WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic bag liners

  1. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  2. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  3. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  4. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  5. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  6. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  7. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  8. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  9. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  10. Consumption of Plastic bags and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The research was done on the consumption of plastic bags and its possible impact on environment. We considered the consumption of plastic bags as recycling, alternatives and disposal, and to be specific we defined environment impact on drainage and street waste. The respondents’ were the 20 years of age and older without any gender discrimination, and assumed to be users of plastic bags. The data was collected from the crowded shopping centers of city. Correlation and regression techniques we...

  11. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  12. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup

  13. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  14. Elastic Plastic Fracture Analysis of an Aluminum COPV Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott; Gregg, Bradley; Bailey, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Onboard any space-launch vehicle, composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) may be utilized by propulsion or environmental control systems. The failure of a COPV has the potential to be catastrophic, resulting in the loss of vehicle, crew or mission. The latest COPV designs have reduced the wall-thickness of the metallic liner to the point where the material strains plastically during operation. At this time, the only method to determine the damage tolerance lifetime (safe-life) of a plastically responding metallic liner is through full-scale COPV testing. Conducting tests costs substantially more and can be far more time consuming than performing an analysis. As a result of this cost, there is a need to establish a qualifying process through the use of a crack growth analysis tool. This paper will discuss fracture analyses of plastically responding metallic liners in COPVs. Uni-axial strain tests have been completed on laboratory specimens to collect elastic-plastic crack growth data. This data has been modeled with the crack growth analysis tool, NASGRO 6.20 to predict the response of laboratory specimens and subsequently the complexity of a COPV.

  15. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed.

  16. Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M Tuates jr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. It is use as food and fruits packaging, fruit bag, food container, seedling bag, mulching film, protective for greenhouse, dryer shed and among others. However, this generates higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose by farmers. The plastic residues remain on the soil for some years as large pieces and they are impediment to plant growth and also a potential hazard to animals if the land is subsequently put down to grass. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. Cassava starch and polybutylene succinate (PBS was used in the development biodegradable film. The PBS and starch was melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition.  The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. However, it has higher density, thickness swelling and absorbed more water. It is projected that after thirty six (36 weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing shows that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag  and old newspaper.  

  17. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  18. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag Sellers of Mwanza, ... Amongst plastic bag sellers, the dire need for short change in order to make a ... who in turn come to distinguish between good and bad plastic bag sellers.

  19. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  20. Digital artery occlusion secondary to plastic shopping bag trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, R; Isaacs, J L; McCarthy, R J

    2007-09-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms.

  1. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    OpenAIRE

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retro...

  2. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction.

  3. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  4. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  5. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message cond...

  6. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retrofit performance is the same as the original machine. Due to the flexibility of microcontrollers, other operation and diagnostic features can easily be added.

  7. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  8. Reduction of plastic carrier bag use: An analysis of alternatives in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Ofira; Goldrath, Tal; Rosenthal, Gad; Grossman, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the public and politicians. Different policy measures to reduce the environmental burden of these bags have been implemented and more are planned. The research analyzed the actual environmental aspects of consumption and use of plastic carrier bags and assessed the effectiveness of the proposed regulation in Israel. Since plastic bags are provided free of charge, people have a tendency to use these bags excessively, therefore a rigorous educational program should address this trend. However, the environmental load imposed by the bags is more a politically correct issue than an actual environmental hazard, and therefore the means for reducing their use should not include a high levy or total elimination of these bags.

  9. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  10. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages (i.e., activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design (N = 200 at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message condition than in the condition where only an environmental message was present. The combined normative message did result in the smallest uptake of free plastic bags compared to the injunctive and personal normative-only message, although these differences were not significant. Our findings imply that re-wording the supermarket’s environmental message by including normative information could be a promising way to reduce the use of free plastic bags, which will ultimately benefit the environment.

  11. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law.

  12. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle...... are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste...... requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should...

  13. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  14. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... problems in Benin due both to the non-biodegradability of such by-products .... waste plastic bags inclusion process into the construction of buildings, .... (mass MD)and heated to fuse in an appropriate metallic container.

  15. Estimating Willingness to Pay for Continued Use of Plastic Grocery Bags and Willingness to Accept for Switching Completely to Reusable Bags

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a theoretical framework for a dichotomous-choice contingent valuation survey for plastic and reusable shopping bags and consequential analysis of that data. By using interval regression analysis, a mean willingness to pay for continued use of plastic grocery bags and a mean willingness to accept to use reusable bags for all grocery shopping trips are estimated. The subsidy level was statistically robust while the tax level was not; this led us to the conclusion as ci...

  16. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-05-01

    Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste Framework Directive and the Directive on the Landfill of Waste. The main gaps identified relate to lack of clear definitions of categories of polymers, unambitious recycling rates and lack of consideration of macro- and microplastics in key pieces of legislation. We recommend that polymers are categorized according to whether they are polymers with the same monomer constituents (homopolymers) or with different monomer constituents (copolymers) and that polymers are no longer exempt from registration and evaluation under REACH. Plastics should furthermore have the same high level of monitoring and reporting requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should also apply to heavyweight plastic carrier bags. Last, the Marine and Water Framework Directives should specifically address plastic waste affecting water quality

  17. Degradation of plastic carrier bags in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brine, Tim; Thompson, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. Use of polymers that degrade more quickly than conventional plastics presents a possible solution to this problem. Here we investigate breakdown of two oxo-biodegradable plastics, compostable plastic and standard polyethylene in the marine environment. Tensile strength of all materials decreased during exposure, but at different rates. Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks whereas approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. Some plastics require UV light to degrade. Transmittance of UV through oxo-biodegradable and standard polyethylene decreased as a consequence of fouling such that these materials received ∼ 90% less UV light after 40 weeks. Our data indicate that compostable plastics may degrade relatively quickly compared to oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastics. While degradable polymers offer waste management solutions, there are limitations to their effectiveness in reducing hazards associated with plastic debris.

  18. Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed from I.V. Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    i D-153 652 RAPID DRINKING DEVICES CONSTRUCTED FROM IY BAS AND 1/1 I PLASTIC SQUEEZE BOTTLES (U) A MY RESEARCH INST OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLf Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed Fram I.V. ( Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles 6...running. The primary problem with using a plastic water bottle during a race is that it ~ must be held upright and squeezed tightly while the runner

  19. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material.

  20. Dynamic recrystallization of electroformed copper liners of shaped charges in high—strain—rate plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenhuaiTian; QiSun; 等

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges after high-strain-rate plastic deformation were in vestigated by transmission microscopy(TEM).Meanwhile,the orientation distribution of the grains in the recovered slug was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern(EBSP) technique.EBSP analysis illustrated that unlike the as-formed electroformed copper liners of shaped charges the grain orientations in the recovered slug are distributed along randomly all the directions after undergoing heavily strain deformation at high-strain rate.Optical microscopy shows a typical recrystallization structure,and TEM examination reveals dislocation cells existed in the thin foil specimen.These results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occur during this plastic deformation process,and the associated deformation temperature is considered to be higher than 0.6 times the melting point of copper.

  1. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decr...

  2. Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Harmonie; Fu, Shanlin; Stuart, Barbara; Shimmon, Ronald; Raymond, Tony; Crandell, Tony; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

  3. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  4. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  5. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  6. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process. PMID:25419675

  7. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  8. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  9. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-05

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  10. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.

  11. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nicholas; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Young, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of disposable plastic bags is a major environmental problem across the globe. In recent years, numerous jurisdictions have sought to curb disposable bag use by implementing a levy or fee at the point of purchase. These levies are typically small and symbolic (around $0.05 per bag), but serve as a highly-visible and continuous reminder to consumers. As such, they are consistent with nudging policies that seek to encourage broad changes in behaviour through small, non-coercive measures that influence people's thinking about an issue. While existing empirical evidence suggests that nudges are highly effective in reducing disposable bag use, we argue that many of these studies are flawed because they lack adequate temporal and geographic controls. We use longitudinal data from four waves of a major Canadian survey to analyze the effect of a disposable bag levy in the City of Toronto. Controlling for demographics and changes in social norms over time, we find that the levy increased the use of reusable shopping bags by 3.4 percentage points. Moreover, we find that the impact of the policy was highly variable across behavioural and demographic groups. The levy was highly effective in encouraging people who already used reusable bags to use them more frequently, while having no effect on infrequent users. We also find that the effects are limited to households with high socio-economic status (as measured by income, educational attainment, and housing situation). This suggests important limitations for nudging policy more generally, as people with lower socio-economic status appear to have been unaffected by this behavioural prompt.

  12. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  13. Production of soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotong, N; Suwanarit, P

    1983-11-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 10 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50 degrees C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decreased from 35.22 to 6.32% with no significant effect on spore viability. The dry spores could be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature for at least 3 months.

  14. Dynamic recrystallization of electroformed copper liners of shaped charges in high-strain-rate plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures in the electroformed copper liners of shaped charges after high-strain-rate plastic deformation were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the orientation distribution of the grains in the recovered slug was examined by the electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern (EBSP) technique. EBSP analysis illustrated that unlike the as-formed electroformed copper linersof shaped charges the grain orientations in the recovered slug are distributed along randomly all the directions after undergoing heavily strain deformation at high-strain rate. Optical microscopy shows a typical recrystallization structure, and TEM examination reveals dislocation cells existed in the thin foil specimen. These results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization occur during this plastic deformation process, and the associated deformation temperature is considered to be higher than 0.6 times the melting point of copper.

  15. PLASTIC DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROFORMED COPPER LINER OF SHAPED CHARGE AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y.Gao; Q.Sun

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with different plastic deformation behavior of electroformed copper liner of shaped charge,depormed at high strain rate(about 1×107s-1) and normal strain rate (4×10-4s-1).The crystallographic orientation distribution of grains in recovered slugs which had undergone high-strain-rate plastic deformation during ex-plosive detonation was investigated by electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern tech-nique.Cellualar structures formed by tangled disocations and sub-grain boundaries consisting of dislocation arrays were detected in the recovered slugs.Some twins and slip dislocations were observed in specimen deformed at normal strain rate.It was found that dynamic recovery and recrystallization take place during high-strain-rate deformation due to the temperature rising,whereas the conventional slip mechanism operates during deformation at normal strain rate.

  16. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  17. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more desirable, with an optimal formulation being obtained which contained (55:45 starch/PBAT (88.2 wt. (%, glycerol (11.0 wt. (% and TA (0.8 wt. (%. Biodegradable plastic bags were produced using the film with this formulation, and analysed according to the standard method of the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT. The bags exhibited a 45% failure rate in free-falling dart impact tests, a 10% of failure rate in dynamic load tests and no failure in static load tests. These results meet the specifications set by the standard. Thus, the biodegradable plastic bags fabricated with an optimised formulation could be useful as an alternative to those made from non-biodegradable materials if the nominal capacity declared for this material is considered.

  18. Urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites for detecting transfusion of autologous blood stored in plasticizer-free bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) efficiently increases sport performance and is the most challenging doping method to detect. Current methods for detecting this practice center on the plasticizer di(2-ethlyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which enters the stored blood from blood bags. Quantification of this plasticizer and its metabolites in urine can detect the transfusion of autologous blood stored in these bags. However, DEHP-free blood bags are available on the market, including n-butyryl-tri-(n-hexyl)-citrate (BTHC) blood bags. Athletes may shift to using such bags to avoid the detection of urinary DEHP metabolites. A clinical randomized double-blinded two-phase study was conducted of healthy male volunteers who underwent ABT using DEHP-containing or BTHC blood bags. All subjects received a saline injection for the control phase and a blood donation followed by ABT 36 days later. Kinetic excretion of five urinary DEHP metabolites was quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, considerable levels of urinary DEHP metabolites were observed up to 1 day after blood transfusion with BTHC blood bags. The long-term metabolites mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate were the most sensitive biomarkers to detect ABT with BTHC blood bags. Levels of DEHP were high in BTHC bags (6.6%), the tubing in the transfusion kit (25.2%), and the white blood cell filter (22.3%). The BTHC bag contained DEHP, despite being labeled DEHP-free. Urinary DEHP metabolite measurement is a cost-effective way to detect ABT in the antidoping field even when BTHC bags are used for blood storage. © 2015 AABB.

  19. Progress in the removal of di-[2-ethylhexyl]-phthalate as plasticizer in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is used in blood component containers as well as in many other medical devices because it shows optimal inertness, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals. However, the polymer itself does not provide good handling characteristics or the necessary properties for red blood cell (RBC) survival. PVC thus needs to be plasticized, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has been the most common plasticizer to produce the required flexibility to PVC. However, DEHP has been found to leach out from the containers, causing toxic effects, as demonstrated mainly in rodents. It is considered to be a possible carcinogen and suspected to also produce endocrine effects especially in young males. Although controversial, it is commonly accepted that in vulnerable patients such as newborns, trauma patients, or pregnant women, high exposure to DEHP should be avoided. The replacement of the common PVC + DEHP blood bags poses technical challenges due to the positive influence of the DEHP molecules on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane, and thus it has been shown to affect RBC storage and survival after transfusion. Different approaches are thus being taken to find a suitable alternative to DEHP for blood components bags. Environmentalists even favor the substitution of the PVC to avoid not only the plasticizers but even the other residues contained in the polymer material. Consequently, whereas the simplest solution is the substitution of the DEHP by other plasticizers, alternative plasticizer-free materials are becoming explored. Even modifications of existing materials are being presented by some research groups, ranging from covering of the DEHP-containing materials to alloys or special additive solutions. Different strategies as well as the most promising approaches are presented in this review. In any case, the degree of stabilization of RBCs undergoing prolonged storage will dictate the final acceptance for such alternatives.

  20. Analysis of plasticiser migration to meat roasted in plastic bags by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany Avelino; André, Leiliane Coelho; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes

    2015-07-01

    Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some of these compounds cause endocrine dysfunction in humans and animals by interfering with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding or elimination of natural hormones in the body and are therefore recognised as endocrine disruptors. This paper describes cold-fibre solid-phase microextraction as a sampling technique to analyse eight plasticisers in spices and roasted chicken meat stored in plastic bags by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for this method ranged from 0.01 to 0.18 μg kg(-)(1). Diisobutyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were found in the samples of spices and roasted chicken meat. The highest concentrations of plasticisers were found in the spices used to cook the chicken meat.

  1. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  2. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  3. Suffocation using plastic bags: a retrospective study of suicides in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, M J; Diniz, D

    2000-05-01

    One hundred and ten cases of suicidal suffocation using a plastic bag were identified in the files of the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, Canada, between 1993 and 1997. The records were reviewed to determine the demographic characteristics of this group compared with all cases of suicide in Ontario, the scene information, autopsy findings and toxicology results. Most suicides occurred in people over 60 years of age, with older women making up a considerable proportion of cases as compared with other methods of suicide. In 40% of cases the deceased was suffering from a serious illness. Autopsy findings were usually minimal, with facial, conjunctival and visceral petechiae present in a minority of cases. One or more drugs were detected in the blood in 92.6% of cases where toxicologic testing was performed. Benzodiazepines, diphenhydramine and antidepressants were the most common drugs found, with diphenhydramine the most common drug present at an elevated concentration. Information at the scene from "right to die" societies was uncommon. One quarter of decedents took additional measures, besides the use of drugs or alcohol, to ensure the rapidity, certainty or comfort of their death. This study further elucidates the characteristics of this uncommon method of suicide. It emphasizes additional scene findings, such as the presence of dust masks, physical restraints and modification of the plastic bag that may be of use to death investigators in determining the correct manner of death.

  4. Studying DEHP migration in plasticized PVC used for blood bags by coupling Raman confocal microscopy to UV spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Tfayli, A; Yagoubi, N

    2016-04-01

    Plasticized PVC is widely used to make medical devices such as tubing, perfusion bags and blood bags. By using confocal Raman microscopy on a PVC sheet plasticized with around 40% of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), we propose a simple and sensitive approach to studying and understanding the diffusion of plasticizers from polymers into the surrounding media. Moreover, we sought to correlate our findings to standard measurements conducted by UV spectroscopy. This study showed differences in the concentration gradient observed due to the diffusion of the plasticizer inside a PVC sheet. We can thus follow the critical DEHP ratios that can impact the diffusion process. Water and ethanol were chosen as storage media: in ethanol, the lowest concentration of DEHP was observed at the surface resulting in the formation of a less plasticized layer near the interface; unlike ethanol, PVC sheets stored in water showed a greater concentration of DEHP on the film surface as an exudation of DEHP onto the surface.

  5. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10 to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangled on the trees and shrubs create nuisance. During rainy season, the blockage of drains and overflowing of water was observed in some areas of the city. During study period, out of 711 rumenotomies done, in 111 (15.61% and 600 (84.39% animals, emergency rumenotomy and elective rumenotomy was performed, respectively. The quantity of the foreign bodies (FB’s collected from the rumen was ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 kg in 28 animals (3.94%; 2.0 to 5.0 kg in 116 animals (16.32%; 5.0 to 9.0 kg in 217 animals (30.52% and above 9.0 kg in 350 animals (49.23%. Due to absence of plastic recycling unit in the Gondar city or in nearby areas, there is no practice of collecting and selling these products to junk dealers. Use of reusable bags made of cloths, jute and other natural fibers must be encouraged. In order to save the life of animals, residents should not pack and throw the food items in plastic bags. The cattle owners may be advised not to allow their cattle to freely wander in streets especially in the cities. They should see that the grazing lands are not polluted with the polythene and other wastes. Awareness may be created on careless disposal of plastic bags and as well as the periodical cleaning of these wastes in the grazing area.

  6. Measuring the Long-Term Effectiveness of a Compulsory Approach to Behaviour Change: Analysis of the "Say No to Plastic Bag" Campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Hasrina; Yusoff, Ronzi Mohd

    2011-01-01

    This research looked into the effectiveness of a campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia for a compulsory ban on disposable plastics. Although there was high awareness of the "Say No to Plastic Bags" bags campaign, and moderate compliance on campus, we wondered whether a compulsory approach would maintain the desired behaviours off…

  7. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  8. Out of the Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Restricting the use of plastic shopping bags is China’s latest step to curb pollution While environment-conscious people identify themselves as non-users of plastic bags, Guo Geng,working at a nature reserve of deers in Beijing’s suburbs,stands out as a fighter against plastic bags. Since he started to work in 1998,Guo has seen David’s deer in his care dying from devouring waste plastic bags blown over

  9. Can plastic bag derived-microplastics act as vectors for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Hodson, Mark; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A.; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda; Thorpe, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics are widely reported contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems and studies have shown that they can be ingested by aquatic organisms and lead to potential negative effects on health. The effects can arise from the physical effects of the plastics (e.g. food displacement and blockages of the digestive tract) and from their potential to adsorb contaminants, primarily organic compounds, resulting in an increased exposure of the organism to toxic contaminants. Studies are beginning to emerge that also show a high abundance of microplastics in the terrestrial environment but there remains a lack of data on the impacts of these terrestrial microplastics or their interaction with other terrestrial pollutants. We conducted Zn adsorption experiments using HDPE microplastics, derived from plastic bags. Zinc adsorption to microplastics was similar to that observed in soils, but in the presence of both soil and microplastics, preferential adsorption onto the soil was observed. In desorption experiments, desorption of Zn from microplastics and soils was minimal (risk associated with this exposure appears to be minimal.

  10. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  12. Retrieval of specimens in laparoscopy using reclosable zipper-type plastic bags: a simple, cheap, and useful method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A; Vázquez, J A; Valencia, S; Cueto, J

    1998-12-01

    Surgical specimens must often be extracted during laparoscopic surgery. Although the technologic advances in this field are amazing, simple measures may sometimes work even better than very sophisticated instruments. This is true of the reclosable plastic bags with zipper-type closure that we use for retrieving surgical specimens from the abdominal cavity in order to protect it as well as the abdominal wall. The bags are cheap, offer no problems for sterilization, are easy to obtain, and are available in many sizes. They are very simple to handle, making it easy to slip in the specimen and then extract it from the abdominal cavity. We describe our experience with these bags and a technique for manipulating them.

  13. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Survival Rates of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings Transported in Plastic Bags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmers in Sudan obtain their seed stocks mainly not from their farms and as such rely heavily on good packing conditions covering sometimes 8–12 hours transportation time to maximize fish survival and quality the study here required main objective to identified the optimum loading for the success during transporting. closed oxygenated plastic bag which was carried three densities for each one with tow replicate for every treatment for the lower loading is 75 fingerlings /l the medium is, 100 fingerlings and last density is the larger one 140 fingerlings the duration factors was 10 hours, 11 hours and 18 hours. The fingerlings was sex reversed, their size is (5g ± 0.5. The collecting data analyze used SPSS computer software version- 16.0. Analysis result shown the factor of density in the tow treatments (75 fingerlings + 100 fingerlings was the best according to the survivor rate depending to type of the periods parameter. 10 hour=94% and 11 hours = 92% and here was N.S otherwise the comparative between those and the density 140 was high significant. Variation between loading and durations is NS at P<0.05, so the conclusions is found the optimum loading during transporting period was 100/l/18 (hundred fish per litter in 18 hours period according to analysis details.

  14. PRESENT CONDITION AND MEASURES TO EXPAND OF VOLUNTARY AGREEMENT ON PLASTIC SHOPPING BAGS REDUCTION AT THE PREFECTURAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  15. Experimental degradation of polymer shopping bags (standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable) in the gastrointestinal fluids of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin; Townsend, Kathy; Matschullat, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    The persistence of marine debris such as discarded polymer bags has become globally an increasing hazard to marine life. To date, over 177 marine species have been recorded to ingest man-made polymers that cause life-threatening complications such as gut impaction and perforation. This study set out to test the decay characteristics of three common types of shopping bag polymers in sea turtle gastrointestinal fluids (GIF): standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable. Fluids were obtained from the stomachs, small intestines and large intestines of a freshly dead Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Controls were carried out with salt and freshwater. The degradation rate was measured over 49 days, based on mass loss. Degradation rates of the standard and the degradable plastic bags after 49 days across all treatments and controls were negligible. The biodegradable bags showed mass losses between 3 and 9%. This was a much slower rate than reported by the manufacturers in an industrial composting situation (100% in 49 days). The GIF of the herbivorous Green turtle showed an increased capacity to break down the biodegradable polymer relative to the carnivorous Loggerhead, but at a much lower rate than digestion of natural vegetative matter. While the breakdown rate of biodegradable polymers in the intestinal fluids of sea turtles is greater than standard and degradable plastics, it is proposed that this is not rapid enough to prevent morbidity. Further study is recommended to investigate the speed at which biodegradable polymers decompose outside of industrial composting situations, and their durability in marine and freshwater systems.

  16. Migration kinetics and mechanisms of plasticizers, stabilizers at interfaces of NEPE propellant/HTPB liner/EDPM insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-ping; Nie, Hai-ying; Zhang, Yuan-yuan; Tan, Li-min; Yin, Hua-li; Ma, Xin-gang

    2012-08-30

    Migration appeared in the interfaces of nitrate ester plasticized polyether (NEPE) based propellant/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) based liner/ethylene propylene terpolymer (EPDM) based insulation was studied by aging at different temperatures. The migration components were extracted with solvent and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The migration occurred within 1mm to the interfaces, and the apparent migration activation energy (Ea) of nitroglycerin (NG), 1,2,4-butanetriol trinitrate (BTTN) and a kind of aniline stabilizer AD in propellant, liner and insulation was calculated respectively on the basis of HPLC data. The Ea values were among 15 and 50 kJ/mol, which were much less than chemical energy, and almost the same as hydrogen bond energy. The average diffusion coefficients were in the range of 10(-19)m(2)s(-1) to 10(-16)m(2)s(-1). It seemed the faster the migration rates, the smaller the apparent migration activation energy, the larger the diffusion coefficient and the less the amount of migration. It could be explained that the migration rate and energy were affected by the molecular volume of a mobile component and its diffusion property, and the amount of migration was resulted from the molecular polarity comparability of a mobile component to the based material.

  17. Determination of PAEs in Tomato Bagged with Plastic Film Bag by GC-MS%GCMS法测定番茄中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝峰; 左一鸣; 王超; 聂梅

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the pollution levels of PAEs in Tomato bagged with plastic film bag , Tomato samples bagged with different plastic bags were chosen as subjects. By using GC-MS , 11 PAEs compounds in peel and pulp were determined. Results showed that 6 PAEs were detected in tomato peel bagged with single plastic bag , the contents were 0-2.70 mg/kg;4 PAEs were detected in pulp, which between 0-0.04 mg/kg. The contents of 5 PAEs in tomato peel bagged with paper-film composite bag were 0-5.17 mg/kg , while the 2 PAEs in pulp were 0-0.07 mg/kg. It was concluded that PAEs do exist in tomato bagged with plastic film bag ,which mainly enriched in the part of the tomato peel, with lower concentrations in the pulp.%为了解塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄的污染程度。以套塑膜袋番茄为试材,采用GC-MS法测定番茄皮和番茄肉中的11种PAEs化合物。结果表明,套塑膜袋番茄皮中检出6种PAEs,浓度在0~2.70 mg/kg范围内;茄肉中含有4种PAEs,浓度在0~0.04 mg/kg之间。套纸膜复合袋番茄皮中检出5种PAEs,含量在0~5.17 mg/kg之间;茄肉中检出2种PAEs,浓度为0~0.07 mg/kg。可见塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄有一定污染,主要富集于番茄皮部分,番茄肉中PAEs浓度较低。

  18. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  19. Temporal trends over the past two decades in asphyxial deaths in South Australia involving plastic bags or wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Simpson, Ellie; Gilbert, John D

    2006-01-01

    Asphyxial deaths utilising plastic bags or wrappings occurring over a 20-year period from March 1984 to February 2004 were reviewed at Forensic Science SA, Australia. A total of 45 cases were identified, with three occurring in infants and children (one accidental asphyxia; two homicides). Of the remaining 42 adults the male to female ratio was approximately 1:1 (23 and 19 cases, respectively), with all deaths attributed to suicide. The 42 adult cases represented 1.2% of the 3569 suicides autopsied at the centre over the time period of the study. The age ranges of the adult victims were 19-88 years (mean=47.1 years) for the males, and 32-89 years (mean=60.5 years) for the females. The adult female victims were significantly older than the males (pPlastic bag asphyxial deaths were rare and in adults were due to suicide involving either older females or younger males. A significant increase in cases in South Australia in recent years was demonstrated, possibly related to publicity surrounding assisted suicides, and the ready availability of suicide manuals and information on suicide techniques from the internet.

  20. Cryopreserved red blood cells for pediatric transfusion. Frozen storage of small aliquots in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; Valeri, D A; Gray, A; Melaragno, A J; Vecchione, J J; Dennis, R C; Emerson, C P

    1981-01-01

    Human nonrejuvenated and rejuvenated red bood cells were prepared for cryopreservation and subsequent pediatric transfusion. Glycerol was added to the red blood cells in the primary polyvinyl chloride plastic collection bag to achieve a concentration of 40 per cent W/V. The red blood cells were concentrated by centrifugation, and the supernatant glycerol was discarded. Each glycerolized unit was divided into four equal aliquots in the individual 600-ml bags of a dry quadruple polyvinyl chloride plastic system, and each aliquot was frozen and stored at -80 C. After thawing, sodium chloride solutions were used to wash the aliquots in the IBM Blood Processor 2991-1 or 2991-2 or the Haemonetics Blood Processor 115, and the washed aliquots were stored in a sodium chloride-glucose-phosphate solution at 4 C for 24 hours. Freeze-thaw recovery of the red blood cells was about 97 per cent, and freeze-thaw-wash recovery was about 84 per cent. Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion survival values were about 92 per cent for both nonrejuvenated and indated-rejuvenated red blood cells. Nonrejuvenated red blood cells, those frozen within three to five days of collection without biochemical modification, had normal oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion; rejuvenated red blood cells, those biochemically treated with PIGPA Solution A after three to five days of storage at 4 C, had improved oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion.

  1. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  2. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... market in Mwanza, Tanzania, to demonstrate the dilemmas of trust faced and ..... bag sellers achieve relatively high levels of profit in such an informal ...... in making trust available to each other we can both trade with ease; if.

  3. 纸塑复合包装袋自动套装生产线的研制%Development of Automatic Bagging Assembly Line for Paper-Plastic Compound Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡罡

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the technical parameters and technological process of the paper-plastic compound bag automatic bag-ging assembly line are introduced, and its structural features and working principle are also described in detail. The function of automatic bagging production line is to launching, bracing, bagging and transmission for bags by using the servo drive and vacuum suction technology instead of the traditional manual operation. Practice has proved that this equipment has the advan-tages of high efficiency, lower cost, easy operation etc, which could meet requirements of the users.%介绍纸塑复合包装袋自动套装生产线的技术指标和工艺流程,并对其结构特点及工作原理进行详细说明.该生产线设备取代了传统的人工上下料和手工套袋的生产过程,通过伺服驱动和真空吸盘技术实现了外袋上线、张开袋口、套袋与输送的自动化控制. 实践证明该生产线具有高效率、低成本、易操作等优点,满足用户的生产需求.

  4. PLASTIC DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROFORMED COPPER LINER OF SHAPED CHARGE AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y. Gao; W.H. Tian; A.L. Fan; Q. Sun

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with different plastic deformation behavior of electroformed copperliner of shaped charge, deformed at high strain rate (about 1×107 s-1) and normalstrain rate (4×10-4 s-1). The crystallographic orientation distribution of grains inrecovered slugs which had undergone high-strain-rate plastic deformation during ex-plosive detonation was investigated by electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern tech-nique. Cellular structures formed by tangled dislocations and sub-grain boundariesconsisting of dislocation arrays were detected in the recovered slugs. Some twins andslip dislocations were observed in specimen deformed at normal strain rate. It wasfound that dynamic recovery and recrystallization take place during high-strain-ratedeformation due to the temperature rising, whereas the conventional slip mechanismoperates during deformation at normal strain rate.

  5. Mortality of a Wild King Cobra,Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836 (Serpentes:Elapidae) from Northeast Thailand after Ingesting a Plastic Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin Thomas STRINE; Ins SILVA; Matthew CRANE; Bartosz NADOLSKI; Taksin ARTCHAWAKOM; Matt GOODE; Pongthep SUWANWAREE

    2014-01-01

    Wild King Cobras,Ophiophagus hannah, are known to prey almost exclusively on snakes. We observed opportunistic ingestion of a plastic bag by a radio-tracked adult male O. hannah, which was detrimental to the health of the individual and likely lead to its death. Our observation demonstrates that improper disposal of food and plastic waste can be a threat to snakes, highlighting the need to maintain a waste-free environment, especially in areas inhabited by vulnerable species.

  6. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  7. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  8. From Macro- to Microplastics - Analysis of EU Regulation along the Life Cycle of Plastic Bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida; Hartmann, Nanna; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the oceans and its effects on the environment and aquatic life has received global attention the recent years. Despite an increasing concern, little attention has been directed towards the regulation of plastics over its full life cycle (LC). Here we map European regulation......-based recommendations to policy-makers on regulatory gaps, which should be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics accumulating in oceans....

  9. Fate in humans of the plasticizer, DI (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, arising from transfusion of platelets stored in vinyl plastic bags. [plasticizer migration into human blood from vinyl plastic bags during transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R. J.; Schiffer, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Platelet concentrates were shown to contain 18-38 mg/100 ml of a phthalate plasticizer (DEHP) which arose by migration from the vinyl plastic packs in which the plateletes were prepared and stored. Transfusion of these platelets into 6 adult patients with leukemia resulted in peak blood plasma levels of DEHP ranging from 0.34 - 0.83 mg/100 ml. The blood levels fell mono-exponentially with a mean rate of 2.83 percent per minute and a half-life of 28.0 minutes. Urine was assayed by a method that would measure unchanged DEHP as well as all phthalic acid-containing metabolities. In two patients, at most 60 and 90% of the infused dose, respectively, was excreted in the urine collected for 24 hours post-transfusion. These estimates, however, could be high due to the simultaneous excretion of DEHP remaining from previous transfusions or arising from uncontrolled environmental exposures.

  10. Morphological and spectroscopic measurements of plastic bags for the purpose of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Howitt, David G; Land, Donald P; Tulleners, Frederic A; Springer, Faye A; Wang, Shunlin

    2007-09-01

    The discrimination of noncolored transparent polyethylene bags was studied by several nondestructive and semidestructive analytical methods. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and optical microscopy (differential interference contrast microscopy and phase contrast microscopy) were applied to polyethylene films. X-ray diffraction was used to distinguish variations in the crystalline phase, infrared spectroscopy was used to distinguish variations in the molecular components, and optical microscopy was used to distinguish the different surface morphologies. The results show that X-ray diffraction classifies the crystalline phase of the film depending on whether it is made from low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, or high-density polyethylene; that infrared spectroscopy is useful to distinguish the molecular components and it is the most discriminating technique; and that optical microscopy discriminate films easily by their morphological differences.

  11. Evaluation of Lumicyano™ cyanoacrylate fuming process for the development of latent fingermarks on plastic carrier bags by means of a pseudo operational comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Deacon, Paul; Fraser, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. This study is a pseudo operational trial to compare an example of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate product, Lumicyano™, with the two recommended techniques for plastic carrier bags; cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 (BY40) dyeing and powder suspensions. 100 plastic carrier bags were collected from the place of work and the items were treated as found without any additional fingermark deposition. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique (average of 300 fingermarks). The items treated with Lumicyano™ were sequentially processed with BY40 and an additional 43 new fingermarks were detected. Lumicyano™ appears to be a suitable technique for the development of fingermarks on plastic carrier bags and it can help save lab space and time as it does not require dyeing or drying procedures. Furthermore, contrary to other one-step cyanoacrylate products, existing cyanoacrylate cabinets do not require any modification for the treatment of articles with Lumicyano™. To date, there is little peer reviewed articles in the literature on trials related to Lumicyano™ and this study aims to contribute to fill this gap.

  12. Plastic Bag Derived-Microplastics as a Vector for Metal Exposure in Terrestrial Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Mark E; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A; Clark, Andy; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T; Thorpe, Karen L

    2017-04-05

    Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. one mm(2) in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics. Desorption of the Zn was minimal from both microplastics and soil in synthetic soil solution (0.01 M CaCl2), but in synthetic earthworm guts desorption was higher from microplastics (40-60%) than soil (2-15%), suggesting microplastics could increase Zn bioavailability. Individual Lumbricus terrestris earthworms exposed for 28 days in mesocosms of 260 g moist soil containing 0.35 wt % of Zn-bearing microplastic (236-4505 mg kg(-1)) ingested the microplastics, but there was no evidence of Zn accumulation, mortality, or weight change. Digestion of the earthworms showed that they did not retain microplastics in their gut. These findings indicate that microplastics could act as vectors to increase metal exposure in earthworms, but that the associated risk is unlikely to be significant for essential metals such as Zn that are well regulated by metabolic processes.

  13. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, S. [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Benjamin, Sailas, E-mail: sailasben@yahoo.co.in [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 Degree-Sign C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass ({approx}0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD {approx}7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large

  14. Biofilm and Diatom Succession on Polyethylene (PE) and Biodegradable Plastic Bags in Two Marine Habitats: Early Signs of Degradation in the Pelagic and Benthic Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Andreas; Mildenberger, Tobias; Laforsch, Christian; Weber, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The production of biodegradable plastic is increasing. Given the augmented littering of these products an increasing input into the sea is expected. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that degradation of plastic starts within days to weeks. Little is known about the early composition and activity of biofilms found on biodegradable and conventional plastic debris and its correlation to degradation in the marine environment. In this study we investigated the early formation of biofilms on plastic shopper bags and its consequences for the degradation of plastic. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic were tested in the Mediterranean Sea for 15 and 33 days. The samples were distributed equally to a shallow benthic (sedimentary seafloor at 6 m water depth) and a pelagic habitat (3 m water depth) to compare the impact of these different environments on fouling and degradation. The amount of biofilm increased on both plastic types and in both habitats. The diatom abundance and diversity differed significantly between the habitats and the plastic types. Diatoms were more abundant on samples from the pelagic zone. We anticipate that specific surface properties of the polymer types induced different biofilm communities on both plastic types. Additionally, different environmental conditions between the benthic and pelagic experimental site such as light intensity and shear forces may have influenced unequal colonisation between these habitats. The oxygen production rate was negative for all samples, indicating that the initial biofilm on marine plastic litter consumes oxygen, regardless of the plastic type or if exposed in the pelagic or the benthic zone. Mechanical tests did not reveal degradation within one month of exposure. However, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis displayed potential signs of degradation on the plastic surface, which differed between both plastic types. This study indicates that the early biofilm formation and composition

  15. Biofilm and Diatom Succession on Polyethylene (PE and Biodegradable Plastic Bags in Two Marine Habitats: Early Signs of Degradation in the Pelagic and Benthic Zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eich

    Full Text Available The production of biodegradable plastic is increasing. Given the augmented littering of these products an increasing input into the sea is expected. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that degradation of plastic starts within days to weeks. Little is known about the early composition and activity of biofilms found on biodegradable and conventional plastic debris and its correlation to degradation in the marine environment. In this study we investigated the early formation of biofilms on plastic shopper bags and its consequences for the degradation of plastic. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic were tested in the Mediterranean Sea for 15 and 33 days. The samples were distributed equally to a shallow benthic (sedimentary seafloor at 6 m water depth and a pelagic habitat (3 m water depth to compare the impact of these different environments on fouling and degradation. The amount of biofilm increased on both plastic types and in both habitats. The diatom abundance and diversity differed significantly between the habitats and the plastic types. Diatoms were more abundant on samples from the pelagic zone. We anticipate that specific surface properties of the polymer types induced different biofilm communities on both plastic types. Additionally, different environmental conditions between the benthic and pelagic experimental site such as light intensity and shear forces may have influenced unequal colonisation between these habitats. The oxygen production rate was negative for all samples, indicating that the initial biofilm on marine plastic litter consumes oxygen, regardless of the plastic type or if exposed in the pelagic or the benthic zone. Mechanical tests did not reveal degradation within one month of exposure. However, scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis displayed potential signs of degradation on the plastic surface, which differed between both plastic types. This study indicates that the early biofilm formation

  16. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-10-15

    This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD ~7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue.

  17. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  18. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.

  19. 立体多向眼袋整形术%The stereoscopic multi-directional plastic operction of secondary lower eyelid bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝润泽; 刘卫民

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the cause of secondary lower eyelid bag and try to find a better plastic operation. Methods On sagital plane: the skin and muscular layers were resected and fastened separately. Then herniated orbital fat was partially removed or released. On coronary plane: the skin was resected and fastened on horizontal and vertical directions. The orbiculus muscle was resected radially. Results The results of 63 cases were satisfactory. Conclusion The stereoscopic multi-directional plastic operation of lower eyelid bag is a good procedure for secondary lower eyelid bag.%目的 探讨继发性眼袋的病因并寻找更为有效合理的手术方法。方法 矢状面上将皮肤、眼轮匝肌分层切除、提紧,疝出的眶脂部分切除或眶缘释放;冠状面上将皮肤纵横双向提紧,肌层星形切除缝合,双向提紧。结果 64例中 63 例效果满意。结论 立体多向眼袋整形术是针对眼袋的发生机理而设计,可获良好效果。

  20. Shopping without Plastic Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    本期“作文点评”栏目继续为大家点评在2008年全国中学生英语作文大赛中获得一等奖的优秀作文。本文小作者针对2008年全国中学生英语作文大赛备选题目(一)的所给材料发表了自己的见解和意见,呼吁大家加强环保意识。一起来看看小作者是如何行文及一线教师的点评吧!“

  1. The Development of High Efficiency and Energy Saving Three-row-middle-envelope Plastic Bag Making Machine%高效节能三列中封全自动制袋机开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭杭; 张建桃; 张铁民; 辛少荣; 彭泽光

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase productivity of flexible packaging plastic bag making machine ,save energy and reduce emission ,a three-row bag making technical method is proposed .According the optimized design of the institutions and electrical control ,a high efficiency and energy saving three-row-middle-envelope plastic bag making machine is developed in this paper , which running speed reaches 36 000 p/h and yield exceed 99 .6%.Compared with the double-row-middle-envelope plastic bag making machine ,the three-row-middle-en-velope plastic bag making machine not only increases the bag making efficiency 50%,but also reduces energy consumption by 33 %.%针对塑料软包装袋制袋机需不断提高制袋效率、节能减排的要求,提出采用三列制袋模式提高制袋效率和降低产品能耗的技术方案,通过机构和电气控制优化设计,研制出三列中封全自动制袋机,其制袋能力达36000袋/h,成品率超过99.6%,与双列中封制袋机相比,制袋速率提高50%,单位产品能耗降低33%。

  2. Plastic, Fantastic? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information about plastics, focusing on the uses of plastic bags in particular. Topic areas considered include: (1) making plastic bags; (2) transparency of plastic bags; (3) plastic bags and food odors; (4) food containers (before and since plastics); and (5) disposing of plastic bags and other plastic products. The text is…

  3. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  4. It's in the Bag!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  5. 纸塑袋包装器械的灭菌质量研究%Study on sterilization quality of instruments with paper-plastic bag packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕芳; 蒋景华; 罗耀菊; 雷燕斐

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of single and double paper‐plastic bag packaging on sterilization ef‐fectiveness ,incidence of wet bag and seal line cracking of instruments ,so as to explore the best way of packaging . METHODS A total of 720 pieces of instruments in need of paper‐plastic packaging from Nov .1 to Nov .30 ,2013 were randomly divided into the control group (362 pieces) and the experimental group (358 pieces) .The control group adopted single paper‐plastic bag packaging ,while the experimental group adopted double paper‐plastic bag packaging in way of paper in face of paper and plastic surface in face of plastic surface to seal .The sterilization rate ,the incidence of wet pack and the seal line cracking rate of instruments after sterilization were examined .The software SPSS13 .0 was used for statistical analysis .RESULTS The pass rate of sterilization was 100% and the sealing line cracking rate was 0 .28% in both groups ,the incidence of wet package rates were 0 .55 and 0 .84 re‐spectively for the control group and the experimental group .There were no significant differences .There were no obvious differences in the effect of packaged instruments on pressuresteam sterilization effectiveness ,the incidence of wet bag and sealing line cracking between the two groups .CONCLUSION Sterilization on instruments with double paper‐plastic packaging is reliable ,and the phenomenon of wet pack and seal line cracking is absent when sterilization .Thus ,double paper‐plastic packaging can be used as the packaging method for a single instrument , which can reduce packaging damage in the process of transportation and storage and effectively reduce the risk of hospital infections .%目的:比较单层与双层纸塑袋包装器械对灭菌包压力蒸汽灭菌的灭菌效果、湿包发生、灭菌时密封线开裂的影响,以探索最佳包装方式。方法选择2013年11月1-30日单件需纸塑包装的器械共720件,随机分成对

  6. Post-Evaluation Research on Implementation Effectiveness of the Ban Policy on Free Plastic Bags%“限塑令”政策实施有效性的后评估调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼薇; 郁婷婷; 李明冉; 黄文芳

    2011-01-01

    为掌握国务院"限塑令"政策的实施效果,评估"限塑令"政策的有效性,分别在2008年3月、10月及2011年4月这3个特征月中各选取1周的连续时间,对上海市杨浦区3个按房价高低划分的高、中等及普通收入水平小区中居民塑料袋的消费总量以及不同类型塑料袋的消费数量进行多次抽样调查。调查结果表明:"限塑令"实施3年来,居民塑料袋消费总量先下降后反弹,但总体低于"限塑令"实施前;塑料袋有偿使用制度执行部分有效;不同类型塑料袋使用数量变化趋势各异;超薄塑料袋禁止基本未实现;塑料袋收费的敏感群体有所转变。%To know the effect and to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of the ban policy on free plastic bags issued by the State Council,several sampling surveys were conducted in March and October 2008 as well as April 2011 each for one whole week towards residents in three communities in Yangpu District of Shanghai representing high,medium and low incomes,respectively,to get the information about their consumption in total as well as classified into different types of plastic bags.The results showed that,within three years since the implementation of the ban policy,the total level of plastic bag use had dropped first and then rebounded but overall at lower level than before.The paid-use system of plastic bags has partly been effective.Trends of using different types of plastic bags varied a lot.The prohibition of using ultra-thin plastic bags has basically not taken effect,and the attitude of the group sensitive to charged plastic bags has somewhat been changing.

  7. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources.

  8. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources. PMID:27109095

  9. Evaluation of metal ion absorptive characteristics of three types of plastic sample bags used for pecipitation sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, A.B.; Schroder, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Simulated precipitation samples containing 16 metal ions were prepared at 4 pH values. Absorptive characteristics of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyester/polyolefin sacks were evaluated at pH 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Simulated precipitation was in contact with the sacks for 17 days, and subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days after initial contact. All three types of plastic sacks absorbed Fe throughout the entire pH range. Polypropylene and polyethylene absorbed Pb throughout the entire pH range; polyester/polyolefin sacks absorbed Pb at pH 4.0 or greater. All plastic sacks also absorbed Cu, Mo, and V at pH 4.5 and 5.0. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.7 percent HNO3 did not result in 100 percent of Cu, Fe, Pb, and V. These sacks would be suitable collection vessels for Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Li, Mg, Mn, Na Sr and Zn in precipitation through the pH range of 3.5 to 5.0.

  10. An Experiment on Prevention of Fruit Green Return for Summer Orange with Fruit Bagging and Plastic Film Covering%果实套袋与树冠盖膜防止夏橙果实返绿试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢柱雄; 王宣英; 李全德; 廖延华

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on prevention of fruit green return for summer orange with fruit bagging and plastic film covering had been held. The results showed that, the effect on prevention of fruit green return for fruit bagging treatment was extremely remarkable. It would provide a reliable basis for further study of fruit bagging and effectively prevent summer orange fruit green returning.%对夏橙进行田间果实套袋与树冠盖膜防止夏橙果实返绿试验。结果表明,果实套袋处理防止果实返绿效果极其显著,为进一步研究果实套袋、有效防止夏橙果实返绿提供可靠依据。

  11. Thermoplastic liners for carbon steel pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Mauyed S.; AlDossary, Abdullah K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Materials selection for pipe and fittings used to convey corrosive fluids has often been a challenge. Traditionally, exotic Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used in corrosive environments despite their high cost. Plastic lined carbon steel piping offers a cost effective alternative to the use of CRAs by eliminating corrosion, significantly reducing the use of toxic chemicals and the heavy metal usually present in CRAs. Thermoplastic Liners offer the combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical strength, which are unachievable with singular materials. Under pressure conditions, the liner is fully supported by the metalwork, while under vacuum conditions, the liner must be thick enough along with venting system to withstand the collapsing forces created by the negative pressure. Plastic liners have been used successfully to line and protect metallic pipelines for many years and have become an indispensable requirement of the oil and gas industry particularly with water injection and hydrocarbon services. In the case of internally corroded pipes, the use of thermoplastic liners for rehabilitation is an option to extend the lifetime of companies' assets, reduce maintenance cost and increase intervals between T and Is. For new construction, plastic liners in carbon steel pipes can compete technically and economically with pipelines of CRA materials and other corrosion inhibition systems. This paper describes various design features, installations of thermoplastic liners in comparison to other corrosion inhibition methods. (author)

  12. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See Notice of Final...

  13. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice...

  14. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  15. Transport of Pirarucu Arapaima gigas juveniles in plastic bag Transporte de juvenis de pirarucu Arapaima gigas em sacos plásticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the stress response of pirarucu juveniles in a closed system transport. Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is a native Amazonian fish species from the Osteoglossidae family and an obligated air breather. A short duration transport trial (6h was undertaken comparing closed polyethylene bags filled with atmospheric air (Air group and bags filled with pure oxygen (Oxi group. Dissolved oxygen was the only water parameter that presented a difference between fish groups, and was saturated in the oxi group as expected. There was no mortality in either group after transport. Fish feeding was observed 36 h after transport for all fish, and normal feeding consumption was observed at 72 h. In both groups physiological responses were similar. Cortisol did not show any significant alteration during the sampled period. Unlike most fish species, cortisol values were unaltered in both groups during sampling, while glucose presented a significant change up to 12 h after transport. The results showed that pirarucu transport in plastic bags could be made with either atmospheric air or pure oxygen, since physiological response to stress, water quality and feeding behavior after 36 h were similar in both groups.Este estudo examinou as respostas de estresse de juvenis de pirarucu transportados em sistema fechado. Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas é um peixe nativo da bacia Amazônica, da família Osteoglossidae que possui respiração aérea obrigatória. Foi realizado um transporte de curta duração (6 h em sacos de polietileno inflados com ar atmosférico (grupo ar ou com oxigênio puro (grupo oxi. O oxigênio dissolvido foi o único parâmetro de qualidade da água que apresentou diferença estatística entre os grupos, e como esperado, o oxigênio estava supersaturado para o grupo oxi. Não houve mortalidade após o transporte em ambos os grupos. Os peixes se alimentaram 36 h após o transporte e apresentaram um consumo de ração habitual após 72 h. As

  16. Phthalate Esters Used as Plasticizers in Packed Red Blood Cell Storage Bags May Lead to Progressive Toxin Exposure and the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard T. Rael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalate esters (PE's are plasticizers used to soften PVC-based medical devices. PE's are the most abundant man-made pollutants and increase the risk of developing an allergic respiratory disease or a malignancy. The leaching of PE's in donated packed red blood cells (PRBC during storage was assessed. PRBC transfusion bags containing CPD/AS-1 (ADSOL buffer were analyzed. Samples were collected on storage day 1 and day 42. Two PE's, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was measured by standard ELISA techniques. DEHP significantly increased from 34.3 µM (±20.0 SD on day 1 to 433.2 µM (±131.2 SD on day 42, a 12.6-fold increase. Similarly, MEHP significantly increased from 3.7 µM (±2.8 SD on day 1 to 74.0 µM (±19.1 SD on day 42, a 20.2-fold increase. Also, DEHP and MEHP increased the release of IL-8 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The transfusion of older units of PRBC could lead to an accumulation of PE's possibly resulting in inflammation and other effects. This accumulation could be exacerbated due to the decreased metabolism of PE's since trauma patients have a lower esterase activity, the enzymes responsible for metabolizing PE's. The effect of oxidative stress caused by PE's is discussed as a potential mechanism for increases in inflammation caused by older units of PRBC.

  17. Development of non-woven and plastic composite medical sterilization packaging bags%一种无纺布与塑料复合型医用灭菌包装袋的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵筠; 易江陵; 马旭东; 周廷云

    2012-01-01

    目的 试研制一种新型的无纺布与塑料复合型灭菌包装袋,为医疗器材灭菌包装提供新材料和新方法.方法 以透明耐高温医用复合塑料膜和SMS无纺布为原料,采用热溶压合和黏合的方法,试研制无纺布与塑料复合型的管状包装袋和独立包装袋,并且对所试研制包装袋,实施具有挑战性的灭菌包装质量试验和储存质量试验,两组试验样本各60包次.结果 试研制的无纺布与塑料复合型包装袋,在60包次灭菌包装质量试验中,未发生包装袋破损和暴边现象,也未发现灭菌湿包;而在60包次储存质量试验中包装袋器材灭菌后,储存6个月后抽检结果全部为阴性无菌生长.结论 我们研制的无纺布与塑料复合型灭菌包装袋质量较可靠,灭菌兼容性较强,性价比也较高,具有推广应用价值.%OBJECTIVE To develop a kind of non-woven and plastic composite medical sterilization packaging bags so as to provide new materials and new approaches for sterilized packaging of the medical devices. METHODS The transparent high-temperature composite plastic film and non-woven SMS were selected as the material , by the means of hot melt lamination and bonding, non-woven and plastic composite tubular packaging bags and individually wrapped bags were developed, the sterilization and packaging quality and the storage quality were tested for the newly developed bags, all the tested samples were divided into two groups with 60 packages in each. RESULTS Of 60 newly developed non-woven and plastic composite medical sterilization packaging bags for the quality test, there were no bags of breakage or burst side or humidified sterilized bags; and there were no bacterial growth that occurred after the storage for 6 months. CONCLUSION The quality of non-woven and plastic composite medical sterilization packaging bags we developed is feasible with stronger sterilization compatibility and higher cost-effect,which is worthy of

  18. 个性化下睑袋整形术120例临床经验总结%Personalized next eyelid bag of plastic surgery, 120 cases of clinical experience summary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丙辰

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨对患者施行下睑袋整形术的方法和效果。方法:选取2013年6月—2014年6月我院收治的120例行下睑袋美容整形的患者,根据患者下睑皮肤和眼轮匝肌松弛度、睑板前眼轮匝肌肥厚度、眶隔脂肪膨出程度和泪沟凹陷程度不同,有针对性地采用不同的手术技术,改善患者的下睑袋。结果:所有患者术后恢复情况良好,均对手术感到满意。所有患者的切口愈合良好,对患者进行随访3~4个月,所有患者均无其他并发症发生。结论:患者在行下睑袋整形术后,有效的平复了老化的睑袋,所有患者术后治疗效果满意,为患者重新带来了美丽。%ObjectiveAnalyze the patients under the method and effect of eyelid bag of plastic surgery. MethodsSelected from June 2013 to June 2013 of our hospital, 120 patients who underwent next eyelid plastic bag according to patients with lower eyelid skin and orbicularis oculi muscle relaxation degree, meibomian before the orbicularis oculi muscle bulging fat thickness, orbital septum fat degree at different levels and tears ditch sag, targeted with different surgical techniques.ResultsAll patients with incision healed well, the patients were followed up for 3 ~ 4 months, all patients had no other complications occurred. ConclusionsIn the patients with eyelid bag of plastic surgery, effectively removes the aging eyelid bag, next eyelid anaplasty plastic bag effect is obvious.

  19. Research of relationship between quality of paper plastic bag and layout mode of pallets%纸塑包装器械包质量与托盘摆放方式相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段振兰; 杨俊丽; 李俊梅; 张伟; 王秀华

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较器械托盘不同摆放方式对纸塑包装器械包灭菌效果、开裂率和湿包率的影响,探索最佳摆放方式,提高器械包质量.方法 在纸塑袋质量、规格选取、封口温度、封口宽度、压力蒸汽灭菌条件等均相同的前提下将器械包按托盘摆放方式不同分为常规组和试验组,常规组器械托盘底部朝向纸面放置,塑面在上,试验组器械托盘底部朝向塑面,纸面在上,从灭菌监测合格率、包装袋开裂率和湿包率3个方面比较两组器械包灭菌后质量.结果 两组器械包灭菌监测合格率均为100.00%;常规组包装开裂率为2.67%,试验组开裂率为0,两组差异有统计学意义;常规组湿包率占1.87%,试验组为0,差异有统计学意义.结论 两种托盘摆放方式的纸塑包装器械包灭菌合格率均能达到100.00%;托盘底部朝向塑面,纸面在上的包装方式能够有效避免器械包开裂和湿包发生.%OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of deferent layout modes of pallets on the sterilization, cracking rate and package wet rate of paper plastic bags so as to find a best layout mode and improve the quality of the instrument packaging. METHODS Under the same condition of paper plastic bag quality, standard selection, seal temperature, seal width and pressure steam sterilization, the equipment bags were divided into the control group and the experiment group by the different layout modes of the pallets. The bottoms of the pallets of the control group faced to paper, with the plastic side facing up. The bottoms of the pallets of the experiment group faced to plastics, with the paper site facing up. The sterilization quality of the two groups was observed by comparing the qualified rate of monitoring of sterilization, the bag cracking rate and package wet rate. RESULTS The qualified rates of the sterilization monitoring of both groups were 100. 00%. The cracking rate of the control group was 2. 67% , the

  20. A quantitative differentiation method for plastic bags by wide angle X-ray diffraction for tracing the source of illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Carresi, Pietro; Schiavone, Sergio; Marigo, Antonio

    2007-05-03

    Thirty-three shopping bags, commonly encountered in the packaging of drug doses, were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Using this single technique, without sample preparation, nearly all the considered samples could be differentiated, achieving a discriminating power of 0.992. The rather large degree of variability existing in grocery bags, even though they are mass produced, was shown, confirming that these items can be useful in tracing the source of illicit drug doses.

  1. Plastic Bags and Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Anita Ng Heung

    2010-01-01

    The "Hong Kong Visual Arts Curriculum Guide," covering Primary 1 to Secondary 3 grades (Curriculum Development Committee, 2003), points to three domains of learning in visual arts: (1) visual arts knowledge; (2) visual arts appreciation and criticism; and (3) visual arts making. The "Guide" suggests learning should develop…

  2. Plastic Bags and Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Anita Ng Heung

    2010-01-01

    The "Hong Kong Visual Arts Curriculum Guide," covering Primary 1 to Secondary 3 grades (Curriculum Development Committee, 2003), points to three domains of learning in visual arts: (1) visual arts knowledge; (2) visual arts appreciation and criticism; and (3) visual arts making. The "Guide" suggests learning should develop students' generic…

  3. Effect Analysis About Suffocating the Larva of Bactrocera minax with No-insecticide Plastic Bags%塑料袋闷杀柑桔大实蝇虫果死亡率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光灿; 易继平; 张国平

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to select an efficient and non-pol-luting method to kil the larva of fruit fly in citrus. [Method] The larvae of Bactrocera minax in citrus fruits were suffocated using plastic bags with or without a certain concentration of pesticide. Then, the mortality of in different treatments was mea-sured 24, 48, 60, 240 and 480 h later. Final y, variance analysis was carried out. [Result] There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two treat-ments: suffocating the larvae with sealed plastic bags containing no or a certain concentration of pesticide 5 d. later. The former had high mortality, but also was e-conomic and without any pol ution. The orange maggots were more easier to be kil ed in sealed plastic bags. [Conclusion] Suffocating orange maggots with no-insec-ticide plastic bag is economic, efficient and has no pol ution to the environment.%[目的]探索经济、高效、无污染的杀死柑桔大实蝇幼虫的科学方法。[方法]选择塑料袋加某一浓度的杀虫剂和不加杀虫剂闷处柑桔大实蝇幼虫的方法,得出幼虫死亡数据,并进行方差分析。[结果]处理5d后,塑料袋封口不加药处理和塑料袋封口加药处理幼虫死亡率无明显差异;与加药不封闭处理相比,在隔绝空气的条件下更易杀死柑桔大实蝇幼虫。[结论]塑料袋封口不加药处理更经济有效,且不污染环境。

  4. A quantitative differentiation method for plastic bags by infrared spectroscopy, thickness measurement and differential scanning calorimetry for tracing the source of illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Carresi, Pietro; Schiavone, Sergio; Marigo, Antonio

    2006-12-20

    Fifty shopping bags, commonly encountered in the packaging of drug doses, were characterized by thickness measurements, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. By these very straightforward and inexpensive techniques, without sample preparation, nearly all the considered samples could be discriminated. Ninety-seven percent of the possible pairs of white, apparently similar dull polymer films were differentiated. The rather large degree of variability existing in grocery bags, even though they are mass produced, was shown, confirming that these items can be useful in tracing the source of illicit drug doses.

  5. Design of Control System of Mouth Sticking Machine for Plastic Film Weaved Bag%复膜塑编热合糊袋机控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁剑啸; 罗海军

    2012-01-01

    Operational principle of mouth sticking machine for plastic film weaved bag was introduced. Accord- ing to the production process and the requirement of control system of mouth sticking machine for plastic film weaved bag, the combination of Siemens SIMOTION D485 and SINAMICS S120 was applied to design hard- ware and software control implementation. Parts of the control program were introduced. The operation prac- tice showed the system can meet the control requirement of mouth sticking machine.%介绍了复膜塑编热合糊袋机的工作原理,根据复膜塑编热合糊袋机工艺要求,采用西门子的SIMO—T10ND435和SINAMICSS120组合,设计出了糊袋机整机控制的软硬件实现方法,并介绍了热合部分的控制程序。实际运行结果表明,该控制系统可较好地满足此类糊袋机的控制要求。

  6. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  7. 改良纸塑袋封口切割工作站效果评价%Impact of modified paper and plastic bags cutting sealing workstation on work efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司慧君; 王惠玲; 刘绍倩; 韩强

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价纸塑袋封口切割工作站改良对工作效率的影响.方法 选择4个有切割纸塑包装袋经验的人员,每人分别使用改良前和改良后切割机切割250 mm长的3M品牌纸塑包装袋100个,对改良前和改良后的两组结果进行切割所需时间、切割精准度及人员舒适度对比.结果 切割100个纸塑包装袋改良前平均时间为7min,改良后平均时间为4 min;改良前切割长度精准合格率为94.0%,改良后切割长度精准合格率为99.8%,舒适度改良前人员为19.8%,改良后人员为100.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 改良的纸塑袋封口切割工作站能大大缩短工作时间,提高切割长度精准度,同时增加工作人员的舒适度,明显提高工作效率.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of improved paper plastic bag sealing cutting workstation on the work efficiency. METHODS Totally four staff experienced on cutting paper plastic bag packaging were selected, each person cut 100 250mm-long paper and plastic bags (made by 3M) by respectively using the cutting machine before and after the modification. The cutting time, cutting length accuracy, and the comfort of the operators of the two groups were compared. RESULTS It needed the mean time of 7 min to cut 100 paper-plastic packaging bags before the improvement, and 4 min after the improvement; the qualified rate of the cutting length accuracy was 94. 0% before the improvement and 99. 8% after the improvement ; the comfort of the staff was 19. 8% before the improvement and 100. 0% after the improvement, the differences were statistically significant (P<0. 01). CONCLUSION The modified plastic bag cutting sealing workstation can significantly shorten the working time and improve the cutting length accuracy, while increasing the staff's comfort, and improving the work efficiency significantly.

  8. Application of improved plastic surgery for eyelid bag in senile eyelid bag with tear trough and eyelid buccal groove%改良睑袋整形术在伴有泪槽和睑颊沟的中老年下睑袋中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师军涛; 刘亚丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:使用改良的睑袋整形手术方法,达到改善伴有泪槽和睑颊沟的中老年下眼袋的术后效果。方法延长睑缘内则切口过泪点至内眦部;在传统眼袋整形手术过程中将眶肌筋膜韧带提紧固定于外眦韧带上或眶外侧壁上,眼轮匝肌切口上、下缘部分叠合缝合加固,将疝出的脂肪以“脂肪瓣”的形式间断缝合于眶下缘骨膜处。结果根据156例随访资料,132例满意,24例基本满意。结论使用改良后的睑袋手术方法,能明显改善睑袋术后的效果。%Objective To improved plastic surgery for eyelid bag in order to improve postoperative effect of senile eyelid bag with tear trough and eyelid buccal groove. Methods Extend inside the eyelid incision through lacrimal punctum to the inner canthus;in the traditional process of plastic surgery blepharoplasty, fascia ligament of orbital muscle was tightly fixed on the outer canthus ligament or lateral orbital wall, and the two edges of the orbicularis oculi muscle incision were partly reinforced by overlapping suture,and the herniated fat was interrupted suture in inferior orbital rim periosteum in the form of "fat flap". Results According to the follow-up, 156 patients, 132 cases of satisfaction, 24 cases of basic satisfaction, According to the follow-up visit on 156 cases. 132 cases were satisfied. 24 cases were satisfied basically. Conclusion Modified surgical methods for eyelid bag can significantly improve the effect of eye bags.

  9. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company (TPBI) and Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (Landblue). \\1\\ See Results of Redetermination Pursuant to Court Remand Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., v. United.... Court No. 11-00408, dated July 10, 2013 (Remand Results). \\2\\ See Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co.,...

  10. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... research....

  11. Liner Service Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    This thesis concerns design of liner shipping networks using operations research to optimize liner shipping networks at the strategic, tactical and operational level. Liner shipping networks are often compared to public transit networks as they consist of a set of scheduled sailings connecting....... The research field of liner shipping network design is relatively young and many open research questions exists. Among others, a unified and rich mathematical model formulating the main characteristics of the business domain has not been clearly described and exact methods for such mathematical models...... are still not able to solve significant instances of this complex optimization problem. In this thesis two research directions are explored within the field: The first research direction contributes to basic research on the liner shipping network design problem by describing the domain seen from...

  12. Reciclagem de sacolas plásticas de polietileno em termos de inventário de ciclo de vida Recycling of polyethylene plastic bags in terms of life cycle inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de C. Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O CETEA realizou um estudo de Avaliação de Ciclo de Vida (ACV de sacolas plásticas de polietileno (PE, com ênfase no inventário de ciclo de vida (ICV, coletando dados para o ano 2003. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte deste estudo completo, concentrando-se na influência da taxa de reciclagem de polietileno sobre o ICV das sacolas plásticas de PE no Brasil. Para gerar os dados da média brasileira de eteno, PEAD-APM, PEAD/PELBD e PEBD, os dados foram compilados tendo em conta, respectivamente, 61, 100, 78 e 63% das empresas envolvidas em cada fase do processo de produção. Depois que as empresas concordaram em colaborar com o estudo, questionários apropriados foram preparados e enviados para a coleta de dados. As empresas foram responsáveis tanto pela coleta dos dados como pelo preenchimento dos questionários. O cálculo da média brasileira da reciclagem de polietileno foi realizado considerando os dados fornecidos por sete empresas. O cálculo da média brasileira da produção das sacolas plásticas de PE foi realizado considerando os dados fornecidos por quatro empresas. Levando em conta as categorias de impacto adotadas neste estudo tem-se como resultado a demonstração de que a reciclagem ajuda a melhorar o perfil ambiental das sacolas plásticas de PE medido com dados de ICV.CETEA has conducted a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study of PE (polyethylene plastic bags with emphasis on the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI, collecting data for the reference year 2003. The goal of this paper is to present part of this complete study, focusing on the influence of polyethylene recycling rate on the LCI of PE plastic bags in Brazil. For generating the Brazilian average data of ethylene, HDPE-HMW, HDPE/LLDPE and LDPE, the data were compiled taking into account, respectively, 61, 100, 78 and 63% of the companies involved in each phase of the production process. After the companies agreed to collaborate with the Project, appropriate

  13. 超市塑料袋使用行为的环境实验研究%An Empirical Study on Behaviors of Using Plastic Bags in a Supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿明佳; 张勇; 梅凤乔; 叶文虎

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to an in-situ survey of how the shoppers in a supermarket of Shanghai use plastic bags. In this regard, shoppers' behaviors were recorded involving 5 086 samples that were collected during the survey, e.g, buying a new plastic bag, bringing his/her own or getting free packaged bags provided by the market. Factors affecting the behaviors were analyzed such as whether he/she had a membership card, whether he/she was a bare-handed shopper or not; the relative partial correlation coefficients were counted. The shoppers with higher tendency to buy plastic bags were those young and middle-aged males, non-membership-card holder, and who had bought more in the supermarket. The empirical study based on in-situ observation and recording is helpful in addressing the environmentally friendly issues such as the drives for restriction of plastic shopping bags.%塑料购物袋一直是社会关注的热点环境问题.文章以上海某超市为对象,采用现场观察实验方法记录了5086份超市顾客塑料袋使用行为的样本,初步揭示了超市塑料袋使用情况和塑料袋使用的顾客行为特征,尝试为超市塑料袋的环境管理政策提供基础性的科学依据.结果表明:(1)超市中主要有3种塑料袋使用方式,依次为购买塑料袋、自带购物袋、使用免费手撕袋,其比例为15%、29%、9%,说明目前塑料袋使用行为具有一定的多样性;(2)影响顾客购买塑料袋的因素为是否有会员卡、是否徒手购物、购物金额,其偏相关系数依次为0.114、0.085、0.042.占总样本63.4%的单人购物情境中,购买塑料袋的影响因素为是否徒手购物、是否有会员卡、年龄、购物金额、性别,偏相关系数依次为0.849、0.486、0.329、0.291、0.180;说明影响塑料袋使用的因素具有综合性和复杂性.(3)顾客购物金额、购物件数、结账时间与塑料袋购买比例有密切的正相关关系;(4)按照购买塑料袋的倾向

  14. Sacolas plásticas: destinações sustentáveis e alternativas de substituição Plastic bags: sustainable disposal and alternative routes to their substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia S. F. e Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Independentemente do material adotado como melhor estratégia para uso em sacolas, cada um tem um destino final ideal que pode ser: compostagem, reciclagem mecânica, reciclagem energética, aterros sanitários, entre outros. Assim, a infra-estrutura de coleta, identificação e disposição do resíduo pós-consumo desse material deve estar associada à escolha feita para garantir sua sustentabilidade sócio-econômica. Além disso, soluções ainda controversas com relação ao real impacto no meio ambiente, não podem ser condenadas, nem incentivadas, mas devem sim ser avaliadas. Nesse sentido, cabe à comunidade científica fornecer bases sólidas e confiáveis, para que as avaliações sejam baseadas em uma visão global do problema. Foi com esse objetivo que elaboramos o presente trabalho, expondo questões críticas e relatando as diferentes soluções adotadas no mundo, inclusive sobre avaliações de impactos ambientais das diferentes alternativas para minimizar e/ou solucionar os problemas relacionados ao uso de sacolas plásticas.Regardless of the material adopted as the best strategy for use in plastic bags, each material has an ideal final disposal, which may be composting, mechanical recycling, energy recycling, sanitary landfills, and others. Therefore, the infrastructure of collection, identification and disposal of post-consumer waste of this material should be tied to the choice made to ensure its socio-economic sustainability. Moreover, solutions that are still controversial in terms of their real environmental impact should be neither condemned nor encouraged - rather, they should be evaluated. In this context, it is up to the scientific community to provide solid and reliable foundations to ensure that such evaluations are based on a global vision of the problem. This was the objective that guided the present work, with an analysis of critical issues and description of the diverse solutions adopted around the world

  15. Poststarburst Models of LINERs

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Y; Murayama, T; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions in many galaxies (LINERs), it has been recognized that they constitute a class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) which are thought to be powered by gas accretion onto a central, supermassive black hole. LINERs are observed in approximately one third of galaxies in the local universe and it has been often thought that they harbor an AGN-like central engine with moderate activity. However, some LINERs show no direct evidence for AGNs such as broad emission lines, radio jets, hard X-ray emission, spectral energy distributions which are inconsistent with starlight, and so on. For such LINERs (a subset of type 2 LINERs), we present new poststarburst models which explain some of their most important optical narrow emission-line ratios. In these models, the ionization sources are planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) with temperature of ~ 10^5 K which appear in the late-phase evolution of intermediate-mass stars with mass between ~ 3 M_solar and ~ 6 M_solar...

  16. Perl one-liners

    CERN Document Server

    Krumins, Peteris

    2013-01-01

    130 Time-Saving, Problem-Solving Perl Scripts That Get Things DonePart of the fun of programming in Perl lies in tackling tedious tasks with short, efficient, and reusable code. Often, the perfect tool is the one-liner, a small but powerful program that fits in one line of code and does one thing really well.In Perl One-Liners, author and impatient hacker Peteris Krumins takes you through more than 100 compelling one-liners that do all sorts of handy things, such as manipulate line spacing, tally column values in a table, and get a list of users on a system. This cookbook of useful, customizab

  17. 食品塑料包装溶出酞酸酯DBP与DEHP的测定%The Detection of DBP and DEHP from the Food Plastic Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀娟; 马艳梅; 商雪娇; 曹勇

    2015-01-01

    采用毛细管气相色谱测定2种邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物[邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸二异辛酯(DEHP)]。样品用正己烷浸泡,超声辅助提取,0.45μm滤膜过滤,进行气相色谱分析。气相色谱回收率为89.365%~117.875%,精密度RSD为0.26%~2.5%。结果表明,该方法简便、快速、灵敏,适用于食品塑料包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的测定。%The gas chromatography was taken to detect two kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds [butyl phthalate(DBP)andphthalate(2-ethylhexylester(DEHP)]. The sample was soaked in n-hexane, were extracted by ultrasonic,and analyzed by gas chromatography. The recovery rate of Gas Chromatography: 89.365 %-117.875%, the precision RSD ,0.26%-2.5%. Results showed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for food plastic packaging materials in the determination of phthalic acid esters plasticizer.

  18. Combustor liner construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H. M.; Wagner, W. B.; Strock, W. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A combustor liner is fabricated from a plurality of individual segments each containing counter/parallel Finwall material and are arranged circumferentially and axially to define the combustion zone. Each segment is supported by a hook and ring construction to an opened lattice frame with sufficient tolerance between the hook and ring to permit thermal expansion with a minimum of induced stresses.

  19. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  20. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  1. 套袋对大棚‘翠冠’梨果实品质及K、Ca、Mg含量的影响%Effects of Bagging Treatments on Fruit Qualities and Contents of K, Ca, Mg of‘Cuiguan' Pear under Plastic Tunnel Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 滕元文; 冯先桔; 陈丹霞; 陈露露; 杨倩倩; 林媚

    2011-01-01

    在大棚栽培条件下,以‘翠冠’梨为试材,以不套袋果实为对照(CK),研究普通双层袋(处理Ⅰ)、小林双层袋(处理Ⅱ)和小林单层袋(处理Ⅲ)3种不同果袋套袋对果实品质以及果实不同部位(果皮、果肉、果核)中K、Ca、Mg含量的影响.结果表明:套袋显著提高果面亮度(L*),其中处理Ⅰ和处理Ⅱ促进了‘翠冠’梨果实锈斑的形成,锈斑指数分别比CK提高15.2和3.6个百分点,显著降低了果皮叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量;处理Ⅲ的锈斑指数、果皮叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量与CK无显著差异.套袋降低了果实单果重和可溶性固形物含量,其中处理Ⅰ和处理Ⅱ的果实单果重分别比CK减少8.3%和7.9%,处理Ⅱ和处理Ⅲ的可溶性固形物含量分别比CK降低0.54和0.74个百分点,且差异显著;而对果形指数、总糖、总酸、糖酸比等品质指标无显著影响.套袋降低了果皮和果肉中Ca的含量.因此,在大棚栽培条件下‘翠冠’梨应采用无袋栽培,或选用高透光性的小林单层袋(NK-1)进行套袋栽培.%Different types of bags, including normal double-layer bag (treat I), Kobayashni double-layer bag (treat II), and Kobayashi sing-layer bag (treat HI), were chosen to study the effects of different bag types on fruit quality of 'Cuiguan' under plastic tunnel culture. The contents of mineral elements K, Ca and Mg in peel, pulp and kernel were also detected. The results showed that all the three treatments improved significantly skin surface brightness (L*). As treat I and II, the content of chlorophyll and carotenoid in peel decreased, but the degree of fruit surface rust aggravated. The rust index increased by 15.2%, and 3.6% respectively in comparison with control (CK). As treat HI, the rust index, chlorophyll and carotenoid in peel had no significant differences with CK. Weight per fruit and TSS (total soluble solid) were deceased significantly by bagging, with the weight of

  2. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  3. Development of reactive artificial liner using recycled materials. 2. Chemical transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Johnnie Y; Asavanich, Pitch; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Park, Jae K

    2013-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have so far been found to permeate through geomembranes within days and potentially pollute the surrounding groundwater if no sufficient depth of underlain soil barrier existed In order to cope with the fast breakthrough of VOCs through high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane in the composite liner system, a composite material made of recycled materials was proposed and its mechanical properties were analyzed in a previous study. This artificial liner was composed of crumb rubber, organo-clay, silica fume and epoxy binder together with an environmentally-friendly solvent recycled from paper pulping, and dimethyl sulfoxide as a plasticizer. In this study, the new artificial liner and a typical HDPE geomembrane were tested to compare their abilities to mitigate the movement of VOCs, specifically partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient and mass fluxes. It was found that this new artificial liner had 2-3 orders of magnitude less VOC mass flux than the HDPE geomembrane. The new artificial liner is thought to have a great potential for containing VOCs, even with a thickness of 2.5 cm, and as a substitute for the clay liner. The cost of installing the artificial liner was estimated to be $13.78/m(2). This is lower than the current geomembrane-related price of $19.70-26.91/m(2). The new liner might give a new perspective in future liner design and alleviate the concerning issue of groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate, which might contain highly mobile VOCs.

  4. Optimal Liner Material for Near Term Magnetized Liner Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Substantial fusion yields are predicted with existing pulsed power machines driving cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. Experiments are planned using the Z accelerator to drive these implosions. However, the peak current, the laser heating energy, and the applied magnetic field will be less than optimal. We present simulations which show, that under these conditions, the yield can be improved significantly by decreasing the density of the liner material, e.g. Lithium substituted for Beryllium. Furthermore, the simulations show that decreasing the liner density allows the use of very low aspect ratio (R/δR) liners, while still obtaining interesting yields. Low aspect ratio liners should be more robust to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  5. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    , can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...... to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices...

  6. BAG4/SODD Protein Contains a Short BAG Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Homma, Sachiko; Baker, Kelly; Cabezas, Edelmira; Hoyt, David W.; Li, Zhen; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2002-08-23

    BAG proteins are molecular chaperone regulators that affect diverse cellular pathways. All members share a conserved motif, called the ''BAG domain'' (BD), which binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 family proteins and modulates their activity. We have determined the solution structure of BD from BAG4/SODD (Bcl-2 ? Associated Athanogene / Silencer of Death Domains) by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods and compared it to the corresponding domain in BAG1 (Briknarova et al., Nature Struct. Biol. 8:349-352). The difference between BDs from these two BAG proteins is striking and the structural comparison defines two subfamilies of mammalian BD-containing proteins. One subfamily includes the closely related BAG3, BAG4 and BAG5 proteins, and the other is represented by BAG1 which contains a structurally and evolutionarily distinct BD. BDs from both BAG1 and BAG4 are three-helix bundles; however, in BAG4, each helix in this bundle is three to four turns shorter than its counterpart in BAG1, which reduces the length of the domain by one-third. BAG4 BD thus represents a prototype of the minimal functional fragment that is capable of binding to Hsc70 and modulating its chaperone activity.

  7. Inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ Atpase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, C R; Indu, A R; Deepadevi, K V; Kurup, P A

    2003-08-01

    Significant amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leach out into blood stored in DEHP plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags resulting in the exposure of recipients of blood transfusion to this compound. The aim of this study was to find out whether DEHP at these low levels has any effect on the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase, since a decrease in this enzyme activity has been reported to take place in a number of disorders like neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, coronary artery disease and stroke, syndrome-X, tumours etc. DEHP was administered (ip) at a low dose of 750 microg/100 g body weight to rats and the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in liver, brain and RBC was estimated. Histopathology of brain, activity of HMG CoA reductase (a major rate limiting enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway of which digoxin, the physiological inhibitor of Na(+)-K+ ATPase is a product), intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in RBC (which is altered as a result of inhibition of Na(+)-K+ ATPase) were also studied. (In the light of the observation of increase of intracellular Ca2+ load and intracellular depletion of Mg2+ when Na(+)-K+ ATPase is inhibited). Histopathology of brain revealed areas of degeneration in the rats administered DEHP. There was significant inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in brain, liver and RBC. Intracellular Ca2+ increased in the RBC while intracellular Mg2+ decreased. However activity of hepatic HMG CoA reductase decreased. Activity of Na(+)-K+ ATPase and HMG CoA reductase, however returned to normal levels within 7 days of stopping administration of DEHP. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity by DEHP may indicate the possibility of predisposing recipients of transfusion of blood or hemodialysis to the various disorders mentioned above. However since this effect is reversed when DEHP administration is stopped, it may not be a serious problem in the case of a few transfusion; but in patients receiving

  8. El sistema de la bolsa es útil como espaciador para la administración de los aerosoles presurizados A plastic bag is useful as spacer device for pressurized aerosol delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mendoza I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha demostrado que el depósito y efecto de los medicamentos administrados a través de los inhaladores presurizados mejora con el uso de espaciadores, pero la adherencia a estos accesorios no es buena por su costo y por su tamaño incómodo. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si un sistema artesanal tipo reservorio, armado con una bolsa plástica unida a una boquilla de cartón, es efectivo como espaciador. Para esto, seleccionamos a 17 sujetos mayores de 16 años con espirometría con limitación ventilatoria obstructiva y respuesta espirométrica significativa a 200 µg de salbutamol en aerosol presurizado. Se les asignó aleatoriamente a dos grupos: uno con aerocámara y otro con bolsa. Con esta última se obtuvo aumento del VEF1 y de la CVF post broncodilatador de mayor magnitud que con la aerocámara, con diferencia estadística significativa. Nos parece que estos resultados validan al sistema de la bolsa como espaciador de aerosoles presurizados para el uso de los pacientesIt has been demostrated that the effect of inhaled medications is enhanced by spacer devices, but their sizes make them unpractical to carry around and they have additional cost. In order to test if a homemade cheap spacer is as effective as the commercial spacers, we tested a small plastic bag with a cardboard mouth piece. We recluted 17 patients over 16 years of age with an obstructive ventilatory limitation in spirometry with a significative response with 200 µg of albuterol. We randomized patients into two groups: one received the bronchodilator through a commercial spacer and the other through the homemade device. We observed that with the latter we obtained similar or better FEV1 and FVC increases. We conclude that the use of this cheap device can be used in patients with advantage over commercial ones

  9. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: burinskii@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  10. Gravitating lepton bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As is known, the gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of the Dirac electron is described by an over-extremal Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution which has the naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This space is regulated by the formation of a regular source based on the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. This source shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC-bag models, but has the important advantage, of being in accordance with gravitational and electromagnetic field of the external KN solution. The KN bag model is flexible. At rotations, it takes the shape of a thin disk, and similar to other bag models, under deformations it creates a string-like structure which is positioned along the sharp border of the disk.

  11. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  12. SF6电气设备塑袋包扎检漏方法误差分析及检漏仪的现场校验%Error Analysis of Leak Detection Method for SF6 Electrical Equipmen's Packaging with Plastic Bags and the Detector's On-site Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛夫; 吴雪峰

    2011-01-01

    For inspection of SF6 leakage at factory and installation spot,the general method is local packaging with plastic bags for GIS. There're many factors that can affect the result of this method,for example,environmental temperature, atmosphere pressure, volume of plastic bags estimating and the detector's error etc.But if the inspector paid attention to the problems and controlled according to the method of this essay, then the error of the leakage inspection can be controlled within ± 50% or less.%工厂内及安装现场检查SF6组合电气设备气体密封性能一般采用塑袋局部封装包扎检漏方法,影响该检漏方法结果的因素较多,环境温度、气压、包扎塑袋体积测估以及检测仪器的误差等均会影响检测结果,按文中讨论的方法加以注意和控制,可将检漏检验误差控制在±50%以内.

  13. Magnesium Fluoride Reduction Vessel Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-26

    Carolina Metals, the fluoride is reduced to power by means of a Mikro #2 hemmer mill (Figure 5). The material is then separated into the different...The jolter table previously referred to in the liner pro - ceasing operation, is the knockout station. As shown in Figure 36, the vessel is inverted...was much more extensive than normally performed to establish the quality of thý metal pro - duced using the MgF2 liners. There are no indications of

  14. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  15. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  16. FUNGAL POPULATION, AFLATOXIN AND FREE FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF PEANUTS PACKED IN DIFFERENT BAG TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA S.P. BULAONG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shelled peanuts of Gajah var. with initial moisture content of 7% were stored at 11 kg/bag in four bag types namely: jute bag, polypropylene bag, jute bag doubled with thin polyethylene (PE, and jute bag doubled with thick PE. Storage was done for six months under warehouse conditions with monitoring of relative humidity and temperature. Samples taken at the be ginning of storage and every month thereafter were analyzed for moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents. Statistical analyses showed that moisture content, fungal population, and free fatty acid contents were signifi cantly higher in jute and polypropylene bags than in PE-dou,bled jute bags. No significant differences were obtained in aflatoxin contents among bag types but at the end of six months storage, toxin level in jute bag exceeded the 30 ppb limit. Polypropylene had second highest toxin level at 23 ppb. The PE-doubled bags ha d 17 and 19 ppb total aflatoxins for thin and thick films, respectively. The results indicated that the immediate packag ing of dried shelled peanuts at safe moisture level in plastic films with water vapor transmission rated of 1 g/m2/24 hr or lower is recommended. This p ackaging will delay critical increases in moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents of peanut kernels at ambient storage conditions.

  17. 环境保护中的公众参与和政府、企业的失位——关于塑料袋有偿使用问题的研究%Environmental Protection of the Liability Share: a Case Study of Paying to Use of Plastic Shopping Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丁; 顾绚

    2011-01-01

    介绍环境保护中责任分担的基本概念,并结合中国“限塑令”实施以来的具体情况进行阐述.结果表明,目前中国“限塑”政策的实施状况是:政府倡导和制定规则,公众买单.在这一环保实践中,出现了政府在利益分担 上的失位和企业的失位,更多的责任必须由公众来承担,这实际上是环保实践中极不正常也极不公平的一种责任分配制度.结合欧美主流国家的相关实践和中国现行的法律,“限塑令”这一涉及公众普遍利益的政策应当被修改和完善.%This paper introduced the environmental protection responsibility share of the basic concepts, combining with the law of limiting plastic bags. The results showed that the present situation after the law of limiting plastic bags is government advocating and setting the rules, citizens paying and enterprises lost. Combined with Europe and the mainstream of relevant national practice and China's current law, the plastic limit to the widespread public interests related to the policy should be modified and perfected.

  18. How Public Environmental Policies Affect Consumer Behavior? Natural Experiment Evidence from Plastic Bag Regulation of China%公共环境政策如何影响消费者行为——来自中国限制塑料袋使用政策的自然实验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何浩然

    2012-01-01

    China introduced a nationwide regulation requiring all retailers to charge for plastic shopping bags on June 1, 2008, with the aim of reducing plastic bag litter. Using the policy implementation as a natural experiment and collecting individual-level data before and after the implementation, the author obtained unique data to investigate the impacts of the broadly implemented regulation on consumers~ bag consumption behavior. The author finds that the regulation implementation achieved a nearly 80% reduction in bag consumption in supermarkets with perfect enforcement and a nearly 60% bag reduction in open markets with imperfect enforcement. It also caused significant changes in behaviors related to bag consumption. Besides regulation enforcement, consumersattitude toward the regulation and consumers' socioeconomic characteristics also affected hag consumption. However, the regulation effects varied largely among consumer groups, regions and shopping occasions.%以减少塑料袋垃圾为目标,我国于2008年6月执行了强制全国所有商品零售商对塑料购物袋收费的政策。本研究以该政策的执行为契机,运用自然实验研究方法,在政策执行前后分别开展大规模调查,以收集个人消费者塑料袋消费行为信息,从而获得独特数据,对这项涉及面极广的公共环境政策对消费者行为的影响进行定量分析。结果表明,塑料袋消费量的减幅在完全执行政策的超市达到近80%,而在未完全执行政策的农贸市场也接近60%,并且政策执行使与塑料袋消费相关的塑料袋使用效率、替代品使用行为等也发生了显著变化。此外,政策执行力度、消费者对政策的态度以及消费者的社会经济特征也显著影响塑料袋消费,而且该政策的影响在不同消费者群体、不同地区及不同类型购物场所存在显著差异。

  19. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, J.D.; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact...

  20. Noise trauma from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Air bags have contributed substantially to the safety of car occupants in road accidents, but concern exists that they may inflate unnecessarily in low speed crashes. Previous articles have reported eye, face, upper limb, and chest injuries caused by air bag inflation. In this report, researchers describe two cases of hearing loss and persistent tinnitus that may have resulted from air bag inflation in low speed collisions. Neither subject sustained other injuries.

  1. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  2. Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润

    2004-01-01

    Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.

  3. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore, we present a sensitivity analysis...

  4. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  5. Evaluation of storage performance of special plastic blood bags for apheresis platelets%血小板保存专用塑料血袋的储存性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷熙; 韩颖; 周倩; 刘敏霞; 王艳; 柴丽娜; 卓海龙; 易晓阳; 周建伟; 王建卫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the storage performance of storage bags for apheresis platelets produced by Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co .,Ltd ( experimental bags ) with Trima set platelet storage bags produced by the U .S. Gambro BCT as the control .Method One unit of apheresis platelets was divided into two equal parts , added to control blood bags and experimental blood bags respectively .All samples were stored at ( 22 ±2 )℃ with consecutive oscillation . The platelets′count, mean volume, aggregate activity (ADP, THR), pH, glucose, lactate concentration, lactate dehydro-genase concentration , hypotonic shock reaction , expression of CD62P and phosphatidyl serine on surface of cell membrane were detected at 0,3,5 and 7 d respectively.Results There was no significant difference in platelet quality after five days of storage between the experimental group and the control group (t-test, P>0.05).Conclusion Two types of platelet stor-age blood bags have similar storage performance for apheresis platelets .%目的:以美国Gambro BCT公司生产的Trima set血小板保存袋为对照,评价山东威高集团医用高分子制品股份有限公司生产的血小板保存袋对单采血小板的储存性能。方法将1U单采血小板平分成两份,分别加入实验血袋和对照血袋中,于血小板恒温振荡保存箱中保存。分别于保存0、3、5、7d取样,比较分析两组的血小板含量和血小板平均体积、pH值、体外聚集活性、氧分压和二氧化碳分压、葡萄糖、乳酸和乳酸脱氢酶浓度、低渗休克反应、血小板活化和凋亡、血小板形态结构及细菌培养试验。结果两种保存袋保存的血小板在保存期内,相同保存时间实验组与对照组之间各项检测结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);无菌试验均为阴性。结论国产血小板专用塑料血袋与美国Trima set血小板保存袋对该实验使用的15份单采血小板具有相似的储存性能。

  6. 睑袋整形术同时行眶隔脂肪释放与填充剂矫正泪槽畸形的疗效对比%The contrast of effect of arcus marginalis release and orbital fat preservation and filler in treating tear trough deformity in eyelid bags of plastic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连生; 高俊明; 刘中策

    2012-01-01

    Objective To contrast the curative effect of arcus marginalis release and orbital fat preservation and filler in treating tear trough deformity on the aging of facial plastic surgery of the eyelid bags. Methods 46 cases of lower eyelid bags were operated, including 33 cases of eyelid bags plastic surgery incision, dissected the skin flap about 1cm area .designed orbicularis oculi incision beyond the skin incision 4mm and cut it, separated orbicularis muscle from orbital septum to the orbital rim, released the orbital fascia ligament (Wang ligament) .separated supporting ligaments of lower eyelid from the orbital rim, and separated the orbicularis muscle from the orbital rim about 1 ~2cm area on periosteum, taken arcus marginalis release and orbital fat preservation. If the orbital fat is more enough and some the fat was removed to local area smooth. Removed excess orbicularis oculi muscle and local skin . skin incision was sutured. The other 13 cases of eyelid bags of plastic surgery were, just not released of orbital fat, as above and the filler treated the tear trough deformity after operation 2 months. Results In 46 cases of eyelid bags plastic surgery, 33 cases of arcus marginalis release and orbital fat preservation were perfect effect by-following 3-12 months. The other 13 cases of filler include 5 cases of Artecoll and 8 cases of hyaluronic acid. The Artecoll group, the tear trough deformity was corrected and the hyaluronic acid group,the tear trough deformity was still evident by-following 3~12m. Conclusion Arcus marginalis release and orbital fat preservation is a good process for the eyelid bags with tear trough deformity.Fillers can solve the tear trough deformity, but fillers have timeliness and some complications.so the plastic surgery of the eyelid bags do not remove easily the orbital fat.%目的:对中面部老化在睑袋整形术的同时矫正泪槽畸形采用眶隔脂肪释放与填充剂矫正的疗效进行对比.方法:46

  7. Tight reservoir bag: the bag itself may be the culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur

    2010-06-01

    Numerous possibilities exist which may cause obstruction to ventilation under anesthesia resulting in a tight reservoir bag with low compliance. We report an interesting case where a reservoir bag twisted around its own neck and resulted in a tight bag situation. The neck portion of the reservoir bag would be hidden from the view of anesthesiologists in head and neck surgery and hence it is easier to miss early recognition of the twist. We caution all anesthesiologists using the disposable modified Jackson-Rees breathing system to be aware of such an eventuality. We also urge the manufacturer to consider strengthening the neck of the reservoir bag by improving the quality of the material used for its construction.

  8. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  9. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  10. Acoustic Liner for Turbomachinery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael G.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to reduce aircraft noise in the communities surrounding airports by significantly attenuating the noise generated by the turbomachinery, and enhancing safety by providing a containment barrier for a blade failure. Acoustic liners are used in today's turbofan engines to reduce noise. The amount of noise reduction from an acoustic liner is a function of the treatment area, the liner design, and the material properties, and limited by the constraints of the nacelle or casement design. It is desirable to increase the effective area of the acoustic treatment to increase noise suppression. Modern turbofan engines use wide-chord rotor blades, which means there is considerable treatment area available over the rotor tip. Turbofan engines require containment over the rotors for protection from blade failure. Traditional methods use a material wrap such as Kevlar integrated with rub strips and sometimes metal layers (sandwiches). It is possible to substitute the soft rub-strip material with an open-cell metallic foam that provides noise-reduction benefits and a sacrificial material in the first layer of the containment system. An open-cell foam was evaluated that behaves like a bulk acoustic liner, serves as a tip rub strip, and can be integrated with a rotor containment system. Foams can be integrated with the fan-containment system to provide sufficient safety margins and increased noise attenuation. The major innovation is the integration of the foam with the containment.

  11. Machine Gun Liner Bond Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    explosive bonding of pure tantalum, several tantalum alloys, and Stellite 25 (an alloy of cobalt, chrome , nickel, and tungsten) in a liner...Difficulties have been experienced in machining an explosively- clad tantalum alloy in an M242 Bushmaster barrel [6].) One disadvantage of Stellite 25 was

  12. Characterization of EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesso, J D; Pasupathi, V; Lowry, L

    1982-08-01

    As part of the overall TMI-2 Information and Examination Program, EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16 was examined to provide information to aid in the development of technology for safely processing highly loaded ion-exchange media. The characterization program included sampling and analyses of the liner contents, including ion-exchange media, liquids and gases, as well as examinations of the liner interior and exterior. This report details the handling of the liner, sampling and analysis of the contents, and the examinations of the liner.

  13. Factors Affecting the Attitude of the Chinese Public to the Policy of Prohibiting Using Thin and Costless Plastic Bags%中国公众对"限塑令"态度的影响因素——以兰州市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常跟应; 李曼; 席亚宏; 刘书朋

    2011-01-01

    Based on questionnaire survey and interviews, this paper analyzed socio-demographic and psychological mechanisms of the attitude of the Chinese public to the policy of prohibiting using thin and costless plastic bags by using path analysis method. It is found that among four socio-demographic variables (sex, age, family income, and educational level), only educational level was positively and significantly correlated with the attitude, explaining 0.9% of the variances in the attitude. Psychological variables could predict the attitude much better than socio-demographic variables. Collectivism and environmental value were the antecedents of the attitude, explaining 6.3% of the variance. Environmental value was followed by collectivism, postmaterialist value orientation, general environmental knowledge, and plastic bags-specific environmental knowledge. It is found as well that the attitude to the policy of prohibiting using thin and costless plastic bags could predict the intention of buyers to bring shopping bags by themselves. It is argued that environmental attitude-behavior theories derived from western social practices can be used in China. However, it is necessary to understand the peculiarities of environmental attitudes and behaviors in transitional China with the public having changing and unstable world outlooks and environmental values, and to develop China-specific models since western models are based on stable social cognition of environmental problems.%基于问卷调查和个人访谈,运用路径方法,分析了影响中国公众对限塑令态度的社会心理和社会人口变量.结果表明,社会人口变量中,只有教育与公众对限塑令的态度呈正相关,且社会人口变量只能解释公众对限塑令态度方差的很小一部分.相较而言,社会心理变量能更好解释中国公众对限塑令态度的差异,集体主义价值观和新生态观与限塑令态度呈显著正相关,而新生态观受集体主义价值

  14. Damage evolution by using the near-tip fields of a crack in gas turbine liners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altunlu, A.C.; van der Hoogt, Peter; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    A residual lifetime prediction study has been performed on a combustion liner metallic material exposed to elevated temperatures by simulating the evolution of plastic work fields at a crack tip under monotonically loading. The strain and stress distribution has been computed by finite element analy

  15. Damage evolution by using the near-tip fields of a crack in gas turbine liners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altunlu, A.C.; van der Hoogt, Peter; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    A residual lifetime prediction study has been performed on a combustion liner metallic material exposed to elevated temperatures by simulating the evolution of plastic work fields at a crack tip under monotonically loading. The strain and stress distribution has been computed by finite element

  16. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  17. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  18. 不同厚度聚乙烯保鲜袋对贵长猕猴桃的贮藏效果%Effect of Polyethylene Plastic Bags with Different Thickness on Storage of Guichang Kiwifruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜超; 马立志; 刘彦修; 王瑞; 刘晓燕; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    The effect of single-layer (PE ) freshness protection bags with different thickness (0.03 mm,0.04mm and 0.07 mm)on storage of Guichang kiwifruit was studied at 0~1℃ to provide a reference for storage property of kiwifruit.The results showed that single-layer (PE)freshness protection bag with 0.04 mm can inhibit respiration intensity of kiwifruit obviously and delay fruit senescence,and its VC content,soft rate,rotted rate and commodity rate of kiwifruit are 104.23 mg/100g,10%,10% and 90% after 3 months separately.%为提高贵长猕猴桃果实的耐贮性提供参考,在0~1℃条件下,进行了0.03 mm、0.04 mm 和0.07 mm 厚度聚乙烯(PE)单层保鲜袋包装对贵长猕猴桃贮藏效果的影响试验。结果表明:采用0.04 mm聚乙烯(PE)单层袋贮存可明显抑制贵长猕猴桃果实的呼吸强度,延缓果实衰老,贮存至3个月时,果实各项生理指标仍较好,其中维生素 C 含量达104.23 mg/100g,果实软果率和腐烂率均为10%,商品率达90%。

  19. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  20. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither.......The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...

  1. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  2. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Lee, Michael; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For practical applications of magnetized target fusion, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Quasi-spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a quasi-spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). Theoretical analysis and computer modeling of the concept are presented. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the flow parameters in the liner and the target, the impact between the liner and the target plasma can be made to be shockless in the liner or to generate at most a very weak shock in the liner. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs......-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry....

  4. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...

  5. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  6. Elastomer liners for geothermal tubulars Y267 EPDM Liner Program:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Davis, D.L.; Flickinger, J.E.; Stephens, C.A.

    1987-12-01

    The elastomer, Y267 EPDM, has been identified as a hydrothermally stable material which can operate at temperatures in excess of 320/sup 0/C. The goal of the Y267 Liner Program was to demonstrate the feasibility of using this material as a liner for mild steel tubulars to prevent or mitigate corrosion. If successful, the usage of EPDM lined pipe by the geothermal community may have a significant impact on operating costs and serve as a viable alternative to the use of alloyed tubulars. Tooling procedures were developed under this program to mold a 0.64 cm (0.25'') thick Y267 EPDM liner into a tubular test section 61 cm (2') in length and 19.1 cm (7.5'') in diameter (ID). A successful effort was made to identify a potential coupling agent to be used to bond the elastomer to the steel tubular wall. This agent was found to withstand the processing conditions associated with curing the elastomer at 288/sup 0/C and to retain a significant level of adhesive strength following hydrothermal testing in a synthetic brine at 260/sup 0/C for a period of 166 hours. Bonding tests were conducted on specimens of mild carbon steel and several alloys including Hastelloy C-276. An objective of the program was to field test the lined section of pipe mentioned above at a geothermal facility in the Imperial Valley. Though a test was conducted, problems encountered during the lining operation precluded an encouraging outcome. The results of the field demonstration were inconclusive. 6 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  8. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  9. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  10. Water movement through an experimental soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Rehfeldt, K.R.; Herzog, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A field-scale soil liner was constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the U.S. EPA saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement (???1 x 10-7 cm s-1). The 8 x 15 x 0.9m liner was constructed in 15 cm compacted lifts using a 20,037 kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Water infiltration into the liner has been monitored for one year. Monitoring will continue until water break through at the base of the liner occurs. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivities were 2.5 x 10-9, 4.0 x 10-8, and 5.0 x 10-8 cm s-1 based on measurements of water infiltration into the liner by large- and small-ring infiltrometers and a water balance analysis, respectively. Also investigated in this research was the variability of the liner's hydraulic properties and estimates of the transit times for water and tracers. Small variances exhibited by small-ring flux data suggested that the liner was homogeneous with respect to infiltration fluxes. The predictions of water and tracer breakthrough at the base of the liner ranged from 2.4-12.6 y, depending on the method of calculation and assumptions made. The liner appeared to be saturated to a depth between 18 and 33 cm at the end of the first year of monitoring. Transit time calculations cannot be verified yet, since breakthrough has not occurred. The work conducted so far indicates that compacted soil barriers can be constructed to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement established by the U.S. EPA.A field-scale soil liner was constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the U.S. EPA saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement (??? 1 ?? 10-7 cm s-1). The 8 ?? 15 ?? 0.9 m liner was constructed in 15 cm compacted lifts using a 20.037 kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Water infiltration into the liner has been monitored for one year. Monitoring will continue until water

  11. Stabilized Liner Compressor: The Return of Linus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Peter; Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael; Mielke, Charles; Hinrichs, Mark; Nguyen, Doan

    2015-11-01

    To access the lower cost regime of magneto-inertial fusion at megagauss magnetic field-levels requires the use of dynamic conductors in the form of imploding cylindrical shells, aka, liners. Such liner implosions can compress magnetic flux and plasma to attain fusion conditions, but are subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, both in the launch and recovery of the liner material and in the final few diameters of implosion. These instabilities were overcome in the Linus program at the Naval Research Laboratory, c. 1979, providing the experimentally-demonstrated basis for repetitive operation and leading to an economical reactor concept at low fusion gain. The recent ARPA-E program for low-cost fusion technology has revived interest in this approach. We shall discuss progress in modeling and design of a Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) that extends the earlier work to higher pressures and liner speeds appropriate to potential plasma targets. Sponsored by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  12. Air bag injury and the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E; Helm, T N

    2000-10-01

    Most new car models have driver-side air bags and many also have passenger-side and side-impact air bags. Air bags are known to be dangerous to small children and may cause death, fractures, and cerebral spinal injury. However, the cutaneous manifestations of air bag injury are less well known. Additional potential air bag injuries include retinal damage and high-frequency hearing loss. The following case report illustrates significant burns from a low-impact air bag injury and reviews the pertinent literature.

  13. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  14. Economic comparison of the possibilities of reduction of plastics in biowaste, executed for an open compost-heap; Oekonomischer Vergleich von Moeglichkeiten zur Reduzierung von Kunststoffen im Bioabfall am Beispiel einer offenen Mietenkompostierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, S.; Borg, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik und Landeskultur; Jank, M.; Schnabel, R. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Fachbereich Ingenieurwissenschaften

    2002-01-01

    Often, biowaste is collected in the household in plastic bags, that are thrown into the biowaste container. Therefore, non-compostable plastic bags are found in the compost-heap. The use of biodegradable (paper) bags for gathering the biowaste may help to solve this problem. Alternatively, the plastics impurities might be separated from the compostable material by using a cyclon device. A comparison of both methods indicate, that the overall costs are lower when biodegradable bag are used in the household.

  15. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B

    1999-01-01

    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  16. Liner surface improvements for low friction piston ring packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderberg, C.; Dimkovski, Z.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engine components in the automotive industry is governed by several constraints such as environmental legislation and customer expectations. About a half of the frictional losses in an internal combustion engine come from the interactions between the piston assembly and cylinder liner surface. The tribological considerations in the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes have been, and are being, developed with the aim to reduce friction losses and oil consumption, but the effects of the surface finish on piston ring pack performance is not well understood. One way of reducing friction in the cylinder system is to reduce the tangential load from the piston ring pack, focusing on the oil control ring. However, the side-effect of this is a disappointingly increased oil consumption. In this study a number of different cylinder liner surface specifications were developed and implemented in test engines with the aim of maintaining the level for oil consumption when decreasing the tangential load for the piston ring pack. To improve our understanding of the result, the same surfaces were evaluated in elastic and elasto-plastic rough contact and hydrodynamic flow simulation models. It is shown that oil consumption is strongly related to surface texture on the cylinder liners and at lower speeds (900-1200 rpm), a ‘rougher surface’ with a high core (e.g. Sk) and valley roughness (e.g. Svk) results in higher oil consumption. At the medium speed range (1200-3600 rpm), oil consumption continues to dominate for the ‘rough’ surfaces but with a visible influence of a lower oil consumption for a decreased roughness within the ‘rough’ surface group. ‘Smooth’ surfaces with a ‘smooth’ core (Sk), irrespective of the valley component (Svk), show similar oil consumption. For engine speeds above 3600 rpms, an increase in plateau

  17. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    system for helicopter resupply is a crucial development in aerial sustainment .  By Capt. Jude G.B. Coe Three enhanced speed bag systems are rigged on...NI NG & ED UC AT IO N 47 Army Sustainment July–August 2015 multipurpose cargo bag with pad- ding, one speed line assembly with a cable grip that...understand- ing of how to set up and rig the ESBS inside a Black Hawk. Validation Exercise After two joint in-progress reviews , Task Force Talon and the Iron

  18. The many faces of LINER-like galaxies: a WISE view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpich, F.; Mateus, A.; Stasińska, G.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Vale Asari, N.

    2016-10-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Sky Survey Explorer surveys to investigate the real nature of galaxies defined as low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) in the BPT diagram. After establishing a mid-infrared colour W2-W3 = 2.5 as the optimal separator between galaxies with and without star formation, we investigate the loci of different galaxy classes in the WH α versus W2-W3 space. We find that: (1) a large fraction of LINER-like galaxies are emission-line retired galaxies, i.e. galaxies which have stopped forming stars and are powered by hot low-mass evolved stars (HOLMES). Their W2-W3 colours show no sign of star formation and their Hα equivalent widths, WH α, are consistent with ionization by their old stellar populations. (2) Another important fraction have W2-W3 indicative of star formation. This includes objects located in the supposedly `pure AGN' zone of the BPT diagram. (3) A smaller fraction of LINER-like galaxies have no trace of star formation from W2-W3 and a high WH α, pointing to the presence of an AGN. (4) Finally, a few LINERs tagged as retired by their WH α but with W2-W3 values indicative of star formation are late-type galaxies whose SDSS spectra cover only the old `retired' bulge. This reinforces the view that LINER-like galaxies are a mixed bag of objects involving different physical phenomena and observational effects thrusted into the same locus of the BPT diagram.

  19. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  20. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  1. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues.

  2. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios....... Computational results on the benchmark suite LINER-LIB are reported....

  3. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  4. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can enda

  6. 袋型与套袋时间对日面红梨果实及贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Bags Types and Bagging Time on the Mantianhong Pears Fruit Quality and Storage Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊炜; 阮班录; 刘建海; 冯月秀; 君广仁; 程琪; 刘海龙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为提高红皮梨的品质提供理论依据,以促进红皮梨推广工作健康发展.[方法]以红皮梨品种日面红为试验树,以5种育果袋分3个不同时期对日面红进行套袋试验.[结果]套袋可减少果锈,其中以双黑袋和条黑袋效果最好,套袋晚者好;套袋后绿色减退、表色鲜艳.套袋过早日烧增加,以膜+纸袋最严重.套袋后裂果增加,以塑膜袋最重,套袋晚的三色袋和膜+纸袋较轻.套袋后果实黑点病增加,塑膜袋最严重,套袋越晚越严重.除双黑袋和三色袋外,套袋后着色下降.套袋早的,采收后失水严重,以三色袋、膜+纸袋最严重.[结论]综合比较,以5月下旬(盛花后40~45 d)套双黑袋和条黑袋的日面红果实贮藏品质最优.%[Objective]This research aimed to provide theoretical basis for the improvement of Mantianhong pears fruit quality,and to promote the extension service of red skin pear development in a healthy way.[Method]Taken red skin pear Mantianhong for materials to carry out bagging experiment in three stages with five kinds of fruits cultivating bags.[Result]Bagging could reduce the arising of fruit rust, therein the best measure were dual-black bagging and the strip-black bagging.When bagging time was later,the arising of fruit rust was least. Meanwhile the green color of the fruit faded away after bagging and the surface color turned bright. The sunburn turned seriously when the bagging time was too early, especially the membrane-paper bagging.The number of cracking fruits increased after bagging, the plastic bag treatment was worst and the three-color bagging,the membrane-paper bagging were lighter.The black-dot disease turned seriously after bagging, therein the plastic bagging was seriously.The later the bagging, the serious the disease.The fruit staining decreased after bagging expect the dual-black bagging and the three color bagging treatments. For the early bagging treatments,the lost of water was serious

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-080-1856, Duro Bag Manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubli, T.; Mathias, C.G.T.; Almaguer, D.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the Duro Bag manufacturing Company, Richwood, Kentucky, an investigation was made of the occurrence of skin rashes and hair loss at the facility. Products included shopping bags, grocery bags, millinery and notion bags, and wrapping paper in the Paper Division. A questionnaire was completed by 215 of 245 hourly production workers. Sixty one of those responding indicated a skin rash in the period since January 1, 1986. Hair loss had been noticed by 12 employees. Significantly elevated relative risks were noted among bag catchers of the plastic division for skin rashes on arms and hands. Increases in skin rashes of the head and neck area occurred among bag catchers, collator tenders, and adjuster supervisors in grocery-bag production areas. Dust levels were below current standards. The authors conclude that the cause of the skin rashes probably is exposure to chemicals used to clean machine parts. The authors recommend specific changes to reduce the occurrence of contact dermatitis, including use of personal protective equipment, good personal hygiene, ventilation systems, dust control, proper humidity for work areas, regular use of skin moisturizers, and proper use of respirators.

  8. Open Cell Metal Foams for Beam Liners?

    CERN Document Server

    Croce, R P; Stabile, A

    2013-01-01

    The possible use of open-cell metal foams for particle accelerator beam liners is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are pointed out, and a study program is outlined.

  9. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  10. Adaptive Liners for Broadband Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will combine the advantages of adaptive materials with the simplistic passive design of state-of-the-art acoustic liners to provide the ability to tune...

  11. Code Verification of Magnetized Cylindrical Liner Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mark; Weis, Matthew; Martin, Matthew; Sefkow, Adam; Nakhleh, Charles; Lau, Y. Y.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the physics of magnetized cylindrical liner implosions with existing MHD codes to verify code accuracy, as well as to understand parametric behavior on figures-of-merit, e.g. radial liner velocity, for designing experiments. In our problem, we assume that there exists a 1-D metallic cylindrical liner with an initial axial magnetic seed field imposed in the system. The liner radially implodes due to a specified drive current while the effects of liner pressure and magnetic seed field compression oppose the implosion. This problem is of importance for future magnetized liner fusion experiments, e.g. MagLIF [1].[4pt]Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. [4pt] [1] S.A. Slutz et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010).

  12. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  13. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  14. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate. PMID:23967057

  15. Consequence analysis of a liner breach due to steam under the liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIMES, D.A.

    1999-06-01

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are estimated for a steam release from tank C-106 associated with a breach of the tank liner due to formation of steam under the liner after dry-out of the sludge layer in the tank. The consequences are shown to be well below the most restrictive risk guidelines.

  16. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  17. Optimization of sand control liner designs for Leismer SAGD demonstration horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Solvoll, T.A. [StatoilHydro Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Leismer demonstration project has been planned as part of the larger Kai Kos Dehseh oilsands project owned by StatoilHydro. The project will consist initially of 23 horizontal well pairs distributed over 4 wellpads. Slotted liner and screen designs for the Leismer steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells were presented in this study. Finite element analyses were conducted to study the impact of the liner's weight and open flow area (OFA) on system performance. The model considered elastic-plastic material responses and deformations that might occur during SAGD applications. The criteria investigated in this study included collapse capacity; installation load limits; thermal strain loading; and slot or wire-spacing opening and closings. The analysis showed that liner weight and slot density have a significant impact on slotted liner performance. It was concluded that the designs provide optimized open flow areas (OFA), acceptable sand screen functionality, and enhanced structural capacities to sustain installation and operational loads over the lifetime of both producer and injector wells. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  18. 33 CFR 151.67 - Operating requirements: Discharge of plastic prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastic, including, but not limited to, synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, and plastic garbage bags... of plastic prohibited. 151.67 Section 151.67 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Sewage § 151.67 Operating requirements: Discharge of plastic prohibited. No person on board any ship...

  19. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P food from the paper (P food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Effect of Bagging Treatments on Coloration Ratio of Aoguanhong Pear%套袋技术对奥冠红梨着色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秋萍; 吕福堂; 王贵余; 朱法作

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of bagging treatments were processed on the Aoguanhong pear fruits, including plastic bag, plastic bag plus double-layer paper bag and double-layer paper bag. The results showed that the double-layer paper bags effect was the best, the fruits coloration ratio was the highest, and the quality was the best. In the double-layer paper bag processing set, picked-bagging during different periods was processed on the Aoguanhong pear fruits. And the results showed that on August 28 should be selected on or about the maturity (September 15) before 12-15 d to pick bags, then the fruits coloration ratio was the highest, and the coloration rate was the quickest after picked-bagging. When picked-bagging was earlier, the fruits coloration ratio became worse, and the coloration rate became slower after picked-bagging.%对奥冠红梨进行套塑膜袋、塑膜袋加双层纸袋和双层纸袋三种套袋处理,发现套双层纸袋的效果最好,果实着色率最高且品质最好.在套双层纸袋处理中,对奥冠红梨进行不同时期的摘袋处理,发现应选择在8月28日左右即成熟期(9月15日)之前12—15天进行摘袋,果实着色率最高,且摘袋后着色速度最快;提前摘袋则着色差,且摘袋后着色速度慢.

  1. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...... in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator....

  2. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-14

    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  3. Lifecycle Verification of Tank Liner Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This report describes a method that was developed for the purpose of assessing the durability of thermoplastic liners used in a Type IV hydrogen storage tank during the tank s expected service life. In the method, a thermoplastic liner specimen is cycled between the maximum and minimum expected working temperatures while it is differentially pressurized with high-pressure hydrogen gas. The number of thermal cycling intervals corresponds to those expected within the tank s design lifetime. At prescribed intervals, hydrogen permeation measurements are done in situ to assess the ability of the liner specimen to maintain its hydrogen barrier properties and to model its permeability over the tank lifetime. Finally, the model is used to assess whether the steady-state leakage rate in the tank could potentially exceed the leakage specification for hydrogen fuel cell passenger vehicles. A durability assessment was performed on a specimen of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that is in current use as a tank liner. Hydrogen permeation measurements were performed on several additional tank liner polymers as well as novel polymers proposed for use as storage tank liners and hydrogen barrier materials. The following technical barriers from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program MYRDD were addressed by the project: D. Durability of on-board storage systems lifetime of at least 1500 cycles G. Materials of construction vessel containment that is resistant to hydrogen permeation M. Lack of Tank Performance Data and Understanding of Failure Mechanisms And the following technical targets1 for on-board hydrogen storage systems R&D were likewise addressed: Operational cycle life (1/4 tank to full) FY 2017: 1500 cycles; Ultimate: 1500 cycles Environmental health & safety Permeation and leakage: Meets or exceeds applicable standards Loss of useable H2: FY 2017: 0.05 g/h/kg H2; Ultimate: 0.05 g/h/kg H2

  4. Lifecycle Verification of Tank Liner Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This report describes a method that was developed for the purpose of assessing the durability of thermoplastic liners used in a Type IV hydrogen storage tank during the tank s expected service life. In the method, a thermoplastic liner specimen is cycled between the maximum and minimum expected working temperatures while it is differentially pressurized with high-pressure hydrogen gas. The number of thermal cycling intervals corresponds to those expected within the tank s design lifetime. At prescribed intervals, hydrogen permeation measurements are done in situ to assess the ability of the liner specimen to maintain its hydrogen barrier properties and to model its permeability over the tank lifetime. Finally, the model is used to assess whether the steady-state leakage rate in the tank could potentially exceed the leakage specification for hydrogen fuel cell passenger vehicles. A durability assessment was performed on a specimen of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that is in current use as a tank liner. Hydrogen permeation measurements were performed on several additional tank liner polymers as well as novel polymers proposed for use as storage tank liners and hydrogen barrier materials. The following technical barriers from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program MYRDD were addressed by the project: D. Durability of on-board storage systems lifetime of at least 1500 cycles G. Materials of construction vessel containment that is resistant to hydrogen permeation M. Lack of Tank Performance Data and Understanding of Failure Mechanisms And the following technical targets1 for on-board hydrogen storage systems R&D were likewise addressed: Operational cycle life (1/4 tank to full) FY 2017: 1500 cycles; Ultimate: 1500 cycles Environmental health & safety Permeation and leakage: Meets or exceeds applicable standards Loss of useable H2: FY 2017: 0.05 g/h/kg H2; Ultimate: 0.05 g/h/kg H2

  5. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  6. Kilekott kui kineskoop = Plastic Bag as Viewer / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2004-01-01

    Anu Järsi ja Kristi Kaljumäe kureeritud näitus "Kile kotti!" Eesti Rahva Muuseumis. Eksponeeriti 1980. aastatel Tartu Plastmasstoodete Katsetehases tehtud piltidega kilekotte, mälestusi kilekottide ümber keerelnud kultuurilisest tähendusest ja väärtusüsteemidest. Ameerikaliku massikultuuri, skandinaavia tarbimiskultuuri ja omarahvusluse ja -riikluse latentsed sümbolid

  7. Kilekott kui kineskoop = Plastic Bag as Viewer / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2004-01-01

    Anu Järsi ja Kristi Kaljumäe kureeritud näitus "Kile kotti!" Eesti Rahva Muuseumis. Eksponeeriti 1980. aastatel Tartu Plastmasstoodete Katsetehases tehtud piltidega kilekotte, mälestusi kilekottide ümber keerelnud kultuurilisest tähendusest ja väärtusüsteemidest. Ameerikaliku massikultuuri, skandinaavia tarbimiskultuuri ja omarahvusluse ja -riikluse latentsed sümbolid

  8. Application of biotests for the determination of soil ecotoxicity after exposure to biodegradable plastics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics are mostly applied in packaging materials (e.g. shopping bags), waste collection bags, catering products, and agricultural applications. In this last case, degradation takes place directly in soil where biodegradable plastic products are intentionally left after use (e.g. mulch films for weeds control). Due to the growing volumes of biodegradable polymers and plastics, interest in their environmental safety is increasing and more research is carried out. Some attempt ha...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  10. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer.

  11. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  12. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  13. Leakage effects on LMFBR cell liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.M.; Gartling, D.K.; Nickell, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The thermostructural effects of a molten sodium spill onto a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) cell liner are investigated utilizing a geometrically simple finite element model. The sodium spill is considered for various flow rate regimes. Because the actual characteristics of a spill are unknown, a parametric analysis was performed with the size of spill and heat transfer coefficient as variables.

  14. Membrane behavior of clay liner materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Beom

    Membrane behavior represents the ability of porous media to restrict the migration of solutes, leading to the existence of chemico-osmosis, or the flow of liquid in response to a chemical concentration gradient. Membrane behavior is an important consideration with respect to clay soils with small pores and interactive electric diffuse double layers associated with individual particles, such as bentonite. The results of recent studies indicate the existence of membrane behavior in bentonite-based hydraulic barriers used in waste containment applications. Thus, measurement of the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior in such clay soils is becoming increasingly important. Accordingly, this research focused on evaluating the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior for three clay-based materials that typically are considered for use as liners for waste containment applications, such as landfills. The three clay-based liner materials included a commercially available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) consisting of sodium bentonite sandwiched between two geotextiles, a compacted natural clay known locally as Nelson Farm Clay, and compacted NFC amended with 5% (dry wt.) of a sodium bentonite. The study also included the development and evaluation of a new flexible-wall cell for clay membrane testing that was used subsequently to measure the membrane behaviors of the three clay liner materials. The consolidation behavior of the GCL under isotropic states of stress also was evaluated as a preliminary step in the determination of the membrane behavior of the GCL under different effective consolidation stresses.

  15. Diagnostics for the plasma liner experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, A G; Merritt, E; Gilmore, M; Hsu, S C; Witherspoon, F D; Cassibry, J T

    2010-10-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical "plasma liners" via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n(i)∼10(16) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n(i)>10(19) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  16. Conversion of acoustic energy by lossless liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, W.; Eversman, W.

    1982-01-01

    The Blokhintzev acoustic energy equation is applied to a two-dimensional duct containing a uniform flow with a finite length lining. It is shown that the difference of the incident and outgoing acoustic energy differs in general from the energy dissipated in the liner, the difference being related to the displacements at the liner's edges. It is shown that in the case of a locally reacting lossless liner for frequencies below the first cut-off frequency and for low Mach number acoustic energy is generated if the flow and the incident sound wave are in the same direction and is absorbed if these two directions are opposite unless special edge conditions are met. Furthermore it is shown under the same conditions that the ratio of the reflection coefficient at finite flow velocity to the reflection coefficient at vanishing velocity is to first order in Mach number independent of the liner characteristics. A numerical calculation confirms these predictions at least for mass-like linear admittance.

  17. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...

  18. Analysis of Potential for Titanium Liner Buckling after Proof in a Large Kevlar/Epoxy COPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the potential for liner buckling in a 40-in Kevlar49/epoxy overwrapped spherical pressure vessel (COPV) due to long, local depressions or valleys in the titanium liner, which appeared after proof testing (autofrettage). We begin by presenting the geometric characteristics of approximately 20 mil (0.02 in.) deep depressions measured by laser profilometry in several vessels. While such depths were more typical, depths of more than 40 mils (0.02 in.) were seen near the equator in one particular vessel. Such depressions are largely the result of overlap of the edges of overwrap bands (with rectangular cross-section prepreg tows) from the first or second wrap patterns particularly where they start and end. We then discuss the physical mechanisms of formation of the depressions during the autofrettage process in terms of uneven void compaction in the overwrap around the tow overlap lines and the resulting 10-fold increase in through-thickness stiffness of the overwrap. We consider the effects of liner plastic yielding mechanisms in the liner on residual bending moments and interface pressures with the overwrap both at the peak proof pressure (approx.6500 psi) and when reducing the pressure to 0 psi. During depressurization the Bauschinger phenomenon becomes very important whereby extensive yielding in tension reduces the magnitude of the yield threshold in compression by 30 to 40%, compared to the virgin annealed state of the liner titanium. In the absence of a depression, the liner is elastically stable in compression even at liner overwrap interface pressures nominally 6 times the approx. 1000 psi interface pressure that exists at 0 psi. Using a model based on a plate-on-an-elastic-foundation, we develop an extensive analysis of the possible destabilizing effects of a frozen-in valley. The analysis treats the modifying effects of the residual bending moments and interface pressures remaining after the proof hold as well as the Bauschinger effect on the

  19. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner.

  20. [In vitro study of platelet preservation during 5 days in reduced-thickness bags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Babault, C; Desbois, I; Degenne, M; Binet, C; Garnier, C; Chassaigne, M

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro study of platelet concentrates storage for 5 days was performed in PVC bags. Modification of the original three-day containers were introduced by thickness reduction. The results at fifth day were comparable to those at third day in standard plastic bags. During storage, variations of platelet counts were very slight with a low LDH release. PH was stable with a good maintenance of phase microscope platelet morphology. PCO2 and PO2 measurements showed a satisfactory gas permeability which could explain a limited lactate production. If in vivo studies of transfusion recovery confirm these data, platelet concentrates storage could be extended up to 5 days by such modifications of standard three-day PVC bags.

  1. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  2. Test bases for shutoff bags and pipe bagging systems; Pruefgrundlagen fuer Absperrblasen und Blasensetzgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, H. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Halter, O. [Technische Werke Schussental GmbH and Co. KG, Ravensburg (Germany); Seemann, A. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas-, Fernwaerme- und Wasserwirtschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Today for shut off gas pipelines in the field of gas distribution during repair gas bags and pipe bagging systems are widely in use. The occurence of explosive atmospheres at the place of employment can be eleminated when pipe bagging systems are applied. Until now three test basis' are issued: VP 620-1 ''Pipe bagging systems in the field of gas distribution - Type A'', VP 621-1 ''Gas bags for bagging systems - Type A'' and VP 621-2 ''Gas bags for bagging systems - Type B''. The standards are valid for gas pipes within a diameter-range from 80 to 400 millimetre and a operating pressure up to 1 bar. They comprise requirements for design and a safe operation and were created by a BGFW/DVGW-team. The standards are addressed to the manufacturer of gas bags and bagging systems. (orig.)

  3. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  4. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  5. Thin Spray-on Liner - a potential application. Demonstrated at a longwall installation on Dendrobium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Roger [BHP Billiton, NSW (Australia). Dendrobium Mine; Martin, Philip [BASF AG Australia (Australia). BASF-CC Australia Ltd' s

    2008-08-21

    The paper describes a potential application of a Thin Spray-on Liner, on a longwall installation in Australia. The BHPBilliton mine, Dendrobium, is a relatively new mine in the Southern New South Wales coalfields, near to Wollongong. Normal installation and start-up operations for a new longwall face is to completely rock bolt and mesh the face. The operations use plastic/glassfibre cutable rock bolts, with steel/plastic mesh to prevent spalling. The biggest problem on face start up is the sheets of steel or plastic mesh getting wrapped around the shearer disc, which requires time consuming additional work removing the mesh. BASF Construction Chemicals Australia Pty Ltd's Underground Construction group, (UGC), proposed the use of Masterseal 845A, a fast sprayable cementitious/polymer membrane material that could be trialed and used to replace the steel mesh, as a surface support in unison with the conventional cutable rock bolts. The application took 12 h spraying to cover the 240 m long face line which averaged about 3.3 m high. The product was sprayed between 3.5 m to 4 mm thick, and according to the mine operators was at least three times quicker than mesh installation, not withstanding the savings in transport of the awkward bundles of mesh. In conclusion the Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL) performed adequately and achieved it's objective in this installation at Dendrobium mine. (orig.)

  6. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  7. Cooling Properties of Cloudy Bag Strange Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ng Cheuk Liu; Chu, M C

    2003-01-01

    As the chiral symmetry is widely recognized as an important driver of the strong interaction dynamics, current strange stars models based on MIT bag models do not obey such symmetry. We investigate properties of bare strange stars using the Cloudy Bag Model, in which a pion cloud coupled to the quark-confining bag is introduced such that chiral symmetry is conserved. We find that in this model the decay of pions is a very efficient cooling way. In fact it can carry out most the thermal energy in a few milliseconds and directly convert them into 100MeV photons via pion decay. This may be a very efficient $\\gamma$-ray burst mechanism. Furthermore, the cooling behavior may provide a possible way to distinguish a compact object between a neutron star, MIT strange star and Cloudy Bag strange star in observations.

  8. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  9. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    level (MRL 10) measures aspects of lean practices and continuous improvement for systems in production. C.1 MRL 1: Basic Manufacturing Implications...the art is assessed through the use of Technology and Manufacturing Readiness Levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ta alloys, gun-tube liners, explosive...bonding, firing tests, Technology Readiness Level, Manufacturing Readiness Level 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18

  10. Bags in relativistic quantum field theory with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadati, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1978-08-15

    Presented is a microscopic derivation of bags from a relativistic quantum theory with spontaneously broken symmetry. The static energy of a bag whose singularity is the surface of a sphere coincides with the volume tension in the MIT bag theory. A similarity between the bags and the point defects in crystals is pointed out.

  11. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  12. SEISMIC DISTRESS AND PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2011-01-01

    Seismic distress of solid waste landfills may result from any of the two consequences of a seismic event: (a) the transient ground deformation related to seismic wave propagation, (b) the permanent ground deformation caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Design provisions for solid waste landfills......-element analyses were performed, taking also into account the potential slip displacement development along the interfaces formulated on each side of the flexible membrane liner (FML). It is shown that base fault dislocation causes significant plastic strains at each one of the components of the waste landfill...

  13. Progress in plasma liner modeling for MIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverich, John; Hakim, Ammar; Zhou, Sean

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion represent the two extremes in terms of density and confinement time in fusion energy research. Both approaches have been studied extensively through the decades pushing technology to the limits. An alternative fusion approach exists between these regimes called magnetized target fusion. In magnetized target fusion longer confinement times are achieved than in ICF through the use of strong magnetic fields, the long confinement time reduces the required plasma density to reach ignition--the approach has advantages over MFE in that it is much more compact and higher density. This work explores computationally a form of magnetized target implosion using a plasma liner. This concept is to be compared with solid liner implosion approach which may not be commercially viable as a reactor due to the ``standoff'' problem, portions of the device are destroyed with each target implosion. We present simulation results of plasma liner formation, jet merging, and plasma jet magnetized target interaction using a fluid plasma code (TxFluids) developed at Tech-X corporation.

  14. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...... that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We model the LSFRP using PDDL and solve it using the planner....

  15. Line, LINER, linest - from micro-AGN to ultra-luminous LINERs. One and the same?

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the optical spectra of a wide range of galaxies categorised as members of the Low Ionisation Nuclear Emission Region (LINER) class of active galactic nuclei (AGN). LINERs are defined by emission spectra with relatively faint high ionisation lines (compared to other AGN classes). The gas emission luminosity ranges from the weak flux emanating from some nearby galactic nuclei all the way to extremely luminous radio galaxies, where the line emission can completely dominate the host galaxy starlight component. In this study I analyse the Sloane Digital Sky Survey optical spectra of 15 LINERS identified in the course of the preparation of the new edition of the ZORROASTER AGN catalogue, spanning the largest possible luminosity range. I compare relative emission line strengths, focusing on uncommonly analysed ratios such as those involving [N I], line widths, profiles and even the spectral features of the host galaxy stellar continuum. The study identifies possible luminosity dependent trends in...

  16. Diagnostic for the plasma liner experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, M.; Merritt, E.; Lynn, A.G. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM (United States); Bauer, B.S.; Fuelling, S.; Siemen, R.E. [University of Nevada, Reno NV (United States); Hsu, S.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM (United States); Witherspoon, F.D.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S.J. [HyperV Tecnologies Corp, Chantilly VA (United States); Cassibry, J.T. [University of Alabama, Huntsville AL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) includes a class of fusion energy concepts that seek to relax the required implosion times of inertial fusion to microseconds rather than nanoseconds by utilizing magnetized targets. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical 'plasma liners' that can reach peak pressures {approx} 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation. The liners will be formed via merging of 30 - 60 dense, high Mach number plasma jets (M {approx} 10-35, v {approx} 50-70 km/s, jet radius {approx} 5 cm) in spherically convergent geometry. This is a staged, exploratory project where scientific issues will be studied first at modest stored energies ({approx} 300 kJ) before attempting to reach MIF-relevant pressures (requiring {approx} 1.5 MJ). Key physics issues include peak parameters (n, T, radius) at stagnation, dynamics of the merging jet liner formation (e.g. lateral shocks, instabilities), and spherical symmetry of the liner. Plasmas will be high-Z species (e.g. Ar, Xe), unmagnetized, and are expected to have densities {approx} 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} and low temperature, Te {approx} Ti {approx} a few eV, when initially exiting the plasma guns where the jets are formed. Density and temperature will first decrease slightly, then increase to n {approx} 10{sup 25} - 10{sup 26} m{sup -3} and Te {approx} Ti {approx} 100 eV as stagnation is approached over a 1 meter radial distance. The large range of densities (4-5 orders of magnitude), initially cold plasma, and short optical depth as the jets merge make diagnosing the plasma a particularly challenging problem. Initial diagnostics will include multi-chord visible interferometry and polarimetry, Schlieren imaging, visible and V-UV spectroscopy, fast 1-dimensional imaging diode arrays, fast visible cameras, bolometry, magnetic and electrostatic probes, and pressure sensitive 'witness plates' to measure pressure and jet

  17. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression...

  18. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  19. Use of chorioamniotic membrane instead of bogota bag in open abdomen:How I Do It?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakir Tekin; Ahmet Tekin; Tevfik Kücükkartallar; Murat Cakir; Adil Kartal

    2008-01-01

    It is one of the most important problems for general surgeons to decide which operation should be undertaken on patients with intra-abdominal infection,especially those with concomitant abdominal hypertension.Recentlly,closure techniques using prosthetic meshes in order to retain abdominal tension and to control sepsis have become very popular for patients with abdominal sepsis and hypertension.We used chorioamniotic membrane instead of plastic material to cover the open abdomen.We conclude that human chorioamniotic membrane prepared under sterile conditions may be an alternative to conventional plastic bags in daily practice,for preventing serosal erosion and fistulas in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  20. Multifunctional Metal Matrix Composite Filament Wound Tank Liners Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials offer tremendous potential for lightweight propellant and pressurant tankage for space applications. Thin MMC liners for COPVs...

  1. Use of natural zeolites as a landfill liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Ahmet; Tuncan, Mustafa; Koyuncu, Hakan; Guney, Yucel

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate certain features of a novel material proposed to serve as an impervious liner in landfills. Various ratios of bentonites and zeolites (B/Z) compacted at optimum water content were tested to determine the strength parameters, permeability, pH, heavy metals and other properties. A B/Z ratio of 0.10 was found to be an ideal landfill liner material regarding its low hydraulic conductivity and high cation exchange capacity. The use of B/Z mixtures as an alternative to clay liners would provide potential to significantly reduce the thickness of base liner for landfills.

  2. Manufacturing hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Josef Kridanto Kamadjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A resilient denture liner is placed in the part of the hollow obturator base that contacts to post hemimaxillectomy mucosa. Replacing the resilient denture liner can makes the hollow obturator has an intimate contact with the mucosa, so it can prevents the mouth liquid enter to the cavum nasi and sinus, also eliminates painful because of using the hollow obturator. Resilient denture liner is a soft and resilient material that applied to the fitting surface of a denture in order to allow a more distribution of load. A case was reported about using the hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy to overcome these problems.

  3. Variable-Depth Liner Evaluation Using Two NASA Flow Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Nark, D. M.; Watson, W. R.; Howerton, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Four liners are investigated experimentally via tests in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. These include an axially-segmented liner and three liners that use reordering of the chambers. Chamber reordering is shown to have a strong effect on the axial sound pressure level profiles, but a limited effect on the overall attenuation. It is also shown that bent chambers can be used to reduce the liner depth with minimal effects on the attenuation. A numerical study is also conducted to explore the effects of a planar and three higher-order mode sources based on the NASA Langley Curved Duct Test Rig geometry. A four-segment liner is designed using the NASA Langley CDL code with a Python-based optimizer. Five additional liner designs, four with rearrangements of the first liner segments and one with a redistribution of the individual chambers, are evaluated for each of the four sources. The liner configuration affects the sound pressure level profile much more than the attenuation spectra for the planar and first two higher-order mode sources, but has a much larger effect on the SPL profiles and attenuation spectra for the last higher-order mode source. Overall, axially variable-depth liners offer the potential to provide improved fan noise reduction, regardless of whether the axially variable depths are achieved via a distributed array of chambers (depths vary from chamber to chamber) or a group of zones (groups of chambers for which the depth is constant).

  4. Effect of Bagging Time and Bag Type on the Quality of Yunhongli 1%不同套袋时期和果袋类型对云红梨1号果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 苏俊; 陈霞; 舒群

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to make sure the suitable bagging time and bag type of red skinned pear in Yunnan province. [Method] Taken red skin pear Yunhongli 1 for materials, bagging experiment was carried out in two stages with four kinds of fruits bags. [Result] The suitable bagging time in Yunnan province was the 25th of April. The coloration index and the soluble solid content of fruit were significantly improved with external grey and internal black double-plastic bag. Bagging with external yellow and internal black dual-smooth wax bag reduced the arising of fruit rust and improved the coloration index of fruit significantly. The suitable bag type was external yellow and internal black dualsmooth wax bag. [Conclusion] The suitable bagging time and bag type were beneficial to improve the fruit quality.%【目的】明确云南地区红色砂梨适宜的套袋时间和果袋类型。【方法】以红色砂梨品种云红梨1号为试材,以4种果袋分2个时期对云红梨1号进行套袋试验.【结果]云红梨1号在云南地区适宜的套袋时间为4月25日。用外灰内黑薄膜双层袋套袋可显著提高梨果的着色指数和果实可溶性固形物,用外黄内黑双光蜡袋套袋能减少果锈的形成,显著提高梨果的着色指数。适宜的纸袋类型为外黄内黑双光蜡袋。【结论】适宜的套袋时期和果袋类型有利于果品质量的提高。

  5. Sulfur Dust Bag: A Novel Technique for Ectoparasite Control in Poultry Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2016-07-18

    Animal welfare-driven legislation and consumer demand are changing how laying chickens are housed, thus creating challenges for ectoparasite control. Hens housed in suspended wire cages (battery cages) are usually treated with high-pressure pesticides. This application type is difficult in enriched-cage or cage-free production. Alternatives to pesticide sprays are needed in enriched-cage or cage-free systems. In this study, we tested the efficacy of sulfur dust deployed in "dust bags" for control against the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum), which causes host stress, decreased egg production, and reduced feed conversion efficiency. Dust bags were hung from the tops of cages or were clipped to the inside front of cages. We also tested permethrin-impregnated plastic strips, marketed for ectoparasite control in caged or cage-free commercial and backyard flocks. Previous work has shown sulfur to be very active against poultry ectoparasites; however, we found that the placement of bags was important for mite control. Sulfur in hanging bags reduced mites on treatment birds by 95 or 97% (depending on trial) within one week of being deployed, and mite counts on these birds were zero after 2 wk. Clipped sulfur bags acted more slowly and did not significantly reduce mites in one trial, but reduced mite counts to zero after 4 wk in trial 2. Permethrin strips had no effect on mite populations. This may have been due to mite resistance, even though this mite population had not been exposed to pyrethroids for several years. Sulfur bags should be effective in caged or cage-free systems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The generalized fermion-bag approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the ...

  7. Object shape extraction from cluttered bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2017-05-01

    The passengers flow at the US airports increased in the recent years. The larger number of passengers demands for lower number of false alarms and higher accuracy of threat detection at the time of baggage screening. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and extract possible explosive containers in X-Ray- CT bags images. The algorithm is composed by three main stages. The 1st one makes the threat container excels among the other objects in the bag image. The 2nd approach: Extracts the SURF features from the query and the bag images; Matches the SURF feature vectors from the two images. The bag image points (pixels), at which the best match is found, define regions of interest (RoI). Different RoI in a bag are identified by separate clusters of points. At the 3rd stage of the algorithm an enlarging active contour (AC) extracts the boundary of every RoI. The starting point of every AC is the mass center of the corresponding cluster of SURF points. The theory is validated on a number of X-ray/CT images. A qualitative comparison with contemporary methods outlines the advantages and the contribution of the present algorithm.

  8. ONERA-NASA Cooperative Effort on Liner Impedance Eduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Julien; Piot, Estelle; Simon, Frank; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R

    2013-01-01

    As part of a cooperation between ONERA and NASA, the liner impedance eduction methods developed by the two research centers are compared. The NASA technique relies on an objective function built on acoustic pressure measurements located on the wall opposite the test liner, and the propagation code solves the convected Helmholtz equation in uniform ow using a finite element method that implements a continuous Galerkin discretization. The ONERA method uses an objective function based either on wall acoustic pressure or on acoustic velocity acquired above the liner by Laser Doppler Anemometry, and the propagation code solves the linearized Euler equations by a discontinuous Galerkin discretization. Two acoustic liners are tested in both ONERA and NASA ow ducts and the measured data are treated with the corresponding impedance eduction method. The first liner is a wire mesh facesheet mounted onto a honeycomb core, designed to be linear with respect to incident sound pressure level and to grazing ow velocity. The second one is a conventional, nonlinear, perforate-over-honeycomb single layer liner. Configurations without and with ow are considered. For the nonlinear liner, the comparison of liner impedance educed by NASA and ONERA shows a sensitivity to the experimental conditions, namely to the nature of the source and to the sample width.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  10. CONSTRUCTION, MONITORING, AND PERFORMANCE OF TWO SOIL LINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype soil liner and a field-scale soil liner were constructed to test whether compacted soil barrier systems could be built to meet the standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for saturated hydraulic conductivity (< 1 x 10'7 cm/s). In situ ponded inf...

  11. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  12. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  13. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  14. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, M A; Atchison, W; Armijo, E; Bartos, Yu; García, F; Randolph, B; Sheppard, M G

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment required massive tungsten glide planes for inertial confinement of the liner fill media during implosion. Shallow sinusoidal perturbations were machined on the inside surface of the liner to seed instabilities, also true of the previous experiments. Butane was selected for a relatively low equilibrium vapor pressure, a practical attribute for use in the Pegasus vacuum power flow channel. Butane safety topics at Pegasus will be addressed. Glide planes were sealed to the liner by use of butane compatible o-rings. A sintered form of tungsten was used for the glide planes to facilitate machining the relatively complex shapes that were required. Porosity of the tungsten was sea...

  15. Evaluating the accuracy of wear formulae for acetabular cup liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Shih-Shyn; Hsu, Shu-Ling; Chen, Jian-Horng

    2010-02-01

    This study proposes two methods for exploring the wear volume of a worn liner. The first method is a numerical method, in which SolidWorks software is used to create models of the worn out regions of liners at various wear directions and depths. The second method is an experimental one, in which a machining center is used to mill polyoxymethylene to manufacture worn and unworn liner models, then the volumes of the models are measured. The results show that the SolidWorks software is a good tool for presenting the wear pattern and volume of a worn liner. The formula provided by Ilchmann is the most suitable for computing liner volume loss, but is not accurate enough. This study suggests that a more accurate wear formula is required. This is crucial for accurate evaluation of the performance of hip components implanted in patients, as well as for designing new hip components.

  16. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  17. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  18. Crossover transition in bag-like models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Lorenzo; Koch, Volker

    2009-03-13

    We formulate a simple model for a gas of extended hadrons at zero chemical potential by taking inspiration from the compressible bag model. We show that a crossover transition qualitatively similar to lattice QCD can be reproduced by such a system by including some appropriate additional dynamics. Under certain conditions, at high temperature, the system consist of a finite number of infinitely extended bags,which occupy the entire space. In this situation the system behaves as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons.

  19. Migration of dibutyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate in food-grade plastic packaging bags applied in fried food packaging%食品级塑料包装袋中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二辛基酯向高温油炸食品中迁移的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵电波; 张丽尧; 白艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the migration of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in food grade plastic packaging bag applied in fried bread stick packaging were investigated. Methods The samples were extracted with methanol- saturated n-hexane. The supernatant were separated by polar HP-5MS capillary column and analyzed by GC-MS after filtering through 0.45 μm membrane filter. Results The amount of migration of DBP and DnOP increased with the initial package temperature increasing. The amounts of migration of DBP and DnOP were 0.70 mg/kg and 0.16 mg/kg respectively in fritter samples which were packaged at 200℃and then stored at room temperature for 60 min. The amount of migration of DBP and DnOP increased with the storage time prolonging after samples were packaged at 200 ℃ initial temperature. The amounts of migration of DBP and DnOP in fritter samples which were packaged at 200℃and then stored at 25℃for 48 h were 0.79 mg/kg and 0.24 mg/kg, respectively. The amounts of migration of DBP and DnOP in fritter samples which were packaged at 200 ℃ and then stored at 4 ℃for 48 h were 0.63 mg/kg and 0.15 mg/kg, respectively. The amounts of migration of DBP and DnOP in the samples which were stored at 4 ℃were lower than that at 25℃. Conclusion The maximum amounts of migration of DBP and DnOP occurred in the skin of fritters which were directly contacted the packaging materials, and then migrated to the food in-side. There was a potential hazard for the health of consumers because of the migration of DBP and DnOP.%  目的研究高温油炸油条经聚乙烯食品包装袋包装后,包装材料中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸二辛基酯(DnOP)两种物质向油条迁移行为。方法样品经甲醇-饱和正己烷提取,0.45μm微孔滤膜过滤后,用HP-5MS弹性石英毛细管柱进行分离, GC-MS进行检测。结果油条与包装袋初始接触温度越高, DBP和DnOP的迁移量越

  20. Suzaku observation of the LINER NGC 4102

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Martin, O; Braito, V; Masegosa, J; Marquez, I; Mateos, S; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Martinez, M A; Ebrero, J; Esquej, P; O'Brien, P; Tueller, J; Warwick, R S; Watson, M G

    2010-01-01

    Low ionisation nuclear emission-line region (LINER) nuclei have been claimed to be different than other active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to the presence of complex absorbing structures along the line-of-sight and/or an inefficient mode of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. However, this issue is still open. We have investigated the broad band X-ray spectrum of NGC 4102, one of the most luminous LINERs in the Swift/BAT survey. We studied a 80 ksec Suzaku spectrum of NGC 4102, together with archival Chandra and Swift/BAT observations. We also studied the optical (3.5m/TWIN at Calar Alto observatory) and near-infrared (WHT/LIRIS at Observatorio Roque los Muchachos) spectra that were taken contemporaneous to the Suzaku data. There is strong evidence that NGC 4102 is a Compton-thick AGN, as suggested by the Swift/BAT detected intrinsic continuum and the presence of a strong narrow, neutral FeKa emission line. We have also detected ionised FeXXV emission lines in the Suzaku spectrum of the source. NGC 4102...

  1. Gorgon simulations of Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeltgen, Jonathan; Jennings, Christopher; Sefkow, Adam; Slutz, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Substantial fusion yields are predicted with pulsed power machines driving cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is the most likely mechanism that could degrade the fusion yield of this concept which we call Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF). Gorgon is a 3D magnetohydrodynamics code that is well suited to simulating the effects of 3D Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. It has successfully simulated wire array z-pinches in 3D. We plan to use Gorgon to simulate the MagLIF concept in 3D, but first we are performing 1D simulations to test the essential physics necessary to simulate the MagLIF concept, for example bremsstrahlung losses from the fuel and the inhibition of transport by the magnetic field. We will present 1D Gorgon results of optimized MagLIF yields as a function of drive current.

  2. User experience of transtibial prosthetic liners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amy; Dillon, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    The liner is an integral part of a transtibial prosthesis designed to protect the residual limb, enhance comfort and provide suspension. Literature is difficult to interpret and use given the variety of interventions, outcome measures and method designs. Critical appraisal and synthesis of the evidence is needed to help inform decisions about liner prescription based on the user experience. To critically appraise and synthesise research describing the user experience of transtibial prosthetic liners. Systematic review. A comprehensive suite of databases were searched using terms related to amputation level, liner type and user experience. Included studies were in English and measured the first-person experience of using a transtibial liner. Studies were appraised using the McMaster University Critical Review Forms. A total of 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. While the quality of the evidence has improved over time, a number of common issues (e.g. sampling bias, validity of outcome measures, incorrect inferential analysis) reduce our ability to differentiate between the user experience of different transtibial liners. There is insufficient research to differentiate between the user experience of different transtibial liners. High-quality research is needed to inform decisions about liner prescription based on the user experience. Clinical relevance The available evidence suggests that the user experience of commonly reported problems (e.g. sweating) may be very similar between different liners. Aspects of the user experience that differ most between liners (e.g. unwanted noises, rotation within the socket) can help focus attention on what matters most when discussing prescription.

  3. BAG Family Gene and Its Relationship with Lung Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective BAG genes (Bcl-2-associated athanogene belong to a recently discovered multifunctional anti-apoptosis gene family that regulate various physiological processes which include apoptosis, tumorigenesis, neural differentiation, stress response and cell cycle and so on. The expression status of BAG family genes are related to certain tumor incidence and prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore the association of the BAG family gene expression status with the susceptibility of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods The gene expression data of BAG family genes from 29 cases of lung adenocarcinoma tissues and matched pericancerous lung tissess were generated by microarray chips. Cox regression was used to analyze the association between the expression of BAG family genes and the susceptibility of lung adenocarcinoma and the results were verified by GEO database. Results The expression levels of BAG-1, BAG-2, BAG-5 in cancer tissues were significantly downregulated compared with matched pericancerous lung tissues and were protective factors of lung adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05, OR < 1; while the expression level of BAG-4 in cancer tissues were remankably upregulated compared with the matched pericancerous lung tissues and was risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05, OR > 1. Conclusion BAG-1, BAG-2, BAG-5 might be the potential protective factors while BAG-4 is possible risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma.

  4. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  5. Polythene and Plastics-degrading microbes from the mangrove soil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation of polythene bags and plastic cups was analyzed after 2, 4, 6, and 9 months of incubation in the mangrove soil. The biodegradation of polythene bags was significantly higher (up to 4.21% in 9 months) than that of plastic cups (up to 0.25% in 9 months). Microbial counts in the degrading materials were recorded up to 79.67 x 104 per gram for total heterotrophic bacteria, and up to 55.33 x 102 per gram for fungi. The microbial species found associated with the degrading materials ...

  6. Polythene and Plastics-degrading microbes from the mangrove soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kathiresan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation of polythene bags and plastic cups was analyzed after 2, 4, 6, and 9 months of incubation in the mangrove soil. The biodegradation of polythene bags was significantly higher (up to 4.21% in 9 months) than that of plastic cups (up to 0.25% in 9 months). Microbial counts in the degrading materials were recorded up to 79.67 x 104 per gram for total heterotrophic bacteria, and up to 55.33 x 102 per gram for fungi. The microbial species found associated with the degrading materials ...

  7. 不同内衬袋对片烟醇化质量的影响%Effects of Different Lining Bag on Aging Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩仁

    2009-01-01

    研究了不同包装材料对片烟醇化质量的影响.结果表明,加衬塑料袋的片烟外观质量和感官质量明显优于牛皮纸袋和不加内衬袋处理,加衬激光微孔塑料袋的处理片烟质量最好;加衬内衬袋片烟的还原糖含量明显高于不加内衬袋片烟;加衬牛皮纸袋的片烟烟碱含量最低.%The effects of different lining bags on aging quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina were studied. TheResults showed that the appearance quality and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with plastic lining bag were better than those in treatments with kraft bag and without lining bag. The quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with laser microporous plastic bag was the best. The reducing sugar content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with lining bag was higher than that in treatments without lining bag. The nicotine content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with kraft bag was the lowest.

  8. Real-time bag of words, approximately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.R.R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Scha, R.J.H.; Marchand-Maillet, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2009-01-01

    We start from the state-of-the-art Bag of Words pipeline that in the 2008 benchmarks of TRECvid and PASCAL yielded the best performance scores. We have contributed to that pipeline, which now forms the basis to compare various fast alternatives for all of its components: (i) For descriptor extractio

  9. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  10. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  11. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★☆☆词数:406建议阅读时间:10分钟Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  12. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  13. Jute:Change From Bags to Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Many people may be unfamiliar with jute,but everyone knows jute bag and hemp rope.For a long time,jute fiber only could be made into rough packing materials;it is difficult to be used widely for its characteristics.

  14. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  15. “禁塑令”情景下超市购物袋有偿使用的博弈分析%Game Analysis on Paid for the Use of Shopping Bags in Supermarket under the Situation of Plastic Ban

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩兰; 温丹苹

    2013-01-01

    Based on the background of nationwide implementation of paid for use of shopping bags,the basic "agricultural products suppliers (supermarket)-consumers" game model was established,the "cost and benefit" of each game player under the Nash equilibrium and Pareto equilibrium was discussed,and reaches the conditions under circumstance of non-cooperative Nash equilibrium and cooperative Pareto equilibrium.Then the results affirm the necessity of paid for the use of shopping bags.%基于全国范围内实行购物袋有偿使用制度这一背景,建立了基本的“农产品供应商(超市)—消费者”博弈模型,讨论了纳什均衡和帕累托均衡情况下各博弈参与人的“成本”和“收益”,得出纳什非合作均衡和帕累托合作均衡的条件,进而肯定了购物袋有偿使用的必要性.

  16. Prediction of Cone Crusher Performance Considering Liner Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cone crushers are used in the aggregates and mining industries to crush rock material. The pressure on cone crusher liners is the key factor that influences the hydraulic pressure, power draw and liner wear. In order to dynamically analyze and calculate cone crusher performance along with liner wear, a series of experiments are performed to obtain the crushed rock material samples from a crushing plant at different time intervals. In this study, piston die tests are carried out and a model relating compression coefficient, compression ratio and particle size distribution to a corresponding pressure is presented. On this basis, a new wear prediction model is proposed combining the empirical model for predicting liner wear with time parameter. A simple and practical model, based on the wear model and interparticle breakage, is presented for calculating compression ratio of each crushing zone along with liner wear. Furthermore, the size distribution of the product is calculated based on existing size reduction process model. A method of analysis of product size distribution and shape in the crushing process considering liner wear is proposed. Finally, the validity of the wear model is verified via testing. The result shows that there is a significant improvement of the prediction of cone crusher performance considering liner wear as compared to the previous model.

  17. The influence of liners on the pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study included application of liners and dental composites in to cavities of six experimental animals - rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate rabbit dental pulp response to different liners. Methods. Cavity preparation for class V were made on the maxillary central incisors and one lower incisor, while the second lower incisor served as a control tooth. These teeth were restored with the use of one of the following liners - Calcimol LC, ANA Liner and Fuji II LC Improved, and Ceram-X mono dental composite. After an observation period of five days animals were sacrificed and prepared for histological analysis. The existence and degree of the pulp inflammation was determined by using a light microscope. Results. Results showed that the used liners do not cause distortion of the structure and continuity of the odontoblastic layer. Inflammation was not registered in the control group, while in each group of tested materials one tooth with mild signs of hyperemia was registered. Results showed that all three tested liners demonstrated favorable effects on the pulp of the tooth and did not lead to inflammatory reactions. Conclusion. Histological analysis of the dental pulp of experimental animals suggests that the liners used in this study do not compromise the integrity of the odontoblastic layer, if it is applied over a thin layer of dentin. In each group of tested materials one tooth with mild signs of hyperemia and vasodilation was registered.

  18. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  20. Rapid identification of phthalates in blood bags and food packaging using ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Yuan; Ghule, Anil Vithal; Chen, Wen Yin; Wang, Chiung Chi; Chiang, Yi Shin; Ling, Yong Chien

    2004-06-01

    ToF-SIMS with Ga + ion as primary source is used to analyze plasticizers like bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from the inner surface of the blood bags and their migration into the blood. Food packing materials were also analyzed for the presence of DEHP. The simplicity of using ToF-SIMS with high mass resolution as an aid in the identification and analysis are discussed. The ToF-SIMS results, the fragmentation pattern, and the ratio of ions were comparable to those obtained from traditional GC-MS analysis. This indicates that ToF-SIMS could be a promising technique for direct detection of DEHP (and phthalates in general) in blood bags and food packaging polymeric materials.

  1. The magnetically driven imploding liner parameter space of the ATLAS capacitor bank

    CERN Document Server

    Lindemuth, I R; Faehl, R J; Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The Atlas capacitor bank (23 MJ, 30 MA) is now operational at Los Alamos. Atlas was designed primarily to magnetically drive imploding liners for use as impactors in shock and hydrodynamic experiments. We have conducted a computational "mapping" of the high-performance imploding liner parameter space accessible to Atlas. The effect of charge voltage, transmission inductance, liner thickness, liner initial radius, and liner length has been investigated. One conclusion is that Atlas is ideally suited to be a liner driver for liner-on-plasma experiments in a magnetized target fusion (MTF) context . The parameter space of possible Atlas reconfigurations has also been investigated.

  2. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system.

  3. Effect of Different Bags on Quality of Cuiguan Pear Fruits%不同果袋对翠冠梨果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 魏树伟; 冉昆; 王宏伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of bagging with different bags on appearance and internal quality of Cuiguan pear fruits,7 different kinds of fruit bags were used in growth period.The results showed that bag-ging could improve the appearance quality of Cuiguan pear significantly,but reduced the internal quality,es-pecially with the plastic film bags,which decreased the content of soluble solids significantly.In conclusion, the double paper bags Xiaolin 1 -W and Xiaolin 1 -KK were suitable for Cuiguan pear.%为了明确不同果袋对翠冠梨果实外观和内在品质的影响,本研究采用7种果袋对翠冠梨进行了生长期套袋试验。结果表明,翠冠梨经不同果袋套袋处理后,其外观品质均得到明显改善,但其果实内在品质降低,尤其是套塑膜袋果实的可溶性固形物显著降低。适宜翠冠梨套袋处理的果袋类型为双层纸袋(小林1-W)和双层纸袋(小林1-KK)。

  4. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...... for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  5. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  6. A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

    This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

  7. Creep behaviour of a polymer-based underground support liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    All underground excavations (tunnels, mines, caverns, etc.) need a form of support to ensure that excavations remain safe and stable for the designed service lifetime. In the last decade, a new support material, thin spray-on liner (TSL) has started to take place of traditional underground surface supports of bolts and shotcrete. TSLs are generally cement, latex, polymer-based and also reactive or non-reactive, multi-component materials applied to the rock surface with a layer of few millimeter thickness. They have the advantages of low volume, logistics, rapid application and low operating cost. The majority of current TSLs are two-part products that are mixed on site before spraying onto excavation rock surfaces. Contrary to the traditional brittle supports, the high plastic behaviour of TSLs make them to distribute the loads on larger lining area. In literature, there is a very limited information exist on the creep behavior of TSLs. In this study, the creep behavior of a polymer-based TSL was investigated. For this purpose, 7-day cured dogbone TSL specimens were tested under room temperature and humidity conditions according to ASTM-D2990 creep testing standard. A range of dead weights (80, 60, 40, and 20 % of the tensile strength) were applied up to 1500 hours. As a result of this study, the time-dependent strain behavior of a TSL was presented for different constant load conditions. Moreover, a new equation was derived to estimate tensile failure time of the TSL for a given loading condition. If the tensile stress acting on the TSL is known, the effective permanent support time of the TSL can be estimated by the proposed relationship.

  8. Advanced Combustor Liner Cooling Technology for Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspi R. Wadia

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews some of the work on advanced liner cooling techniques - specificially laminated porous wall cooling, angled-multihole (effusion cooling and composite metal matrix liner cooling. The concept definition, heat transfer design procedure and design problems including key materials and fabrication considerations associated with each basic concept will be reviewed. Published rig and engine experience of aircraft engine manufacturers and research organizations will be cited. Some logical extensions of the current liner cooling schemes are suggested for future applications.

  9. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  10. Can the liner be landed on the well bottom?; Posso apoiar o liner no fundo do poco?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carlos Fernando Humbert [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Perfuracao. Div. de Suporte Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    During the 7 in.liner run-in operation in well 1-BSS-65 with the shoe depth at 2400 m, the setting string broke and, as a result, the whole array fell from 2800 m high. Through a fishing operation, the liner (setting tool) was recovered and later a casing string sticking was detected. Full fluid circulation was obtained and the possibility was considered of cementing the liner in that position. At this point three questions were asked to assess the feasibility of such a cementing operation: were there significant damages inflicted on the liner string as a result of the fall?; if no damages resulted from the fall, would liner bucking prevent the running in of completion tools?; would the casing withstand the strains caused by buckling? This paper addresses the two latter questions through the theory of helical bucking of the tubing confined within a cylinder. Equations are introduced to calculate the helical pitch and the axial strain due to bending. A user-friendly computer program was developed to apply this theory to instances such as the above-mentioned one or to eliminate the use of hangers with short liners. The results of the analysis carried out on this particular well are presented and an assessment of the main parameters bearing on the issue is undertaken. These parameters are: well diameter and liner length. (author)

  11. Liner «L’Aquitaine» (1899-1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guiglini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief biography of the French liner «L'Aquitaine», before the Spanish auxiliary cruiser «Patriota». The article is illustrated with photographs from the collection of the author.

  12. Open Cell Conducting Foams for High Synchrotron Radiation Beam Liners

    CERN Document Server

    Petracca, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The possible use of open-cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerator beam liners is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  13. Shear Strength Behavior of Two Landfill Clay Liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Direct shear tests were conducted to obtain both the shear strength of compacted clay liners (CCLs) specimens and the interface shear strength between compacted clay liner and base soil. These experiments were conducted under the conditions of five different water contents. The experimental results show that shear strength of both CCLs and CCLs/base interface decreases with the increase in the water content of CCLs and base soil. In addition, the considerate concentration of NaCl in leachate has no deteriorating effect on the shear strength of liners. Triaxial shear tests were also conducted on clay liner specimens to obtain total and effective shear strength under a fast compression. The shear strength c'=100 kPa for sand-bentonite, respectively. These results indicate that the compacted clay-bentonite shows normal consolidation, but that the compacted sand-bentonite exhibits over-consolidation.

  14. Liners of thermoplastic composites in oil field tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melve, B. [Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Grini, K. [Univ. of Trondheim, Trondheim (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The buckling resistance of thermoplastic composite liners in steel production tubing has been studied by theoretical models, numeric models and practical collapse tests. The materials studied were hoop wound glass fibre/polypropylene with and without a pure polypropylene inner layer. The numerical results show that a large increase in buckling resistance is achieved when the liner is partially supported by the steel tube in comparison with a free liner. The test results for the unsupported liner were in agreement with standard theories. The combined laminate did not perform as well as predicted because the polypropylene layer delaminated and buckled away from the composite layer. Thermoforming of the ends to suit the threaded end connectors was also shown to be possible. (au)

  15. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  16. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  17. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  18. Landing Gear Door Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Van De Ven, Thomas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A landing gear door for retractable landing gear of aircraft includes an acoustic liner. The acoustic liner includes one or more internal cavities or chambers having one or more openings that inhibit the generation of sound at the surface and/or absorb sound generated during operation of the aircraft. The landing gear door may include a plurality of internal chambers having different geometries to thereby absorb broadband noise.

  19. Star-powered LINERs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Asari, N Vale; Fernandes, R Cid; Gomes, J M; Schlickmann, M; Mateus, A; Schoenell, W; Sodré, L

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies are usually classified as star forming or active by using diagnostic diagrams, such as [N II]/Halpha vs. [O III]/Hbeta. Active galaxies are further classified into Seyfert or LINER-like sources. We claim that a non-negligible fraction of galaxies classified as LINERs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are in fact ionized by hot post-AGB stars and white dwarfs.

  20. Classification of routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj Kjeldsen, Karina

    A classification scheme for routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping is developed and subsequently used to classify existing literature on the subject. Based on the classification the articles are grouped, and the main characteristics of each group and article are described. The grouping...... may serve as a catalyst towards developing a model or a group of models that covers the main problems within routing and scheduling in liner shipping....

  1. Design of a New Cold and Hot Therapy Bag%一种新型冷热疗袋的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静美; 王云燕

    2015-01-01

    As a commonly-used clinical nursing technique, the hot and cold therapy is intended for hemostatic and analgesic and anti-inlfammatory purposes. The author developed a kind of hot and cold therapy bag, which consisted of the outside bag, the inner bag as well as a temperature adjustment bag inside the inner bag. The outside, inner and temperature adjustment bags were removable. The multiple airbags were iflled between the outside and inner bag. One side of the outside bag was made of cotton and another side was made of plastic materials. The hot and cold therapy bag could not only be used for appropriate mitigation of hot and cold temperature as well as the treatment time setting, but also for selection of dry dressing and wet dressing, which demonstrated its effectiveness of clinical application.%在临床工作中,冷热疗法是很常见的护理技术,具有止血、止痛和消炎等目的。笔者研制了一种冷热疗袋,主要由外袋、内袋和设于内袋中的温度调节袋构成,其外袋、内袋和温度调节袋均可拆卸;外袋与内袋之间填有多个气囊;外袋一面为棉质,另一面为塑料材质。该冷热疗袋既能适当缓和敷袋的冷热温度、设定治疗时间,又能选择性进行干、湿敷等,具有较好的临床应用价值。

  2. Evaluation of microleakage in posterior nanocomposite restorations with adhesive liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Simi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To compare the microleakage in class II nanocomposite restorations without liner, with resin-modified glass ionomer liner and flowable composite liner. Materials and Methods : Thirty-six sound premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were selected and randomly assigned into three groups of 12 teeth each (Group I, II and III. Class II cavities of specified dimensions were prepared with margins located in the enamel. Cavities in group I were lined with resin modified glass ionomer (GC Fuji II LC-Improved, group II were lined with flowable composite (Filtex Z350 Flowable Restorative and no liner was placed for cavities in group III. All the teeth were restored with nanocomposite (Z 350 Universal Restorative. The teeth were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye, sectioned mesiodistally and observed under stereomicroscope. Results : Group III showed maximum leakage compared to group I and II which was statistically significant. Microleakage was lesser in group lined with resin-modified glass ionomer as compared to flowable composite group but not statistically significant. Conclusions : Placement of liner beneath nanocomposite restoration results in significant reduction in microleakage. Both resin-modified and flowable composite liners under nanocomposite restorations result in comparable reduction of microleakage.

  3. Numerical studies of liners for magnetized target fusion (MTF)

    CERN Document Server

    Faehl, R J; Sheehey, P T; Lindemuth, I R

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) requires the fast compression of hot, dense plasmas by a conducting liner. We have used two-dimensional MHD calculations to study the electromagnetic implosion of metallic liners driven by realistic current waveforms. Parametric studies have indicated that the liner should reach velocities of 3-20 km/s, depending on the magnetic field configuration, and reach convergence ratios (initial radius divided by final radius) of at least 10. These parameters are accessible with large capacitor bank power supplies such as SHIVA or ATLAS, or with magnetic flux compression generators. One issue with the high currents that are required to implode the liner is that Ohmic heating will melt or vaporize the outer part of the liner. Calculations have shown that this is a realistic concern. We are currently addressing questions of liner instability and flux diffusion under MTF conditions. Another issue is that the magnetic fields needed to inhibit thermal losses to the wa...

  4. High Voltage Coaxial Vacuum Gap Breakdown for Pulsed Power Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Samuel; Bott-Suzuki, Simon; Caballero Bendixsen, Luis Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF)1, are presently under detailed study at Sandia National Laboratories. Alongside this, a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the specific liner design geometry in the MagLIF system on liner initiation is underway in the academic community. Recent work at UC San Diego utilizes a high voltage pulsed system (25kV, 150ns) to analyze the vacuum breakdown stage of liner implosion. Such experimental analyses are geared towards determining how the azimuthal symmetry of coaxial gap breakdown affect plasma initiation within the liner. The final aim of the experimental analysis is to assess to what scale symmetry remains important at high (MV) voltages. An analysis of the above will utilize plasma self-emission via optical MCP, current measurements, voltage measurements near the gap, exact location of breakdown via 2D b-dot probe triangulation, as well as measuring the evolution of the B-field along the length of the liner via b-dot array. Results will be discussed along with analytical calculations of breakdown mechanisms

  5. Cylindrical Liner Z-pinch Experiments on the MAGPIE Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiak, Guy; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam J.; Swadling, George F.; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Skidmore, Jonathan; Suttle, Lee; Khoory, Essa; Pickworth, Louisa; de Grouchy, Philip; Hall, Gareth N.; Bland, Simon N.; Weinwurm, Marcus; Chittenden, Jeremy P.

    2012-10-01

    Experimental data from gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The MAGPIE current (1.4 MA, 240 ns) is applied to a thin walled (80um) Al tube with a static gas-fill inside. The system is diagnosed axially using interferometry, optical streak photography and optical spectroscopy. We observe a series of cylindrically converging shock waves driven into the gas-fill from the inside liner surface. No bulk motion of the liner occurs. The timing of the shocks and their trajectories provide information on the shock launching mechanisms. This in turn allows a study of the response of the liner to the current pulse. Shock wave timing is compared to measurements of the liner resistance and optical images of the liner's outside surface. The system provides a useful, essentially 1D problem for testing MagLIF relevant MHD codes, particularly with regards to EOS, strength and resistivity models. This work may also be relevant to the study of shocks in astrophysical plasmas. The shocks launched into the gas radiatiate strongly; spatially resolved optical spectroscopy data and radial electron density profiles from interferometry images provide evidence for a radiative precursor ahead of the first shock. Instabilities are seen to develop in the downstream regions.

  6. A Conventional Liner Acoustic/Drag Interaction Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has become a significant topic in the design of such for aircraft noise applications. In order to evaluate the benefits of concepts designed to reduce liner drag, it is necessary to establish the baseline performance of liners employing the typical design features of conventional configurations. This paper details a set of experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of a number of perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of M=0.3 and 0.5. These conventional liners are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of the resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 Hz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 dB. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the interaction between acoustic performance and drag.

  7. QUALITY OF PITAIA FRUITS SUBMITTED TO FIELD BAGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLAUDIA COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, with the change in consumer profile, the demand for foods with low levels or even without pesticides has increased. Bagging fruits in the field is considered one of the oldest and effective phytosanitary practices, being an alternative to chemical control. The aim of the present work was to test some types of packaging in the bagging of pitaia fruits during their development in the plant in order to maintain quality. Red pitaia plant fruits [Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose] five years post-planting were used. The experimental design used was random blocks, with 5 treatments, 4 repetitions and 10 fruits per plot. Treatments consisted of control (without bagging, newspaper bag, Kraft paper bag, waxed paper bag and Non-woven bag (NW. The following characteristics were evaluated: percentage of remaining fruits up to harvest; percentage of damaged fruits; fruit mass; longitudinal and transverse diameter; pulp yield; peel thickness; soluble solids content (SS; pH; titratable acidity (TA and SS/TA ratio. There was no difference among treatments for most of the characteristics analyzed, except for percentage of remaining fruits on the plant and percentage of damaged fruits. Bagging does not alter the physical and chemical characteristics of red pitaia fruits. NW and newspaper bags are more effective in bagging pitaia fruits due to greater permanence in the fruit during its development in the plant.

  8. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  9. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  10. BAG-1 haplo-insufficiency impairs lung tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero Guadalupe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70 that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signaling pathways. Evidence that BAG-1 expression is frequently altered in human cancers, in particular in breast cancer, relative to normal cells has been put forward but the notion that overexpression of BAG-1 contributes to poor prognosis in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We have evaluated the effect of BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice in a model of non-small-cell lung tumorigenesis with histological and molecular methods. We have generated mice heterozygous for BAG-1, carrying a BAG-1 null allele, that in addition express oncogenic, constitutively active C-Raf kinase (SP-C C-Raf BxB in type II pneumocytes. SP-C C-Raf BxB mice develop multifocal adenomas early in adulthood. Results We show that BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice impairs C-Raf oncogene-induced lung adenoma growth. Lung tumor initiation was reduced by half in BAG-1 heterozygous SP-C C-Raf BxB mice compared to their littermates. Tumor area was reduced by 75% in 4 month lungs of BAG-1 haploinsufficient mice compared to mice with two BAG-1 copies. Whereas BAG-1 heterozygosity did not affect the rate of cell proliferation or signaling through the mitogenic cascade in adenoma cells, it increased the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion Reduced BAG-1 expression specifically targets tumor cells to apoptosis and impairs tumorigenesis. Our data implicate BAG-1 as a key player in oncogenic transformation by Raf and identify it as a potential molecular target for cancer treatment.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  12. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Koerner, R.M. [Geosynthetic Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bonaparte, R. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  13. Peel bond strength of resilient liner modified by the addition of antimicrobial agents to denture base acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Alcântara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the clinical longevity of resilient denture relining materials and reduce plaque accumulation, incorporation of antimicrobial agents into these materials has been proposed. However, this addition may affect their properties. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of the addition of antimicrobial agents into one soft liner (Soft Confort, Dencril on its peel bond strength to one denture base (QC 20, Dentsply. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acrylic specimens (n=9 were made (75x10x3 mm and stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 48 h. The drug powder concentrations (nystatin 500,000U - G2; nystatin 1,000,000U - G3; miconazole 125 mg - G4; miconazole 250 mg - G5; ketoconazole 100 mg - G6; ketoconazole 200 mg - G7; chlorhexidine diacetate 5% - G8; and 10% chlorhexidine diacetate - G9 were blended with the soft liner powder before the addition of the soft liner liquid. A group (G1 without any drug incorporation was used as control. Specimens (n=9 (75x10x6 mm were plasticized according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h. Relined specimens were then submitted to a 180-degree peel test at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. Data (MPa were analyzed by analysis of variance (α=0.05 and the failure modes were visually classified. RESULTS: No significant difference was found among experimental groups (p=0.148. Cohesive failure located within the resilient material was predominantly observed in all tested groups. CONCLUSIONS: Peel bond strength between the denture base and the modified soft liner was not affected by the addition of antimicrobial agents.

  14. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  17. Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques for Nacelle Liner Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.; Nark, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed to investigate sound propagation through a duct of size comparable to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The axial dimension of the bypass duct is often curved and this geometric characteristic is captured in the CDTR. The semiannular bypass duct is simulated by a rectangular test section in which the height corresponds to the circumferential dimension and the width corresponds to the radial dimension. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core and are installed on the side walls of the test section. The top and bottom surfaces of the test section are acoustically rigid to simulate a hard wall bifurcation or pylon. A unique feature of the CDTR is the control system that generates sound incident on the liner test section in specific modes. Uniform air flow, at ambient temperature and flow speed Mach 0.275, is introduced through the duct. Experiments to investigate configuration effects such as curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a sample liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Combinations of treated and acoustically rigid side walls are investigated. The scattering of modes of the incident wave, both by the curvature and by the asymmetry of wall treatment, is demonstrated in the experimental results. The effect that mode scattering has on total acoustic effectiveness of the liner treatment is also shown. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation are reported. The spectra of attenuation produced by the analytic model are similar to experimental results for both walls treated, straight and curved flow path, with plane wave and higher order modes incident. The numerical model is used to define the optimized resistance and reactance of a liner that significantly improves liner attenuation in the frequency range 1900-2400 Hz. A

  18. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  19. Computer Forensic Using Lazy Local Bagging Predictors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wei-dong; BAO Cheng-yi; ZHU Xing-quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of employ ensemble learning for computer forensic. We propose a Lazy Local Learning based bagging (L3B) approach, where base learners are trained from a small instance subset surrounding each test instance. More specifically, given a test instance x, L3B first discovers x's k nearest neighbours, and then applies progressive sampling to the selected neighbours to train a set of base classifiers, by using a given very weak (VW) learner. At the last stage, x is labeled as the most frequently voted class of all base classifiers. Finally, we apply the proposed L3B to computer forensic.

  20. The Kaon Bag Parameter at Physical Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Frison, Julien; Christ, Norman H; Garron, Nicolas; Mawhinney, Robert; Sachrajda, Chris T; Yin, Hantao

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the calculation of the Kaon Bag parameter $B_K$ in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD, using M\\"obius Domain Wall Fermion ensembles generated by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration. This computation is done directly at physical meson masses, so that we do not have to rely on chiral perturbation theory or any other mass extrapolation. In parallel, the four-quark operator is renormalised through the Rome-Southampton technique. Finally, we compare our value with previous results and draw some conclusions about the remaining dominant contributions in our error budget.

  1. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  2. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape...

  3. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  4. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  5. Seismic stability and permanent displacement of landfill along liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The three-part wedge limit equilibrium method for seismic stability analysis of the landfill along liners is presented. The approximate solutions of the factor of safety and the yield acceleration coefficient are obtained. Parametric studies show that the interface strength of liners, the shear strength of waste and the height of retaining wall can influence the seismic stability of landfill along liners. The density and the shear wave velocity of the field waste are obtained by the borehole investigation and the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), respectively. The strain-dependent shear modulus and damping ratio of the artifical waste are obtained by the moderate-scale dynamic triaxial tests. The onedimensional (1D) equivalent linear dynamic response analysis is used to calculate the horizontal equivalent seismic coefficient-time history of the sliding landfill during earthquake. The seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners with different site conditons and heights is evaluated by the Newmark method. The catculated results show that ratio of ky /kmax, site conditions, the amplitude and frequency content of the bedrock motion can affect the seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners in some degree. Finally, the seismic stability and permanent displacements of three expanded configurations of a certain landfill case are analyzed.

  6. Detection of compact ultraviolet nuclear emission in liner galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, D; Ho, L C; Rix, H W; Bahcall, J N; Schneider, D P; Macchetto, F D; Dan Maoz; Alexei V Filippenko; Luis C Ho; Hans-Walter Rix; John N Bahcall; Donald P Schneider

    1994-01-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), which exist in a large fraction of galaxies, may be the least luminous manifestation of quasar activity. The nature of LINERs has, however, remained controversial because an AGN-like nonstellar continuum source has not been directly observed in them. We report the detection of bright, unresolved (FWHM \\ltorder 0.1'') point sources of UV (\\sim 2300 \\AA) emission in the nuclei of nine nearby galaxies from a complete sample of 110 nearby galaxies imaged with {\\it HST}. Ground-based optical spectroscopy reveals that five of the nuclei are LINERs, three are starburst nuclei, and one is a Seyfert nucleus. The observed UV flux in each of the five LINERs implies an ionizing flux that is sufficient to account for the observed emission lines through photoionization. The detection of a strong UV continuum in the LINERs argues against shock excitation as the source of the observed emission lines, and supports the idea that photoionization excites the lines in at leas...

  7. Seismic stability and permanent displacement of landfill along liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YunMin; GAO Deng; ZHU Bin; CHEN RenPeng

    2008-01-01

    The three-part wedge limit equilibrium method for seismic stability analysis of the landfill along liners is presented. The approximate solutions of the factor of safety and the yield acceleration coefficient are obtained. Parametric studies show that the interface strength of liners, the shear strength of waste and the height of retaining wall can influence the seismic stability of landfill along liners. The density and the shear wave velocity of the field waste are obtained by the borehole investigation and the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), respectively. The strain-dependent shear modulus and damping ratio of the artifical waste are obtained by the moderate-scale dynamic triaxial tests. The one- dimensional (1D) equivalent linear dynamic response analysis is used to calculate the horizontal equivalent seismic coefficient-time history of the sliding landfill during earthquake. The seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners with different site conditons and heights is evaluated by the Newmark method. The catculated results show that ratio of ky/kmax, site conditions, the amplitude and frequency content of the bedrock motion can affect the seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners in some degree. Finally, the seismic stability and permanent displacements of three expanded configurations of a certain landfill case are analyzed.

  8. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, Gwénaël

    2016-10-01

    The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

  9. The Structure of Narrow-Line Region in LINERs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Feng Dai; Ting-Gui Wang

    2008-01-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs) are present in a large fraction of local galaxies, while their connection to the more luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) remains elusive. We analyze the narrow band images obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in Hα+[NⅡ] and/or [OⅢ] band for 23 LINERs and low luminosity Seyfert galaxies in the sample of the Palomar Optical Spectroscopic Survey of nearby galaxies in an attempt to resolve the structure of Narrow Emission Line Regions (NLRs) of these objects. In all cases, NLRs are well resolved and their morphology differs from object to object. Clumps, linear structure, spiral arms or a ring are detected in a large fraction of the objects, while there is no significant difference between Seyfert galaxies and LINERs. We find that the NLR size and the narrow line luminosity are strongly correlated for both LINERs and low luminosity Seyfert galaxies, and that the size of Hα+[NⅡ] emission line region scales with Hα luminosity as RNLR∞L0.4±0.06Hα, consistent with an extension of the NLR size-luminosity relation defined for luminous Seyfert galaxies and quasars, to two orders of magnitude lower in luminosity and to lower activity levels. Our results suggest that NLRs in LINERs are similar to those of Seyfert galaxies, and they are powered by the central active galactic nucleus.

  10. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  11. Laser-Driven Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach that combines the implosion and compression of fusion fuel (a hallmark of inertial fusion) with strongly magnetized plasmas that suppress electron heat losses (a hallmark of magnetic fusion). It is of interest because it could potentially reduce some of the traditional velocity, pressure, and convergence ratio requirements of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept being studied at the Z Pulsed-Power Facility is a key target concept in the U.S. ICF Program. Laser-driven MagLIF is being developed to enable a test of the scaling of MagLIF over a range of absorbed energy from of the order of 20 kJ (on OMEGA) to 500 kJ (on Z). It is also valuable as a platform for studying the key physics of MIF. An energy-scaled point design has been developed for the Omega Laser Facility that is roughly 10 × smaller in linear dimensions than Z MagLIF targets. A 0.6-mm-outer-diam plastic cylinder filled with 2.4 mg/cm3 of D2 is placed in a 10-T axial magnetic field, generated by MIFEDS (magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system), the cylinder is compressed by 40 OMEGA beams, and the gas fill is preheated by a single OMEGA beam propagating along the axis. Preheating to >100 eV and axially uniform compression over a 0.7-mm height have been demonstrated, separately, in a series of preparatory experiments that meet our initial expectations. Preliminary results from the first integrated experiments combining magnetization, compression, and preheat will be reported for the first time. The scaling of laser-driven MagLIF from OMEGA up to the 1800 kJ available on the NIF (National Ignition Facility) will also be described briefly. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Bagging Experiments of Korla Fragrant Pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)%库尔勒香梨果实套袋试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠; 李春江; 亚合甫·木沙; 李林

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] This study aimed to explore the technical bagging method for the production of high quality Korla fragrant pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) under suitable production region conditions . [Method] Special translucent Kobayashi bag ( NK - 15), transparent plastic bag (yellow, purple, and white) , double paper bag ( black inside) and double paper bag ( red inside) were used in this experiment, and a comparative analysis of the fruits quality of different treatments were conducted. [ Result ] All the bagging treatments taken in this paper can improve the appearance quality of Korla fragrant pear to varying degrees, while only the plastic bag NK - 15 showed a better comprehensive effect on improving of the quality of Korla fragrant pear. [ Conclusion ] Comparative analysis of bagged fruits and control showed that the NK -15 Kobayashi translucent pear bag has a better comprehensive effect. This bag can obviously improve the appearance quality of the Korla pears and produce green skin fruit with high quality but without a bad effect on the quality of fruits.%[目的]探索适应库尔勒香梨的产地环境条件下,生产优质库尔勒香梨的果实套袋技术.[方法]对库尔勒香梨果实采用半透明的NK - 15小林香梨专用袋、黄色透明膜袋、紫色透明膜袋、无色透明膜袋、内黑双层纸袋、内红双层纸袋进行套袋试验,对不同套袋试验处理果实的品质进行比较分析.[结果]不同套袋处理,均能在不同方面对香梨果品内、外在品质有影响.只有NK - 15小林香梨专用袋在综合方面对香梨品质的提高效果较好.[结论]半透明的NK - 15小林香梨专用袋的综合使用效果较好,即:在不降低库尔勒香梨果实的内在品质的前提下,明显改善库尔勒香梨的外观质量,可以生产出优质绿色的香梨果实.

  13. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ryan D.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [1] is a concept that involves using a pulsed electrical current to implode an initially-solid, cylindrical metal tube (liner) filled with preheated and magnetized fusion fuel. One- and two-dimensional simulations predict that if sufficient liner integrity can be maintained throughout the implosion, then significant fusion yield (>100 kJ) is possible on the 25-MA, 100-ns Z accelerator. The greatest threat to the liner integrity is the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability, which first develops on the outer liner surface, and then works its way inward toward the inner surface throughout the implosion. Two-dimensional simulations predict that a thick liner, with Router/δR=6, should be robust enough to keep the MRT instability from overly disrupting the fusion burn at stagnation. This talk will present the first experiments designed to study a thick, MagLIF-relevant liner implosion through to stagnation on Z [2]. The use of beryllium for the liner material enabled us to obtain penetrating monochromatic (6151±0.5 eV) radiographs that reveal information about the entire volume of the imploding liner. This talk will also discuss experiments that investigated Z's pulse-shaping capabilities to either shock- or shocklessly-compress the imploding liners [3], as well as our most recent experiments that used 2-micron-thick aluminum sleeves to provide high-contrast tracers for the positions and states of the inner surfaces of the imploding beryllium liners. The radiography data to be presented provide stringent constraints on the simulation tools used by the broader high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion communities, where quantitative areal density measurements, particularly of convergent fusion targets, are relatively scarce. We will also present power-flow tests of the MagLIF load hardware as well as new micro-B-dot measurements of the azimuthal drive magnetic field that penetrates the initially vacuum

  14. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 2--children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    In September 2005, we published Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1--Adults, recognising the fact that there is still a need for most GPs to carry well-equipped bags, even though many have given up responsibility for out-of-hours services. Here we suggest medicines that a GP might want to have available for use in an emergency or for the acute treatment of children and adolescents, updatingour previous advice. As with adults, it is not our intention to imply that every GP must carry every drug mentioned. Some of the drugs will probably only be used by rural GPs who do not have access to immediate emergency care. Whenever a medicine is first mentioned, our suggested formulation is included in brackets. Unless otherwise stated, the doses given are all from the BNF for Children. We enclose with this issue a card summarising parenteral doses (for adults and children) of drugs for medical emergencies; this card includes the BNF table of ideal weight for age.

  15. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, S. [IGB - Ingenieurbuero fuer Grundbau, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

  16. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized alpha-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original Ma...

  17. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  18. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...... for revenue and transshipment of cargo along with in/decrease of vessel- and operational cost for the current solution. The evaluation functions may be used by heuristics in general to evaluate changes to a network design without solving a large scale multicommodity flow problem....... heuristic is combined with an improvement heuristic with a neighborhood defined by the solution space of a mixed integer program. The mixed integer program optimizes the removal and insertion of several port calls on a liner shipping service. The objective function is based on evaluation functions...

  19. Transmissivity evolution through interface of composite liners under applied constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, M

    2011-08-01

    In landfill liners, geomembranes have defects that constitute preferential passages of leachate from rainwater percolation. Non-woven geotextiles are widely used in wastelandfills as materials having the functions of protection, separation, filtration and drainage. This study seeks to select geotextiles through an investigation conducted among landfill operators who commonly arise a geotextile in the geomembrane-clay interface to facilitate geomembrane welding and to prevent its puncture by angular materials. It also attempts to find out the influence of geotextile in a decimetric transmissivity cell size under 50 kPa stress and smooth ground surface. The results show that the transmissivity in composite liner interface is almost the same as the one calculated with the European standard EN ISO 12958. Transmissivity depends on the mechanical stress applied to the bottom liner, on the geotextile type in the interface and on the ground surface.

  20. Predrilled liner / barefoot completions in horizontal sour gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.W. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    When selecting the completion type of a horizontal well, all relevant production and reservoir engineering aspects have to be taken into consideration to ensure safe and optimised long-term production. Especially in the case of sour gas wells, which require corrosion-resistant and expensive alloys, the technical/economic need to run a liner in the horizontal section is often discussed. This paper compares the preinvestment for a 'predrilled liner' with the cost of downhole operations which may become necessary in a 'barefoot completion'. These calculated 'risked savings' - as a function of the horizontal length - lead to a break-even point which is intended to assist in the decision to run a liner in sour gas wells or not. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of a Ranchero driven high energy liner driver system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, Walter L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Chris L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watt, Robert G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    An experimental series is planned to implode a dense heavy liner to a velocity in excess of 1 cm/microsecond (10 mm/microsecond) using a RANCHERO coaxial explosive flux compression generator. The goal of this study is to choose the liner mass and starting radius that will deliver the greatest amount of kinetic energy to a target at 1 cm final radius. In this study we used the 1D-MHD simulation code RA YEN to search for the proper initial conditions. The results will be used as a starting point for 2-D simulations and preliminary designs for the first experiments planned in the 2009/2010 time frame. The preliminary results indicate that a liner velocity of 1.25 cm/microsecond and a kinetic energy of greater than 4 megajoules may be possible.

  2. Non-contact optical three dimensional liner metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Sebring, R J; Salazar, M A

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We optically captured the "as- built" geometry of NTLX cylindrical liners for Shiva Star using an ultra-precision ranging laser. We subsequently verified the resulting digitized geometry against the 3D CAD model of the part. The results confirmed that the liner contours are within designed tolerances but revealed subtle fabrication artifacts that would typically go undetected. These features included centimeters long waviness and saddle and bulge regions of 1 micron or less in magnitude. The laser technology typically provided 10 micron spatial resolution with 112 nanometer ranging precision. Atlas liners in the future may have to be diamond turned and will have the centimeter wavelength and 100 angstrom amplitude requirements. The advantages of using laser technology is 1) it avoids surface damage that may occur with conventional contact probes and 2) dramatically improves spatial resolution over CMM, LVDT, capacitance and inductance type probes. Our work is the result of...

  3. Beam-Wall interaction in the LHC liner

    CERN Document Server

    Mostacci, A

    2001-01-01

    The beam pipe foreseen for the LHC is rather unconventional. To shield the cold bore of the magnets from the synchrotron radiation emitted by protons at 7 TeV, a beam screen (the so called "liner") has been introduced practically along all the machine. The present design of the liner is a compromise among beam stability issues, vacuum requirements, heat load on the cold bore, electron cloud effects and mechanical constraints. Three main potential sources of beam energy loss in the actual LHC liner are addressed, namely the interaction with the pumping holes, the (sawtooth) surface corrugation and the effect of an azimuthally inhomogeneous metallic beam pipe modelling the high resistivity of the welding. The losses are estimated through a detailed electromagnetic analysis (by means of standard theories) seeking for analytical expressions of electromagnetic fields and/or coupling impedance. An analytical (or semi-analytical) approach is considered for each problem, to better understand the relevant parameters t...

  4. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  5. Optimization of Microphone Locations for Acoustic Liner Impedance Eduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; June, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Two impedance eduction methods are explored for use with data acquired in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The first is an indirect method based on the convected Helmholtz equation, and the second is a direct method based on the Kumaresan and Tufts algorithm. Synthesized no-flow data, with random jitter to represent measurement error, are used to evaluate a number of possible microphone locations. Statistical approaches are used to evaluate the suitability of each set of microphone locations. Given the computational resources required, small sample statistics are employed for the indirect method. Since the direct method is much less computationally intensive, a Monte Carlo approach is employed to gather its statistics. A comparison of results achieved with full and reduced sets of microphone locations is used to determine which sets of microphone locations are acceptable. For the indirect method, each array that includes microphones in all three regions (upstream and downstream hard wall sections, and liner test section) provides acceptable results, even when as few as eight microphones are employed. The best arrays employ microphones well away from the leading and trailing edges of the liner. The direct method is constrained to use microphones opposite the liner. Although a number of arrays are acceptable, the optimum set employs 14 microphones positioned well away from the leading and trailing edges of the liner. The selected sets of microphone locations are also evaluated with data measured for ceramic tubular and perforate-over-honeycomb liners at three flow conditions (Mach 0.0, 0.3, and 0.5). They compare favorably with results attained using all 53 microphone locations. Although different optimum microphone locations are selected for the two impedance eduction methods, there is significant overlap. Thus, the union of these two microphone arrays is preferred, as it supports usage of both methods. This array contains 3 microphones in the upstream

  6. Constraining the Accretion Mode in LINER 1.9s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Bassem; Der Sahaguian, Elias; Badr, Elie

    2016-01-01

    The accretion mode and the dominant power source in low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), a class of active galactic nuclei (AGN), are still elusive. We focus on a sample of 22 LINER 1.9s (Ho et al. 1997), a subclass of LINERs that show broad Halpha lines, a signature of blackhole-powered accretion, to test the hypothesis that the ionizing continuum emitted by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) could lead to the LINER ultraviolet (UV) emission-line ratios. Optical line-ratio diagrams are a weak diagnostic tool in distinguishing between possible power sources (Sabra et al. 2003). We search the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) for UV spectra of the objects in the above sample and also perform photoionization simulations using CLOUDY (Ferland et al. 2013). Unfortunately, only one object (NGC 1052; Gabel et al. 2000) of the 22 LINER 1.9s has UV spectra that cover many emission lines; the rest of the objects either do not have any UV spectra, the spectral coverage is in-adequate, or the spectra have very low signal-to-noise ratios. Our photoionization simulations set up two identical grids of clouds with a range of densities and ionization parameters. We illuminate one grid with radiation emitted by a thin accretion disk (AD) and we illuminate the other grid with radiation from a RIAF. We overplot the UV emission-line ratio predictions for AD and RIAF illumination, together with the available line ratios for NGC 1052. Initial results show that UV lines could be used as diagnostics for the accretion mode in AGN. More UV spectral coverage of LINER 1.9s is needed in order to more fully utilize the diagnostic powers of UV emission line ratios.

  7. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  8. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  9. Synergistic Integration of Liner Shipping and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Roškar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping with all its specific features plays an importantrole in the economic development of a country whose portsare involved. In the strategic goals of maritime policy for the period2005-2009 the European Commission stresses the needfor a sustainable environmental development and economicgrowth. Besides, it points out the necessity for the fulfilment ofall maritime potentials. Yet, individual EU member states frequentlycreate the environment, which discourages the developmentof their own national maritime economy. Unfortunately,this applies also to the Republic of Slovenia. The current paperoffers a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and benefits of theclassical liner shipping in present day.

  10. Rational design approach for landfill liner protective soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, M.G. [STS Consultants Ltd., Green Bay, WI (United States); Bandi, S.R. [Rust Environment & Infrastructure, Livonia, MI (United States); Reddy, K.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a rational approach for designing protective soil cover for landfill geomembrane liners in order to prevent damage to the liners. The present practice involves using a combination of geotextile and soil layer as protective cover. The geotextile is placed directly over the geomembrane and then a protective soil is placed on the geotextile. The protective soil layer generally consists of a free-draining granular soil which also serves as a drainage layer for the leachate collection and removal system. The degree of protection offered to the geomembrane depends on the type of geotextile, and the composition and thickness of the protective soil used.

  11. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport......, while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting...

  12. Literature review of the possible advantages of silicon liner socket use in trans-tibial prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, ECT; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The silicon liner socket has been used in the trans-tibial prosthesis since the 1980s. Silicon liner sockets are sleeves of silicon material that are rolled onto the stump and fix the prosthesis to it. The producers of the liners propagate many advantages in their use i.e. better suspension of the p

  13. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  14. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  15. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  16. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  17. Small-Sample Error Estimation for Bagged Classification Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, T. T.; Braga-Neto, U. M.

    2010-12-01

    Application of ensemble classification rules in genomics and proteomics has become increasingly common. However, the problem of error estimation for these classification rules, particularly for bagging under the small-sample settings prevalent in genomics and proteomics, is not well understood. Breiman proposed the "out-of-bag" method for estimating statistics of bagged classifiers, which was subsequently applied by other authors to estimate the classification error. In this paper, we give an explicit definition of the out-of-bag estimator that is intended to remove estimator bias, by formulating carefully how the error count is normalized. We also report the results of an extensive simulation study of bagging of common classification rules, including LDA, 3NN, and CART, applied on both synthetic and real patient data, corresponding to the use of common error estimators such as resubstitution, leave-one-out, cross-validation, basic bootstrap, bootstrap 632, bootstrap 632 plus, bolstering, semi-bolstering, in addition to the out-of-bag estimator. The results from the numerical experiments indicated that the performance of the out-of-bag estimator is very similar to that of leave-one-out; in particular, the out-of-bag estimator is slightly pessimistically biased. The performance of the other estimators is consistent with their performance with the corresponding single classifiers, as reported in other studies.

  18. Small-Sample Error Estimation for Bagged Classification Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu TT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of ensemble classification rules in genomics and proteomics has become increasingly common. However, the problem of error estimation for these classification rules, particularly for bagging under the small-sample settings prevalent in genomics and proteomics, is not well understood. Breiman proposed the "out-of-bag" method for estimating statistics of bagged classifiers, which was subsequently applied by other authors to estimate the classification error. In this paper, we give an explicit definition of the out-of-bag estimator that is intended to remove estimator bias, by formulating carefully how the error count is normalized. We also report the results of an extensive simulation study of bagging of common classification rules, including LDA, 3NN, and CART, applied on both synthetic and real patient data, corresponding to the use of common error estimators such as resubstitution, leave-one-out, cross-validation, basic bootstrap, bootstrap 632, bootstrap 632 plus, bolstering, semi-bolstering, in addition to the out-of-bag estimator. The results from the numerical experiments indicated that the performance of the out-of-bag estimator is very similar to that of leave-one-out; in particular, the out-of-bag estimator is slightly pessimistically biased. The performance of the other estimators is consistent with their performance with the corresponding single classifiers, as reported in other studies.

  19. Cloudy bag model IV. Pionic corrections to the nucleon properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theberge, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Miller, G.A. (Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). Dept. of Physics); Thomas, A.W. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility)

    1982-01-01

    A detailed formulation of the Hamiltonian formalism, together with a consistent renormalization procedure, is described for the cloudy bag model. The electromagnetic properties of the nucleon are calculated with center-of-mass corrections included. Good agreement with the experimental results is obtained for bag radii ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 fm.

  20. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  2. Air bag-mediated fatal craniocervical trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyük, Yalçin; Uzün, Ibrahim; Erkol, Zerrin; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Ustündağ, Kasim T

    2010-07-01

    This case report describes a four-year-old girl (102 cm, 17 kg) who sustained fatal craniocerebral injuries as a result of an inflating automobile air bag. The car struck the lid of the sewer system, which was 15 cm above the ground level, at a low speed, and both the driver and passenger air bags inflated. Despite the fact that air bag usage has lessened both the possibility and severity of occupant injuries in frontal collisions, case reports of serious injuries and even deaths especially in children due to air bag deployment, particularly during low speed impacts, highlight the need for changes in both system design and possibly the threshold speed of air bag deployment.

  3. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  4. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  5. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  6. Drugs for the doctor's bag revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The choice of drugs to include in the GP's bag depends on the medical conditions likely to be met, the shelf-life of the products and their costs, the availability of ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here, we update previous advice and suggest a list of medicines that GPs may wish to take with them on home visits for use in an emergency or other acute treatment. We include paediatric doses where appropriate and, whenever a medicine is first mentioned, our suggested formulation is given italicised and in brackets. We also enclose with this issue a card summarising parenteral doses of drugs for medical emergencies, which includes a table of mean weight for age.

  7. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  8. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process.

  9. Plastics and Environmental Health: The Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Emily J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including endocrine-disrupting properties and long-term pollution. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials – such as metal or glass – and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications, such as disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol-A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of ever increasing mass-production of plastic consumer articles. By example of the healthcare sector, this review concentrates on benefits and downsides of plastics and identities opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the healthcare and food industry, and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  10. Analysis of adhesion characteristics of liner dental materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive characteristics of materials used in dental practice are determined by indirect methods, by measuring mechanical properties of liner materials. In that procedure, the adhesion is defined by using measured mechanical properties of the bond material-test sample, which has several shortages. In the presented research the focus was based on the multi-component, composite, materials, which have, both organic and inorganic components in their structures. The direct measure of material-dentine bond was used in order to quantify the adhesion properties of investigated liner materials. Artificial saliva was the media for inducing the liner-dentine bond destruction. Destruction measurements were made by applying the quantification of visual information methodology. Obtained results were used to calculate the adhesion coefficient of the liner materials. The results were correlated with the mechanical test. There are no references on comparative testing of adhesion mechanical properties of dental material in the literature with presented methodology. The presented methodology proved to be useful for the functional quality ranking of dental materials.

  11. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    A new mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an alliance, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its market share...

  12. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its...

  13. Light-year scale radio cores in four LINER galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, ME; Barthel, PD; Ho, LC

    2002-01-01

    The LINER galaxies NGC2911, NGC3079, NGC3998, and NGC6500 were observed at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network at a resolution of 5 milliarcsecond and found to possess at-spectrum, variable, high-brightness temperature (T-B > 10(8) K) radio cores. These radio characteristics reinforce the view that

  14. The radio properties of composite liner/H II galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, ME; Barthel, PD; Ho, LC

    2002-01-01

    Arcsecond-resolution VLA observations newly obtained as well as published of 40 nearby galaxies are discussed, completing a study of the radio properties of a magnitude-limited sample of nearby galaxies of the composite LINER/H II type. Our results reveal an overall detection rate of at least 25% ac

  15. Risk assessment for the transportation of radioactive zeolite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The risk is estimated for the shipment of radioactive zeolite liners in support of the Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program currently underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. This program will establish the feasibility of zeolite vitrification as an effective means of immobilizing high-specific-activity wastes. In this risk assessment, it is assumed that two zeolite liners, each loaded around July 1, 1981 to 60,000 Ci, will be shipped by truck around January 1, 1982. However, to provide a measure of conservatism, each liner is assumed to initially hole 70,000 Ci, with the major radioisotopes as follow: /sup 90/Sr = 3000 Ci, /sup 134/Cs = 7000 Ci, /sup 137/Cs = 60,000 Ci. Should shipment take place with essentially no delay after initial loading (regardless of loading date), the shipment loading would be only 2.7% higher than that for the assumed six-month delay. This would negligibly affect the overall risk. As a result of this risk assessment, it is concluded that the transport of the radioactive zeolite liners from TMI to PNL by truck can be conducted at an insignificant level of risk to the public.

  16. Labial and Vaginal Microbiology: Effects of Extended Panty Liner Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Farage

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goals of this study were 1 to better define the labial microflora and 2 to evaluate whether extended non-menstrual use of panty liners would increase genital carriage of undesirable bacteria and predispose to infection.

  17. Auto-magnetizing liners for magnetized inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, S. A.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Shipley, G. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lamppa, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] has demonstrated fusion-relevant plasma conditions [Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z accelerator using external field coils to magnetize the fuel before compression. We present a novel concept (AutoMag), which uses a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material to provide fuel magnetization from the early part of the drive current, which by design rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators. Once the magnetization field is established, the drive current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path and implode the liner in the conventional z-pinch manner. There are two important advantages to AutoMag over external field coils for the operation of MagLIF. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used to increase the drive current, and AutoMag does not interfere with diagnostic access. Also, AutoMag enables a pathway to energy applications for MagLIF, since expensive field coils will not be damaged each shot. Finally, it should be possible to generate Field Reversed Configurations (FRC) by using both external field coils and AutoMag in opposite polarities. This would provide a means to studying FRC liner implosions on the 100 ns time scale.

  18. FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF A GENERATION OLD CIPP LINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information regarding the in-situ performance of rehabilitation methods used for prolonging the service life of buried municipal pipeline systems. With some CIPP liners nearly 30 years in service, municipalities are expressing a strong interest in the collection ...

  19. Conductivity and transit time estimates of a soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Rehfeldt, K.H.; Herzog, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field-scale soil linear was built to assess the feasibilty of constructing a liner to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement of the U.S. EPA (i.e., less than 1 ?? 10-7 cm/s), and to determine the breakthrough and transit times of water and tracers through the liner. The liner, 8 ?? 15 ?? 0.9 m, was constructed in 15-cm compacted lifts using a 20,037-kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivities were 2.4 ?? 10-9 cm/s, based on data from large-ring infiltrometers; 4.0 ?? 10-8 cm/s from small-ring infiltrometers; and 5.0 ?? 10-8 cm/s from a water-balance analysis. These estimates were derived from 1 year of monitoring water infiltration into the linear. Breakthrough of tracers at the base of the liner was estimated to be between 2 and 13 years, depending on the method of calculation and the assumptions used in the calculation.

  20. Critical interfaces in geosynthetic multilayer liner system of a landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xuede

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to identify the critical interface in a geosynthetic multilayer liner system by examining the effects of the interface shear strength of liner components, leachate level, leachate buildup cases, and peak and residual interface strengths. According to current landfill design procedures, conducting stability analysis along the same interface at both the back slope and base may result in a non-conservative result. The critical interfaces with the minimum factor of safety are generally found at different locations along the back slope and base. The critical interface for a multilayer liner system cannot simply be assumed during stability analysis. It can shift from one interface to another with changes in the leachate level and with different leachate buildup cases. The factor of safety for an interface with a high friction angle and low apparent cohesion generally drops much more quickly than it does under inverse conditions when the leachate level increases. The failure interface in a liner system under residual conditions is usually different from the failure interface under peak conditions.

  1. The improvements on reactor building liner plate erection work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Myungsub; Choi, Sangmoo [Ulchin Nuclear Division, KHNP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    The pressurized water reactor, with its primary cooling circuit and steam generators, is housed in a cylindrical building. This 'containment' building is 44m in diameter and 80m high, and has a hemispherical or dome roof. A 6mm steel plate lines the entire interior of this containment building. This steel lining covers the floors, walls, dome and is made gas tight. There are more than 160 penetrations in the containment building for: equipment and personnel access, piping and electrical services. There are also over 370 field welded embedments fixed to the steel liner plate. Reducing construction costs of commercial nuclear power plants is essential in order to expand the future use of nuclear energy. One of the major components of reducing construction costs is the continuous improvement in construction technology. This is also essential in order to increase the nuclear culture in Quality Assurance of nuclear power plants. These improvements can make up for shortages in skilled craft labor necessary during site construction. In this paper, a number of improvements for the containment building steel liner plate fabrication and erection work will be described; adoption of flux core arc welding process, welding improvement in thickened liner plates, prefabrication of reactor cavity wall liner plates in the yard and optimization of the number of field welded embedments. Eventually these improvements may provide cost reduction and may allow reduction in the critical path schedule.

  2. Diagnostic Techniques to Elucidate the Aerodynamic Performance of Acoustic Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Jason; Bertolucci, Brandon; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Sheplak, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In support of Topic A.2.8 of NASA NRA NNH10ZEA001N, the University of Florida (UF) has investigated the use of flow field optical diagnostic and micromachined sensor-based techniques for assessing the wall shear stress on an acoustic liner. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (sPIV) was used to study the velocity field over a liner in the Grazing Flow Impedance Duct (GFID). The results indicate that the use of a control volume based method to determine the wall shear stress is prone to significant error. The skin friction over the liner as measured using velocity curve fitting techniques was shown to be locally reduced behind an orifice, relative to the hard wall case in a streamwise plane centered on the orifice. The capacitive wall shear stress sensor exhibited a linear response for a range of shear stresses over a hard wall. PIV over the liner is consistent with lifting of the near wall turbulent structure as it passes over an orifice, followed by a region of low wall shear stress.

  3. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...

  4. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes i...

  5. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  6. FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF A GENERATION OLD CIPP LINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information regarding the in-situ performance of rehabilitation methods used for prolonging the service life of buried municipal pipeline systems. With some CIPP liners nearly 30 years in service, municipalities are expressing a strong interest in the collection ...

  7. The combined effects of extrusion, thermoforming and welding on the physical properties of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G. [Fisher Co. and Moore, North Salt Lake, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The application of plastic linings to steel structures and the fabrication of dual laminate vessels involves a number of steps. These may include heating, stretching, adhering, welding, and testing. The combination of these steps together with stresses associated with the liner extrusion process may be cumulative even multiplicative to the overall stress of the liner affecting its integrity and performance in a lined steel or dual laminate vessel. This paper will review the methods of testing and evaluation adopted by the authors` company to insure the maximum performance of vessel lining materials.

  8. An analytical model for volatile organic compound transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane, a GCL, and a soil liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haijian; Jiang, Yuansheng; Zhang, Chunhua; Feng, Shijin

    2015-02-01

    An analytical model for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane (GM), a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and a soil liner (SL) was developed for the assessment of the performance of this triple liner system. Both advection through the defects of GM and diffusion in the intact GM were considered in the model, and dimensionless analytical solution was obtained. The soil concentration profiles obtained by the proposed analytical solution have a good agreement with those obtained by the finite-layer-based software POLLUTE v7. The effects of leachate head, length of the connected wrinkles, and the interface transmissivity of GM/GCL on the breakthrough curves of the liner system were then investigated. Results show that the 30-year base flux of the liner system for the case with leachate head = 10 m and length of the connected wrinkles = 1,000 m can be over 60 times greater than that of the pure diffusion case. The length of the connected wrinkles of the GM has greater influence on the base flux of the liner system than on the base concentration. The interface transmissivity has negligible effect on the solute breakthrough curves of the liner system for relatively low values of the length of the connected wrinkles (e.g., liners.

  9. Study of plasticizer diffusion in a solid rocket motor´s bondline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Libardi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to determine the diffusion coefficient of the plasticizers dibutyl phthalate (DBP, dioctyl phthalate (DOP and dioctyl azelate (DOZ on the internal insulating layer of solid rocket motors. These plasticizers are originally present in the layers of rubber, liner and propellant, respectively. This species are not chemically bonded and tend to diffuse from propellant to insulating and vice versa. A computer program based on the mathematical model of Fick’s second Law of diffusion was developed to perform the calculus from the concentration data obtained by gas chromatographic (GC analyses. The samples were prepared with two different adhesive liners; one conventional (LHNA and the other with barrier properties (LHNT. A common feature of both liners was that they were synthesized by the reaction of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and diisocyanates. However, a bond promoter was used to increase the crosslink density of the LHNT liner and to improve its performance as barrier against the diffusion. The effects of the diffusion of the plasticizers were also investigated by hardness analyses, which were executed on samples aged at room temperature and at 80ºC. The results showed an increase trend for the samples aged at room temperature and an opposite behavior for the tests carried out at 80ºC.

  10. Tendency of spherically imploding plasma liners formed by merging plasma jets to evolve toward spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cassibry, J T; Hsu, S C; Abarzhi, S I; Witherspoon, F D

    2012-01-01

    Three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations have been performed using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in order to study the effects of discrete jets on the processes of plasma liner formation, implosion on vacuum, and expansion. The pressure history of the inner portion of the liner was qualitatively and quantitatively similar from peak compression through the complete stagnation of the liner among simulation results from two one dimensional radiationhydrodynamic codes, 3D SPH with a uniform liner, and 3D SPH with 30 discrete plasma jets. Two dimensional slices of the pressure show that the discrete jet SPH case evolves towards a profile that is almost indistinguishable from the SPH case with a uniform liner, showing that non-uniformities due to discrete jets are smeared out by late stages of the implosion. Liner formation and implosion on vacuum was also shown to be robust to Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. Interparticle mixing for a liner imploding on vacuum was investigated. The mixing rate was ve...

  11. The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Bugaev, K A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values...

  12. Biochemical lesions of platelets stored as concentrates in PVC bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, L K; Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Jacob, J; Sivakumar, R

    1997-02-01

    Acid-base status of platelet suspension during storage is a measure of the gas permeability of the bag material. To assess the efficacy of the bags available in our market to store platelets, we compared biochemical lesions of platelets stored in an Indian polyvinyl chloride (PVC) triple bag against a Japanese PVC bag standardized for 5 days platelet storage. Platelet concentrates prepared in both control and test PVC bags were stored for 72 h. Two ml samples were drawn 1 h after preparation, and then at 24 h intervals, for analysis. Our data show that the mean pH value in the test bags was maintained above 6.5. However, the CO2 tension was high and O2 tension was low. We also analyzed malondialdehyde (MDA) formation which is a measure of arachidonic acid metabolism, and seemed to be unaffected in stored platelets. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was not released into the plasma excessively and hence significant platelet lysis was absent during storage. Hypotonic shock response (HSR) of platelets stored in both test and control bags was comparable, indicating the possibility of satisfactory post-transfusion recovery.

  13. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  14. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  15. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    i.e. pilots, firefighters) was excluded from this research. Any items found in both the A-bag and C-bag (helmet, web belt, canteen , etc.) were also...M8 detector paper booklet, M9 detector paper roll, M258A1 or M291 decontamination kit, M295 decontamination kit, a web belt, canteen , M1 canteen ... canteen and M1 canteen cap are found in the A-1 ditty bag as they have a use in both standard combat as well as a chemical, biological, nuclear

  16. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C; Verdier, M

    1993-06-01

    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied. Stedim 6, is anew multilayer film whose inner layer is made of polyethylene. The drugs were in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions and the influence of these was also considered. The remaining concentrations of each drug were determined at regular time intervals in a 24-h period, by a spectrofluorometric method for chlorpromazine hydrochloride and by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for the other drugs. No binding was observed for viloxazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides whatever the infusion solution and the plastic container. A slight retention in PVC bags, but not in Stedim 6 ones, was noted for clomipramine hydrochloride and clorazepate dipotassium salt. This was more marked in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. Diazepam and chlorpromazine hydrochloride were bound both in PVC and Stedim 6 bags, but more in the former and more again in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. The results were explained in terms of the degree of crystallinity of the plastic material and the degree of lipophilicity of the drugs. Practical consequences are discussed.

  17. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  19. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  20. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  1. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  2. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  3. Bagged Salads May Be Fertile Ground for Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Bagged Salads May Be Fertile Ground for Bacteria Study found juices released from damaged leaves encouraged ... Prepackaged salads may promote the growth of salmonella bacteria, researchers report. They found that even slight damage ...

  4. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows.The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  5. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  6. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Greaves, D M; Hann, M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  7. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The process known as double bag vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (DBVARTM) was developed by NASA to help deplete by products. To date, the NASA DBVARTM process...

  8. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  9. Encouraging creative reuse of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation shows how to encourage reuse of different types of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten. In the theoretical part I have introduced the concepts of creativity, divergent thinking and the meaning of reuse. I have outlined the problems concerning shopping bags and named the most common types, from which we made creative products. I outlined the motoric development in a child wherein I focused on eye-hand coordination, which is very important for a child's complete development....

  10. Air bags: reducing the toll of brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, J; Vernberg, K; Jane, J A

    1987-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for approximately one-half of all hospitalized patients with brain injury. Therefore, measures to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes have the potential for making a substantial impact on the incidence and severity of brain trauma. Occupant restraints, including seat belts and air bags, have been proven highly effective in preventing injuries, yet the specific benefits for the brain, the face, and the cervical spine provided by air bags have not been widely publicized. Air bags prevent the violent whiplash motion of the head in a frontal crash, resulting in a more controlled deceleration of the brain. Wrenching forces exerted on the cervical spine are attenuated, and the face is protected from contact with hard or lacerating surfaces. Furthermore, compliance is not a problem with air bags. When a car is equipped with air bags, they are in effect 100% of the time, which is important for the protection of high risk groups, such a teenage boys, who tend to wear seat belts less often than other groups. It is estimated from national data and from epidemiological studies that air bags could have prevented or reduced brain injury for 25% of the hospitalized, brain-injured population. If provided as standard equipment on both the driver and the passenger side, air bags could do more to reduce the toll of brain trauma than any other available intervention. Air bags were ready for introduction into the marketplace 15 years ago. Since then, approximately 150,000 preventable deaths and more than 1,500,000 preventable brain injuries have occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a po...

  12. Development of Antifouling and Bactericidal Coatings for Platelet Storage Bags Using Dopamine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Weinhart, Marie; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Haag, Rainer; Brooks, Donald E

    2017-09-29

    Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat. Under mild aqueous conditions, pPVC is first equilibrated with an anchoring polydopamine layer, followed by a DA51-cat layer. Measurements show this coating decreases fibrinogen adsorption to 5% of the control surfaces. One-step coating with DA51-cat does not coat pPVC efficiently although it is sufficient for coating silicon wafers and gold substrates. The dual layer coating on platelet bags resists bacterial biofilm formation and considerably decreases platelet adhesion. A cationic antimicrobial peptide, E6, is conjugated to DA51-cat then coated on silicon wafers and introduces bactericidal activity to these surfaces. Time-of-flight second ion-mass spectroscopy is successfully applied to characterize these surfaces. pPVC is widely used in medical devices; this method provides an approach to controlling biofouling and bacterial growth on it without elaborate surface modification procedures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  14. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  15. The fermion bag approach to lattice field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the fermion sign problem in systems where there is a coupling $U$ such that when it is infinite the fermions are paired into bosons and there is no fermion permutation sign to worry about. We argue that as $U$ becomes finite fermions are liberated but are naturally confined to regions which we refer to as {\\em fermion bags}. The fermion sign problem is then confined to these bags and may be solved using the determinantal trick. In the parameter regime where the fermion bags are small and their typical size does not grow with the system size, construction of Monte Carlo methods that are far more efficient than conventional algorithms should be possible. In the region where the fermion bags grow with system size, the fermion bag approach continues to provide an alternative approach to the problem but may lose its main advantage in terms of efficiency. The fermion bag approach also provides new insights and solutions to sign problems. A natural solution to the "silver blaze problem" ...

  16. Bagged material palletizing robot system; Fukuromono paretaizu robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces a case of delivery of an industrial automation machinery fabricated by Meidensha, Inc. A robot was delivered as a robot system to automate the work of palletizing craft paper bags containing cement. While bags filled with cement and sewn on the openings with a sewing machine in the previous process are transported to the robot, a shaping machine makes the bag height aligned, and a bleeder machine pushes out unnecessary air in the bags. The robot stacks the bags on a pallet sequentially one by one. A pallet magazine supplies automatically a next pallet when stacking by the robot has been completed. Introduction of this system has achieved such effects as elimination of labor shortage, release from simple muscle work, and stabilization of palletizing accuracy. Major constituting devices include: a palletizing robot (VTR-1000Y), a bag transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer, a shaping machine, and a bleeding device), and a pallet transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer and an empty pallet magazine). (NEDO)

  17. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  18. Skin friction on a flat perforated acoustic liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The report concerns the measurement of friction coefficients of a typical perforated acoustic liner installed in the side of a wind tunnel. The results are compared with measured friction coefficients of a smooth hard wall for the same mean flow velocities in a wind tunnel. At a velocity of 61 m/sec, an increase in the local skin coefficient of only a few percent was observed, but at the highest velocity of 213 m/sec an increase of about 20% was obtained. This velocity is a realistic velocity for turbo-machinery components utilizing such liners, so a loss in performance is to be expected. Some tests were also performed to see if changes in the mean boundary layer induced by imposed noise would result in friction increase, but only at low velocity levels was such an increase in friction noted.

  19. Extended liner performance for hydrodynamics and material properties experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Over the last few years a new application for high performance pulsed power, the production of high energy density environments for the study of material properties under extreme conditions and hydrodynamics in complex geometries has joined the traditional family of radiation source applications. The newly commissioned Atlas pulsed power system at Los Alamos has replaced its predecessor, Pegasus, and joined the Shiva Star system at AFRL, Albuquerque and a variety of flux compression systems, principally at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) as ultra high current drivers for the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner that is used to create the needed environments. Three families of experiments: the production of ultra strong shocks (>10 Mbar), the production of strongly coupled plasmas by liner compression of an initially dense plasma of a few eV temperature, and the compression of a magnetized plasma for ...

  20. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an integer programming based heuristic, a matheuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport....... The matheuristic can also be applied as a decision support tool to improve an existing network by optimizing on a designated subset of the routes. A case study is presented for this approach with very promising results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved......., while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting...

  1. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport...... the available fleet of container vessels. The cargo transports make extensive use of transshipments between routes and the number of transshipments of the cargo flow is decisive for network profitability. Computational results are reported for the benchmark suite LINER-LIB 2012 following the industry standard...... of weekly departures on every schedule. The heuristic shows overall good performance and is able to find high quality solutions within competitive execution times. The matheuristic can also be applied as a decision support tool to improve an existing network by optimizing on a designated subset...

  2. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S. B., E-mail: sbhanse@sandia.gov; Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Awe, T. J.; McBride, R. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, D. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hess, M. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (∼10{sup 12} DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmas inertially confined by slow (∼10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 10{sup 10}. Analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopic x-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ∼3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  3. Investigation of a Bio-Inspired Liner Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Four samples of natural reeds, Phragmites australis, were tested in the NASA Langley and Glenn Normal Incidence Impedance Tubes in order to experimentally determine the acoustic absorption coefficients as a function of frequency from 400 to 3000 Hz. Six samples that mimicked the geometry of the assemblies of natural reeds were also designed and additively manufactured from ASA thermoplastic and tested. Results indicate that structures can be manufactured of synthetic materials that mimic the geometry and the low frequency acoustic absorption of natural reeds. This accomplishment demonstrates that a new class of structures can now be considered for a wide range of industrial products that need thin, lightweight, broadband acoustic absorption effective at frequencies below 1000 Hz. Aircraft engine acoustic liners and aircraft cabin acoustic liners, in particular, are two aviation applications that might benefit from further development of this concept.

  4. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor growth and feedthrough in cylindrical liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Matthew; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Peterson, Kyle; Hess, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions in the MagLIF concept are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT). The linearized ideal MHD equations are solved, including the presence of an axial magnetic field and the effects of sausage and kink modes. The eigenmode solution, using appropriate equilibrium profiles, allows an assessment of the local MRT growth rate and of the instantaneous feedthrough factor during the entire implosion process. Of particular interest will be the high convergence/stagnation phase, which is difficult to image experimentally. Strong axial magnetic fields can mitigate feedthrough and MRT growth, which may be useful at the fuel/liner interface during this phase of the MagLIF implosion. For the MRT growth rate and feedthrough factors, the LLNL code, HYDRA, is used to benchmark with the analytic theory, and with experiments on the Z-machine. This work was supported by DoE and NSF.

  5. Diagnosing Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated DD fusion neutron yields above 1012 and effective confinement of charged fusion products by the flux-compressed magnetic field signaled by >1010 secondary DT neutrons. The neutron diagnostics are complemented by an extensive suite of visible and x-ray diagnostics providing power, imaging, and spectroscopic data. This talk will present analyses of emission and absorption features from the imploding and stagnating plasma that provide a consistent picture of the magnetic drive and the temperatures, densities, mix, and gradients in the fuel and liner at stagnation. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  7. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  8. X-ray variability in AGN: LINER vs. Seyfert 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Lorena; Masegosa, Josefa; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Marquez, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Although variability is a general property characterizing active galactic nuclei (AGN), it is not well stablished if the changes occur in the same way in every nuclei . The main purpose of this work is to study the X-ray variability pattern(s) in low luminosity AGN in a large sample, including 18 low ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs) and 26 type 2 Seyferts (Sy2), using the public archives in Chandra and/or XMM-Newton. Spectra of the same source gathered at different epochs were simultaneously fitted to study long term variations, whereas the variability patterns were studied allowing different parameters to vary during the spectral fit. Whenever possible, short term variations from the analysis of the light curves and long term UV flux variability were studied. Short term variations are not found at X-rays, but variations in timescales of months/years is very common in both families. The main driver of the long term X-ray variations seems to be related to changes in the nuclear power in both LINERs and Sy2, but other variability patterns cannot be discarded in a few cases, because changes of the column density or at soft energies are also found. The X-ray variations occur in the same way in LINERs and type 2 Seyferts, i.e., related to the nuclear continuum, but they might have different accretion mechanisms. As absorption variations and changing-look sources are not observed in LINERs, but UV nuclear variations are common, we speculate that the BLR and the torus might disappear in these sources.

  9. NEW APPROACHES: A hot air balloon from dustbin liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nicholas

    1998-07-01

    This article describes how a simple hot air balloon, inflated by a hair dryer, can be made out of household bin liners and Sellotape. It can be used at sixth-form level as an application of the ideal gas equation, = constant, and is rather more exciting than heated pistons. It gives a taste of a simple engineering design process, although the students do have to be reasonably adept at geometry and algebra.

  10. External Acoustic Liners for Multi-Functional Aircraft Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic liners for aircraft noise reduction include one or more chambers that are configured to provide a pressure-release surface such that the engine noise generation process is inhibited and/or absorb sound by converting the sound into heat energy. The size and shape of the chambers can be selected to inhibit the noise generation process and/or absorb sound at selected frequencies.

  11. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  12. Friction and wear behaviour of self lubricating bearing liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Russell

    The thesis describes a numerical model for evaluating the variation of friction and wear of a self lubricating bearing liner over its useful wear life. Self-lubricating bearings have been in widespread use since the mid-1950s, particularly in the aerospace industry where they have the advantage of being low maintenance components. They are commonly used in relatively low speed, reciprocating applications such as control surface actuators, and usually consist of a spherical bearing with the inner and outer elements separated by a composite textile resin-bonded liner. A finite element model has been developed to predict the local stiffness of a particular liner at different states of wear. Results obtained using the model were used to predict the overall friction coefficient as it evolves due to wear, which is a novel approach. Experimental testing was performed on a bespoke flat-on-flat wear test rig with a reciprocating motion to validate the results of the friction model.. These tests were carried out on a commercially-available bearing liner, predominantly at a high contact pressure and an average sliding speed of 0.2 ms-1. Good agreement between predicted and experimentally measured wear was obtained when appropriate coefficients of friction were used in the friction model, and when the reciprocating sliding distance was above a critical value. A numerical wear model was also developed to predict the trend of backlash development in real bearing geometries using a novel approach. Results from the wear model were validated against full-scale bearing tests carried out elsewhere by the sponsoring company. Good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental results for the first 80% of the bearing wear life, and explanations for the discrepancy during the last 20% of the wear life have been proposed..

  13. The Radio Properties of Composite LINER/HII Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, M E; Ho, L C; Filho, Mercedes E.; Barthel, Peter D.; Ho, Luis C.

    2002-01-01

    Arcsec-resolution VLA observations -- newly obtained as well as published -- of 40 nearby galaxies are discussed, completing a study of the radio properties of a magnitude-limited sample of nearby galaxies of the composite LINER/HII type. Our results reveal an overall detection rate of at least 25% AGN candidates among these composite sources. The general properties of these AGN candidates, as compared to non-AGN composite sources and HII galaxies, are discussed.

  14. Suffocation caused by plastic wrap covering the face combined with nitrous oxide inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Suicide using a combination of a plastic bag over the head and inhalation of a non-irritating gas, such as helium, argon or nitrogen, has been reported in the literature. Here an unusual suicide method in a 17-year old man by suffocation from covering the face with household plastic wrap, combined...... with headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (headspace-GCMS). The cause of death was assumed to be suffocation caused by plastic wrap covering the face, combined with nitrous oxide inhalation. Suicide was suspected because of a history of depression for several months. Nitrous oxide, also known...... as laughing gas, has a euphoric effect and is used as a recreational inhalant drug that can be purchased legally. Deaths caused by recreational nitrous oxide abuse are rare but may occur if used in combination with a plastic bag over the head. This is the first report of suicide by suffocation by external...

  15. Impact of consolidation pressure on contaminant migration in clay liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong ZHANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation deformation occurs in clay liners under the self-weight of wastes at a simple garbage dump or dredged sediment dump, which leads to a decrease in the porosity. However, the migration of contaminants in clay liners is influenced by the porosity. Thus, the impact of consolidation deformation of clay liners on the migration of contaminants cannot be ignored. Based on Biot’s consolidation theory, the contaminant migration theory, and consideration of the three kinds of migration mechanisms of convection, diffusion, and adsorption, a one-dimensional migration model of contaminants in deforming porous media was established, and the finite difference method was adopted to obtain the numerical solutions for an established initial-boundary value problem. The impact of consolidation pressure on the migration law of a contaminant was studied. The results show that, regardless of adsorption modes, different consolidation pressures have similar impacts on the migration law of the contaminant. Namely, over a certain migration time, the greater the consolidation pressure is, the smaller the migration depth of the contaminant. The results also show that, while the migration time increases, the impact of a certain increment of consolidation pressure on the variation of contaminant concentration with the depth increases gradually and, while the migration depth increases, the impact of a certain increment of consolidation pressure on the variation of the contaminant concentration with time increases gradually.

  16. X-ray Measurements of Laser Irradiated Foam Filled Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Siddharth; Mariscal, Derek; Goyon, Clement; Baker, Kevin; MacLaren, Stephan; Hammer, Jim; Baumann, Ted; Amendt, Peter; Menapace, Joseph; Berger, Bob; Afeyan, Bedros; Tabak, Max; Dixit, Sham; Kim, Sung Ho; Moody, John; Jones, Ogden

    2016-10-01

    Low-density foam liners are being investigated as sources of efficient x-rays. Understanding the laser-foam interaction is key to modeling and optimizing foam composition and density for x-ray production with reduced backscatter. We report on the experimental results of laser-irradiated foam liners filled with SiO2 and Ta2O5 foams at densities between 2 to 30mg/cc. The foam liners consist of polyimide tubes filled with low-density foams and sealed with a gold foil at one end. The open end of the tube is driven with 250J of 527nm laser light in a 2ns 2-step pulse using the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL. A full aperture backscatter system is used to diagnose the coupled energy and losses. A streaked x-ray camera and filtered x-ray pinhole cameras are used to measure laser penetration into the low-density foam for different mass densities. A HOPG crystal spectrometer is used to estimate a thermal electron temperature. Comparisons with beam propagation and x-ray emission simulations are presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, with funding support from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program under project 15.

  17. 3D printed liner for treatment of periprosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won B; Lopez, Osvaldo J; Sharkey, Jillian P; Marden, Kyle R; Murshed, Muhammad Ridwan; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, long standing deep infections of joint arthroplasty, such as total knee and total hip replacements, are treated with two-stage exchange. This requires the removal of the prior implant, placement of an antibiotic eluting spacer block made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), followed by re-implantation of a new implant after treatment with intravenous antibiotics for six to eight weeks. Unfortunately, the use of PMMA as a spacer material has limitations in terms of mechanical and drug-eluting properties. PMMA is brittle and elutes most of the antibiotics within the first few days. Furthermore, the polymerization reaction for PMMA is highly exothermic, thereby limiting the use to heat-stable antibiotics. We hypothesize that the use of a 3D printed polymeric liner made of polylactic acid (PLA) would overcome the limitations of PMMA because it is a stronger and a less brittle material than PMMA. Furthermore, the liner can also act as a controlled drug delivery vehicle by using built in reservoirs and a network of micro-channels as well as by incorporating antibiotics directly into the polymer during manufacturing stage. Finally, the liner can be 3D printed according to the anatomy of the patient and thereby has the potential to transform the manner in which periprosthetic joint infections are currently treated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental progress toward magnetized liner inertial fusion on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinars, Daniel; Herrmann, Mark; Cuneo, Michael; Lamppa, Derek; Lopez, Andrew; McBride, Ryan; Rovang, Dean; Hanson, David; Harding, Eric; Nakhleh, Charles; Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Sefkow, Adam; Peterson, Kyle

    2011-10-01

    Yields exceeding 100 kJ may be possible on the 25 MA Z facility at Sandia using the implosion of cylindrical metal liners onto magnetized (>10 T) and preheated (100-500 eV) deuterium-tritium fuel [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The fusion fuel in such targets absorbs about 100 kJ, so a 100 kJ yield would be `scientific breakeven.' Suitable liner targets (Al and Be) have been fabricated and used in experiments on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Magnetic field coil prototypes for >10 T axial fields are being tested. Preheat experiments using the multi-kJ Z-Beamlet laser are planned. Cryogenic deuterium fuel systems have been developed. Integrated magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) tests using deuterium fuel are expected in 2013. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-01

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  20. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  1. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  2. Increased tubing lifetime with PE-X liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haager, Markus [AGRU Kunststofftechnik GmbH, Bad Hall (Austria)

    2011-12-15

    Tubing failures are still one of the most common and expensive ones in sucker rod pump and progressive cavity pump installations. In many cases the actual cause of tubing failure is a synergistic effect of the rods wearing on the tubing wall (abrasion) coupled with an electrochemical attack (corrosion). To increase the lifetime of tubings as well as the average time betweenworkovers and thus reduce production costs the R and D project ''Lined Tubing'' was initiated by the Austrian oil and gas company OMV and the polymer producer Borealis. The conducted research facilitated a better understanding of the abrasion caused by the contact of couplings with the thermoplastic tubing liners. Altogether 19 different thermoplastic materials were evaluated. Combining all available results it was concluded that tubing liners made from cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) provide the most efficient solution. Thus, this new technology was patented under WO 2009/080556 [1]. Up to today more than 250 oil wells operating with sucker rod pumps and progressive cavity pumps were equipped with tubing liners by OMV (Austria), PETROM (Romania) and RAG (Austria). Statistical evaluations clearly showed the benefits of significantly increased running times which result in reduced maintenance and production costs. (orig.)

  3. Method of minimizing liner expansion issues in horizontal thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.; Cavender, T. [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study reviewed well casing and liner applications used in a variety of thermal recovery operations such as steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), steam flooding, multilateral injection, and steam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in depleted cold heavy-oil production with sand (CHOPS) recovery methods. Completion casing and liners are typically deployed at relatively low downhole temperature conditions. Subsequent steam injection then causes downhole temperatures to increase, causing thermal expansion in downhole tubulars and other components. The thermal stresses can result in tubular buckling and parting. Providing room for expansion when downhole components are heated can reduce the risk of failures. This study discussed a temperature-activated travel joint designed to function as a static pup joint or casing collar. The device transmits full torque and tensile strength when temperatures remain below a predetermined value. When steam or other thermal fluids are introduced into the well, thermal expansion devices are activated in order to allow the thermal expansion of adjacent components without associated thermal expansion-related stresses. Tests conducted to validate the design showed that the technology can be used with slotted liner and sand screen applications as well as with concentric tubing configurations. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Fruit quality of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon fruits bagged with different types of packings/ Qualidade de frutos de caqui ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes embalagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The bagging technique of fruits comes being used by many producers, aiming at the fruit quality, reduction of application of agro toxics and reduction of the damages caused by insects and diseases. The present work evaluated the quality of bagging fruits of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon with different types of bags. The experiment was lead in the orchard of Japanese persimmon of the Experimental Farm of the Canguiri of the UFPR, located in Pinhais-PR. The fertilization and the management of the orchard were entirely organic. The treatments had been: microperforated plastic bag, brown kraft paper bag, butter-like paper bag, newspaper bag and without bagging. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with five replicates, being each plant considered a block. Each parcel was composed by 20 fruits. The bagging was made after the physiological fall of the young fruits, distributing the types of bags aleatorely inside each plant. The evaluation was 77 days after bagging, verifying the number of fruits harvested, mass of the fruits, diameter of the fruits, number of fruits in each category of maturation, number of fruits attacked with Schyzothyrium pomi and soluble solids content. The results were significant only in the incidence of S. pomi and in the percentage of coloration of the fruits. The bagging with newspaper and brown kraft bags reduced the incidence of S. Pomi and the color of fruits. The size and the soluble solids content were not affected by bagging.A técnica de ensacamento de frutos vem sendo utilizadas por muitos produtores, visando a melhor qualidade de frutos, redução de aplicação de agrotóxicos e diminuição dos danos provocados por pragas e doenças. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade de frutos de caquizeiro ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes tipos de embalagens. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar de caquizeiro da Fazenda Experimental do Canguiri da UFPR, localizada em Pinhais-PR. A adubação e o manejo do

  5. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  6. Fusion Reactor and Break-Even Experiment Based on Stabilized Liner Compression of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Peter; Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael

    2016-10-01

    An optimum regime, known as magnetized-target or magneto-inertial fusion (MTF/MIF), requires magnetic fields at megagauss levels, which are attainable by use of dynamic conductors called liners. The stabilized liner compressor (SLC) provides the basis for controlled implosion and re-capture of the liner for reversible energy exchange between liner kinetic energy and the internal energy of a magnetized-plasma target. This exchange requires rotational stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor modes on the inner surface of the liner and pneumatically driven free-pistons that eliminate such modes at the outer surface. We discuss the implications of the SLC approach for the power reactor, a breakeven experiment, and intermediate experiments to develop the plasma target. Features include the importance of pneumatic drive and the liner-blanket for economic feasibility of MTF/MIF. Supported by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  7. Comparative evaluation of 2% sodium fluoride iontophoresis and other cavity liners beneath silver amalgam restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare 2% sodium fluoride (NaF iontophoresis with other cavity liners. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 30 patients in the age group 10-14 years with bilateral carious permanent first molars. The study evaluated the use of 2% NaF iontophoresis as a cavity liner and also compared its desensitizing effect with varnish and an adhesive bonded liner. Sensitivity gradings were done on a subjective verbal rating scale. Results: All the liner treatments decreased the sensitivity following liner application. However, decrease of sensitivity in the case of 2% NaF iontophoresis was more compared with that of varnish and adhesive bonded liner. The results were statistically significant. Conclusions: It was found that 2% NaF iontophoresis was more effective in reducing the postoperative sensitivity compared with that of varnish and scotchbond multipurpose.

  8. Fabrication of Machined and Shrink Fitted Impactor; Composite Liners for the Los Alamos HEDP Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, B.

    1999-10-19

    Composite liners have been fabricated for the Los Alamos liner driven HEDP experiments using impactors formed by physical vapor deposition (PVD), electroplating, machining and shrink fitting. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been proposed for some ATLAS liner applications. This paper describes the processes used to fabricate machined and shrink fitted impactors which have been used for copper impactors in 1100 aluminum liners and 6061 T-6 aluminum impactors in 1100 aluminum liners. The most successful processes have been largely empirically developed and rely upon a combination of shrink fitted and light press fitting. The processes used to date will be described along with some considerations for future composite liners requirements in the HEDP Program.

  9. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    sources of liner shipping for OR researchers in general. We describe and analyze the liner-shipping domain applied to network design and present a rich integer programming model based on services that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. We prove the liner-shipping network design...... problem to be strongly NP-hard. A benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network is presented. The design of the benchmark suite is discussed in relation to industry standards, business rules, and mathematical programming. The data are based on real......The liner-shipping network design problem is to create a set of nonsimple cyclic sailing routes for a designated fleet of container vessels that jointly transports multiple commodities. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport while minimizing the costs of operation...

  10. A Matheuristic for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Karsten, Christian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the liner shipping network design problem with transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. We extend an existing matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem to consider transit time restrictions. The matheuristic is an improvement heuristic, where...... on the benchmark suite LINER-LIB are reported, showing profitable networks for most instances. We provide insights on causes for rejecting demand and the average speed per vessel class in the solutions obtained....

  11. Effect of liner and porcelain application on zirconia surface structure and composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq F Alghazzawi; Gregg M Janowski

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an effect of liner and porcelain application (layering and pressing techniques) on the surface of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP), which were exposed to permutations of liner, layered porcelain, and pressed porcelain. Scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was used to identify changes in composition and microstructure after removing liner and porcelain with hydrofluoric acid. Simulated aging was also conducted to determine the effect of liner and porcelain on low-temperature degradation. The control group had a typical equiaxed grain structure, referred to as unaffected. When covered with liner or porcelain, some areas changed in structure and composition and were termed affected. The frequency of affected structure decreased when liner was covered with either layered porcelain or pressed porcelain. There were statistical differences (Po0.05) in the composition between affected and unaffected for zirconium (layered porcelain with liner:affected=60%(0.8%) (m/m), unaffected=69%(4%), layered porcelain without liner:affected=59%(3%), unaffected=65%(3%)) and oxygen (layered porcelain with liner:affected=35%(2%), unaffected=26%(4%), layered porcelain without liner:affected=35%(3%), unaffected=30%(2%)). However, there were statistical differences (Po0.05) in the composition for zirconium and oxygen of the aged layered porcelain without liner only. The liner should not be used before porcelain application, especially when using the layering technique for zirconia restorations. Furthermore, pressing should be considered the technique of choice over layering.

  12. Dynamical Process of Liner Implosion in the Electromagnetic Flux Compression for Ultra-high Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of magnetic fields that are generated by the electromagnetic flux compression technique is investigated, with emphasis on the dynamical processes of an imploding liner. By comparing with the results of computer simulations, we found that the non-uniform implosion of a liner is important in order to explain the magnetic field's distribution during the liner's implosion. In addition, our results suggest that the initial inwards compressing spool-like motion of the liner subsequently turns out to be outwards stretching barrel-like motion along the magnetic field axis.

  13. Development of reduced drag concepts for acoustic liners using experimental methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Commercial aircraft have used acoustic liners to reduce engine noise for many years, although their drag production has been largely unstudied. The next generation of aircraft may benefit from additional surface area covered by acoustic liner, thus understanding their drag production mechanism is crucial for future designs. An accurate direct aerodynamic drag measurement technique has been developed using a force balance with linear air bearings. Using 3D-printed and conventional liners, low-drag designs are being developed. This paper will investigate the underlying fluid mechanics governing the drag production in acoustic liners and describe new attempts to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  14. Analysis of diffusion-adsorption equivalency of landfill liner systems for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Ke, Han; Tang, Xiaowu; Chen, Renpeng

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence between multilayered barriers regarding diffusion and adsorption was studied. The bottom boundary of the liner system is defined by assuming concentration continuous and flux continuous conditions of the contaminant between the bottom liner layer and the underlying soil. Five different liner systems were compared in terms of solute breakthrough time. The results of the analysis showed that breakthrough time of the hydrophobic organic compounds for a 2-meter-thick compacted clay liner (CCL) could be 3-4 orders of magnitude is greater than the breakthrough time for a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) composite liner. The GM/GCL and GM/CCL composite liner systems provide a better diffusion barrier for the hydrophilic organic compounds than that for the hydrophobic compounds due to their different Henry's coefficient. The calculated breakthrough times of the organic contaminants for the Chinese standard liner systems were found to be generally greater than those for the GCL alternatives, for the specific conditions examined. If the distribution coefficient increases to 2.8 for the hydrophobic compounds or 1.0 for the hydrophilic compounds, the thickness of the attenuation layer needed to achieve the same breakthrough time as the standard liner systems can be reduced by a factor of about 1.9-2.4. As far as diffusive and adsorption contaminant transport are concerned, GM or GCL is less effective than CCL.

  15. Analysis of diffusion-adsorption equivalency of landfill liner systems for organic contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Haijian; CHEN Yunmin; KE Han; TANG Xiaowu; CHEN Renpeng

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence between multilayered barriers regarding diffusion and adsorption is analyzed by means of an analytical method. The bottom boundary of the liner system is defined by assuming concentration continuous and flux continuous conditions of the contaminant between the bottom liner layer and the underlying soil. Five different liner systems were compared in terms of solute breakthrough time. The results of the analysis show that breakthrough time of the hydrophobic organic compounds for a 2-meter-thick compacted clay liner (CCL) can be 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than the breakthrough time for a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) composite liner. The GM/GCL and GM/CCL composite liner systems provide a better diffusion barrier for the hydrophilic organic compounds than that for the hydrophobic compounds due to their different Henry's coefficient. The calculated breakthrough times of the organic contaminants for the Chinese standard liner systems were found to be generally greater than those for the GCL alternatives, for the specific conditions examined. If the distribution coefficient increases to 2.8 for the hydrophobic compounds or 1.0 for the hydrophilic compounds, the thickness of the attenuation layer needed to achieve the same breakthrough time as the standard liner systems can be reduced by a factor of about 1.9-2.4. As far as diffusive and adsorption contaminant transport are concerned, GM or GCL is less effective than CCL.

  16. Efficiency of pulse high-current generator energy transfer into plasma liner energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency of capacitor-bank energy transfer from a high-current pulse generator into kinetic energy of a plasma liner has been analyzed. The analysis was performed using a model including the circuit equations and equations of the cylindrical shell motion. High efficiency of the energy transfer into kinetic energy of the liner is shown to be achieved only by a low-inductance generator. We considered an "ideal" liner load in which the load current is close to zero in the final of the shell compression. This load provides a high (up to 80%) efficiency of energy transfer and higher stability when compressing the liner.

  17. A greedy construction heuristic for the liner service network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    The Liner Service Network Design Problem (LSN-DP) is the problem of constructing a set of routes for a heterogeneous vessel fleet of a global liner shipping operator. Routes in the liner shipping context are non-simple, cyclic routes constructed for a specific vessel type. The problem...... is challenging due to the size of a global liner shipping operation and due to the hub-and-spoke network design, where a high percentage of the total cargo is transshipped. We present the first construction heuristic for large scale instances of the LSN-DP. The heuristic is able to find a solution for a real...

  18. Preliminary Study on The Potential of Hybrid Rice Husk with Kapok Fiber and Hybrid Rice Husk with Coconut Fiber as Landfill Liner Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azwa Muhamad Bashar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of agricultural waste in Malaysia namely rice husk (RH, kapok fiber (KF and coconut fiber (CF has been increasing over the years. This cause disposal problem and air pollution problem from burning activity. In line with the Malaysian Government Policy on the application of green technology concept through the 5R's practice, this agricultural waste has a potential to be commercialized as material for landfill liner. A factor that governs the workability of landfill liner materials is the permeability should be less than 1x10-9 m/s. Therefore, a low permeability material needs to be installed to minimise the environmental impact on the leachate intrusion into groundwater. A series of standard tests to find environmental and geotechnical properties such as atterberg limit test (liquid limit, plastic limit, compaction test, permeability test (falling head method, leachate characteristics and heavy metal test were conducted at various ratio of hybrid materials (KC:RH and KC: CF in the ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Experimental results confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity of the mixture of KC:RH:KF in the ratio of 1:1:1 is 7.29 x 10-11 m/s was less than 10-9 m/s, satisfying the requirement for landfill liner materials. Heavy metal testing showed that this hybrid material (RH:KF and RH:CF for ratio 1:2 were able to reduce at least 50 % of the leachate contaminants. The proposed hybrid materials (RH:KF and RH:CF is a green material for the landfill (as it can improve heavy metal adsorption, increase the workability of the landfill by improving the conductivity of the conventional liners, minimizing manpower on site (no need expertise for installation and reduction in cost (in terms of the use of waste materials.

  19. AdBagging:自适应抽样参数在线装袋算法%AdBagging: adaptive sampling parameters online bagging algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小斌; 李世银

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the concept drift problem in data stream classification, a new algorithm based on online bagging algorithm named adaptive lambda bagging algorithm (AdBagging) is introduced. The new algorithm dynamically adjusts the sampling parameters of Poisson distribution in online bagging algorithm based on the number of misclassified samples in data stream classification. Through this procedure the new algorithm could give more attention to the misclassified samples and give little attention to the right classified samples. At the same time the learning weight of samples for algorithm can be adjusted according to the temporal order. So the algorithm could solve the concept drift problem in data stream classification. Experiments on synthesize and real data sets prove that the algorithm is effective.%通过对数据流分类中的概念漂移问题的研究,提出了一种在线装袋(Online Bagging)算法的改进算法——自适应抽样参数的在线装袋算法AdBagging(adaptive lambda bagging).利用在分类过程中出现的误分样本数量来调整Online Bagging算法中的泊松(Poisson)分布的抽样参数,从而可以动态调整新样本在学习器中的权重,即对于数据流中的误分类样本给予较高的学习权重因子,而对于正确分类的样本给予较低的学习权重因子,同时结合样本出现的时间顺序调整权重因子,使得集成分类器可以动态调整其多样性(adversity).该算法具有Online Bagging算法的高效简洁优点,并能解决数据流中具有概念漂移的问题,人工数据集和实际数据集上的实验结果表明了该算法的有效性.

  20. Vector interaction enhanced bag model for astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klahn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For quark matter studies in astrophysics the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG) has been widely used. Despite its success it fails to account for various phenomena expected from Quantum-Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). We suggest a straightforward extension of tdBAG in order to take the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry and the influence of vector interactions explicitly into account. As for tdBAG the model mimics confinement in a phenomenological approach. It is based on an analysis of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density. Furthermore, we demonstrate how NJL and bag models in this regime follow from the more general and QCD based framework of Dyson-Schwinger (DS) equations in medium by assuming a simple gluon contact interaction. Based on our simple and novel model, we construct quark hadron hybrid equations of state (EoS) and study systematically chiral and deconfinement phase transitions, the appearance of $s$-quarks and the role of vector interaction. We further study these aspects for matter in b...

  1. Determining biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled and natural composting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of recently promulgated Government regulations on plastics in Mauritius, a study was initiated to examine the biodegradability of two different types of plastic, namely Willow Ridge Plastics - PDQ-H additive (Plastic A) and Ecosafe Plastic - TDPA additive (Plastic B) under controlled and natural composting environments. The results obtained from the controlled composting environment showed that the cumulative carbon dioxide evolution for Plastic A was much higher than that for Plastic B. Plastic A therefore showed a higher level of biodegradation in terms of CO2 evolution than Plastic B. However, from the regression analysis, it was found that the level of CO2 varying with time fitted the sigmoid type curves with very high correlation coefficients (R2 values: 0.9928, 0.9921 and 0.9816, for reference material, inoculum and Plastic A, respectively). The corresponding F-values obtained from the ANOVA analysis together with significance levels of pbiodegradability experiment were significant. The other experiment was undertaken to observe any physical change of Plastics A and B as compared to a reference plastic, namely, compostable plastic bag (Mater-Bi product-Plastic C), when exposed to a natural composting environment. Thermophilic temperatures were obtained for about 3-5 days of composting and the moisture content was in the range of 60-80% throughout the degradation process. It was observed that after 55 days of composting, Plastic C degraded completely while Plastic A and Plastic B did not undergo any significant degradation. It can be concluded that naturally based plastic made of starch would degrade completely in a time frame of 60 days, whereas plastics with biodegradable additive would require a longer time.

  2. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  4. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Bagged RBF Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with radial basis function classifier as the base learner. The proposed bagged radial basis function is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  6. Failure analysis of retrieved PE-UHMW acetabular liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Anna; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Duscher, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) acetabular liners have a limited lifespan in a patient's body. There are many factors affecting the performance of the implant and furthermore the properties of the polymeric material are changing after implantation. In this work material changes according to structure and morphology and their implication on mechanical properties are in focus. The physical and mechanical properties of ten crosslinked (xL) PE-UHMW and nine conventional (conv) gamma-sterilized PE-UHMW hip components, used as sliding surface in total hip joint replacement, with different in-vivo times are compared. The evaluation of the retrieved acetabular liners is performed in view of crosslinking and conventional gamma-sterilization but also in terms of the influence of gender concerning alteration in properties. The oxidative degradation in the PE-UHMW is investigated by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization of the morphology is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A depth profile of the micro-hardness and elastic modulus is taken over the cross-section of the components in order to find the influence of chemical constitution and morphology on the micro-mechanical properties. It could be shown that crosslinking and oxidative degradation influence the degree of crystallinity of the polymer. Oxidation occurs for both types of the material due to in-vivo time. Higher degree of crystallinity can be correlated to higher hardness and indentation modulus. No unequivocal superiority of crosslinked over conventional liners can be observed. The influence of sex concerning alteration of the evaluated properties matters but need to be further investigated.

  7. Case histories : implementation of new liner hanger technology in south central Venezuela significantly improves operations in complex wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Soto, S.; Leon, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Marval, P.; Schoener-Scott, M. [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Liner hangers are used in deep drilling operations to eliminate the need for full casing strings. However, conventional liner-hanger system do not always permit tool rotation, and liner-hanger failures can result in the complete loss of the wellbore. This study discussed an expandable liner hanger designed to withstand aggressive reaming as well as drilling to depths. Three case histories of wells located in southern Venezuela were used to compare the use of traditional and expandable liner hanger systems. The studies considered liner weight, and the pressure differentials caused by the use of positive seals. The study showed that conventional liner systems are not suited to the extreme environments of the Venezuelan heavy oil reserves. Multiple leak paths were observed. The expandable liner system provided a gas-tight seal, improved flow paths, and reduced the need for remedial cement jobs. It was concluded that use of the expandable systems also increased worker safety. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  8. The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David

    2016-01-01

    In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port...... berth times are only accepted if they lead to savings above a threshold value. Since the fuel consumption of a vessel is a non-linear convex function of the speed, it is approximated by a piecewise linear function. The developed model is solved using exact methods in less than two minutes for large...

  9. Refractory Metal Liner Processing for M242 Medium Caliber Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    tapping a hole in the top end of the load rod. 6 3. Liner and Barrel Dimensions Several GLEEM experiments had previously been conducted with a...the load rod had been inserted with tapped end next to the elastomer, which extruded into the hole. During the next pass with the 20-in load rod, the...Load release occurred at a rate of 15 kip/min. The gun tube was then inverted and a fifth pass attempted. For this pass, straps were applied to the

  10. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  11. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Efremov, A. V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Schweitzer, P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Yuan, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  12. A PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPIL’S SCHOOL BAG

    OpenAIRE

    Živorad Marković; Dragoljub Višnjić; Milovan Stamatović; Goran Šekeljić

    2012-01-01

    There are more researches which deal with the ratio between body weight and school bag which in most cases on all continents overpasses the weight of 10% of pupils’ total weight, which indicates that recommendations of World Health Organization are not followed. World Health Organization proposed that maximal weight which could be carried by children should not be higher than 10% of their body weight. The weight of a school bag that children carry to school every day is from 4.0 to 7.7 kilos ...

  13. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell, J., and S. Thompson (2008): “Predicting the Equity Premium Out of Sample: Can Anything Beat the Historical Average?”, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1511-1531, we show that we can improve the forecast performance further...

  14. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  15. [Comparative study of the antimicrobial effect of various cavity liners used in conservative dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumarola Suñé, J; Espias Gómez, A; Canalda Sahli, C

    1989-01-01

    We have compared the microbiological activity of the following cavity liners: Life, Dycal II, Calcipulpe, Pure calcium hydroxide and Cavitec; against five different bacterial strains: Veillonella parvula, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus s.p., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus beta hemolytic: The results demonstrate the higher antimicrobial activity of the manufactured cavity liners with calcium hydroxide base in comparison with the pure calcium hydroxide.

  16. Evaluation of a Variable-Impedance Ceramic Matrix Composite Acoustic Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of significant progress in the reduction of fan and jet noise, there is growing concern regarding core noise. One method for achieving core noise reduction is via the use of acoustic liners. However, these liners must be constructed with materials suitable for high temperature environments and should be designed for optimum absorption of the broadband core noise spectrum. This paper presents results of tests conducted in the NASA Langley Liner Technology Facility to evaluate a variable-impedance ceramic matrix composite acoustic liner that offers the potential to achieve each of these goals. One concern is the porosity of the ceramic matrix composite material, and whether this might affect the predictability of liners constructed with this material. Comparisons between two variable-depth liners, one constructed with ceramic matrix composite material and the other constructed via stereolithography, are used to demonstrate this material porosity is not a concern. Also, some interesting observations are noted regarding the orientation of variable-depth liners. Finally, two propagation codes are validated via comparisons of predicted and measured acoustic pressure profiles for a variable-depth liner.

  17. Evaluation of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of variable-depth geometry on the amount of noise reduction that can be achieved with acoustic liners. Results for two variable-depth liners tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube demonstrate significant broadband noise reduction. An impedance prediction model is combined with two propagation codes to predict corresponding sound pressure level profiles over the length of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The comparison of measured and predicted sound pressure level profiles is sufficiently favorable to support use of these tools for investigation of a number of proposed variable-depth liner configurations. Predicted sound pressure level profiles for these proposed configurations reveal a number of interesting features. Liner orientation clearly affects the sound pressure level profile over the length of the liner, but the effect on the total attenuation is less pronounced. The axial extent of attenuation at an individual frequency continues well beyond the location where the liner depth is optimally tuned to the quarter-wavelength of that frequency. The sound pressure level profile is significantly affected by the way in which variable-depth segments are distributed over the length of the liner. Given the broadband noise reduction capability for these liner configurations, further development of impedance prediction models and propagation codes specifically tuned for this application is warranted.

  18. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP model for handling disruptions in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Dirksen, Jakob; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    Containerized transport by liner shipping companies is a multi billion dollar industry carrying a major part of the world trade between suppliers and customers. The liner shipping industry has come under stress in the last few years due to the economic crisis, increasing fuel costs, and capacity...

  19. Characteristics of Sulfuric Acid Condensation on Cylinder Liners of Large Two-Stroke Marine Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Mayer, Stefan; Schramm, Jesper;

    The present work seeks to clarify the characteristics of sulfuric acid condensation on the cylinder liner of a large two–stroke marine engine. The liner is directly exposed to the cylin-der gas (i.e. no protective lube oil film) and is represented by a constant temperature over the full stroke...

  20. Recyclability of mixed office waste papers containing pressure sensitive adhesives and silicone release liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Hess; Roberta Sena-Gomes; Lisa Davie; Marguerite Sykes

    2001-01-01

    Increased use of pressure sensitive adhesives for labels and stamps has introduced another contaminant into the office paper stream: silicone- coated release liners. This study examines methods and conditions for removal of contaminants, including these liners, from a typical batch of discarded office papers. Removal of contaminants contained in the furnish were...