; Estudo da influencia do involucro protetor de contaminacao no frasco de radiofarmacos na medicao da atividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A, E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid {sup 137}Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine.

  1. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC–MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kächele, Martin [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hochschule Mannheim, Paul-Wittsack-Strasse 10, D-68163 Mannheim (Germany); Monakhova, Yulia B. [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bruker Biospin GmbH, Silbersteifen, 76287 Rheinstetten (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Street 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Kuballa, Thomas [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ministry of Rural Affairs and Consumer Protection, Kernerplatz 10, 70182 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Acrolein in hydroalcoholic solution degrades to 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde. • Hydroquinone (0.2%) at pH 3.0 stabilizes acrolein solutions. • Quantitative HS-SPME/GC–MS determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages was developed (LOD 14 μg L⁻¹. • 6 of 117 samples had acrolein levels above the WHO threshold (1500 μg L⁻¹). Abstract: Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L⁻¹. Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L⁻¹), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L⁻¹), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L⁻¹), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L⁻¹) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L⁻¹). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L⁻¹.

  2. Research of an Online Service System for Beverages Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yao Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the highly competitive market, the availability of consumer support is the key to market-based beverage stores. Consumer demands for quality service so the industry must be more active to improve the quality of management to ensure that beverage market position. In order to allow market competition to be improved for the beverage store. Approach: The system builds an information network using web-based system provides operators and consumers a direct interaction. Enter the phone number provided by the consumer via the Send Message System (SMS verification code to obtain the online ordering drinks service. Using the Internet Information Technology makes the real-time order so that consumers can enjoy easy ordering and comfortable environment. Results: Using this internet beverage ordering system the online consumers can enjoy the choice of ordering drinks. This internet beverage ordering system would also build some databases to support, such as beverage type database, order database, outgoing regional database, these databases information will enable the industry to conduct drinks promotion strategy adjustments. Conclusion: This study uses cell phone number to enable consumers to obtain authentication codes via SMS. Necessary to convert the current beverage stores different marketing approach, through the information network and Web page interactivity, so that consumers would feel very interesting and fresh.

  3. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular.

  4. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  5. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  6. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Cássia Gomes Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and characterize beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein. Beverages formulated with 0.5 (F1, 2.0 (F2, 4.0 (F3 and 6.0% w/v (F4 whey protein were physicochemically and microbiologically characterized, and sensory evaluated. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein content significantly changed (P0.05 with increased protein content. The F2 formulation showed the highest sensory acceptance. Beverages offer a promising alternative to whey use and enhance the value of the product by the addition of lutein.

  8. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium

  9. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek; Mensah, George A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the

  10. The water cycle in a bottle: simulation of a hydrogeological basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Castelló, M. R.; Leiva Hevia, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WATER CYCLE IN A BOTTLE: simulation of a hydrogeological basin Author: Mª Roser Nebot (Institut Manuel Blancafort, La Garriga, Barcelona, Spain) Co-author: Sílvia Leiva Hevia (Institut Llicà d'Amunt, Lliça d'Amunt, Barcelona, Spain) The activity can be implemented in a great range of ages, because it has many different levels of depth. It is based on the construction of an analogical model of a hydrogeological basin using a 5L or 8L empty bottle. There are also other hands-on experiences that can be done in relation to the central one, such as creating a fountain, making a cloud, fog, a breeze… The use of a model that the students have to build and interact with enhances the possibility of cooperative and dialogic learning. The set of activities begins with an introduction to see what the students know about the water cycle and to focus on what they are going to work on. It also makes them think about underground water, which is frequently forgotten when drawing and studying the water cycle. Then, the building of the water cycle simulation from an empty bottle is presented, see http://www.xtec.cat/cirel/pla_le/nottingham/roser_nebot/index.htm (Unit 5). You will also find other activities related to the water cycle at the site. The students build the model, water the soil, and observe infiltration and the formation of a lake. Using a syringe they overexploit the well and dry the lake. By making the students label the underground water level and observe how water percolates through the holes in the aquifer we are making them aware that underground water doesn't circulate in rivers inside underground tunnels, but through the interconnected holes and crevices. Inside the bottle there is a little plant to observe evapotranspiration but, because it is very difficult to see the water droplets in the small plant that is inside the set-up, it is advisable to do a parallel experiment using bigger plants in a pot, covering them with a plastic bag tied around the

  11. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  12. The Effect of two kinds of replacement transfusion bottle method for neonatal transfusion residual%两种更换输液瓶法对新生儿输液残留量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:控制新生儿静脉输液过程中输液瓶药液残留量,最大限度地保证药物剂量准确.方法:将需要输注的54瓶,容量为100 ml,装有50 ml 10%葡萄糖塑料材质输液瓶,随机分为对照组和观察组,每组27瓶,对照组在更换输液瓶时,待输液瓶内液体滴至瓶颈处,莫菲氏滴管上段输液器内有空气时,即更换输液瓶.观察组在更换输液瓶时,待输液瓶内液体滴至瓶颈处,莫菲氏滴管上段输液器内有空气时,操作者左手拇指与示指捏住输液瓶颈,右手将输液器排气管反折,置于左手中指与无名指之间,右手拇指与示指将输液器轻轻拔出瓶口约0.5 cm,然后挤压莫菲氏滴管,使输液瓶颈部残存的液体流入输液器内,再更换输液瓶.比较两种更换输液瓶法液体残留量.结果:观察组输液瓶残留液体量低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:管理者必须关注新生儿输液的每一个环节,控制各环节的药液丢失量,确保新生儿用药量的准确性.%Objective:To control neonatal venous infusion bottles of liquid medicine residue, the maximum guarantee drug dosage is accurate. Methods:The required transfusion of 54 bottles, of capacity 100 ml, but with 50ml 10% GS plastic infusion bottle, were randomly divided into two groups: observation group and control group, each group have 27 bottles, The control group in the transfusion bottle was replaced, the infusion bottle drops of the liquid to the bottleneck, the murphy dropper infusion in upper air,replacement transfusion bottle. The observation group in the transfusion bottle is replaced, the infusion bottle drops of the liquid to the bottleneck, the murphy dropper infusion in upper air, the left thumb and index finger to pinch the infusion bottleneck, right hand infusion exhaust pipe reflexed , placed in the left hand middle finger and ring finger, right hand thumb and index finger will infusion bottle mouth gently pulled out by approx 0.5 cm, then squeeze the

  13. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  14. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  15. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  16. An alternative procedure for uranium analysis in drinking water using AQUALIX columns: application to varied French bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Capely, C; Bonthonneau, J P; Dadache, E; Rebière, F

    2014-01-01

    The general population is chronically exposed to uranium ((234)U, (235)U, and (238)U) and polonium ((210)Po) mainly through day-to-day food and beverage intake. The measurement of these naturally-occurring radionuclides in drinking water is important to assess their health impact. In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene-derivatives columns for uranium analysis in drinking water was investigated. A simple and effective method was proposed on a specific column called AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. This procedure is suitable for routine analysis and the analysis time is considerably shortened (around 4h) by combining the separation on AQUALIX with fast ICP-MS measurement. This new method was tested on different French bottled waters (still mineral water, sparkling mineral water, and spring water). Then, the case of simultaneous presence of uranium and polonium in water was considered due to interferences in alpha spectrometry measurement. A protocol was proposed using a first usual step of spontaneous deposition of polonium on silver disc in order to separate Po, followed by the uranium extraction on AQUALIX column before alpha spectrometry counting.

  17. Alcohol preference, behavioural reactivity and cognitive functioning in female rats exposed to a three-bottle choice paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Silvana; Plescia, Fulvio; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol abuse is a substantial and growing health problem in Western societies. In the last years in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that males and females display a different alcohol drinking behaviour, with swingeing differences not only in the propensity for alcohol use but also in the metabolic and behavioural consequences. In this study we investigated, in adult female rats, ethanol self-administration and preference pattern using a 3-bottle paradigm with water, 10% ethanol solution, and white wine (10%, v/v), along a four-week period. The influence of alcohol free-access on explorative behaviour in the open field (OF), and on spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) were also evaluated. Our results indicate that: (i) female rats show a higher preference for alcohol, in the first two weeks of the paradigm, displaying a higher consumption of 10% ethanol solution than white wine; in the last two weeks, they reduce their alcoholic preference, drinking the same moderate amounts of the two alcoholic beverages; (ii) at the fourth week of the free-access paradigm rats show a lower explorative behaviour in the open field and a worsening in spatial memory retention in the Morris water maze. In conclusion our data suggest that, despite the ability to self-regulate alcohol intake, female rats suffer from relevant impairments in spatial memory retention and cognitive flexibility, displaying a sexually dimorphic modification in the adaptive strategies.

  18. Bottle characteristics of topical international glaucoma medications versus local brands in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Jumaian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What Is Known and Objective: Physical bottle characteristics differ of brand name topical glaucoma medications and local generic equivalents. This study compares the bottle characteristics of international topical glaucoma brands versus local brands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected on bottle drum volume, drop volume, bottle "squeezability," bottle tip diameter, labels and instructions, cap color coding, and clarity of the drug label. Density-based calculations of drops in bottle volume were assessed using an analytic balance. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. A Likert scale-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective opinions of patients on bottle squeezability, clarity of usage and storage instructions, and the consistency of the cap color coding. Results: The volumes of international brands were statistically significantly higher than the local brands (P < 0.001. A number of drops per bottle and tip diameter were comparable between the international local brands. Cap color coding was inconsistent for international and local brands. Patients were dissatisfied with the label font size. Patients reported that the international and local brands were similar in terms of the ease of opening the bottle, instilling a drop, and the clarity of the instructions; but the local brands were subjectively easier to squeeze than international brands. What Is New and Conclusions: This is the first study to compare bottle characteristics of local Saudi Arabia brands with international brands. The bottle characteristics and patient feedback were similar between the local and international topical glaucoma medications. However, there were differences between the local and international brands in drug volume, bottle squeezability. Hence, patient compliance and drop dosage may differ based on the origin of manufacture.

  19. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction.

  20. Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Sekitoleko, P; Estrella Garcia, A A; Huyghebaert, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study several types of bottle materials (glass, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride)) were evaluated in order to be used as food refillables, comparing the residual chemical contamination after classical caustic washing. Bottles were contaminated with model chemicals (chloroxylenol and d-limonene) and caustic washed with varied process parameters using a simulated laboratory-scale washing procedure. After washing, the chemical-contaminated bottles were filled with water and stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The concentrations of the model chemicals in the water after storage were taken as a measure of chemical contamination. The influence of the cleaning parameters (temperature, caustic and commercial additive concentration) was studied using response surface methodology. Washing temperature showed a significant influence on the removal of absorbed chemicals from surfaces compared with the effect of the caustic and especially the additive concentration. Optimization of caustic cleaning for the cleaning process in question led to better cleaning effectiveness, although none of the different washing conditions were able to remove all absorbed chemicals out of the polymeric resins. Commercially available plastic refillables (PET and PC) showed the best chemical rinsability. Glass bottles, however, had in every case the best rinsing characteristics.

  1. CHARACTER DETECTION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM OF BEER BOTTLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Bangxing; Wu Wenjun; Zhang Yepeng; Shen Gang; Yang Liangen

    2005-01-01

    An optical imaging system and a configuration characteristic algorithm are presented to reduce the difficulties in extracting intact characters image with weak contrast, in recognizing characters on fast moving beer bottles. The system consists of a hardware subsystem, including a rotating device, CCD, 16 mm focus lens, a frame grabber card, a penetrating lighting and a computer, and a software subsystem. The software subsystem performs pretreatment, character segmentation and character recognition. In the pretreatment, the original image is filtered with preset threshold to remove isolated spots. Then the horizontal projection and the vertical projection are used respectively to retrieve the character segmentation. Subsequently, the configuration characteristic algorithm is applied to recognize the characters. The experimental results demonstrate that this system can recognize the characters on beer bottles accurately and effectively; the algorithm is proven fast, stable and robust, making it suitable in the industrial environment.

  2. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  3. Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grys, Hans

    2007-01-01

    New methodologies for determining the pressure inside an unopened carbonated beverage are presented. Such investigations also help the students to think deeply about a subject, giving them better understanding.

  4. 11 CFR 100.77 - Invitations, food, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beverages is not a contribution where such items are voluntarily provided by an individual volunteering... of a political party for party-related activity, to the extent that: The aggregate value of...

  5. Fermented Beverages of Pre- and Proto-Historic China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick E. McGovern; Juzhong Zhang; Jigen Tang; Zhiqing Zhang; Gretchen R. Hall; Robert A. Moreau; Alberto Nuñez; Eric D. Butrym; Michael P. Richards; Chen-shan Wang; Guangsheng Cheng; Zhijun Zhao; Changsui Wang; Ofer Bar-Yosef

    2004-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit...

  6. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  7. The torus and the Klein Bottle amplitude of permutation orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Z

    2000-01-01

    The torus and the Klein bottle amplitude coefficients are computed in permutation orbifolds of RCFT-s in terms of the same quantities in the original theory and the twist group. An explicit expression is presented for the number of self conjugate primaries in the orbifold as a polynomial of the total number of primaries and the number of self conjugate ones in the parent theory. The formulae in the $Z_2$ orbifold illustrate the general results.

  8. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  9. Bottling plant location of microbreweries in East Midlands area, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions are critical in real-life projects, which impact on profitability of investment and service levels from demand side. In this paper, a project-based facility location problem should be resolved which refers to the establishment of a centralized bottling plant to serve microbreweries in East Midlands area of UK. This problem will be structured by firstly finding a mathematically theoretical location using the centre-of-gravity method and then formulate the problem as...

  10. Permeation barrier coating and plasma sterilization of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) offer various advantages over glass or metal containers. Beside this they only offer poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf-live of packaged food is reduced. Additionally, common sterilization methods like heat, hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid may not be applicable due to reduced heat or chemical resistance of the plastic packaging material. For the plasma sterilization and permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils, a microwave driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna. The dependencies of important plasma parameters, such as gas mixture, process pressure, power and pulse conditions on oxygen permeation through packaging foil are investigated. A residual permeation as low as J = 1.0 ±0.3 cm^3m-2day-1bar-1 for 60 nm thick silicon oxide (SiOx) coated PET foils is achieved. To discuss this residual permeation, coating defects are visualized by capacitively coupled atomic oxygen plasma etching of coated substrate. A defect density of 3000 mm-2 is revealed responsible for permeation. For plasma sterilization, optimized plasma parameters based on fundamental research of plasma sterilization mechanisms permit short treatment times of a few seconds.

  11. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  12. Plasma deuterium oxide accumulation following ingestion of different carbohydrate beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Kevin; Urch, Joanna; Cerri, Erika; Jentjens, Roy L P; Blannin, Andy K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-12-01

    Optimal fluid delivery from carbohydrate solutions such as oral rehydration solutions or sports drinks is essential. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a beverage containing glucose and fructose would result in greater fluid delivery than a beverage containing glucose alone. Six male subjects were recruited (average age (+/-SD): 22 +/- 2 y). Subjects entered the laboratory between 0700 h and 0900 h after an overnight fast. A 600 mL bolus of 1 of the 3 experimental beverages was then given. The experimental beverages were water (W), 75 g glucose (G), or 50 g glucose and 25 g fructose (GF); each beverage also contained 3.00 g of D2O. Following administration of the experimental beverage subjects remained in a seated position for 180 min. Blood and saliva samples were then taken every 5 min in the first hour and every 15 min thereafter. Plasma and saliva samples were analyzed for deuterium enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Deuterium oxide enrichments were compared using a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The water trial (33 +/- 3 min) showed a significantly shorter time to peak than either G (82 +/- 40 min) or GF (59 +/- 25 min), but the difference between G and GF did not reach statistical significance. There was a significantly greater AUC for GF (55 673 +/- 10 020 delta per thousand vs. Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW).180 min) and W (60 497 +/- 9864 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min) compared with G (46 290 +/- 9622 delta per thousand vs. VSMOW.180 min); W and GF were not significantly different from each other. These data suggest that a 12.5% carbohydrate beverage containing glucose and fructose results in more rapid fluid delivery in the first 75 min than a beverage containing glucose alone.

  13. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  14. Popular Music Celebrity Endorsements in Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Elizee, Juleen; Dighe, Shatabdi; Elbel, Brian D

    2016-07-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity. We quantified the number and type of food or beverage brands promoted by music celebrities, assessed the nutritional quality of the products, and examined Teen Choice Award data to assess the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. This was a descriptive study. A list of music celebrities associated with the 2013 and 2014 Billboard Hot 100 Chart, which ranks songs according to sales and radio impressions, was compiled. Data on celebrity endorsements were gathered from official company Web sites, YouTube commercials, an advertising database, and media reports. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed according to the Nutrient Profile Index, whereas nonalcoholic beverages were evaluated based on calories from added sugar. Teen Choice Award nominations were used to measure the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. Of the 590 endorsements made by the 163 celebrities in the sample, consumer goods (eg, fragrances, makeup) represented the largest endorsement category (26%), followed by food and beverage (18%) and retail (11%). Sixty-five celebrities were collectively associated with 57 different food and beverage brands owned by 38 parent companies. Of these 65 celebrities, 53 (81.5%) had ≥1 Teen Choice Award nomination. Forty-nine (71%) of the 69 nonalcoholic beverage references promoted sugar-sweetened beverages. Twenty-one (80.8%) of the 26 endorsed foods were energy dense and nutrient poor. Baauer, will.i.am, Justin Timberlake, Maroon 5, and Britney Spears had the most food and beverage endorsements. This study demonstrates that music celebrities who are popular among adolescents endorse energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet.

  16. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  17. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  18. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) toxicity: a "bitter" diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Khalid Ismail; Borawake, Kapil Sharad

    2014-12-01

    Consumption of a glass of bottle gourd juice is thought to work as a health "tonic" and part of traditional healthy living practices in India. The juice may in certain circumstances turn bitter with increased levels of the cytotoxic compound called Cucurbitacins. If the bitter juice is consumed it causes a toxic reaction in the gut, leading to abdominal discomfort/pain, vomiting, hematemesis, and hypotension which may be rarely fatal, especially in persons with pre-existing illness. In the absence of clear cut history regarding the consumption of the bitter bottle gourd juice and the initiation of symptoms, the differential diagnosis for the above symptoms will include diseases causing gastrointestinal bleed with hypotension and/or shock. We report a case of bitter bottle gourd poisoning presenting with abdominal symptoms, hematemesis and shock and with an initial differential diagnosis of septicemia with septic shock and multi-organ involvement. We conduct a literature review and ponder the various differential diagnoses of this clinical scenario.

  19. "New" Compounds from Old Plastics: Recycling PET Plastics via Depolymerization. An Activity for the Undergraduate Organic Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Don; Wright, Geoff; Kroemer, Ryan; Engel, Josh

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes work done to develop a meaningful undergraduate organic lab activity that illustrates chemistry of the real world while utilizing reactions typically included in the organic lecture and lab. We show how a common plastic can be converted into several compounds using ester hydrolysis and SN2 reactions. Contributing to the critical shortage of landfill space faced by many communities is the large quantity of plastic refuse. Thus, there is a real need to recycle plastic products. One way to recycle plastics such as polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), the polyester from which numerous consumer products such as 2-liter soda bottles are made, is to depolymerize them and then to use the resulting monomers to produce new products. PET is industrially depolymerized via an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction conducted under conditions of high temperature and pressure that are not feasible in the undergraduate lab. Despite literature reports that PET is remarkably resistant to hydrolysis, we found that PET can be readily hydrolyzed by refluxing with potassium hydroxide or potassium tert-butoxide in amyl alcohol to give terephthalic acid in high yield. It is then possible to readily synthesize terephthalate diesters via SN2 reactions of ammonium terephthalate salts with alkyl halides. Fischer esterification can also be used to prepare the diesters, but yields are significantly lower.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.

  1. Carbonated beverages and gastrointestinal system: between myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, R; Sarnelli, G; Savarese, M F; Buyckx, M

    2009-12-01

    A wealth of information has appeared on non-scientific publications, some suggesting a positive effect of carbonated beverages on gastrointestinal diseases or health, and others a negative one. The evaluation of the properties of carbonated beverages mainly involves the carbon dioxide with which they are charged. Scientific evidence suggests that the main interactions between carbon dioxide and the gastrointestinal system occur in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the stomach. The impact of carbonation determines modification in terms of the mouthfeel of beverages and has a minor role in tooth erosion. Some surveys showed a weak association between carbonated beverages and gastroesophageal reflux disease; however, the methodology employed was often inadequate and, on the overall, the evidence available on this topic is contradictory. Influence on stomach function appears related to both mechanical and chemical effects. Symptoms related to a gastric mechanical distress appear only when drinking more than 300 ml of a carbonated fluid. In conclusion there is now sufficient scientific evidence to understand the physiological impact of carbonated beverages on the gastrointestinal system, while providing a basis for further investigation on the related pathophysiological aspects. However, more studies are needed, particularly intervention trials, to support any claim on the possible beneficial effects of carbonated beverages on the gastrointestinal system, and clarify how they affect digestion. More epidemiological and mechanistic studies are also needed to evaluate the possible drawbacks of their consumption in terms of risk of tooth erosion and gastric distress.

  2. Effects of sports drinks and other beverages on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J Anthony; Rogers, Matthew M

    2005-01-01

    A high percentage of people consume soft drinks that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners, flavorings, and various additives. The popularity of sports (energy) drinks is growing and this pilot study compares enamel dissolution in these and a variety of other beverages. Enamel blocks (approximately 7.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 mm) were sectioned from sound extracted human premolars and molars and measured, weighed, and immersed in the selected beverages for a total of 14 days. The pH of all beverages was measured. The enamel sections were weighed at regular intervals throughout the immersion period with the solutions being changed daily; all studies were performed in duplicate. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe testing. Enamel dissolution occurred in all of the tested beverages, with far greater attack occurring in flavored and energy (sports) drinks than previously noted for water and cola drinks. No correlation was found between enamel dissolution and beverage pH. Non-cola drinks, commercial lemonades, and energy/sports drinks showed the most aggressive dissolution effect on dental enamel. Reduced residence times of beverages in the mouth by salivary clearance or rinsing would appear to be beneficial.

  3. [Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity in beverages made with panela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Jhoana; Guerra, Marisa; Guilarte, Doralys; Alvarado, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity in beverages made with panela (a natural sweetener obtained after drying the unrefined whole sugarcane juice) in order to assess their potential as sources of antioxidants. In beverages made with three panela brands (A, B and C) with lemon, tangerine and peach flavors, the total polyphenols content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu's reactive and antioxidant capacity was determined by three methods: antiradical efficiency DPPH, ferric reducing power (FRP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The total polyphenols content ranged from 0.76 to 1.26 EAG g/mL and 0.73 to 1.32 EAT g/mL. The lemon flavored beverage showed the highest total polyphenols content followed by tangerine and peach flavored beverages. The three beverages had a low antiradical efficiency (AE) and the antioxidant compounds present in the beverages showed a slow kinetic. The ferric reducing power ranged from 8.28 to 10.41 mmol Fe(+2)/L. The ORAC values ranged from 1,536 to 5,220 micromol ET/100 mL. The brand B showed the highest ORAC, followed by brands A and C. The brand-flavor interaction significantly affects the total polyphenols content and the EA, thermal processing also significantly affect the AE (p panela indicate that they are products potentially with antioxidant capacity.

  4. Role of food emulsifiers in milk coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Cho, H

    2015-07-01

    To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation.

  5. The Relationship of Perceptions of Tap Water Safety with Intake of Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Plain Water among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research is limited on whether mistrust of tap water discourages plain water intake and leads to greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The objective of this study is to examine demographic differences in perceptions of tap water safety and determine if these perceptions are associated with intake of SSB and plain water Design The study examined perceptions of tap water safety and their cross-sectional association with intake of SSB and plain water. Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of tap water perceptions with SSB and plain water intake were also examined. Setting Nationally weighted data from 2010 HealthStyles Survey (n=4184) Subjects United States adults ≥18 years Results Overall, 13.0% of participants disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink and 26.4% of participants agreed that bottled water was safer than tap water. Both mistrust of tap water safety and favoring bottled water differed by region, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education. The associations of tap water mistrust on intake of SSB and plain water were modified by race/ethnicity (pwater was safe to drink were more likely to report low intake of plain water. The odds of consuming ≥1 SSB/day among Hispanics who mistrusted their local tap water was twice that of Hispanics who did not (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.3). Conclusions Public health efforts to promote healthy beverages should recognize the potential impact of tap water perceptions on water and SSB intake among minority populations. PMID:23098620

  6. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  7. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  8. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  9. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  10. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  11. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of bottled waters of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel J; Winter, David A; Spero, Howard J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Reeder, Mathew D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Bottled and packaged waters are an increasingly significant component of the human diet. These products are regulated at the regional, national, and international levels, and determining the authenticity of marketing and labeling claims represents a challenge to regulatory agencies. Here, we present a dataset of stable isotope ratios for bottled waters sampled worldwide, and consider potential applications of such data for regulatory, forensic and geochemical standardization applications. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of 234 samples of bottled water range from -147 per thousand to +15 per thousand and from -19.1 per thousand to +3.0 per thousand, respectively. These values fall within and span most of the normal range for meteoric waters, indicating that these commercially available products represent a source of waters for use as laboratory working standards in applications requiring standardization over a large range of isotope ratios. The measured values of bottled water samples cluster along the global meteoric water line, suggesting that bottled water isotope ratios preserve information about the water sources from which they were derived. Using the dataset, we demonstrate how bottled water isotope ratios provide evidence for substantial evaporative enrichment of water sources prior to bottling and for the marketing of waters derived from mountain and lowland sources under the same name. Comparison of bottled water isotope ratios with natural environmental water isotope ratios demonstrates that on average the isotopic composition of bottled water tends to be similar to the composition of naturally available local water sources, suggesting that in many cases bottled water need not be considered as an isotopically distinct component of the human diet. Our findings suggest that stable isotope ratios of bottled water have the power to distinguish ultimate (e.g., recharge) and proximal (e.g., reservoir) sources of bottled water and constitute a potential

  12. Development of a Specialized Pack for Shipping Water Specimens in Glass Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    AD-R120 514 DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPPING WATER ji’j SPECIMENS IN GLASS BOTTLES (U) AIR FORCE PACKAGING EVALUATION AGENCY WRIGHT...787-4519 immi Commercial (513) 257-4234 DIVIUCINT (W A SPICIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPING MATh SPECIMUS IN GLASS BOTTLS • S I) Air Force Packaging...breakage, during shipment, of glass bottles filled with water specimens. A prototype of the specialized container, employing the proposed Poly-Foam

  13. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p <

  14. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  15. The Colorful Chemical Bottle Experiment Kit: From School Laboratory To Public Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Hsu, Suphattra

    2015-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment was first introduced to the chemical education literature as a simple demonstration on kinetics. Its original formulation contains only glucose, NaOH and small amount of methylene blue. The solution turns blue when shaken and fades to colorless upon standing. This bluing/de-bluing cycle may be repeated and may be compared to blood colors in animal's respiratory cycle. Inspired by the blue bottle experiment, the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit was commerciall...

  16. Technique for rapid detection of phthalates in water and beverages

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2013-05-01

    The teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of phthalate esters on living beings are proven in toxicology studies. These ubiquitous food and environmental pollutants pose a great danger to the human race due to their extraordinary use as a plasticizer in the consumer product industry. Contemporary detection techniques used for phthalates require a high level of skills, expensive equipment and longer analysis time than the presented technique. Presented research work introduces a real time non-invasive detection technique using a new type of silicon substrate based planar interdigital (ID) sensor fabricated on basis of thin film micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) semiconductor device fabrication technology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect phthalates in deionized water. Various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as low as 2 ppb to a higher level of 2 ppm in deionized water were detected distinctively using new planar ID sensor based EIS sensing system. Dip testing method was used to obtain the conductance and dielectric properties of the bulk samples. Parylene C polymer coating was used as a passivation layer on the surface of the fabricated sensor to reduce the influence of Faradaic currents. In addition, inherent dielectric properties of the coating enhanced the sensitivity of the capacitive type sensor. Electrochemical spectrum analysis algorithm was used to model experimentally observed impedance spectrum to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit to analyse the kinetic processes taking place inside the electrochemical cell. Curve fitting technique was used to extract the values of the circuit components and explain experimental results on theoretical grounds. The sensor performance was tested by adding DEHP to an energy drink at concentrations above and below the minimal risk level (MRL) limit set by the ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry

  17. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  18. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.

  19. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  20. A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Bray, George M; Caballero, Benjamin; Frei, Balz; Willett, Walter C

    2006-03-01

    The Beverage Guidance Panel was assembled to provide guidance on the relative health and nutritional benefits and risks of various beverage categories. The beverage panel was initiated by the first author. The Panel's purpose is to attempt to systematically review the literature on beverages and health and provide guidance to the consumer. An additional purpose of the Panel is to develop a deeper dialog among the scientific community on overall beverage consumption patterns in the United States and on the great potential to change this pattern as a way to improve health. Over the past several decades, levels of overweight and obesity have increased across all population groups in the United States. Concurrently, an increased daily intake of 150-300 kcal (for different age-sex groups) has occurred, with approximately 50% of the increased calories coming from the consumption of calorically sweetened beverages. The panel ranked beverages from the lowest to the highest value based on caloric and nutrient contents and related health benefits and risks. Drinking water was ranked as the preferred beverage to fulfill daily water needs and was followed in decreasing value by tea and coffee, low-fat (1.5% or 1%) and skim (nonfat) milk and soy beverages, noncalorically sweetened beverages, beverages with some nutritional benefits (fruit and vegetable juices, whole milk, alcohol, and sports drinks), and calorically sweetened, nutrient-poor beverages. The Panel recommends that the consumption of beverages with no or few calories should take precedence over the consumption of beverages with more calories.