WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic ammunition containers

  1. Test Plan Development for Plastic Ammunition Containers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    122 xii TEST PLAN DEVELOPMENT FOR PLASTIC AM4MINITION CONTAINERS - VOLUME I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project...11 LA 00 Li C:0 z CP -0 133 0( LIE r r ’ D2 U)~ E C IP a g 0- L) LaLn 4’ MOIAIV3H-Q3.~f-trCYin, 20o Tabla 6-D Performance Prediction Model 155ram

  2. Concept of Field Storage of Ammunition and Explosives in 20’ Standard Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    eksplosiv- stoffer. Forsvarets Eksplosivstofkommission, Denmark 1990. 13 Tecnical Data Package, Quickload Program, Storing mixed ammunition in conex container. Project Manager, Ammunition Logistics, AMCPM-AL NJ, USA 1991.

  3. Study of gunshot residues from Sintox® ammunition containing marking substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Polovková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of factory marked Sintox® ammunition were investigated from the composition of gunshot residue particles (GSR and occurrence of marking substance points of view. The experiments were carried out with two cartridges of caliber 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 Parabellum of two producers (Ruag Ammotec, Switzerland and Men, Germany. The first cartridge (type Action 4, Ruag Ammotec contains gadolinium as a marking element, while the other cartridge (type PEP II, Men is marked with gallium in gunpowder. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDAX analyzer (SEM/EDX was used to detect and analyze the GSR particles in samples collected from the cartridges, barrels and shooter’s hands. Besides those, particles from the hit clothes placed at different shooting distances were collected and analyzed. The spreading of GSR cloud from the gun was observed using the high-speed camera. Results obtained clearly revealed that the way of ammunition production/construction and type of marking of ammunition can significantly influence the presence and detection reliability of marking elements in GSR. The detectability is affected also by the shooting distance.

  4. Steel Ammunition Bins, MIL-STD-l66O Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on steel ammunition bins with newly-designed plywood lids for use in the...transportation of hazardous waste. This report contains test results of the steel ammunition bins with plywood lids meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, test procedures.

  5. Sustainable Ammunition Safety (SAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hooijmeijer, P.; Harmelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, no national industry in the field of energetic materials / ammunition for military applications is available. The knowledge of explosives, ammunition and ammunition on the vulnerability of platforms is limited, first to Defence regarding the logistical and operational practice an

  6. Urban Trash Containers Made of Recycled Plastic Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto Ledur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost and easy-to-handle manufacturing procedure for urban trash containers, made of recycled plastic lumber, was developed focusing on the following aspects: materials selection, materials compounding, plastic sheet manufacturing and mechanical testing, urban trash container design and assembly, and a pilot test. The material, a composite of polyethylene (PE urban waste, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA industrial waste and calcium carbonate, was prepared in a Drais batch mixer. The mixture was hot compression molded as rectangular-shaped sheets of 900 mm length, 600 mm width and 12 mm or 7 mm thickness. These sheets were characterized with regard to mechanical properties, microstructure and UV resistance. An urban trash container prototype was prepared from the plastic sheets and a hundred trash containers were submitted to a pilot test. All the steps, material compounding, plastic sheet processing, and trash container design and manufacturing were optimized in order to give the required physico-mechanical properties, functional characteristics and finish of the urban trash containers.

  7. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition.

  8. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  9. Environmentally Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-31

    typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents. Although highly effective, these heavy metal compounds have been...contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the EPA itself, barium compounds are generally regarded as toxic and likewise should...contains the lead styphnate based FA956 composition2 which is a typical formulation of conventional military ammunition percussion primers. The

  10. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  11. Environmental Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    percussion primers typically consist of lead styphnate and antimony sulfide. Although highly effective, these heavy material compounds were identified under...Percussion primers, including those used in medium caliber ammunition, typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents...Furthermore, current percussion primer compositions also contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the Environmental Protection

  12. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  14. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaudo, C B; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Bianchi, C; Verdier, M

    1993-06-01

    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied. Stedim 6, is anew multilayer film whose inner layer is made of polyethylene. The drugs were in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions and the influence of these was also considered. The remaining concentrations of each drug were determined at regular time intervals in a 24-h period, by a spectrofluorometric method for chlorpromazine hydrochloride and by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods for the other drugs. No binding was observed for viloxazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides whatever the infusion solution and the plastic container. A slight retention in PVC bags, but not in Stedim 6 ones, was noted for clomipramine hydrochloride and clorazepate dipotassium salt. This was more marked in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. Diazepam and chlorpromazine hydrochloride were bound both in PVC and Stedim 6 bags, but more in the former and more again in the sodium chloride solution than in the dextrose one. The results were explained in terms of the degree of crystallinity of the plastic material and the degree of lipophilicity of the drugs. Practical consequences are discussed.

  15. Corundum Based Composite Block Containing Plastic Phase YB/T 4129-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Chai Junlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition, classifica-tion, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation and quality certificate of corundum block containing plastic phase.

  16. Wounding characteristics of "shotshell" ammunition: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, R E; Campbell, B; Balraj, E; Adelson, L; Fransioli, M

    1981-01-01

    Wounds caused by "shotshells" in three homicides are presented. Characteristics of shotshell ammunition based on test firings of .38 Special shotshells are detailed. Differences between shotshell wounds and shotgun wounds may include pattern spread, number of pellet defects, and defects caused by the shotshell wadding and plastic capsule.

  17. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  18. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on 40- by 48-inch pallets produced by McAlester Army Ammunition Plant...MCAAP). This report contains test results with the pallets provided failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements due to nail failure.

  19. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  20. PLASTIC ZONES IN AN INFINITELY LONG TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOLID CYLINDER CONTAINING A RINGSHAPED CRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut UYANER

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problem of a ring shaped-crack contained in an infinitely long solid cylinder of elastic perfectly-plastic material is considered. The problem is formulated for a transversely isotropic material by using integral transform technique under uniform load. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Hankel and Fourier integral transform techniques are chosen and the problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. This integral equation is solved numerically by using Gaussian Quadrature Formulae and the values are evaluated for discrete points. The plastic zone lengths are obtained by using the plastic strip model.

  1. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...... days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles...

  2. Analysis of phthalate migration to food simulants in plastic containers during microwave operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany A; André, Leiliane C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2013-12-30

    Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  3. Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriany A. Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.

  4. Improved tensile strength of glycerol-plasticized gluten bioplastic containing hydrophobic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present work has been to study the influence of hydrophobic liquids on the morphology and the properties of thermo-molded plastics based on glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG). While the total amount of castor oil and glycerol was remained constant at 30 wt%, castor oil with various proportions with respect to glycerol was incorporated with WG by mixing at room temperature and the resultant mixtures were thermo-molded at 120 degrees C to prepare sheet samples. Moisture absorption, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break) of the plastics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the physical properties of WG plastic were closely related to glycerol to castor oil ratio. Increasing in castor oil content reduces the moisture absorption markedly, which is accompanied with a significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus. These observations were further confirmed in 24 wt% glycerol-plasticized WG plastics containing 6 wt% silicone oil or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid rubber.

  5. Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Ayers, Tracy L; Knee, Jacqueline; Oremo, Jared; Odhiambo, Aloyce; Faith, Sitnah H; Nyagol, Ronald O; Stauber, Christine E; Lantagne, Daniele S; Quick, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Somatostatin and Somatostatin-Containing Neurons in Shaping Neuronal Activity and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery over four decades ago, somatostatin (SOM) receives growing scientific and clinical interest. Being localized in the nervous system in a subset of interneurons somatostatin acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and its role in the fine-tuning of neuronal activity and involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory formation are widely recognized in the recent literature. Combining transgenic animals with electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular methods allowed to characterize several subpopulations of somatostatin-containing interneurons possessing specific anatomical and physiological features engaged in controlling the output of cortical excitatory neurons. Special characteristic and connectivity of somatostatin-containing neurons set them up as significant players in shaping activity and plasticity of the nervous system. However, somatostatin is not just a marker of particular interneuronal subpopulation. Somatostatin itself acts pre- and postsynaptically, modulating excitability and neuronal responses. In the present review, we combine the knowledge regarding somatostatin and somatostatin-containing interneurons, trying to incorporate it into the current view concerning the role of the somatostatinergic system in cortical plasticity.

  7. Evaluation of Ammunition Data Cards (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    is in accordance with MIL-STD-1168, the Ammunition- Data Repository Program User Manual, and contracts. a. Ensure onsite Government representatives...into current open and future contracts, the Quality Assurance Letter of Instruction, and Letters of Delegation. 4. Train JMC onsite Government ...Surveillance Plan for the ammunition data card process. 6. For manufacturing facilities with DCMA onsite Government representatives, develop methods to

  8. Plasma ignition for medium calibre ammunition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Schilt, A.; Simor, M.; Schaffers, P.; Weise, T.

    2012-01-01

    Gun performance is usually affected by the operating temperature of the ammunition or weapon. This is caused by several factors, amongst which the temperature dependency of the propellant ignition and combustion processes. Compensation of temperature effects on weapon or ammunition performance is po

  9. Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers using SORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2010-10-01

    The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and coloured glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with coloured plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for coloured glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is

  10. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackevica, Aiga, E-mail: aima@env.dtu.dk; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10 days at 40 °C. The experimental setup was made according to the European Commission Directive (EU 10/2011) for articles intended to be in contact with food. The total amount of silver in plastic containers and migration solutions was quantified by ICP-MS analysis, and the size of the migrated particles was investigated by single particle ICP-MS and TEM-EDS. The total mass and median size of released particulate Ag were generally highest in 3 % acetic acid for three out of four food container brands. The total content of silver in the containers varied from 13 to 42 µg/g. The highest migration was observed in the 3 % acetic acid food simulant for all four brands of containers, with total silver release up to 3.1 ng/cm{sup 2} after 10 days. In conclusion, the experimental results show that silver has the potential of migrating into food, especially when in contact with more acidic substances.

  11. Homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage model for ductile failure of materials containing heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Bai, Jie; Paquet, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops an accurate and computationally efficient homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage (HCPD) model for macroscopic analysis of ductile failure in porous ductile materials containing brittle inclusions. Example of these materials are cast alloys such as aluminum and metal matrix composites. The overall framework of the HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) type elasto-plasticity model for porous ductile materials. The HCPD model is assumed to be orthotropic in an evolving material principal coordinate system throughout the deformation history. The GTN model parameters are calibrated from homogenization of evolving variables in representative volume elements (RVE) of the microstructure containing inclusions and voids. Micromechanical analyses for this purpose are conducted by the locally enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) [Hu, C., Ghosh, S., 2008. Locally enhanced Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) for simulating evolving fracture in ductile microstructures containing inclusions. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 76(12), 1955-1992]. The model also introduces a novel void nucleation criterion from micromechanical damage evolution due to combined inclusion and matrix cracking. The paper discusses methods for estimating RVE length scales in microstructures with non-uniform dispersions, as well as macroscopic characteristic length scales for non-local constitutive models. Comparison of results from the anisotropic HCPD model with homogenized micromechanics shows excellent agreement. The HCPD model has a huge efficiency advantage over micromechanics models. Hence, it is a very effective tool in predicting macroscopic damage in structures with direct reference to microstructural composition.

  12. Fundamental display properties of flexible devices containing polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal between plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kawakita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    We describe several fundamental display properties of a flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal device containing polymer fibers between thin plastic substrates. The composite film of liquid crystal and polymer was created from a solution of liquid crystal and monomer materials between the plastic substrates under ultraviolet light irradiation. The dynamic electrooptic response to analog voltage pulses was examined with an incidence of laser beam light, and its light modulation property exhibited good linearity in continuous gray-scale capability. The excellent spatial uniformity of liquid crystal alignment formed between the flexible substrates resulted in high-contrast light modulation, although slight spontaneous bending of liquid crystal alignment in the device plane was recognized. When the laser light beam was obliquely incident on the flexible display device, the measured transmittance revealed that the device has a wide viewing angle of more than 100 deg without contrast reversal. This is considered to be caused by the molecular switching in the device plane and the thin electrooptic layer in the display device.

  13. Silver nanoparticle release from commercially available plastic food containers into food simulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the cu......Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed....... In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercially available plastic food storage containers and measured the total amount of silver, particle size and number concentration, and the migration rates into three different food simulants (Milli-Q grade water, 10 % ethanol, and 3 % acetic acid) for 10...

  14. Strain gradient crystal plasticity analysis of a single crystal containing a cylindrical void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Kysar, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of void size and hardening in a hexagonal close-packed single crystal containing a cylindrical void loaded by a far-field equibiaxial tensile stress under plane strain conditions are studied. The crystal has three in-plane slip systems oriented at the angle 60 degrees with respect...... to one another. Finite element simulations are performed using a strain gradient crystal plasticity formulation with an intrinsic length scale parameter in a non-local strain gradient constitutive framework. For a vanishing length scale parameter the non-local formulation reduces to a local crystal...... to three times higher for smaller void sizes than for larger void sizes in the non-local material....

  15. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  16. Nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) using the damage plasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.

  17. Detection of hazardous liquids concealed in glass, plastic, and aluminum containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michael L.; Ortiz, William; Ruiz, Orlando; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    The use of liquid explosives by terrorists has raised the attention to the use of hazardous liquids as threats to people, buildings and transportation systems. Hazardous liquids such as explosive mixtures, flammables or even chemical warfare agents (CWA) can be concealed in common containers and pass security checks undetected. This work presents three non invasive, non destructive detection approaches that can be used to characterize the content of common liquid containers and detect if the liquid is the intended or a concealed hazardous liquid. Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy and Stand off Raman spectroscopy were used to inspect the content of glass and plastic bottles and thermal conductivity was used to asses the liquid inside aluminum cans. Raman spectroscopy experiments were performed at 532 nm, 488 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. The hazardous liquids under consideration included CWA simulant DMMP, hydrogen peroxide, acetone, cyclohexane, ethanol and nitric acid. These techniques have potential use as a detector for hazardous liquids at a check point or to inspect suspicious bottles from a distance.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  19. The effect of biobased plastic resins containing chichen feather fibers on the growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate growth and flowering of Begoniaboliviensis A. DC. 'Bonfire' when grown in medium mixed with pellets made from biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers. We also analyzed macro- and macro-elements in soil and leaf tissues during different develope...

  20. Design of Guided Air Ammunition's Optimal Guidance Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; LIU Zao-zhen; WANG Bao-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Some long distance air ammunition can be used to attack large still target. According to this character and according to the mathematical description of target-missile relative motion built by the message supplied by the strapdown inertial navigation system/global position system (SINS/GPS) of air ammunition, optimal guidance law is designed by applying optimal control theory. The simulation is provided to indicate that when the air ammunition reaches the target, its line-of-sight (LOS) and LOS angular rate can nearly equal zero. So the air ammunition can get good terminal attitude, and the air ammunition reaches the target at the expected velocity and heading.

  1. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  3. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  4. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  5. Strapdown Homing Guidance System Design for Some Ammunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The strapdown homing guidance system for some ammunition was mainly studied. A strong tracking Kalman filter was designed for the strapdown homing guidance system using the information measured by the strapdown homing seeker to estimate relative movement variables between the ammunition and target. Then the optimal proportional law, which using the estimated information, guided the ammunition. Simulation results show that the designed strapdown homing guidance system with strong tracking Kalman filter can attack the maneuvering target effectively, and satisfy the performance index for the guided ammunition system.

  6. Issues Related to Implementation of the EU Requirements on Plastic Crates and Pallets Containing Heavy Metals in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alis Lebedys

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of problems which had to be dealt with by Lithuanian institutions while implementing environmental requirements laid down in Article 11 of European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on Packaging and Packaging Waste as well as in Decision 2009/292/EC of the European Commission establishing the conditions for derogation of plastic crates and plastic pallets related to heavy metal concentration limits set by Directive 94/62/EC. While the Directive puts ban on the usage of packaging with the aggregate concentration of 4 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium exceeding 100 ppm, Decision 2009/292/EC, instead, allows their usage if terms of derogation specified in the Decision are met. The implementation of the Decision means that each crate and/or pallet item circulating in the market with the concentration of the 4 heavy metals above the set level has to be identified, accounted, traced while in service, must at the end of service be delivered into a controlled recycling system and finally recycled in a way specified by the Decision. Therefore, the establishment of such a country-wide system presents a challenging task for the country as EU legislation sets no common requirements for its structure and leaves it to the country’s discretion. This paper systematises and summarises some principles and practices of managing the usage of plastic crates and plastic pallets containing the amount of heavy metals higher than 100 ppm (as set by Directive 94/62/EC in the EU Member States. The paper analyses possibilities and offers several scenarios for implementation of Directive 94/62/EC with respect to plastic crates and pallets with high concentration of heavy metals in Lithuania. Both the Directive and the Decision are based on using the data available from bookkeeping conducted by owners of crates and pallets and the EU environmental accounting/control system used in the country. The offered

  7. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  8. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  9. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  10. 27 CFR 479.192 - Commerce in firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in firearms and..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.192 Commerce in firearms and ammunition. For provisions relating to commerce in firearms and ammunition, including the movement of destructive...

  11. 22 CFR 123.17 - Exports of firearms and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of firearms and ammunition. 123.17... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.17 Exports of firearms and ammunition. (a) Except as provided... export without a license of components and parts for Category I(a) firearms, except barrels,...

  12. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic with balsa wood cores

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of pressurized containers made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with balsa cores. Containers of this type are commonly used on tank trailers for the transport of hazardous chemicals. 1.2 This practice is limited to cylindrical shape containers, 0.5 m [20 in.] to 3 m [120 in.] in diameter, of sandwich construction with balsa wood core and over 30 % glass (by weight) FRP skins. Reinforcing material may be mat, roving, cloth, unidirectional layers, or a combination thereof. There is no restriction with regard to fabrication technique or method of design. 1.3 This practice is limited to containers that are designed for less than 0.520 MPa [75.4 psi] (gage) above static pressure head due to contents. 1.4 This practice does not specify a time interval between examinations for re-qualification of a pressure container. 1.5 This practice is used to determine if a container is suitable for service or if follow-up NDT is needed before that...

  13. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  14. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) 40- by 44-Inch Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on a 40- by 44-inch wooden pallet (oak) manufactured by MCAAP. This report contains test...results with the pallets provided meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to (a) characterize bioplastic pellets containing feather fibers (pellets) by low temperature-scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction analysis, (b) evaluate growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis A. DC. ‘Bonfire’ when grown in medium amended with pellets, and...

  16. Reduced migration from flexible poly(vinyl chloride) of a plasticizer containing beta-cyclodextrin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ong Yong; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2008-10-01

    The migration of endocrine-disrupting di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. In this study, we successfully prepared a plasticizerwith reduced DEHP migration by directly incorporating 2,3,6-per-O-benzoyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Bz-beta-CD) into DEHP. Bz-beta-CD was prepared by esterification between the hydroxyl groups of beta-CD and benzoyl chloride. The presence of this cyclodextrin is expected to facilitate formation of stable complexes through pi-pi association with DEHP molecules. The flexible PVC was prepared with a gelation-fusion process that uses the prepared migration-resistant plasticizer, and its properties (flexibility, thermal stability, and clarity) were evaluated by carrying out DSC and tensile testing, TGA, and haze testing, respectively. No significant changes in the physical properties of the flexible PVC were observed when Bz-beta-CD was added. DEHP migration tests were carried out for the flexible PVC according to the ISO 3826:1993(E) test method, and the quantity of migrated DEHP was then determined with UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of Bz-beta-CD decreases the levels of DEHP migration from the flexible PVC samples by almost 40%. We investigated the molecular interaction between Bz-beta-CD and DEHP using molecular mechanics simulations, and we conclude that this reduction in DEHP migration is due to the formation of stabilized pi-pi attractive association and inclusion complexes of Bz-beta-CD and DEHP in flexible PVC.

  17. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid and natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tanrattanakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid. Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the derived TPE. Four plasticizers were selected: tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC, tributyl citrate (TBC, glycerol triacetate (GTA, and triethyl-2-acetyl citrate (TEAC. The investigated properties were the tensile properties, tear strength, thermal ageing and ozone resistance, hardness, resilience, tension set and compression set. All plasticizers increased the strain at break. TBAC and TBC increased the stress at break. All plasticizers decreased the tear strength, hardness and resilience, and slightly changed the tension and compression set. TBAC seemed to be the best plasticizer for the TPE. The presence of 4 pph (parts per hundred resin of plasticizer provided the highest strength and tensile toughness and the strain at break increased with the increasing plasticizer content. The plasticizers decreased the Tg and Tcc of the PLA and did not affect the degree of crystallinity of PLA in the TPE.

  18. Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, M I; Olea-Serrano, M F; Rivas-Velasco, A M; Medina-Rivero, E; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G; De León-Rodríguez, A

    2011-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, phthalic-acid, dibutyl-phthalate, diethyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate was determined in vegetable cans, baby bottles and microwaveable containers from the Mexican market. Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry was used for the identification and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography with UV/Visible light and fluorescence detectors was used for the quantification. Endocrine disruptors were found in all samples. PA and DOP were the substances most commonly found, and maximum concentrations were 9.549 and 0.664 μg/kg, respectively from a jalapeno peppers can. Bisphenol A, phthalic-acid, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, dioctyl-phtalate and dibutyl-phthalate were found in baby bottles and microwaveable containers.

  19. Chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) films containing ZnO nanoparticles and plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Denice S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Smania, Arthur [Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro C.M., E-mail: mauro@qmc.ufsc.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Chemistry Department, QUITECH, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2010-05-10

    In this study ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the Pechini method from a polyester by reacting citric acid with ethylene glycol in which the metal ions are dissolved, and incorporated into blend films of chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, Tween 80 (T80). These films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, degradation of films in Hank's solution and the mechanical properties. Besides these characterizations, the antibacterial activity of the films was tested, and the films containing ZnO nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus. The observed antibacterial activity in the composite films prepared in this work suggests that they may be used as hydrophilic wound and burn dressings.

  20. Silver speciation and characterization of nanoparticles released from plastic food containers by single particle ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, K; Gómez-Gómez, M M; Cámara, C; Ramos, L

    2016-05-01

    Silver migration from a commercial baby feeding bottle and a food box containing AgNPs, as confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis, was evaluated using food simulant solutions [i.e., water, 3% (v/v) acetic acid, and 10% and 90% (v/v) ethanol]. Silver release was investigated at temperatures in the 20-70°C range using contact times of up to 10 days. Migration of silver from the food box was in all cases 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for the baby bottle, although the total silver content in the original box material was half of that found in the baby bottle. As expected, for both food containers, silver migration depended on both the nature of the tested solution and the applied conditions. The highest release was observed for 3% acetic acid at 70°C for 2h, corresponding to 62ngdm(2) and 1887ngdm(-2) of silver for the baby bottle and the food box, respectively. Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS) was used to characterise and quantify AgNPs in the food simulants extracts. Sample preparation was optimized to preserve AgNPs integrity. The experimental parameters affecting AgNPs detection, sizing and quantification by SP-ICPMS were also optimised. Analyses of water and acidic extracts revealed the presence of both dissolved silver and AgNPs. Small AgNPs (in the 18-30nm range) and particle number concentrations within the 4-1510 10(6)L(-1) range were detected, corresponding to only 0.1-8.6% of the total silver released from these materials. The only exception was AgNPs migrated into water at 40°C and 70°C from the food box, which accounted for as much as 34% and 69% of the total silver content, respectively.

  1. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  2. Effect of Hydroxyl Number of Hydroxyl-Containing Plasticizers on Their Plasticization for Starch Sizing Agents%羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 祝志峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the influence of number of hydroxyls in molecules of hydroxyl-containing plasticizers on the plasticization for starch sizing agents, plasticization of the plasticizers was investigated through contrast test. The plasticization was evaluated in terms of extension and tensile strength of starch film. And end - use ability of the plasticizers was accessed through film performances, adhesion-to-fibers, and paste behaviors (viscosity and its stability). The plasticizers evaluated included n-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1, 2-propylene glycol, glycol, glycerol, 1, 1, 1-trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, xylitol, and sorbic alcohol. Experimental results demonstrated that all the plasticizers exhibited plasticization for starch sizing agents, and could reduce the shortcomings such as film rigidity and brittleness of starch. The plasticizers enhanced the plasticization of starch with increasing the number of hydroxyls up to 3, reaching maximal effect, and beyond this number it reduced again. Glycerol and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane showed the most marked plasticization for plasticizing starch sizing agents among the plasticizers considered. For this reason, these two plasticizers were recommended in uses for reducing shedding of size and lint in sizing and weaving operations so as to improve weaving efficiency.%以淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长为评价标准,通过对比试验评价羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料的增塑作用,从分子结构上认识羟基增塑剂的羟基数目对淀粉浆料增塑作用的影响,并通过浆液特性及黏附性能评估羟基增塑剂正戊醇、正丁醇、1,2-丙二醇、乙二醇、甘油、1,1,1-三羟甲基丙烷、季戊四醇、木糖醇及山梨醇的使用效果.研究结果表明:羟基增塑剂对淀粉浆料都具有增塑作用,能够改善淀粉浆膜脆而硬的缺陷.随着增塑剂羟基数目的增加,淀粉浆膜的断裂伸长率逐渐增大;在羟基数目为3时,增塑作用达到最大;但

  3. Preparation and properties of thermoplastic poly(caprolactone) composites containing high amount of esterified starch without plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Hu, Qiongen; Qian, Jiangtao; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Shi, Dongjian; Dong, Weifu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-03-30

    Based on stearyl chloride and native starch, esterified starch were prepared and the chemical structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR. It was found that stearyl chloride was an efficient agent to fabricate esterified starch with high degree of substitution (DS). During the melt blending of esterified starch (80 wt%) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 20 wt%), it was shown the torque of PCL/esterified starch was much lower than that of PCL/native starch without any plasticizer, and further decreased with increasing DS. Compared with PCL/native starch, the tensile properties of PCL/esterified starch composites were significantly enhanced. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased from 2.7 MPa to 56% for PCL/native starch composites to 9.1 MPa and 626% for PCL/esterified starch ones with DS of 1.50, respectively. SEM observation revealed the esterified starch particles in matrix became smaller and more uniform. In addition, the water resistance and hydrophobic character of PCL/esterified starch composites were improved. PCL composites containing 80 wt% esterified starch with favorable mechanical properties would have great potential applications in broad areas.

  4. Reducing impacts from ammunitions: A comparative life-cycle assessment of four types of 9mm ammunitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, José; Almada, Sara; Rotariu, Traian; Freire, Fausto

    2016-10-01

    Increase of environmental awareness of the population has pressured research activities in the defence area to cover environment and toxicity issues, where have been considered appropriate manners to reduce the environmental and toxicological impacts of ammunition. One of the adopted approaches to achieve such goal involves the replacement of lead and other heavy metals by alternative materials. However, the consequences of using alternative materials in ammunitions manufacturing are uncertain for the other life-cycle phases and trade-offs can occur. The present paper describes the potential benefits from the replacement of lead in the primer and in the projectile of a 9mm calibre ammunition. For that purpose, it is assessed and compared the environmental and toxicological impacts associated with the life-cycle of four ammunitions: combination of two types of projectiles (steel jacket and lead core; copper and nylon composite) with two types of primers (lead primer; non-lead primer). In addition, some potential improvements for the environmental performance of small calibre ammunition are also presented. To assess the impacts two Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methods are applied: CML for six environmental categories and USEtox to three toxicity categories. Results showed that the conclusion drawn for environmental and toxicological impact categories are distinct. In fact, ammunition production phase presents higher impacts for the environmental categories, whilst the operation phase has a higher impact to the toxicity categories. The substitution of lead in the primer and in the projectile provides a suitable alternative from a toxicology perspective; however, the composite projectile still presents some environmental concerns. The conclusions drawn are important for the procurement (and design) of environmental responsible ammunitions, in order to avoid (or decrease) the impacts for their manufacture and the effects on human health (e.g. shooters) and ecosystems

  5. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  6. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to the...

  7. 27 CFR 478.120 - Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien. 478.120 Section 478.120 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  8. Antimony content of inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR) produced by 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition having free-antimony primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Arie

    2017-01-01

    In a recent paper published in Forensic Science International (FSI), Lucas et al. (2016) claimed that muzzle discharge of 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition is more likely to incorporate particles from the bullet surface than those retained on the firearm and that characteristic particles containing Pb, Ba and Sb formed from known Sb-free primers are likely to be more prevalent in muzzle discharge. It seems that this claim is not based on sufficient experimental results.

  9. Studies on Some Nitramine based Low Vulnerability Ammunition Propellants with Cellulose Acetate as a Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Pillai

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Several formulations of propellants based on RDX as an energetic solid ingredients and cellulose acetate (CA as a binder were processed using either dioctyl pthalate(DOP or tracetin(TA as plastisizer and a small amount of nitrocellulose(NC. The Performance of these propellants was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel firing data. The vulnerability aspects of these formulations were compared with those of conventional picrite propellant, NQ on the basis of their ignition temperatures and sensitivity to friction and impact. Triacetin was found to be better plasticizer than DOP for CA binder. Some RDX/CA/TA/NC/-based propellants were found to have energy levels comparable with NQ propellant and had less sensitivity to heat, impact and friction, and therefore have the potential for being used as low-vulnerability ammunition propellants for gun applications.

  10. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  11. Study of Brass Obturator Design for Combustible Cartridge Case for 105mm Tank Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Syal

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Brass cartridge case provides rearward obturation in the tank gun ammunition where the gun systedt has a sliding breech mechanism. In the case of semi-combustible cartridge case (SCCC ammunition, obturation is provided by a smal1 metal stub. The mechanism of obturation and obturator design for kinetic energy and high explosive squash heat (HESH, SCCC ammunition of 105mm tank gun have been studied. The dynamic firing results for SCCC ammunition for 105 mm tank gun reveal height 115 mm provides perfect obturation. The ballistic performance of SCCC ammunition is comparable with that of the brass-cartridged round in the pressure range 150-450 MPa.

  12. Capability of 19-L polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): Field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 L) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in resource-poor environments. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 L) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs)...

  13. Capability of 19-litre polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Michael B; Castro-Alférez, M; Polo-López, M I; Calderero, I Fernández; Al-Eryani, Y A; Joseph-Titus, C; Sawant, B; R Dhodapkar; Mathur, C; McGuigan, Kevin G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 litres) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in the developing world. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 litres) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs) as S...

  14. Elasto-Plastic 3D Finite Element Contact Analysis of a Hole Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Aeronautical Research Laboratory, Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Department of Defence, Australia, January 1988. 5. D Duprat, D Campassens...Containing a Circular Insert in a Fatigue Test Coupon Witold Waldman AUSTRALIA DEFENCE ORGANISATION No. of Copies Task Sponsor OIC-ASI-DGTA...UNCLASSIFIED DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GROUP DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA 1. DLM/CAVEAT (OF DOCUMENT) 2. TITLE Elasto–Plastic 3D Finite Element

  15. Screening study on hemolysis suppression effect of an alternative plasticizer for the development of a novel blood container made of polyvinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Chie; Tanoue, Akito; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Isama, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Atsuko; Niimi, Shingo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify a plasticizer that is effective in the suppression of the autohemolysis of the stored blood and can be used to replace di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in blood containers. The results of hemolysis test using mannitol-adenine-phosphate/red cell concentrates (MAP/RCC) spiked with plasticizers included phthalate, phthalate-like, trimeliate, citrate, and adipate derivatives revealed that di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (Hexamoll(®) DINCH), di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-phthalate (DOTP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) exhibited a hemolysis suppression effect almost equal to that of DEHP, but not other plasticizers. This finding suggested that the presence of 2 carboxy-ester groups at the ortho position on a 6-membered ring of carbon atoms may be required to exhibit such an effect. The hemolytic ratios of MAP/RCC-soaked polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets containing DEHP or different amounts of DINCH or DOTP were reduced to 10.9%, 9.2-12.4%, and 5.2-7.8%, respectively (MAP/RCC alone, 28.2%) after 10 weeks of incubation. The amount of plasticizer eluted from the PVC sheet was 53.1, 26.1-36.5, and 78.4-150 µg/mL for DEHP, DINCH, and DOTP, respectively. PVC sheets spiked with DIDP did not suppress the hemolysis induced by MAP/RCC because of low leachability (4.8-6.0 µg/mL). These results suggested that a specific structure of the plasticizer and the concentrations of least more than ∼10 µg/mL were required to suppress hemolysis due to MAP/RCC.

  16. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT) ammunition accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. CORRIVEAU; C. FLORIN PETRE

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT) ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  17. Non standard pallet series designing problem in ammunition supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangchun; Guo Min; Wang Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    According to the compound packing problem in ammunition supply system in our army, the non-standard pallet series design model is proposed, and the original problem that can be solved as a set cover problem with a nested bin-packing problem, is analyzed, then two heuristic algorithms are applied to solve the problem.

  18. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  19. Experimentally Evaluated Explosion Resistance and Performance of Destruction Unit in Multiple Detonation of Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Baskakov

    2016-01-01

    , ensuring complete destruction of ammunition, high working life, and reliable protection of the explosion chamber walls from the hitting splinters. The destruction unit can be used to destroy a wide variety of weapons, including those containing toxic or explosive substances, as part of automated flow lines.

  20. Should the U.S. Army Adopt New 5.56mm Ammunition Cartridge Designs to Reduce Overall Ammunition Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    and D. H. J. Halsey. Ammunition (Including Grenades and Mines . Shrivenham, UK: Brassey’s Publishers, 1982). McLaughlin Green, Constance , Harry...http://hsrlab.gatech.edu/AUTODYN/ papers/paper162.pdf (accessed 18 January 2011). McLaughlin Green, Constance , Harry C. Thomson, and Peter C. Root

  1. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

    1998-09-01

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Thermal behavior of vehicle plastic blends contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in pyrolysis using TG-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guicai; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-03-01

    As important plastic blends in End-of-Life vehicles (ELV), pyrolysis profiles of ABS/PVC, ABS/PA6 and ABS/PC were investigated using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). Also, CaCO3 was added as plastic filler to discuss its effects on the pyrolysis of these plastics. The results showed that the interaction between ABS and PVC made PVC pyrolysis earlier and HCl emission slightly accelerated. The mixing of ABS and PA6 made their decomposition temperature closer, and ketones in PA6 pyrolysis products were reduced. The presence of ABS made PC pyrolysis earlier, and phenyl compounds in PC pyrolysis products could be transferred into alcohol or H2O. The interaction between ABS and other polymers in pyrolysis could be attributed to the intermolecular radical transfer, and free radicals from the polymer firstly decomposed led to a fast initiation the decomposition of the other polymer. As plastic filler, CaCO3 promoted the thermal decomposition of PA6 and PC, and had no obvious effects on ABS and PVC pyrolysis process. Also, CaCO3 made the pyrolysis products from PA6 and PC further decomposed into small-molecule compounds like CO2. The kinetics analysis showed that isoconversional method like Starink method was more suitable for these polymer blends. Starink method showed the average activation energy of ABS50/PVC50, ABS50/PA50 and ABS50/PC50 was 186.63kJ/mol, 239.61kJ/mol and 248.95kJ/mol, respectively, and the interaction among them could be reflected by the activation energy variation.

  3. Uncertainties Scientific AND Probability Theory IN Judicial Decision: The Case OF Bisphenol A - BPA IN Containers Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Graziela de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at observing the theory of probability as decisional support to cases involving scientific uncertainties, from the pragmatic-systemic matrix. The toxicity of chemicals in packaging plastic in contact with food is an object of study in various area of knowledge, and the chemical compound Bisphenol A (BPA) appointed as harmful to human health. The packages have an important socio-economic function, but failure to comply with minimum limits on production and consumer information ...

  4. Gamma irradiation of food contact plastics: identification of tin-containing intermediates in the degradation of organotin-stabilised PVC by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Brooks, J.S.; Unwin, J.; McGuiness, J.D.

    1985-08-05

    A brief account is given of the use of radiation as a process for food preservation. In particular, the effect of radiation on food packaging plastic materials is considered. Results are presented for the effect of various doses of gamma radiation on PVC containing organotin stabilisers, showing the presence of varying amounts of intermediates and a steady increase in the amount of tin (IV) chloride. Thermal degradation produced only a trace of tin (IV) chloride, in contrast. The significance of the results is discussed.

  5. Effect of different plasticizers on the properties of bio-based thermoplastic elastomer containing poly(lactic acid) and natural rubber

    OpenAIRE

    V. Tanrattanakul; P. Bunkaew

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) containing natural rubber and poly(lactic acid) were prepared by melt blending in an internal mixer. The blend ratio was 60% of natural rubber and 40% of poly(lactic acid). Dynamic vulcanization of natural rubber was performed with the sulfur system. The 2 mm – thick sheet samples were prepared by compression molding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticization of PLA on the mechanical and physical properties of the deri...

  6. Identifying Efficiencies in the Supply Chain for Training Ammunition: Methods, Models, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Standard Army Ammunition System–Modernized ( SAAS -MOD), Total Army Munitions Information System (TAMIS), and the Worldwide Ammunition Reporting System...current drive to integrate ammunition management into a centralized enterprise resource planning ( ERP ) system. Finding(s): As discussed earlier...activities do your ASP personnel execute that are not captured in the Workload Report accessible in SAAS ? How much time would you estimate each of these

  7. Employing wavelet-based texture features in ammunition classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzino, Ángelo M. C. R.; Maher, Robert C.; Apolinário, José A.; de Campos, Marcello L. R.

    2017-05-01

    Pattern recognition, a branch of machine learning, involves classification of information in images, sounds, and other digital representations. This paper uses pattern recognition to identify which kind of ammunition was used when a bullet was fired based on a carefully constructed set of gunshot sound recordings. To do this task, we show that texture features obtained from the wavelet transform of a component of the gunshot signal, treated as an image, and quantized in gray levels, are good ammunition discriminators. We test the technique with eight different calibers and achieve a classification rate better than 95%. We also compare the performance of the proposed method with results obtained by standard temporal and spectrographic techniques

  8. Study on risk measurement about ammunition-rocket system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Xiaohui; Zhao Youshou

    2005-01-01

    Modern ammunition-rocket system is a complicated multidisciplinary system. During its development,undetermined factors will bring many risks. This paper elaborates the importance of risk analysis approach to ammunition-rocket system development and analyses various methods of risk analysis and estimation. Combined with practical situation of weapon system development, the risk measurement function with characteristics of risk preference is given provided that the risk preference characteristic of behavior maker is risk neutral of fixed constant. The development risk analysis based on risk measurement function enables effective risk decision to be made on the basis of quantified risk.Taking anti-helicopter intelligent mine warhead as an example, the paper verifies the efficiency of the method and shows that it has a scientific and practical value.

  9. Software requirements specification for an ammunition management system

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Robert Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis concerns the software requirements necessary to automate the present manual effort associated with ammunition inventory management and reporting at the afloat end-user level. Functional characteristics for the application software are developed, program and data structures are proposed and possible sources of data are identified. The end-product of this research is the software requirements specification. This document sup...

  10. A Design of Penetration Ammunition Fuse System Based on Embedded Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; LIU Xiao-ming; XIE Xiao-mei

    2007-01-01

    The hard target smart fuse of penetration ammunition is developing to be smaller,lighter, smarter and multifunction. After analyzing the characteristics of high-g accelerating signals and the penetration algorithms, this paper provides a solution of penetration ammunition fuse system based on embedded technology. This fuse system realizes acquisition of the high-g accelerating signals and uses the appropriate penetration algorithms to process them. The fuse system can not only make the same type of penetration ammunition to attack different kinds of objects accurately, but also meet the other requirements of the function of penetration ammunition fuse system.

  11. Testing of containers made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic with the aid of acoustic emission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitz, K.; Brockmann, W.; Fischer, T.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic emission analysis as a quasi-nondestructive test method makes it possible to differentiate clearly, in judging the total behavior of fiber-reinforced plastic composites, between critical failure modes (in the case of unidirectional composites fiber fractures) and non-critical failure modes (delamination processes or matrix fractures). A particular advantage is that, for varying pressure demands on the composites, the emitted acoustic pulses can be analyzed with regard to their amplitude distribution. In addition, definite indications as to how the damages occurred can be obtained from the time curves of the emitted acoustic pulses as well as from the particular frequency spectrum. Distinct analogies can be drawn between the various analytical methods with respect to whether the failure modes can be classified as critical or non-critical.

  12. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  13. Interfacing the Defense Standard Ammunition Computer System and the Air Force Combat Ammunition System: A Search for an Alternate Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    for controlling , financing, planning , programming, and budgeting of items in 114 %..-.o .. .. . .......... o •........................... the...S. Barnes, for all the guidance received throughout this effort, and to my reader, Capt Rich Mabe , for his suggestions which helped me organize the...questions about the Combat Ammunition System and the World Wide Military Command and Control System. Finally, I would like to thank the members of my

  14. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  15. Radiological assessment of cartridge 120-mm, APFSDS-T, XM829 ammunition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, C.D.; Hadlock, D.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The components of the XM829 round effectively shield out nonpenetrating beta radiation emitted by the depleted uranium; however, photons cna penetrate the components of the round and are therefore the predominant emission. The radiation levels associated with the XM829 ammunition are low. The maximum emissions measured from a cartridge are not likely to result in exposure to military personnel above the maximum permissible nonoccupational dose limits listed in Army Regulation (AR) 40-14. Based upon the specifications contained in 49 CFR 173.424 and the radiation measurement data, the XM829 shipping package may be excepted from the specification packaging, marking and labeling requirements of subpart 49 CFR 173 as long as the outer surface of the uranium is enclosed in an inactive sheath and the conditions specified in 49 CFR 421 (b), (c), and (d) are met.

  16. Advanced Concepts of the Propulsion System for the Futuristic Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Darnse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This review paper reports various concepts of the gun propulsion system to meet the goal of the futuristic hypervelocity projectiles. The nonconventional concepts, such as liquid gun propellant, rail gun, coil gun, electrothermal gun, electrothermal chemical gun along with conventional energetic solid gun propellant have been discussed. Even though muzzle velocity around 2000 m/s has been claimed to be achieved using such nonconventional propulsion systems, it will take quite some time before such systems are in regular use in the battlefield. Hence, solid gun propellants containing novel energetic ingredients (binders, plasticisers, and oxidisers would continue to be used in the near future and are expected to meet the requirements of the futuristic gun ammunition.

  17. Introductory Handbook for Small Arms Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-07-01

    by a casual nents and drawings, or a visit t line. A lipstick container Is not trldge case In form. It Is blanked and trimmed by the same general...pro ment. However, the lipstick tube s container while the cartridge case of a very powerful "engine". ntlons that the ves "problems", d that... Waterproof Opera- tion. The cases are processed through a Dry Opera- tion after this operation. r. Mouth and Neck Anneal (1) The cases are mouth and

  18. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  19. Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7479 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition...Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition by John J Ritter and Richard A Beyer Weapons and Materials Research...

  20. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation of privately owned weapons and... owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time, may...

  1. Use of Designed Experiments in the "Green Ammunition" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-13

    Excellence HEAVY METALS Primer Compositions Lead Styphnate Barium Nitrate Antimony Sulfide Green Ammunition Target Materials HEAVY METALS Projectile Slug Lead... Barium Peroxide Lead Dioxide Barium Nitrate ODCs Methyl Chloroform ODCs Casemouth Sealant Methyl Chloroform Committed To Excellence Non-Toxic Ammunition

  2. 37 CFR 5.18 - Arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implements of war. 5.18 Section 5.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... implements of war. (a) The exportation of technical data relating to arms, ammunition, and implements of war... parts 120 through 130); the articles designated as arms, ammunitions, and implements of war are...

  3. Lead-free hunting rifle ammunition: product availability, price, effectiveness, and role in global wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George

    2013-10-01

    Proposals to end the use of lead hunting ammunition because of the established risks of lead exposure to wildlife and humans are impeded by concerns about the availability, price, and effectiveness of substitutes. The product availability and retail prices of different calibers of lead-free bullets and center-fire rifle ammunition were assessed for ammunition sold in the USA and Europe. Lead-free bullets are made in 35 calibers and 51 rifle cartridge designations. Thirty-seven companies distribute internationally ammunition made with lead-free bullets. There is no major difference in the retail price of equivalent lead-free and lead-core ammunition for most popular calibers. Lead-free ammunition has set bench-mark standards for accuracy, lethality, and safety. Given the demonstrated wide product availability, comparable prices, and the effectiveness of high-quality lead-free ammunition, it is possible to phase out the use of lead hunting ammunition world-wide, based on progressive policy and enforceable legislation.

  4. Key questions and responses regarding the transition to use of lead-free ammunition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Kanstrup, Niels; Gremse, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Questions and concerns about the use of lead-free ammunition in hunting were encountered during the Oxford Lead Symposium. Many originated from commonly-held, but unsubstantiated, reports that have hindered the transition to use of lead-free ammunition in the UK and elsewhere. This paper examines...

  5. Effect of plasticizer and fumed silica on ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing HPF6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitender Paul Sharma; S S Sekhon

    2013-08-01

    The effect of addition of propylene carbonate (PC) and nano-sized fumed silica on the ionic conductivity behaviour of proton conducting polymer electrolytes containing different concentrations of hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6) in polyethylene oxide (PEO) has been studied. The addition of PC results in an increase in ionic conductivity, whereas the addition of nano-sized fumed silica improves mechanical strength of electrolytes along with a small increase in ionic conductivity. It was observed that the simultaneous addition of PC and fumed silica results in electrolytes with optimum value of ionic conductivity and other properties.

  6. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  7. Study on Storage Reliability Evaluation for Ammunition Using Gibbs Sampler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For the gradual maturity of Bayesian survival analysis theory, as well as the defects of the traditional methods for storage reliability evaluation, the Bayesian survival analysis method is proposed to build regression models for reliability in the random truncated test. These models can reflect the influences of different environments on the ammunition storage lifetime. As an example, the common exponential distribution is used here, and Markov chain Monte Carlo(MCMC)method based on Gibbs sampling dynamically simulates the Markov chain of the parameters' posterior distribution. Also,the parameters' Bayesian estimations are calculated in the random truncated condition. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and directly perceived.

  8. Stability, compatibility and plasticizer extraction of quinine injection added to infusion solutions and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faouzi, M A; Khalfi, F; Dine, T; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C; Gressier, B; Goudaliez, F; Cazin, M; Kablan, J; Belabed, A; Cazin, J C

    1999-12-01

    The stability of quinine was determined in various diluents and in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers. The release of diethyhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from PVC bags into intravenous infusions of quinine was also measured. We used an injection of two doses of quinine; quiniforme at 500 mg and quinimax at 400 mg in either 250- or 500-ml PVC infusion bags containing 5% dextrose, to give initial nominal concentrations of 2 or 1 mg ml(-1) quiniforme and 1.6 or 0.8 mg ml(-1) quinimax, the mean concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Samples were assayed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the clarity was determined visually. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the stability and compatibility of quinine would be compromised, and whether DEHP would be leached from PVC bags and PVC administration sets during storage and simulated infusion. There was no substantial loss of quiniforme and quinimax over 1- or 2-h simulated infusion irrespective of the diluent, and storage during 8 h at 22 degrees C, 48 or 72 h at 4 degrees C and 96 h at 45 degrees C. Leaching of DEHP was also detected during simulated infusion delivery using PVC bags and PVC administration sets. The quantity was less than 2 microg ml(-1). During storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature the leaching of DEHP was low, but when the temperature was 45 degrees C the quantity was high, 21 microg ml(-1). To minimise patient exposure to DEHP, quinine solutions with all drugs should be infused immediately or stored for a maximum of 48 h at 4 degrees C.

  9. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  10. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  11. Comparison of methods for quantitating Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg strain attachment to reusable plastic shipping container coupons and preliminary assessment of sanitizer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaohao; Baker, Christopher A; Lee, Sang In; Park, Si Hong; Kim, Sun Ae; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella serovars, one of the leading contributors to foodborne illness and are especially problematic for foods that are not cooked before consumption, such as fresh produce. The shipping containers that are used to transport and store fresh produce may play a role in cross contamination and subsequent illnesses. However, methods for quantitatively attached cells are somewhat variable. The overall goal of this study was to compare conventional plating with molecular methods for quantitating attached representative strains for Salmonella Typhimurium and Heidelberg on reusable plastic containers (RPC) coupons, respectively. We attached Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and serovar Heidelberg SL486 (parent and an antibiotic resistant marker strain) to plastic coupons (2.54 cm(2)) derived from previously used shipping containers by growing for 72 h in tryptic soy broth. The impact of the concentration of sanitizer on log reductions between unsanitized and sanitized coupons was evaluated by exposing attached S. Typhimurium cells to 200 ppm and 200,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Differences in sanitizer effectiveness between serovars were also evaluated with attached S. Typhimurium compared to attached S. Heidelberg populations after being exposed to 200 ppm peracetic acid (PAA). Treatment with NaClO caused an average of 2.73 ± 0.23 log CFU of S. Typhimurium per coupon removed with treatment at 200 ppm while 3.36 ± 0.54 log CFU were removed at 200,000 ppm. Treatment with PAA caused an average of 2.62 ± 0.15 log CFU removed for S. Typhimurium and 1.41 ± 0.17 log CFU for S. Heidelberg (parent) and 1.61 ± 0.08 log CFU (marker). Lastly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize cell attachment and coupon surface topography. SEM images showed that remaining attached cell populations were visible even after sanitizer application. Conventional plating and qPCR yielded similar levels of enumerated bacterial populations

  12. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  13. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  14. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... component part of an explosive, an ammunition or explosive end item, or of a weapon system— (i) Inert...) Oxidizers; (v) Powdered metals; or (vi) Other materials having fire or explosive characteristics. (b)...

  15. 40th Annual Armament Systems: Guns-Ammunition-Rockets-Missiles Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-28

    PM] Abraham Overview, Mr. Robert Daunfeldt, Bofors Defence Summary Overview of an Advanced 2.75 Hypervelocity Weapon, Mr. Larry Bradford, CAT Flight...Engineer Tank Ammunition Directorate - IMI Ammunition Group A105/120/125 mm PELE Firing Results, Dr. Lutz Börngen, Rheinmetall Wafe Munition Line Of Sight...Missiles & Rockets Critical Asset Defense - ABRAHAM Rocket Assisted Projectile Mr. Robert Daunfeldt, Bofors Defence Hypervelocity Propulsion System

  16. Preliminary assessment of perchlorate in ecological receptors at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), Karnack, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P N; Theodorakis, C W; Anderson, T A; Kendall, R J

    2001-10-01

    There have been increasing human health and ecological concerns about ionic perchlorate (ClO4-) since it was detected in drinking water sources in 1997. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function, causing subsequent hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. According to current estimates, perchlorate is found in the surface of groundwater of 14 states, including Texas. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, located in east central Texas, was a facility historically associated with perchlorate-containing propellants and rocket motors. Subsequently, perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters at the facility has been reported. Soil, sediment, water, vegetation, and animal tissue samples were collected from several locations within the plant for a preliminary site assessment of perchlorate contamination. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from 555-5,557,000 ppb in vegetation, 811-2038 ppb in aquatic insects, below detection limits (ND) to 207 ppb in fish, ND-580 ppb in frogs, and ND-2328 ppb in mammals. Consistent with our hypothesis, aquatic organisms inhabiting perchlorate-contaminated surface water bodies contained detectable concentrations of perchlorate. Additionally, terrestrial organisms were exposed through pathways not necessarily related to contaminated surface waters. Therefore, these data demonstrate that aquatic and terrestrial species are exposed to perchlorate in the environment. To our knowledge, this represents the first incidence of perchlorate exposure among wild animals reported in the scientific literature.

  17. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  18. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, Bossier and Webster Parishes, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-06

    Ammunition Plant .... ............ .. 1-5 1.4 The Sociocultural Context of the Archeological Resources on the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant...PLAN FOR THE LOUISIANA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT ..... ................ 6-1 6.1 Facility Master Plans and Proposed Impacts ....... . 6-1 6.2 Appropriate...maintained by the Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism , Division of Archeology and Historic Preservation (State Archeologist’s Office), Baton Rouge

  19. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  1. α2 Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptor Subtypes Are Upregulated and Contribute to Alcohol-Induced Functional Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemeyer, A Kerstin; Shen, Yi; Yazdani, Ferin; Shao, Xuesi M; Spigelman, Igor; Davies, Daryl L; Olsen, Richard W; Liang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol (EtOH) intoxication causes changes in the rodent brain γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) subunit composition and function, playing a crucial role in EtOH withdrawal symptoms and dependence. Building evidence indicates that withdrawal from acute EtOH and chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) results in decreased EtOH-enhanced GABAAR δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic and EtOH-insensitive α1βγ2 subtype synaptic GABAARs but increased synaptic α4βγ2 subtype, and increased EtOH sensitivity of GABAAR miniature postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) correlated with EtOH dependence. Here we demonstrate that after acute EtOH intoxication and CIE, upregulation of hippocampal α4βγ2 subtypes, as well as increased cell-surface levels of GABAAR α2 and γ1 subunits, along with increased α2β1γ1 GABAAR pentamers in hippocampal slices using cell-surface cross-linking, followed by Western blot and coimmunoprecipitation. One-dose and two-dose acute EtOH treatments produced temporal plastic changes in EtOH-induced anxiolysis or withdrawal anxiety, and the presence or absence of EtOH-sensitive synaptic currents correlated with cell surface peptide levels of both α4 and γ1(new α2) subunits. CIE increased the abundance of novel mIPSC patterns differing in activation/deactivation kinetics, charge transfer, and sensitivity to EtOH. The different mIPSC patterns in CIE could be correlated with upregulated highly EtOH-sensitive α2βγ subtypes and EtOH-sensitive α4βγ2 subtypes. Naïve α4 subunit knockout mice express EtOH-sensitive mIPSCs in hippocampal slices, correlating with upregulated GABAAR α2 (and not α4) subunits. Consistent with α2, β1, and γ1 subunits genetically linked to alcoholism in humans, our findings indicate that these new α2-containing synaptic GABAARs could mediate the maintained anxiolytic response to EtOH in dependent individuals, rat or human, contributing to elevated EtOH consumption. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology

  2. Modeling, simulation, and evaluation of HE ammunition for counter-RAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graswald, Markus; Rothe, Hendrik

    2008-04-01

    Military camps in out-of-area missions are permanently threatened by rockets, artillery projectiles, and mortar grenades (RAM) launched by terrorists. A good portion of these attacks are undertaken by mortars due to their specific advantages for the warfare of irregular forces and their worldwide distribution. The military installations can be protected by counter-RAM systems consisting of several artillery weapons, radar and electro-optical sensors, C2 and fire control computers. A system analysis has shown that the precision of the sensors is vital for defending the camp with low ammunition consumptions. Furthermore, the type of ammunition is also of great impact: 35 mm Ahead ammunition is hardly suited for this application due to its small hit density and low kinetic energy of the sub-projectiles, especially in the case of mortar grenades. Therefore, 155 mm high-explosive (HE) ammunition is investigated using experimentally determined fragment data. Russian mortar projectiles are considered as worst-case RAM targets and their ballistics are mathematically modeled by an air drag function that is also used for computing firing tables. Due to uncertainties of the target positions that are given by an elliptic cylinder for specific sensor parameters, simulations are conducted in order to determine the ammunition consumption. Penetration and detonation criteria for the terminal impact are also considered and the resulting thresholds are displayed in a 3D fragment map. The results show that HE ammunition is superior to low-caliber ammunition because of their high numbers of effective fragments reducing the number of rounds significantly from hundreds to less than ten.

  3. Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.P. [Olin Corp., Baraboo, WI (United States). Badger Army Ammunition Plant

    1994-12-31

    At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

  4. Plastic, Fantastic? What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides information about plastics, focusing on the uses of plastic bags in particular. Topic areas considered include: (1) making plastic bags; (2) transparency of plastic bags; (3) plastic bags and food odors; (4) food containers (before and since plastics); and (5) disposing of plastic bags and other plastic products. The text is…

  5. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  6. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  7. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’

  8. Evaluation of health and environmental risks associated with the life-cycle of tungsten-based ammunition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Horst, R.M. van der; Carol-Visser, J.; Hulst, M. van; Grand, N.P. le; Elst, O.A.A.M. ter; Lander, H.J.; Brekelmans, F.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten-based ammunition is generally considered to be less harmful and more environmentally friendly than ammunition based on depleted uranium. However, recent studies have shown severe health effects in rats after embedding fragments of weapons grade Tungsten/Nickel/Cobalt in their leg muscle tis

  9. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’ targe

  10. From the Instrument of Delivery to the Actual Agent of Harm: Fighting the Criminal Purchase of Ammunition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The illegal trade in ammunition in the Netherlands seems to be a small-scale problem. However, as a result of high profits and a small chance of being caught, it is an extremely attractive criminal activity for malicious individuals. The criminal purchase of ammunition is facilitated by weaknesses i

  11. Estimated daily intake of plasticizers in 1-week duplicate diet samples following regulation of DEHP-containing PVC gloves in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Saito, I; Sakai, H; Tsuchida, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2003-04-01

    Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over 1 week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticizers and the results were compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticizers quantified in this study were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this follow-up study was essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits were 0.1-15.6 ng g(-1) for each plasticizer. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan were analysed as individual meals. DEHP was detected at 6-675 ng g(-1) in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Levels of DEHA and DINP also decreased. The mean intake of plasticizers estimated from all samples was 160 microg DEHP day(-1), 12.5 microg DEHA day(-1), 4.7 microg DINP day(-1) and 3.4 microg BBP day(-1). Levels of DINA were relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake was 1338 microg day(-1). Those of ATBC were also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake was 1228 microg day(-1). The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling-film or sausage packaging.

  12. 75TH Field Artillery Brigade Ammunition Resupply During Operation Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    doctrina . procedures durino pepacetime trainin.. Ic4 SuBJ(CT IERMS iS. NUMBER OF AGRM 122 FA Ammunition Resupply, FA Bde, Ammunition 16. PRICE CODE 17...Operations, A Concept for the Evolution of Airland Battle for the Strategic Army of the 1990s and Beyond (Fort Monroe , VA: TRADOC, August 1991) 1. 8. FM...TRADOC PAM 525-5, Airland Operations, A Concept for the Evolution of Airland Battle for the Strategic Army of the 1990s and Beyond, (Fort Monroe , VA

  13. INFLUENCE RESEARCH OF COLD PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON DIFFUSION SATURATION PROCESS BY CARBON AND BORON OF THE LOW-CARBON AND BORON-CONTAINING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Filonenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of influence of cold prestrain with degree of deformation within the range 0…40 % on diffusion saturation with boron and carbon for low-carbon and boron steels. It is determined that the plastic prestrain with degree of deformation 20 % at temperature 750 °С for the low-carbon steel promote increasing of boron-cementation layer thickness by 25 % and microhardness of perlite layer by 20 %.

  14. Investigation and Analysis of Production in a Given Area of PVC Material in Plastic Food Containers by PAEs Plasticizer Pollution%某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs增塑剂污染情况的调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 杜锡勇; 孙卫良; 詹剑良

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步调查浙江省某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs类增塑剂污染情况。方法:通过深入研究相关文献、国家标准和欧盟法规后,结合研究中PAEs类增塑剂含量及其特定食品模拟物迁移量检出情况,对其污染范围、程度及其安全性进行探索性调查。结果:在20批次的抽检容器中, PAEs类增塑剂DEHP、DBP和DIBP检出率分别为100.0%、35.0%和40.0%,检出量在0.10~57.70 mg/kg;在橄榄油模拟迁移试验中,5个样品中有DEHP检出,其迁移率最高可达15.4%。结论:PAEs类增塑剂在该地区食品用塑料容器的分布较广;通过特定食品模拟物迁移试验发现,在盛装高温油性食品时,PAEs类增塑剂会加速向食品中迁移,迁移量会超过相关标准限量,存在质量风险。%Objective: By sampling and texting, PAEs plasticizer contamination in a region of Zhejiang plastic Non-PVC food containers produced was studied. Methods: Through in-depth study of the relevant literature, standards and EU regulations, and binding of the data of plastic food packaging containers PAEs plasticizer content and specific detection of food simulant migration situation, this paper surveyed the scope of its pollution and the the secrity level exploratory. Results: In 20 batches of plastic food packaging containers, DEHP, DBP and DIBP detection rates were 100.0%、35.0%和40.0%, and PAEs detectable amount of 0.10 ~ 57.70 mg/kg; In the olive oil migration simulation tests, DEHP were detected in each sample, the maximum migration rate could reach to 15.4%. Conclusion: PAEs plasticizer in plastic food container in the region is widespread; Found by specific migration in food simulants: Especially at high temperature containing oily food, PAEs plasticizer will accelerate the migration from contain to food, migration may exceed the standard limit, and there is a quality risk.

  15. Heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation for selective surface hydrophilization of plastics containing brominated and chlorinated flame retardants (B/CFRs): separation from automobile shredder residue by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2016-12-09

    One method of weakening the inherently hydrophobic surface of plastics relevant to flotation separation is heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation. Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-catalyzed ozonation for 15 min efficiently decreases the surface hydrophobicity of brominated and chlorinated flame retardant (B/CFR)-containing plastics (such as acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) in automobile shredder residue (ASR) to such an extent that their flotation ability is entirely depressed. Such a hydrophilization treatment also stimulates the ABS, HIPS, and PVC surface roughness, wetting of the surface, and the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at the surface and ultimately changes surface polarity. SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS analyses of the PVC and ABS surfaces demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl/Br] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as C-O, C=O, and (C=O)-O. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5 % of ABS and 99.5 % of HIPS in ASR samples settled out, resulting in a purity of 98 and 98.5 % for ABS and HIPS in ASR samples, respectively. Furthermore, at 150 rpm, we also obtained 100 % PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98 % purity in ASR. Total recovery of non-B/CFR-containing plastics reached nearly 100 % in the floating fraction. The amount of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO reagent employed during ozonation is very small, and additional removal of surface contaminants from the recycled ASR plastic surfaces by ozonation makes the developed process simpler, greener, and more effective.

  16. Plastics. A Handbook for Workplace Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donna; Smith, Mikki

    This handbook was designed to help adult literacy education teachers to understand the plastics industry, develop a curriculum, and teach basic skills classes in a plastics company. The book contains four main sections. The first section, on the basics of plastics, contains a brief history of the industry, an elementary description of the…

  17. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Associated Polysialic Acid Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning by Restraining the Signaling through GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Senkov, Oleg; Grebenyuk, Sergei; Robinson, Catrina; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Stummeyer, Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Engel, Andreas K.; Feig, Larry; Semyanov, Alexey; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Schachner, Melitta; Dityatev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of α2,8 polysialic acid (PSA) in the mammalian brain. Abnormalities in PSA and NCAM expression are associated with schizophrenia in humans and cause deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning in mice. Here, we show that PSA inhibits opening of recombinant NMDA receptors composed of GluN1/2B (NR1/NR2B) or GluN1/2A/2B (NR1/NR2A/NR2B) but not of GluN1/2A (NR1/NR2A) subunits. Deficits in NCAM/PSA increase GluN2B-mediated transmission and Ca2+ transients in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In line with elevation of GluN2B-mediated transmission, defects in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region and contextual fear memory in NCAM/PSA-deficient mice are abrogated by application of a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Furthermore, treatment with the glutamate scavenger glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, ablation of Ras-GRF1 (a mediator of GluN2B signaling to p38 MAPK), or direct inhibition of hyperactive p38 MAPK can restore impaired synaptic plasticity in brain slices lacking PSA/NCAM. Thus, PSA carried by NCAM regulates plasticity and learning by inhibition of the GluN2B-Ras-GRF1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings implicate carbohydrates carried by adhesion molecules in modulating NMDA receptor signaling in the brain and demonstrate reversibility of cognitive deficits associated with ablation of a schizophrenia-related adhesion molecule. PMID:20237287

  18. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  19. Historical Development Summary of Automatic Cannon Caliber Ammunition: 20-30 Millimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    o, this report is specified on verso of front cover. " 0 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block numb, r...M53. F. Amor Piercing Projectiles The evolution of armor and armor piercing ammunition is a continuous see-saw. The improvement of one forces a

  20. Numerical Modelling of Caseless Ammunition with Coreless Bullet in Internal Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Silva-Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the search of a new weapon for combat in short range, it is proposed the use of a new experimentally designed 7.62 mm calibre ammunition with a lighter weight (caseless-coreless. This can be used in carbine assault rifles with short barrel or pistols. In this work, the compressible gases flowing through the gun barrel caused by the proposed ammunition were experimentally and numerically analysed. The Large Eddy Simulation was used for the numerical simulation, considering a compressible and turbulent flow, with the chemical species transport model and a complete conversion of the propellant reaction. Variations in pressure and temperature were compared with the results obtained from a conventional 7.62 mm full metal jacket (FMJ ammunition. Results of ballistic experimental tests and numerical simulations were similar than those of the 9 mm x 19 mm FMJ ammunitions, showing feasibility for the development of new weapons intended for operations of short range shots.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.203-207, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8511

  1. 27 CFR 70.444 - Importation of arms, ammunition, and implements of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., ammunition, and implements of war. 70.444 Section 70.444 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... implements of war. Part 47 of title 27 CFR implements Executive Order 11958 and supplements the import... implements of war, (b) Import permit requirements, (c) Import certification and verification, (d) Import...

  2. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  3. A QSPR for the plasticization efficiency of polyvinylchloride plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Mridula; Marathe, Sujata

    2008-01-01

    A simple quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) for correlating the plasticization efficiency of 25 polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers was obtained using molecular modeling. The plasticizers studied were-aromatic esters (phthalate, terephthalate, benzoate, trimellitate), aliphatic esters (adipate, sebacate, azelate), citrates and a phosphate. The low temperature flex point, Tf, of plasticized polyvinylchloride resins was considered as an indicator of plasticization efficiency. Initially, we attempted to predict plasticization efficiency of PVC plasticizers from physical and structural descriptors derived from the plasticizer molecule alone. However, the correlation of these descriptors with Tf was not very good with R=0.78 and r2=0.613. This implied that the selected descriptors were unable to predict all the interactions between PVC and plasticizer. Hence, to account for these interactions, a model containing two polyvinylchloride (PVC) chain segments along with a plasticizer molecule in a simulation box was constructed, using molecular mechanics. A good QSPR equation correlating physical and structural descriptors derived from the model to Tf of the plasticized resins was obtained with R=0.954 and r2=0.909.

  4. Wheat Gluten-Laminated Paperboard with Improved Moisture Barrier Properties: A New Concept Using a Plasticizer (Glycerol Containing a Hydrophobic Component (Oleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to reduce the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR and water absorbance of wheat gluten/paperboard laminates by introducing a hydrophobic component (oleic acid (OA into the hydrophilic plasticizer (glycerol. Whereas the paperboard showed immeasurably high WVTR, the laminate with gluten/glycerol yielded finite values. More importantly, by incorporating 75 wt.% OA into the plasticizer, the WVTR and water absorbance were reduced by, respectively, a factor of three and 1.5–2. Of particular interest was that the mechanical properties were not changing dramatically between 0 and 50 wt.% OA. The results showed clear benefits of combining a gluten film with paperboard. Whereas the paperboard provided toughness, the WG layer contributed with improved moisture barrier properties. In addition, WVTR indicated that the paperboard reduced the swelling of the outer gluten/glycerol layer in moist conditions; a free standing gluten/glycerol film would yield infinite, rather than finite, WVTR values.

  5. Anaerobic treatment of army ammunition production wastewater containing perchlorate and RDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikovic, Emina; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2008-08-01

    Perchlorate is an oxidizer that has been routinely used in solid rocket motors by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) is a major component of military high explosives and is used in a wide variety of munitions. Perchlorate bearing wastewater typically results from production of solid rocket motors, while RDX is transferred to Army industrial wastewaters during load, assemble and pack operations for new munitions, and hot water or steam washout for disposal and deactivation of old munitions (commonly referred to as demilitarization, or simply demil). Biological degradation in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactors (AFBR), has been shown to be an effective method for the removal of both perchlorate and RDX in contaminated wastewater. The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of removal of perchlorate and RDX, individually and when co-mingled, using ethanol as an electron donor under steady state conditions. Three AFBRs were used to assess the effectiveness of this process in treating the wastewater. The performance of the bioreactors was monitored relative to perchlorate, RDX, and chemical oxygen demand removal effectiveness. The experimental results demonstrated that the biodegradation of perchlorate and RDX was more effective in bioreactors receiving the single contaminant than in the bioreactor where both contaminants were fed.

  6. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  7. Air rifle ammunition and its influence on wounding potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W D

    1985-03-01

    Two new types of air rifle pellet have been introduced; Prometheus, made from steel and nylon, and 'Sabo', made from lead alloy and plastic. Both have radio-opaque and radio-lucent components and their manufacturers claim better penetration. To establish their capabilities and the clinical implications a comparison of penetration was made between diablo, Prometheus and 'Sabo' pellets using gelatin 20% as a tissue simulant. Prometheus penetrated no further than diablo pellets but fragmented in up to 70% of cases. 'Sabo' penetrated 46% further than diablo (p = 0.001) and its plastic component did not penetrate at ranges greater than 0.5 m. Prometheus penetrated steel, unlike the other pellets, and is therefore potentially more dangerous in head injury. Because of fragmentation after impact it should be remembered that the radio-lucent sleeve is likely to be lying in the wound track. 'Sabo' would appear to be the most dangerous in soft and medium density materials.

  8. 含氧塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用%APPLICATION OF FLUORINE CONTAINING PLASTIC FILM IN CLEAN ENERGY BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑会林

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride plastic film in clean energy battery applications was briefly reviewed. The application and production method of PVDF membrane used in lithium battery, perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion-exchange membrane used in fuel cells and wind power storage vanadium batteries were introduced respectively. The status of author's latest research results in related fields was also introduced.%简述了含氟塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用.分别论述了用于锂电池的PVDF隔离膜,以及用于燃料电池、风力发电蓄能电池钒电池的全氟磺酸离子膜的应用与制作方法.介绍了笔者在相关领域的最新研究成果.

  9. Determination of Sensitivity of Plastic Explosive Containing Insensitve Explosives%含钝感炸药的塑性炸药配方感度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Orzechowski; Andrzej Maranda; Dorota Powala; Jacek Borkowski

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain low sensitive high explosive formulation. Plastic explosive based on hexogen and octogen were investigated. 3-nitro-1 ,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was used as an additive. The experimental results show this additive decrease the impact and friction sensitivity without worsening another parameters.%采用低感、钝感炸药NTO、NGU作为添加剂,获得了以RDX、HMX为基的低感高能炸药配方,研究了NTO、NUG对其撞击和摩擦感度的影响.实验表明NTO可降低撞击和摩擦感度,并对其他性能产生不大影响.这说明低感或钝感炸药的加入是降低塑性炸药感度的有效方法.

  10. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  11. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In criminology, there are actual problems of determining the type (machine gun, rifle, large caliber, pistol and a particular model of small rifle for its ammunition, in particular, discovered in the use of weapons. The article proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis and its programmatic toolkit – a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos", we have implemented a software interface that provides input to the system images, and the identification of their external contours on the basis of luminance and color contrast. Typing by multiparameter contour images of specific ammunition, we create and verify the system-cognitive model, with the use of which (if the model is sufficiently reliable, we can solve problems of system identification, classification, study of the simulated object by studying its model and others. For these tasks we perform the following steps: 1 enter the images of ammunitions into the system of "Eidos" and create mathematical models of their contours; 2 synthesis and verification of models of the generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multivariate typology; 3 quantification of the similarities-differences of the specific ammunition with generalized images of ammunition of various types and models of small rifle (system identification; 4 quantification of the similarities-differences of the types of munitions, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis

  12. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  13. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  14. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  15. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: National obligations and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G; Krone, Oliver; Gremse, Carl

    2016-09-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead-contaminated wild game meat. Opposition from hunting organizations would be expected.

  16. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  17. The zebrafish tailbud contains two independent populations of midline progenitor cells that maintain long-term germ layer plasticity and differentiate in response to local signaling cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Tsotras, Steve R; Goto, Hana; Martin, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    Vertebrate body axis formation depends on a population of bipotential neuromesodermal cells along the posterior wall of the tailbud that make a germ layer decision after gastrulation to form spinal cord and mesoderm. Despite exhibiting germ layer plasticity, these cells never give rise to midline tissues of the notochord, floor plate and dorsal endoderm, raising the question of whether midline tissues also arise from basal posterior progenitors after gastrulation. We show in zebrafish that local posterior signals specify germ layer fate in two basal tailbud midline progenitor populations. Wnt signaling induces notochord within a population of notochord/floor plate bipotential cells through negative transcriptional regulation of sox2. Notch signaling, required for hypochord induction during gastrulation, continues to act in the tailbud to specify hypochord from a notochord/hypochord bipotential cell population. Our results lend strong support to a continuous allocation model of midline tissue formation in zebrafish, and provide an embryological basis for zebrafish and mouse bifurcated notochord phenotypes as well as the rare human congenital split notochord syndrome. We demonstrate developmental equivalency between the tailbud progenitor cell populations. Midline progenitors can be transfated from notochord to somite fate after gastrulation by ectopic expression of msgn1, a master regulator of paraxial mesoderm fate, or if transplanted into the bipotential progenitors that normally give rise to somites. Our results indicate that the entire non-epidermal posterior body is derived from discrete, basal tailbud cell populations. These cells remain receptive to extracellular cues after gastrulation and continue to make basic germ layer decisions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Analysis and suggestions on the management of throwaway plastic food containers in Shanghai%上海市一次性塑料饭盒的管理现状分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 傅丽萍; 毛倩倩

    2011-01-01

    梳理了上海市在一次性塑料饭盒管理工作中回收处置系统难以正常运转的主要问题,提出了建立全国一盘棋的格局,将其他塑料废弃物纳入回收处置的管理范畴,并建立对废塑料回收处置的奖励或补贴政策,从而继续控制视觉污染,促进生活垃圾减量化和资源化。%This paper discussed about the main problems throwaway plastic food containers in Shanghai, and proposed country which put other plastic wastes into recycling and disposa policy be implemented on the recycling and disposal system reduction and recycling. in the recycling and disposal system operation of the taking a comprehensive administration for the whole system, It was also suggested the reward and subsidy so as to control visual pollution and promote waste reduction and recycling.

  19. Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of 5.56-mm Ammunition: M855

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Ammunition: M855 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sidra I. Silton and Bradley E. Howell* 5d. PROJECT...integration technique (6). The 6-DOF routine incorporates the maximum likelihood method ( MLM ) to match the theoretical trajectory to the...experimentally measured trajectory. The MLM is an iterative procedure that adjusts the aerodynamic coefficients to maximize a likelihood function. Using this

  20. Defense Logistics: Actions Needed to Improve Department-Wide Management of Conventional Ammunition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inventory of certain missile items—including Stinger, Javelin, and Hellfire missiles —and the Joint Munitions Command manages all other ammunition items... Missile Command does not contribute to the annual reporting or redistribution process, but 52Missile support material refers to component parts...annual reports. The Army’s annual report, however, does not include information on certain missiles . Also, the Army’s report does not include

  1. Stock Liquidity and Corporate Cash Holdings: Feedback and the Cash as Ammunition Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nyborg, Kjell G.; Wang, Zexi

    2013-01-01

    The paper contributes to the literature on corporate cash holdings by showing that there is a financial markets channel that affects corporations’ cash holdings. Leaning on the literature on stock price feedback to firm fundamentals, we advance the hypothesis that firms with more liquid stocks hold more cash, ceteris paribus, as ammunition to defend against negative cascades or stimulate positive ones. This contrasts with an alternative view that firms with more liquid stocks are less financi...

  2. Determination of {sup 236}U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by {alpha}-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Testa, C. [General Chemistry Institute, Urbino University, Urbino (Italy); Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S. [Central Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products ({sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 237}Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by {alpha}-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. {sup 242}Pu and {sup 243}Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 10{sup 6}; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) and {alpha}-spectrometry ({sup 239+240}Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10{sup -12} g g{sup -1} and 2 x 10{sup -11} g g{sup -1}. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12{+-}0.04) was significantly lower than the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35{+-}0.10 and 0.27{+-}0.07). {sup 241}Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 10{sup 7}. The concentration of {sup 241}Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10{sup -14} g g{sup -1} and <9.4 x 10{sup -15} g g{sup -1}. In addition {sup 237}Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and {alpha}-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides ({sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu,{sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 237}Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of

  3. Determination of (236)U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by alpha-spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Testa, C; Boulyga, S F; Becker, J S

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products ((236)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Am, and (237)Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by alpha-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. (242)Pu and (243)Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri- n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 10(6); after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) and alpha-spectrometry ((239+240)Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10(-12) g g(-1) and 2 x 10(-11) g g(-1). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12+/-0.04) was significantly lower than the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35+/-0.10 and 0.27+/-0.07). (241)Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 10(7). The concentration of (241)Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10(-14) g g(-1) and <9.4 x 10(-15) g g(-1). In addition (237)Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry results were in good agreement. The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides ((236)U, (239)Pu,(240)Pu, (241)Am, and (237)Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible.

  4. Numerical Control Technology in Plastic Packaging Container Mould Processing Applications%数控技术在塑料包装容器模具加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立

    2012-01-01

    本文简述了在塑料包装容器生产中所用模具的常见加工方法,介绍了高速加工、多轴加工等数控技术特点,阐述了充分利用数控加工技术的优越性,进而提高模具的加工效率和质量,缩短制造周期.%This paper briefly in plastic packaging containers used in the production of the common mould processing method,this paper presents a high speed processing,the multiaxial processing characteristics of numerical control technology,this paper expounds the full use of the advantages of nc machining technology,and improve the mould processing efficiency and quality,shorten the manufacturing cycle.

  5. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  6. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  8. PEO Ammunition Systems Portfolio Book 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    consists of an aluminum alloy cup containing an ignition charge of lead styphnate , an intermediate charge of lead azide, and a base charge of RDX. The...51.5 kg SPECIAL FEATURES: • An aluminum alloy cup containing an ignition charge of lead styphnate , an intermediate charge of lead azide, and...49% Barium Nitrate; 16.5% Strontium Nitrate; 5% Binder • Hazard Class/Net Energetic Weight: 1.3G/0.145150 Kg FIELDING: • Fielded PRIME

  9. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  10. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  11. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  12. Size effects in crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of plasticity size effects have been carried out for different problems using a developed strain gradient crystal plasticiy theory. The theory employs higher order stresses as work conjugates to slip gradients and uses higher order boundary conditions. Problems on localization...... of plastic flow in a single crystal, grain boundary effects in a bicrystal, and grain size effects in a polycrystal are studied. Single crystals containing micro-scale voids have also been analyzed at different loading conditions with focus on the stress and deformation fields around the voids, on void...... growth and interaction between neighboring voids, and on a comparison between the developed strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and a discrete dislocation plasticity theory. Furthermore, voids and rigid inclusions in isotropic materials have been studied using a strain gradient plasticity theory...

  13. The Combination of Expert Judgment and GIS-MAIRCA Analysis for the Selection of Sites for Ammunition Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Gigović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests spatial multi-criteria model in order to assist decision makers in the selection of sites which are suitable for ammunition depots (AD. They represent military facilities which have more criteria that need to be matched than civil structures. The proposed model is based on combined use of Geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria techniques. The model application is presented in the case study of Carpathian region, the Eastern part of Serbia. The model deals with nine restrictions and six evaluation criteria. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory—Analytic Network Process (DEMATEL-ANP multi-criteria techniques are used to determine weight coefficients of evaluation criteria. Along with the above mentioned methods, this paper introduces a new technique for the multi-criteria decision making—MAIRCA (MultiAttributive Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis method. The MAIRCA method is used for the ranking and selection of suitable locations. The results have shown that 45 km2 of the Carpathian region is very suitable for ammunition depot construction. The MAIRCA method chose location L1 as the most appropriate. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is capable of identifying a suitable ammunition depot location. This approach can be helpful in determining suitable ammunition depot locations in other regions with similar geographic conditions and can also be successfully used for the suitability assessment of existing ammunition depots.

  14. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  15. 49 CFR 178.706 - Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. 178.706 Section... PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.706 Standards for rigid plastic IBCs. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic...

  16. Historic Properties Report: Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Grand Island, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    contained TNT and aluminum poder .29 The Nebraska Ordnance Works at Wahoo did the pioneer work in loading both Composition B and tritonal, and trained...Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings, 1983. Wash., D.C.: Preservation Assistance Division, National Park Ser •ice. 1983. Quayle, L. A

  17. 塑料表面载银微凝胶层层组装膜的制备及抗菌活性%Layer-by-layer Assembled Microgel Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Coatings on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王旭; 叶开其; 裘令瑛; 沈家骢

    2011-01-01

    以载银聚烯丙基胺盐酸盐-葡聚糖微凝胶与聚苯乙烯磺酸钠为构筑基元,利用层层组装技术制备了一种可直接沉积在疏水的塑料基底表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜.研究结果表明,该载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有很好的抗菌能力,并且其抗菌活性可以通过控制载银微凝胶膜的组装层数进行调控.这种沉积在塑料表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有良好的稳定性和基底黏附力,能够保障其长效抗菌性.%Antimicrobial coatings on hydrophobic plastic surfaces were directly fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of cross-linked poly( allylamine hydrochloride) and dextran microgels containing silver nanoparticles ( Ag@ PAH-D) with poly ( sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The as-prepared Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are effective in prohibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of the coatings can be easily controlled by tailoring the number of coating deposition cycles. The antimicrobial coatings of Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are stable and have satisfactory adhesion to the underlying plastic substrates,which guarantee the long-term application of the coatings.

  18. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  19. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  20. A Miniaturized Magnetic Induction Sensor Using Geomagnetism for Turn Count of Small-Caliber Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Soo Oh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a miniaturized magnetic induction sensor (MMIS, wheregeomagnetism and high rpm rotation of ammunition are used to detect the turn number ofthe ammunition for applications to small-caliber turn-counting fuzes. The MMIS, composedof cores and a coil, has a robust structure without moving parts to increase the shocksurvivability in a gunfire environment of ~30,000 g’s. The MMIS is designed and fabricatedon the basis of the simulation results of an electromagnetic analysis tool, Maxwell® 3D. Inthe experimental study, static MMIS test using a solenoid-coil apparatus and dynamicMMIS test (firing test have been made. The present MMIS has shown that an inductionvoltage of 6.5 mVp-p is generated at a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and a rotationalvelocity of 30,000 rpm. From the measured signal, MMIS has shown a signal-to-noise ratioof 44.0 dB, a nonlinearity of 0.59%, a frequency-normalized sensitivity of 0.256±0.010V/T·Hz and a drift of 0.27% in the temperature range of -30~ 43°C. Firing test has shownthat the MMIS can be used as a turn-counting sensor for small-caliber ammunition,verifying the shock survivability of the MMIS in a high-g environment.

  1. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (pleaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  2. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: ljtsuji@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, and a significant negative correlation for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  3. HOW TO SOLVE THE TASK OF CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF RIFLE AMMUNITION USING THE METHOD OF ASCANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In forensics there is an urgent need to determine the type of rifle (automatic, rifle, large caliber pistol depending on its used ammunition found at the scene of the use of weapons. We offer a solution to this problem with the use of new innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its program toolkitwhich is a universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the "Eidos" system we have implemented the software interface that allows posting of images and identifying their outer contours. By multivariable typing, the system creates a systemic-cognitive model, the use of which, if the model is sufficiently accurate, may be helpful in solving problems of system identification, prediction, classification, decision support and research of the modeled object by studying its model. For this task the following stages: 1 input images of ammunitions into the "Eidos" system and creation of their mathematical models; 2 the synthesis and verification of the models of generalized images of ammunition for types of weapons based on the contour images of specific munitions (multiparameter typing; 3 improving the quality of the model by separating classes for typical and atypical parts; 4 quantification of the similarities-the differences between specific types of munitions with generic images of different types of ammunition of the weapon (system identification; 5 quantification of the similarity-differences between types of ammunition, i.e. cluster-constructive analysis of generalized images of ammunition. A numerical example is given. We also possess a successful experience of solving similar problems in other subject areas

  4. Forest Tree Growth as a Bioindicator of Pollution Abatement Systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-14

    U-0Al C 0LIGNAPLTCGICIS P TT IY BLCSUG-EC FS1/ FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYS--ETC(I 𔃾- oa2 JAN 62 J M SKELLY. L W...947! FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS AT THE RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT Accession For FINAL REPORT Dr. John M...test potential bioindicator systems. x The study objectives of this research were: i’l) To determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible

  5. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting......The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...

  6. Study on Stable Scanning of Terminal Sensing Ammunition Based on Quaternion Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臣明; 刘怡昕

    2012-01-01

    Euler angles and Euler kinematics equation of terminal sensing ammunition are expressed and rewritten by using quaternion to solve the singular problem in using Euler angles to describe the motion.The contrastive simulations are performed in order to validate the correctness and advantage of the quaternion description.The simulation results show that the dynamic model with quaternion have stable solution,there is not singular point in the calculation,and the ballistic model rewritten by using the quaternion is suitable for describing the terminal sensing ammunition's scanning motion than the common Euler equation.

  7. Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay

    2016-05-01

    Plastics have become an essential part of our modern lifestyle, and the global plastic production has increased immensely during the past 50years. This has contributed greatly to the production of plastic-related waste. Reuse of waste and recycled plastic materials in concrete mix as an environmental friendly construction material has drawn attention of researchers in recent times, and a large number of studies reporting the behavior of concrete containing waste and recycled plastic materials have been published. This paper summarizes the current published literature until 2015, discussing the material properties and recycling methods of plastic and the influence of plastic materials on the properties of concrete. To provide a comprehensive review, a total of 84 studies were considered, and they were classified into sub categories based on whether they dealt with concrete containing plastic aggregates or plastic fibers. Furthermore, the morphology of concrete containing plastic materials is described in this paper to explain the influence of plastic aggregates and plastic fibers on the properties of concrete. The properties of concretes containing virgin plastic materials were also reviewed to establish their similarities and differences with concrete containing recycled plastics.

  8. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  9. Exposure assessment of a burning ground for chemical ammunition on the Great War battlefields of Verdun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Tobias; Bonnaire, Eric; Preuss, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    The destruction of arsenical shells from the 1914/18 war in the vicinity of Verdun (France) during the 1920s resulted in a locally limited but severe soil contamination by arsenic and heavy metals. At the study site, the main part of the contaminant inventory occurs in the upper 20 cm of the topsoil which is essentially composed of combustion residues. Besides, some Cu (cmax.=16,877 mg/kg) and Pb (cmax.=26,398 mg/kg) in this layer, As (cmax.=175,907 mg/kg) and Zn (cmax.=133,237 mg/kg) were detected in very high concentrations. The mobilities of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the soil system were derived from ammonium nitrate eluates. They are strongly influenced by the soil pH and can be described by quadratic regression curves from which threshold pH values were calculated. Below these values more than 10% of the element content was available as mobile species. Within the examined pH range, this method could not be adopted for arsenic, because the mobility of As was only slightly controlled by the soil pH. In the heavily contaminated topsoil, Cu and Pb were fixed by the moderately acidic soil pH which varied from 4.8 to 5.8. No migration to the underlying horizons occurred. A different behavior was observed for As and Zn. The calculated threshold pH of Zn was 5.5, so certain amount of this element was transferred to the subsoil and the leachate (cmax.=350 microg/l). However, a major dispersion of Zn was prevented by a rise of the soil pH in the carbonate-containing subsoil. Elevated concentrations of As were found in all soil horizons up to a depth of 2 m and also in the leachate (cmax.=2377 microg/l). Contrary to Cu, Pb and Zn the mobility of As evidently was less affected by the subsoil. Regarding organic contaminants, nitroaromatic explosives were detected only in minor concentrations in the soil (cmax.=14.7 mg/kg) and the leachate (cmax.=13.5 microg/l). No aromatic organoarsenicals were detected in the soil and the leachate samples. The main hazard of the site is the

  10. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoso, Laura [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: laurag@ebd.csic.es; Alvarez-Lloret, Pedro [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: pedalv@ugr.es; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro A.B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: anava@ugr.es; Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Mateo@uclm.es; Hiraldo, Fernando [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: hiraldo@ebd.csic.es; Donazar, Jose Antonio [Department of Conservation Biology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, C.S.I.C., Avda Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: donazar@ebd.csic.es

    2009-02-15

    Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 {mu}g L{sup -1}n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources.

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Determination of dibutyl phthalate in plastic bucket containing bulk liquor%盛装散装白酒的塑料桶中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 李明元

    2012-01-01

    According to the survey that rural market to hold bulk liquor extensively use of plastic bucket. Hexane was used to extraction solvent,extract dibutyl phthalate(DBP) from the plastic buckets containing bulk liquor by ultrasound-assisted extraction as well as dibutyl phthalate quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Extraction time,material/liquid ratio and extraction temperature were investigated with single-factor test. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken experimental desigen was used for process optimization. The optimal extraction conditions determined were extraction time of 52min, material/liquid ratio of 1:40,extraction temperature of 49℃. Under these conditions,the extraction volume of DBP was up to 32.21mg/kg,which was consistent with the prediction value. In the scope of 0.5~50.0mg/L, dibutyl phthalate had good linear relationship(R2=0.9998),lowest detectable limit was 0.017mg/L. The relative standard deviation of standard experimental precision was 0.40%,the recovery of dibutyl phthalate was 99.68% and the relative standard deviation was 0.85% ,the result showed that this extract method was accurate and reliable. This provided the basic data for food safety and the risk assessment of plasticizer.%摘要:据调查,农村市场广泛使用塑料桶盛装散装白酒。以正己烷作为提取溶剂.采用超声波辅助提取盛装散装白酒的塑料桶中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP),高效液相(HPLC)测定其含量。以提取时间、料液比、提取温度进行单因素实验,采用响应曲面Box—Behnken设计分析方法对其最佳提取条件进行优化。结果表明.邻苯二甲酸二丁酯最佳的提取条件为:提取时间为52min、料液比为1:40、提取温度为49℃,在此条件下,DBP提取量为32.21mg/kg.与理论预测值基本吻合。在0.5~50.0mg/L范围内邻苯二甲酸二丁酯具有良好的线性关系(R2=0.9998

  14. Preparation and Application of a P-containing Polyglycerol Ester Fire-retardant Plasticizer%含磷型聚合甘油脂肪酸酯阻燃增塑剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国东; 胡云; 周永红; 刘朋; 马艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the flame retardancy of oil plasticizer and develop high value-added products using crude glycerin from by-product of diesel oil as starting materials, a novel P-containing soybean-oil-based fire-retardant plasticizer ( DOPO-EAPFAE) was synthesized using crude glycerin,oleic acid and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide ( DOPO) as raw material through polymerization,esterification,epoxidation and ring opening reaction. The structure was verified by Fourier transform infrared ( FT-IR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric behavior and flame retardant properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis,oxygen index test and vertical burning test. When the amount 60% of phthalic acid dioctyl ester ( DOP) was replaced by DOPO-EAPFAE in PVC blends,PVC blends still has good mechanical properties. The limiting oxygen index ( LOI) of the blends increased from 21. 3 to 28. 7,and flame retardant level reached V0 grade. This indicated that the product can effectively improve the flame retardancy of PVC blends. The plasticity and flammability of DOPO-EAPFAE was better than tris(chlorisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP). Comparing to small molecular flame retardant tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate( TCPP) ,flame retardant of DOPO-EAPFAE was not only superior to TCPP,but also exhibited better thermal stability.%为了提高油脂增塑剂的阻燃性,开发以生物柴油副产粗甘油为直接原料的高附加值产品,以粗甘油、油酸和9,10-二氢-9-氧杂-10-磷杂菲-10-氧化物(DOPO)为主原料,经聚合、酯化、环氧化和开环反应,合成含磷型大分子阻燃增塑剂DOPO-环氧乙酰化聚合甘油脂肪酸酯( DOPO-EAPFAE),并通过红外谱图( FT-IR)和核磁共振(1H NMR)确认了其结构。研究了DOPO-EAPFAE用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系力学性能的影响;通过对PVC样条的热重分析( TG)、极限氧指数( LOI)测定和垂直燃烧测试等,分析了PVC制品的

  15. Fire protection in ammunition storage spaces on board naval craft: An evaluation of the water application rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, J.; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Boonacker, B.; Wal, R. van der; Haara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammunition storage spaces on naval vessels are commonly fitted with drencher systems that are designed to prevent ordnance reaching a temperature where it might explode due to fast or slow “cook‐off”. Many of these systems are traditional low pressure water spray systems that are required by the Nav

  16. Fire protection in ammunition storage spaces on board naval craft: An evaluation of the water application rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, J.; Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Boonacker, B.; Wal, R. van der; Haara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ammunition storage spaces on naval vessels are commonly fitted with drencher systems that are designed to prevent ordnance reaching a temperature where it might explode due to fast or slow “cook‐off”. Many of these systems are traditional low pressure water spray systems that are required by the

  17. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  18. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  19. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  20. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors contribute to the beneficial effects of hydrogen sulfide on cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Jian; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bin; Xu, Guo-Gang; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jin-Qiong; Tang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Ting; Wei, Bo

    2016-10-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of clinical dementia. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is implicated with the pathology of AD, and exogenous H2S attenuates spatial memory impairments in AD animal models. However, the molecular mechanism by which H2S improves cognition in AD has not been fully explored. Here, we report that chronic administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) elevated hippocampal H2S levels and enhanced hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and novel object recognition in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice. In parallel with these behavioral results, treating transgenic mice with NaHS reversed impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), which is deemed as the neurobiological basis of learning and memory. At the molecular level, we found that treatment with NaHS did not affect the expression of the GluN1 and GluN2A subunits of NMDA receptor (NMDAR), but did prevent the downregulation of GluN2B subunit and restored its synaptic abundance, response and downstream signaling in the hippocampus in transgenic mice. Moreover, applying Ro 25-6981, a specific GluN2B antagonist, abolished the beneficial effects of NaHS on cognitive performance and hippocampal LTP in transgenic mice. Collectively, our results indicate that H2S can reverse cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in AD model mice by restoring surface GluN2B expression and the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs.

  1. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  2. MIL-STD-1660-Tests of DS2 Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A253 400 9 FINAL REPORT JUNE 1991 REPORT NO. EVT 13-90 MIL- STD -1660 TESTS OF DS2 CONTAINERS VIC’ -~ ~ UL P.7~9a Prepared for: Distribution...Classification) MIL- STD - 1660 Tests of DS2 Containers 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jason B. Solberg 1,U. TYPE OF REPORT I1ft. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...tests conducted. As tested, the DS2 container passed MIL- STD - 1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads. 20. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT

  3. Non-lead rifle hunting ammunition: issues of availability and performance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Gremse, Carl; Kanstrup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Non-lead hunting rifle bullets were developed to make superior quality ammunition, and the need to reduce lead exposure of wildlife and humans. European and US hunters’ concerns about non-lead bullets involve perceptions of availability, costs, efficacy, accuracy, toxicity, and barrel fouling...... companies make non-lead bullets for traditional, rare, and novel rifle calibres. Local retail availability is now a function of consumer demand which relates, directly, to legal requirements for use. Costs of non-lead and equivalent lead-core hunting bullets are similar in Europe and pose no barrier to use....... Efficacy of non-lead bullets is equal to that of traditional lead-core bullets. Perceptions of reduced accuracy and greater barrel fouling must be addressed by industry and hunter organizations and, if verified, resolved. Non-lead bullets are made in fragmenting and non-fragmenting versions...

  4. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL (United States). Agronomy Dept.; Houser, W.P. [US Army Environmental Center, Edgewood, MD (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by vegetation growing on soils contaminated by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). Plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled and analyzed to determine TNT uptake under natural field conditions. Standard USATHAMA methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. No- explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, results indicate that TNT, 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and/or 4-ADNT were present in some root samples. The presence of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  5. Normal Approximation to a Sum of Geometric Random Variableswith Application to Ammunition Stockpile Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Hurley

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The normal approximation for a sum of geometric random variables has been examined. Thisapproximation is relevant to the determination of direct-fire ammunition stockpile levels in adefence setting. Among the methodologies available for this assessment, one is a target-orientedmethodology. This approach calculates the number of rounds necessary to destroy a givenfraction of the enemy force and infrastructure. The difficulty is that the number of rounds requiredcannot be determined analytically. An obvious numeric approach is Monte Carlo simulation.Another is the approximation approach which has several advantages like it is easy to implement.and is accurate even in the case where the number of targets is low.

  6. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  7. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  8. 战时弹药供应链系统结构设计%Research on Ammunition Supply Chain System Structure Design in Wartime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 高军; 刘晓蕾

    2014-01-01

    通过对战时弹药供应的概念和特征的分析,提出了战时弹药供应链系统结构的设计原则和流程,建立了战时弹药供应链系统结构设计模型。以战时弹药供应过程为基础,运用关键绩效指标法构建了战时弹药供应链的运行效能评价指标。然后,结合战时弹药供应的实际情况,对每个指标进行了描述,并给出了具体的算法。%To analyze the concept and characteristic of the ammunition supply chain in wartime, the system structure design principle and process of ammunition supply chain are proposed,the ammunition supply chain system structure design model is established. The paper builds an evaluation index of ammunition supply chain in wartime by KPI,based on the ammunition supply process in wartime. Combined with the actual situation of ammunition supply in wartime,the paper describes each evaluation index and shows the detailed algorithm.

  9. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web.

  10. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  11. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  12. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate. PMID:23967057

  13. Booster Manufacture by Scrap Ammunition Recycling%废弹药再利用制造起爆具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高宏; 蔺庆元; 任流润; 郭新春; 刘大维

    2013-01-01

    利用起爆具的基本配方与制造工艺,在熔化TNT后的混制工序中将废弹药拆分所得猛炸药和熔化TNT混合,经搅拌制备成混合炸药,浇注入放置传爆药柱的壳体中,制成起爆具.试验结果表明,利用废弹药所配制的混合炸药性能优越,进而制成的起爆具完全能满足用户需求.这种拆分废弹药再利用,既节约了资源,降低了处理成本,又改善了环境,实现了资源循环利用.%Based on its basic formula and manufacturing process, the booster was successfully fabricated by mixing high explosive from the scrap ammunition with melt TNT, stirring of mixed explosives, and casting of mixed explosives into the case, in which a booster charge was prepositioned. The experimental results show that the mixed explosive prepared by using the scrap ammunition has superior performance, and the corresponding booster could fully satisfy the requirments of clients. The recycling of scrap ammunition has the advantages of resource saving, disposal cost reduction, environment im-provment, and circulation of resources.

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF TYPICAL PATTERNS OF CRIME MECHANISM IN THE SPHERE OF ILLEGAL WEAPON AND AMMUNITION TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragulin I. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is important today because there is not enough attention in the contemporary law publications paid to the typical patterns of crime mechanism especially in the sphere of illegal weapon and ammunition turnover. Taking into account the opinions of such well-known forensic scientists as R.S. Belkin, V.D. Zelensky, G.M. Meretukov, M.V. Golovin, V.A. Obraztsov, J.G. Korukhov, V.Y. Koldin, O.V. Chelysheva, L.Y. Drapkin, V.N. Karagodin and others, the author comes to the conclusion that it’s necessary to develop typical patterns of crime mechanism for certain types of crime. The author has worked out some typical patterns of crime mechanism in the sphere of illegal weapon and ammunition turnover based upon major informative criminalistic elements, this particular article describes seven typical patterns of crime mechanism for the illegal storage, transportation, transfer, carry, purchase and sale, manufacture, repair or alteration, theft or extortion, careless storage or improper performance of duties on protection of weapon, its basic parts and ammunition. Each pattern is accompanied with the examples of judicial and investigative practice, followed by the necessary explanations and analysis of the activities of the subject of the investigation on the preparation, followup and final stages, which leads to the conclusion about the legitimacy of the proposed patterns

  15. Characterization of Exposure to Byproducts from Firing Lead Free Frangible Ammunition in an Enclosed, Ventilated Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, Christin M; Methner, Mark M; Jackson, Jerimiah M; Moore, Alexander L; Flory, Laura E; Tilly, Trevor; Hussain, Saber M; Ott, Darrin K

    2017-02-26

    U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions. The ventilation system was assessed by measuring the range static air pressure differential and the air velocity at the firing line. Air flow patterns were observed near the firing line. Instructor exposure was sampled using a filter-based air sampling method for metals and a wearable, real-time ultrafine particle counter. Area air sampling was simultaneously performed to characterize the particle size distribution, morphology and composition. In the instructor's breathing zone, the airborne mass concentration of copper was low (range = weapons that fire lead free frangible ammunition. Using an ultrafine particle counter appears to be an alternative method of assessing ventilation effectiveness in removing ultrafine particulate produced during firing events.

  16. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  17. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  18. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  19. Plasticity of pressure-sensitive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Classical plasticity theory of metals is independent of the hydrostatic pressure. However, if the metal contains voids or pores or if the structure is composed of cells, this classical assumption is no more valid and the influence of the hydrostatic pressure must be incorporated in the constitutive description. Looking at the microlevel, metal plasticity is connected with the uniform planes of atoms organized with long-range order. Planes may slip past each other along their close-packed directions. The result is a permanent change of shape within the crystal and plastic deformation. The presence of dislocations increases the likelihood of planes slipping. Nowadays, the theory of pressure sensitive plasticity is successfully applied to many other important classes of materials (polymers, concrete, bones etc.) even if the phenomena on the micro-level are different to classical plasticity of metals. The theoretical background of this phenomenological approach based on observations on the macro-level is describe...

  20. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  1. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  2. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  3. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  4. Crack nucleation using combined crystal plasticity modelling, high-resolution digital image correlation and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a superalloy containing non-metallic inclusions under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Jiang, Jun; Britton, Ben; Shollock, Barbara; Dunne, Fionn

    2016-05-01

    A crystal plasticity finite-element model, which explicitly and directly represents the complex microstructures of a non-metallic agglomerate inclusion within polycrystal nickel alloy, has been developed to study the mechanistic basis of fatigue crack nucleation. The methodology is to use the crystal plasticity model in conjunction with direct measurement at the microscale using high (angular) resolution-electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) and high (spatial) resolution-digital image correlation (HR-DIC) strain measurement techniques. Experimentally, this sample has been subjected to heat treatment leading to the establishment of residual (elastic) strains local to the agglomerate and subsequently loaded under conditions of low cyclic fatigue. The full thermal and mechanical loading history was reproduced within the model. HR-EBSD and HR-DIC elastic and total strain measurements demonstrate qualitative and quantitative agreement with crystal plasticity results. Crack nucleation by interfacial decohesion at the nickel matrix/agglomerate inclusion boundaries is observed experimentally, and systematic modelling studies enable the mechanistic basis of the nucleation to be established. A number of fatigue crack nucleation indicators are also assessed against the experimental results. Decohesion was found to be driven by interface tensile normal stress alone, and the interfacial strength was determined to be in the range of 1270-1480 MPa.

  5. Energy engineering analysis, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonik, D.M.

    1982-06-22

    This Energy Engineering Analysis consists of the main report, three appendices, and a summary of annual energy consumption on a per-building basis. The main report identifies the purpose of the study, describes the existing and anticipated energy use trends, and defines and summarizes specific energy conservation projects recommended to achieve the goals stated in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. Appendices I, II and III, and the Annual Energy Consumption Summary include building information, weather data, cost data, and detailed computer-generated and manual calculations for each individual project. The analysis will enable ammunition plant personnel to identify energy conservation measures and meet Army energy reduction goals. The report includes: Energy consumption by fuel type Energy consumption trends ECAM projects Other potential projects Quick-fix management form Description of analyzed buildings In addition, the Analysis is a detailed data base consisting of: An analysis of building energy use Energy Conservation Measures applied to each analyzed building to be improved A set of marked-up prints from the survey indicating the conditions when surveyed.

  6. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ., of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept., of Agronomy

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in TNT-contaminated soils on Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). The soils in this group were contaminated more than 40 years ago. In this study, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled from 15 locations and analyzed to determine TNT uptake by plants under natural field conditions. Plant materials were separated by species if more than one species was present at a sampling location. Standard methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. No. explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, the results indicate that TNT, 2-amino DNT, and/or 4-amino DNT were found in some root samples of false boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides), teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), and bromegrass (Bromus inermis). It is possible that slight soil contamination remained on the roots, especially in the case of the very fine roots for species like bromegrass, where washing was difficult. The presence of 2-amino DNT and 4-amino DNT, which could be plant metabolites of TNT, increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  7. Products of in Situ Corrosion of Depleted Uranium Ammunition in Bosnia and Herzegovina Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuheng; von Gunten, Konstantin; Bartova, Barbora; Meisser, Nicolas; Astner, Markus; Burger, Mario; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-11-15

    Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these postconflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years. We used a combination of X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that metaschoepite (UO3(H2O)2) was a main component of the two DU corrosion products. Moreover, studtite ((UO2)O2(H2O)2·2(H2O)) and becquerelite (Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6·8(H2O)) were also identified in the corrosion products. Their formation through transformation of metaschoepite was a result of the geochemical conditions under which the penetrators corroded. Moreover, we propose that the transformation of metaschoepite to becquerelite or studtite in the DU corrosion products would decrease the potential for mobilization of U from corroded DU penetrators exposed to similar environments in postconflict areas.

  8. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujewski, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.; Johnson, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  9. Plant uptake of explosives from contaminated soil at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Illinos, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-04-01

    Explosives and their degradation products may enter the animal and human food chains through plants grown on soils contaminated with explosives. Soil and plant samples were collected from the Group 61 area at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant and analyzed to determine the extent to which 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products are taken up by existing vegetation and crops growing on contaminated soils. Neither TNT nor its degradation products was detected in any of the aboveground plant organs of existing vegetation. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were planted on TNT-contaminated soils amended with three levels of chopped grass hay. Extractable TNT concentrations in hay-amended soils were monitored for almost 1 year. Crop establishment and growth improved with increased levels of hay amendment, but TNT uptake was not affected or detected in any aboveground crop organs. Evidence was found to indicate that soil manipulation and hay addition may reduce extractable TNT concentration in soils, but the wide variations in TNT concentrations in these soils prevented development of conclusive evidence regarding reduction of extractable TNT concentrations. Results from this study suggest that vegetation grown on TNT-contaminated soils is not a major health concern because TNT and its degradation products were not detected in aboveground plant organs. However, low concentrations of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene were detected in or on some existing vegetation and crop roots. 21 refs., 10 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  11. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Granby, Kit; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic......,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile...... flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling....

  12. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  13. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  14. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  15. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  16. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  17. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  18. Crusader Automated Docking System: Technology support for the Crusader Resupply Team. Interim report, Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Varma, V.K.; Jatko, W.B.

    1995-11-01

    The US Army and Team Crusader (United Defense, Lockheed Martin Armament Systems, etc.) are developing the next generation howitzer, the Crusader. The development program includes an advanced, self-propelled liquid propellant howitzer and a companion resupply vehicle. The resupply vehicle is intended to rendezvous with the howitzer near the battlefront and replenish ammunition, fuel, and other material. The Army has recommended that Crusader incorporate new and innovative technologies to improve performance and safety. One conceptual design proposes a robotic resupply boom on the resupply vehicle to upload supplies to the howitzer. The resupply boom would normally be retracted inside the resupply vehicle during transit. When the two vehicles are within range of the resupply boom, the boom would be extended to a receiving port on the howitzer. In order to reduce exposure to small arms fire or nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards, the crew would remain inside the resupply vehicle during the resupply operation. The process of extending the boom and linking with the receiving port is called docking. A boom operator would be designated to maneuver the boom into contact with the receiving port using a mechanical joystick. The docking operation depends greatly upon the skill of the boom operator to manipulate the boom into docking position. Computer simulations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have shown that computer-assisted or autonomous docking can improve the ability of the operator to dock safely and quickly. This document describes the present status of the Crusader Autonomous Docking System (CADS) implemented at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the CADS project is to determine the feasibility and performance limitations of vision systems to satisfy the autonomous docking requirements for Crusader and conduct a demonstration under controlled conditions.

  19. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  20. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  1. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  2. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  3. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing 6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum 6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing 6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of 6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts.

  4. The molecular interfacial structure and plasticizer migration behavior of "green" plasticized poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2015-02-14

    Tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC), a widely-used "green" plasticizer, has been extensively applied in products for daily use. In this paper, a variety of analytical tools including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), contact angle goniometry (CA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied together to investigate the molecular structures of TBAC plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and the migration behavior of TBAC from PVC-TBAC mixtures into water. We comprehensively examine the effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatments on the surface structures of PVC-TBAC thin films containing various bulk percentages of plasticizers and the leaching behavior of TBAC into water. It was found that TBAC is a relatively stable PVC plasticizer compared to traditional non-covalent plasticizers but is also surface active. Oxygen plasma treatment increased the hydrophilicity of TBAC-PVC surfaces, but did not enhance TBAC leaching. However, argon plasma treatment greatly enhanced the leaching of TBAC molecules from PVC plastics to water. Based on our observations, we believe that oxygen plasma treatment could be applied to TBAC plasticized PVC products to enhance surface hydrophilicity for improving the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of PVC products. The structural information obtained in this study will ultimately facilitate a molecular level understanding of plasticized polymers, aiding in the design of PVC materials with improved properties.

  5. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  6. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  7. Sex differences in NMDA GluN1 plasticity in rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons containing corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor following slow-pressor angiotensin II hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kempen, T A; Dodos, M; Woods, C; Marques-Lopes, J; Justice, N J; Iadecola, C; Pickel, V M; Glass, M J; Milner, T A

    2015-10-29

    There are profound, yet incompletely understood, sex differences in the neurogenic regulation of blood pressure. Both corticotropin signaling and glutamate receptor plasticity, which differ between males and females, are known to play important roles in the neural regulation of blood pressure. However, the relationship between hypertension and glutamate plasticity in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-receptive neurons in brain cardiovascular regulatory areas, including the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), is not understood. In the present study, we used dual-label immuno-electron microscopy to analyze sex differences in slow-pressor angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension with respect to the subcellular distribution of the obligatory NMDA glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the RVLM and PVN. Studies were conducted in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) under the control of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRF1) promoter (i.e., CRF1-EGFP reporter mice). By light microscopy, GluN1-immunoreactivity (ir) was found in CRF1-EGFP neurons of the RVLM and PVN. Moreover, in both regions tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was found in CRF1-EGFP neurons. In response to AngII, male mice showed an elevation in blood pressure that was associated with an increase in the proportion of GluN1 on presumably functional areas of the plasma membrane (PM) in CRF1-EGFP dendritic profiles in the RVLM. In female mice, AngII was neither associated with an increase in blood pressure nor an increase in PM GluN1 in the RVLM. Unlike the RVLM, AngII-mediated hypertension had no effect on GluN1 localization in CRF1-EGFP dendrites in the PVN of either male or female mice. These studies provide an anatomical mechanism for sex-differences in the convergent modulation of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons by CRF and glutamate. Moreover, these results suggest that sexual dimorphism in

  8. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  9. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  10. 基于系统动力学的弹药保障优化分析%Optimized Analysis of Ammunition Support Based on System Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪坤; 赵建江; 朱皖松

    2015-01-01

    The system dynamics model of ammunition support at war time is built based on the analysis of its control mechanism and relations among related factors using system dynamics method. The model is simulated on VENSIM platform, which finds the function laws of ammunition support at war time with different factors. The influence brought to storage of ammunition support at war is analyzed, and an approach to forecasting the minimum value of initial and expected storage of ammunition support system is proposed.%基于系统动力学原理和方法,在分析战时弹药保障系统控制机理和各要素间的因果关系的基础上,建立了战时弹药保障系统动力学仿真模型,利用VENSIM仿真平台对模型进行模拟,得出了在不同影响因素条件下的战时弹药保障系统的运行规律,分析了不同要素对战时弹药保障系统弹药存储的影响,提供了一种预测弹药保障系统初始存储量和期望存储量最小值的方法。

  11. 仿真技术在弹药贮存中的应用%Application of Simulation Technique in Ammunition Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣卫芳; 张勇智; 王一临

    2011-01-01

    利用仿真技术测定弹药贮存的微环境,根据包装结构和弹药结构对弹药贮存的微环境进行了分析.采用较为简便的数学模型,找出了包装箱和弹药在变化的环境温度下的温度分布和变化规律,然后通过弹药贮存微环境的仿真设计,确定了计算软件的功能模块.使用该软件可计算任一时间弹药及其各包装部位微环境的温度.%Simulation technique was used for measuring micro-environment of ammunition storage. The micro-environment was analyzed based of configuration of ammunition and its packaging. The temperature distribution and changing rule of ammunition and its packaging under different environment temperature was found out by simple and convenient math model. Simulation design of the micro-environment was carried out and the function module of calculation software was determined. The temperature in each positions of ammunition and its packaging can be calculated every time by the software.

  12. Plastic materials currently used in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruvjir Shagdarsuren; Nachin Baasanjav; Sosor Baatarjav

    2007-01-01

    The first skin-flap procedures were performed in Mongolia by a team of Chinese doctors ( Chenod, Chen)who treated children with burn injuries in the 1950s. The field of plastic surgery was further developed through assistance from the former Soviet Union and is now widely practiced by a number of surgeons around the country.In recent years, the fast evolving field of plastic surgery in Mongolia has created a need for clear and consistent system for the classification of various plastic materials. A team of Mongolian surgeons at the National Hospital for Traumatology, Orthopedics, Rehabilitation and Teaching Research have completed a research programme aimed at adopting a leading classification system that can facilitate effective communication between plastic surgeons. This requires the chosen system to be in line with modern trends in plastic surgery and the established international norms.As a result of extensive research and analysis, they have developed a customized version of Vasiliev's classification that focuses on formulating general principles of the description of plastic materials based on their functional characteristics. The main reason for this selection is its similarity with existing Mongolian standards as well as its principles that contain important implications for surgery.

  13. Plastic design of continuous composite slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Most current regulations for continuous composite slabs contain rules that limit the application of plastic analysis in the design process. In this paper, results of numerical studies for positive and negative bending and experimental results for negative bending are presented. From these

  14. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  15. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  16. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  17. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  18. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  19. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  1. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  2. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  3. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypropylene. An injection press available at NYANGONO PLASTIC factory (Yaounde-Cameroon was used to manufacture our wood- plastic composites.The following combinations were used: 1/3 Padou flour and 2/3 plastic; 1/4 Padou flour and 3/4 plastic; 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic. We found that the composite made of 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic reaches firstthe hygroscopic saturation point, flowed by the one containing 1/4 of wood and 3/4 of plastic and finally that containing 1/3 of wood and 2/3 of plastic. The moisture content of all the wood-plastic composite made was very low even in a soaked environment enabling us to conclude that these composites will be probably not attacked by fungus and insects.

  4. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  5. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  6. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In

  7. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In th

  8. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada.

  9. Engineering Design Handbook - Military Pyrotechnics Series. Part Four. Design of Ammunition for Pyrotechnic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-15

    Dimensions 7—13 8— 1 Constants of the Beattie - Bridgeman Equation of State 8-2 8—2 Properties of Plastics 8—11 8—3... BEATTIE - BRIDGEMAN EQUATION OF STATE Mini- Maxi- mum mum vol- pres- ume. Temp. sure, cc/g- Gas A0 a ßo b C X 10𔃾 0.0040 range, 400 to - °C...8-6) where A0, B0,a,b, and c are constants. Table 8-13 lists constants of the Beattie - Bridgeman equation of state for several gases. The

  10. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liset Rietman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we combined previously obtained data from recombinant inbred BXD strains on ocular dominance (OD plasticity and gene expression levels in the neocortex. We validated our approach using a list of genes which alter OD plasticity when inactivated. The expression levels of one fifth of these genes correlated with the amount of OD plasticity. Moreover, the two genes with the highest relative inter-strain differences were among the correlated genes. This suggests that correlation between gene expression levels and OD plasticity is indeed likely to point to genes with a causal role in modulating or generating plasticity in the visual cortex. After this validation on known plasticity genes, we identified new candidate genes by a multi-step approach. First, a list was compiled of all genes of which the expression level in BXD strains correlate with the amount of OD plasticity. To narrow this list to the more promising candidates, we took its cross-section with a list of genes co-regulated with the sensitive period for OD plasticity and a list of genes associated with pathways implicated in OD plasticity. This analysis resulted in a list of 32 candidate genes. The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A receptor, acetylcholine esterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This was indicative of the viability of our approach, but more interesting were the novel candidate genes: Akap7, Akt1, Camk2d, Cckbr, Cd44, Crim1, Ctdsp2, Dnajc5, Gnai1, Itpka, Mapk8, Nbea, Nfatc3, Nlk, Npy5r, Phf21a, Phip, Ppm1l, Ppp1r1b, Rbbp4, Slc1a3, Slit2, Socs2, Spock3, St8sia1, Zfp207. The possible role of some of these candidates is discussed in the article.

  11. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  12. Production of primary materials for duro-plastic glue, ethanol, and enzymes, from lignocellulose-containing by-products and organic waste in the Fritz-Werner pilot plant (steam pressure extraction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, M.; Langer, J.

    1983-01-01

    By the steam pressure extraction process ligno-cellulose-containing annual plants and deciduous wood can be pulped without the need for chemicals. The pre-ground material is treated continuously with saturated steam at elevated pressures in a boiler for approx. 10-20 min. and is shredded upon discharge from the boiler by reduction of pressure to atmospheric conditions. This decomposition process leads to a softening of the cell wall bonds thereby exposing the bio-structure. Extraction of the fibrous material with water or strongly diluted aqueous alkali gives rise to the hemicellular form of the starting material, in particular to soluble xylane degradation products. The extracted fibrous material consists chiefly of cellulose and lignin. These fibres are so loosely inter-connected that they are readily accessible for chemical and in particular biochemical reaction. The fibres can be converted to glucose by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis, they can be used as a substrate for microorganisms, or as energy source and raw fodder for ruminants, or they can be compressed to form fibre-board without the need for binding agents.

  13. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-08-30

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rhys E; Hunt, W Grainger; Parish, Christopher N; Newton, Ian

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona) and Zion (Utah)) were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah), as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  15. Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rhys E.; W Grainger Hunt; Christopher N Parish; Ian Newton

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead co...

  16. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys E Green

    Full Text Available California condors (Gymnogyps californianus released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona and Zion (Utah were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah, as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  17. Analysis of the Stability of Ammunition Supplies Chain System Based on SD%基于SD的弹药供应链系统稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美; 王立欣; 李文生; 王海宽

    2011-01-01

    为了研究弹药供应链系统的稳定性,基于弹药供应链系统的组成进行分析,采用系统动力学方法建立了二阶弹药供应链系统的稳定性模型,并利用系统动力学专用软件Vensim对该模型进行数学建模与仿真实验,得到系统稳定、出现震荡及溢出现象时相关参数的取值范围。仿真结果表明:影响弹药供应链系统稳定性的因素是弹药库订货决策的参数,与外部需求无关。%In order to solve the stability of the ammunition supplies chain system,second-level system of the ammunition supplies chain is set up based on the composition analysis of ammunition supplies chain system.Mathematics modeling and simulation experiment are carried on using professional SD software Vensim,and the value range of the parameter is elicited when the system come forth stability,shake and overflow phenomenon.The simulation result shows that the factor which influence the stability of the system of the ammunition supplies chain is the parameter of the magazine order decision,and has nothing to do with the external demand.

  18. Analysis and Research of the Despinning Characteristics of Cannon Carried Falling Ammunition%榴弹搭载伞降子弹减旋特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘闯; 孙丽萍; 程宏涛

    2012-01-01

    针对榴弹搭载伞降子弹减旋翼片的结构特点,分析了其所受力矩,建立了伞降子弹在减速减旋阶段运动微分方程,仿真计算得出了在此阶段子弹的转速-时间曲线,计算结果和实弹试验均表明减旋翼片能使子弹的转速在较短的时间内由几百转/s降至零,从而使子弹达到稳定工作状态,说明减旋翼片能够满足伞降子弹的减旋要求.最后,分析了不同展长和开伞点不同存速对减旋翼片减旋性能影响.%According to the structure characteristics of despinning wings of cannon carried Falling ammunition, torque is analyzed, The movement differential equation in the deceleration and despinning stage is established. The velocity-time curve is calculated, the results and live firing testing indicate the velocity of ammunition can be reduced from several hundred rad/s to zero in a short time by using despinning wings. Ammunition can reach the steady-working state accordingly and the despinning wings can satisfied requirements of reducing velocity of ammunition. Finally, it is analysed that different spans and different velocities in parachute-opening point influence despinning performance of the despinning wings.

  19. Understanding cancer stem cell heterogeneity and plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dean G Tang

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells.Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous,containing many subpopulations of self-renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity.The differentiated progeny of adult stem cells also retain significant developmental plasticity that can be induced by a wide variety of experimental approaches.Like normal stem cells,recent data suggest that cancer stem cells(CSCs)similarly display significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity,and that the CSC progeny can manifest diverse plasticity.Here,I discuss CSC heterogeneity and plasticity in the context of tumor development and progression,and by comparing with normal stem cell development.Appreciation of cancer cell plasticity entails a revision to the earlier concept that only the tumorigenic subset in the tumor needs to be targeted.By understanding the interrelationship between CSCs and their differentiated progeny,we can hope to develop better therapeutic regimens that can prevent the emergence of tumor cell variants that are able to found a new tumor and distant metastases.

  20. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  1. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  2. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  3. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  4. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  5. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  6. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  7. 航母航空弹药组成及需求分析%The composition and requirement analysis of aviation ammunition in aircraft carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文强; 陈练; 蒋志勇

    2012-01-01

    为了保证持续的打击能力,舰载机必须往返于航母和战场上空,通过飞行甲板上的挂弹作业完成弹药补给,因而挂弹架次以及弹药需求量对于航空作业的规划安排具有重要意义.针对美国现役“尼米兹”级航母及其舰载机F/A-18E/F“超级大黄蜂”,重点分析了航母航空弹药类型及舰载机挂弹配置;讨论了作战架次的基本组成并总结了挂弹架次计算的基本步骤.以“尼米兹”级和“福特”级航母为例,详细计算了挂弹架次以及航空弹药需求量,并对弹药库自持力进行分析.结果表明,舰载机挂弹架次和航空弹药需求之间存在互相制约的关系.弹药需求量的分析对于航母设计和作战使用具有一定参考价值.%In order to ensure the sustained strike ability,embarked aircraft's should fly between the aircraft carrier and the midair of battlefield,completing the ammunition supplies by ordnance handling on the flight deck. Therefore, arming sortie of embarked aircrafts and requirement for ammunition have an important significance for planning arrangement of aviation operation. Based on the operation experience of USS Niinitz and F/A-l 8E/F Super Hornet onboard, analysis was firstly focused on the main types of aviation ammunition and the basic ordnance configuration for embarked aircraft. Then following by the discussion about breakdown of strike sorties and basic calculation steps of arming sortie, attention was drawn to the detailed calculation of arming sortie and ammunition requirement for USS Nimitz and Ford class aircraft carrier( CVN78). In the end,analysis was also performed on the self-supplying capacity of magazine stock in aircraft carrier. The conclusion is that it is interdependent between the arming sortie and requirement for ammunition. Paper's research production is valuable to the design and operation for aircraft carrier.

  8. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  9. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  10. Impact of the nature and concentration of plasticizers on the ability of PVC to sorb drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Aymes-Chodur, C; Barakat, H; Yagoubi, N

    2015-12-30

    The sorption of a drug by an infusion set may dramatically reduce the drug delivery efficiency. In this paper, we investigated how the drug sorption, in static conditions, is affected by the plasticizer's nature and ratio in the case of plasticized PVC, one of the most common material for infusion set tubing. Within the study, the drug concentration in diazepam solutions was studied after contact with PVC films containing different amounts of DEHP, DEHT, TOTM and DINCH® plasticizers. Moreover the partition coefficients between material and water were calculated. The drug sorption levels were equivalent for the different plasticizers and there was a plasticizer ratio for which the drug uptake was enhanced. As a consequence, the amount of sorbed drug might not be only linked to the amount of plasticizer in the film and to the solubility of the drug in the plasticizer alone: it must probably depend on specific interactions between plasticizer and PVC.

  11. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Andrew N., E-mail: mabe2@llnl.gov; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-11

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing {sup 6}Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum {sup 6}Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing {sup 6}Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of {sup 6}Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% {sup 6}Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  12. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  13. Benzotriazole-type ultraviolet stabilizers and antioxidants in plastic marine debris and their new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet stabilizers (UVSs) and antioxidants are the most widely used additives in plastics to enhance the lifetime of polymeric materials. There is growing interest in the roles of plastic marine debris and microplastics as source or vector of toxic substances to marine environment and organisms. However, there is limited information available on plastic associated chemicals, particularly additive chemicals. Therefore, to evaluate their extent of exposure from plastics to the marine environment, we determined UVSs and antioxidants in plastic debris (n=29) collected from beaches along with their corresponding new plastic products in markets (n=27) belonging to food, fisheries, and general use. Antioxidants were present at higher concentrations than UVSs in both plastic debris and new plastics, indicative of their high use over UVSs. Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were more commonly used than other chemicals investigated. The irregular use with high concentration of additive chemicals was observed in short-term use plastic products. Except for Irganox 1076 and UV 326, most antioxidants and UVSs were relatively high in new plastics compared to corresponding plastic marine debris, implying their potential leaching or degradation during use or after disposal. The present study provides quantitative information about additive chemicals contained in plastic marine debris and their new products. These results could be useful for better understanding of environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals through plastic pollution.

  14. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  15. Modeling Method Research of Ammunition Allocation Decision-Making Oriented on Equipment Combat Simulation%面向装备作战仿真的弹药调拨供应决策建模方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊胜利; 柏彦奇; 秦键; 姚涛

    2011-01-01

    针对用线性规划方法在解决弹药调拨供应决策过程中存在的弹药调拨供应量的分配与弹药保障原则关联不紧密的问题,采用目标规划理论与方法,引入优先级区分主要作战方向和次要作战方向弹药库的重要程度,在同一优先级上以权重区分一梯队、二梯队及预备队弹药库的弹药保障优先顺序,使得模型的构建过程与弹药保障原则紧密相联.同时,在模型构建过程中,综合考虑了弹药消耗预测量、弹药储备标准和弹药运输时限等因素对弹药调拨供应决策的影响,并从本级弹药储备不足和充足两种情况进行了数值模型及分析,验证了模型的正确性与可靠性,为弹药调拨供应提供了决策支持与理论支撑.%To solve the problem of the loose co-relationship between ammunition allocation and ammunition support principles resulting from decision-making based on linear programming, it adopts object programming and introduces priority level to distinguish the importance of ammunition depots in major engagement direction and minor engagement direction.Moreover it uses weight to define the order of priority for ammunition allocation of the first echelon, the second echelon and preliminary echelon.So it can combine clolsely the modeling procedures and ammunition allocation principles.At the same time,it thinks over synthetically the impact of ammunition consumption prediction quantity,ammunition storing standard and transportation time constraint on ammunition allocation decision-making.Finally it promotes the correctness and reliability of model results and provides theoretical support for ammunition allocation decision-making.

  16. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  17. The discovery of GluA3-dependent synaptic plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are responsible for fast excitatory synaptic transmission. GluA1-containing AMPARs have been extensively studied and play a key role in several forms of synaptic plasticity and memory. In contrast, GluA3-containing AMPARs have historically been ignored because they have

  18. Plasticity modeling & computation

    CERN Document Server

    Borja, Ronaldo I

    2013-01-01

    There have been many excellent books written on the subject of plastic deformation in solids, but rarely can one find a textbook on this subject. “Plasticity Modeling & Computation” is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids. It adopts a simple narrative style that is not mathematically overbearing, and has been written to emulate a professor giving a lecture on this subject inside a classroom. Each section is written to provide a balance between the relevant equations and the explanations behind them. Where relevant, sections end with one or more exercises designed to reinforce the understanding of the “lecture.” Color figures enhance the presentation and make the book very pleasant to read. For professors planning to use this textbook for their classes, the contents are sufficient for Parts A and B that can be taught in sequence over a period of two semesters or quarters.

  19. Low temperature creep plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kassner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of crystalline materials at low temperatures (T < 0.3Tm is discussed. In particular, the phenomenological relationships that describe primary creep are reviewed and analyzed. A discussion of the activation energy for creep at T < 0.3Tm is discussed in terms of the context of higher temperature activation energy. The basic mechanism(s of low temperature creep plasticity are discussed, as well.

  20. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  2. Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds from Training Range and Army Ammunition Plant Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    and accuracy of concentration estimates for a soil containing particulates of high explosives. Methods Crystals of SARM (Standard Analytical...One minute of grinding was adequate to reduce subsampling error to less than 2% RSD for HMX, RDX, and TNT in the sand spiked with SARM crystals

  3. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  4. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape, and reproducibility, showing that

  5. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion

  6. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing of Large Caliber Ammunition Greater Than 40MM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    compositions containing metal fuels (e.g., magnesium ) are prone to oxidation resulting in the production of hydrogen gas, which if present in...extremes on board ship. A.1-1.4 Temperature Stabilization. For environmental tests that require temperature conditioning, temperature stabilization...charge loaded into a hot gun may cook-off depending upon the temperature of the breech wall, heat dissipation, and the construction of the charge. In

  7. Technology Assessment of the DACS/MERADCOM Prestaged Ammunition Loading System (PALS) Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    TO A DOOR POST VERTICAL W/4-10d NAILS AFTER THE LOWER DOOR SPANNER PECES ARE IN POSITITON. HOLD-DOWN PIEC, 2" X 4" BY CONTAINER HEIGHT MINUS 1/2" (2...34 .7 CUBIC FEET SRAER PECE , 2 X 4- X 09 I PRAD ), LAMAINATE TO THf RETAINER PIECE W/7.104 NAILS. RETAINER PIECE, 2- X 4’ SPREADER ASSEMBLY D

  8. Fullerene Derivatives and Aluminum-based Nanothermites as Potential New Ammunition Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and the possibility to ignite such a primer by low energy laser irradiation. Traditional primers contain lead compounds such as lead azide and lead...the specifications of the supplier. Among the different types of metal oxide nanopowders available, copper oxide (CuO), molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and...electricity given the sensitivity of nanothermites to ESD. In a glass tube was placed copper oxide (250 mg). Then was added hexane 6.2 mL and the

  9. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  10. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  11. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  12. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    “Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  13. Fabrication of plastic biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaem, Ishtiaq; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Alam, S. Munir; Tian Jingdong [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Medicine and Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A versatile surface functionalization procedure based on rf magnetron sputtering of silica was performed on poly(methylmethacrylate), polycarbonate, polypropylene, and cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 6015). The hybrid thermoplastic surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis and contact angle measurements. The authors then used these hybrid materials to perform a sandwich assay targeting an HIV-1 antibody using fluorescent detection and biotinylated peptides immobilized using the bioaffinity of biotin-neutravidin. They found a limit of detection similar to arrays on glass surfaces and believed that this plastic biochip platform may be used for the development of disposable immunosensing and diagnostic applications.

  14. 弹药木包装箱阻燃处理的研究%Study on Fire Retarding Treatment of Ammunition Wood Packaging Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑芬; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了目前弹药木包装箱由于材料和结构的特点,在部队仓储、运输等勤务处理和战时使用中存在的燃爆隐患。通过对国内木材阻燃情况的调研,并结合弹药木包装箱特点,利用开发的新型阻燃剂,通过对木材表面刷阻燃剂与不刷阻燃剂2种不同工艺状态下,燃烧时间、质量损失率2项指标的对比试验,表明经过阻燃处理的弹药木包装箱,其阻燃防火性能效果明显,可借鉴参考,指导生产。%The hidden dangers exist in current ammunition wood packaging box were introduced, which were burning and explosion, during army service such as storage, transportation and usage in war because of its materials and structures" characters. By means of survey and study into domestic wood fire-prevention condition and considering the character of ammunition wood packing box, a comparative test was carried out to find the difference in burning time and the rate of mass loss between the two kinds of wood materials, one's surface painted with the newly-developed fire retardant and the other without. The result showed that the ammunition wood packaging box treated by fire-prevention has excellent fire-prevention effect. The purpose was .to provide reference for production.

  15. Model of Suppression Weapon Ammunition Consumption Prediction Oriented Firepower Strike Mission%面向火力打击任务的压制武器弹药消耗预计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立欣; 刘志勇; 程中华; 王亚彬

    2015-01-01

    With the gradual increase of sort of suppression weapon ammunition,the gradual broad firepower strike mission,the problem of ammunition consumption prediction of suppression weapon is getting more and more important. On the base of the multi-target and multi-type ammunition in the firepower strike mission,with the constraints of time and expense,considering the best matching degree of ammunition type and mission,the shortest time,as well as the lowest expense,the model of suppression weapon ammunition consumption prediction oriented firepower strike mission is established by using the goal programming theory. The model are helpful for command organization and support organization to predict ammunition consumption.%随着武器装备的发展和高新技术的应用,压制武器弹药品种日益增多,所承担的火力打击任务日益广泛,压制武器弹药消耗预计问题尤为凸显。从弹种与任务的匹配入手,以弹种任务匹配最佳、完成任务时间最短和完成任务费用最省为决策准则,运用目标规划理论,构建面向火力打击任务的压制武器弹药消耗预计模型,为提高弹药消耗预计的准确性奠定基础,为部队作战指挥机构和保障机构开展弹药消耗预计提供模型支持。

  16. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  17. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 6. Appendix L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ug/g DBB-91-01 SB 25 QGD SVOC 612 Silane containing H.C. 3 ug/g DBB-91-02 SB 8 QGP SVOC 609 Unknown nitro aromatic amine 5 uL DBB-91-02 SB 8 QUP SVOC...621 Unknown nitro aromatic amine 4 u/gl DBB-91-02 SB 8 QGP SVOC 622 Unknown alkane @ C21 I DBB-91-02 SB 8 QOP SVOC 610 Unknown phthalate ester 0.5...This Agency concurs with the laboratory’s recommendation that the data for lot QGP are unacceptable due to low recoveries for at least two-thirds of the

  18. Ammunition for Law Enforcement. Part II. Data Obtained for Bullets Penetrating Tissue Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Kind and Knox Gelatin Company, Ordnance Type 2SOA. Home Office: Johnstown, New York; production plant: Camden, New Jersey. (2) Thymol , available from...container and the other stirrer near the bottom. Add three grams of thymol * and dissolve in the hot water. Add 3,000 grams of Pharmagel A to the hot... tlR t2J 12A LP 137 14:? ’d 7 15? 157 !6:? 1fl7 17?. t 77 11𔃻? 167 192 !Q7 201 206 21 1 216 22! 22ti 231 CAVITY RADllJSI

  19. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  20. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  1. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  2. Fontes e proporção de material orgânico para a produção de mudas de cafeeiro em tubetes Sources and proportions of organic components for production of coffee tree seedling (Coffea arabica L. in small plastic containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade das mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. produzidas em tubetes com substrato artificial suplementado com fontes de material orgânico em diferentes proporções. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 6, com quatro repetições em parcelas formadas por seis tubetes. O primeiro fator correspondeu às fontes de material orgânico (esterco bovino, húmus de minhoca e cama de peru e o segundo, suas proporções (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% no substrato artificial (BioPlant-café fertilizado com osmocote® (NPK 15-09-12. As características avaliadas foram: altura da muda, diâmetro de caule, número de pares de folhas, área foliar e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. Pode-se concluir que o húmus de minhoca adicionado ao substrato artificial na proporção de 80% ou em uso exclusivo (100% aumentou a área foliar das mudas de cafeeiro e, como conseqüência proporcionou um maior acúmulo de massa seca da parte aérea. O uso de esterco bovino (acima de 30% e a cama de peru não alterou ou reduziu as características vegetativas das mudas de cafeeiro (altura da muda, diâmetro de caule, número de pares de folhas e área foliar e diminuiu o acúmulo de massa seca.This work aimed to evaluate the quality of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. produced in small plastic containers with artificial substrate supplemented with sources of organic components in different proportions. The experiment was carried out using the randomized block design, in a 3 x 6 factorial structure, with four replications in plots composed of small plastic containers. The first factor corresponded to the sources (cattle manure, earthworm casting, and turkey manure and the second to the proportions (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% in the artificial substrate (BioPlant-café® fertilized with osmocote® (NPK 15-09-12. The characteristics evaluated were

  3. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aqueous leaching of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and "green" plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joshua; Cooper, David G; Marić, Milan; Dodd, Patrick; Yargeau, Viviane

    2012-08-15

    A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as several series of "green" candidate plasticizers, were assessed as a function of their molecular characteristics and compared to the industry standard PVC plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was found that plasticizers containing longer alkyl chains or non-polar branching emanating from polar structural units, increased the hydrophobicity of the molecule and reduced its aqueous leaching rate. Several "green" plasticizer candidates were found to minimize aqueous leaching to rates ten times below that of DEHP; notably dioctyl succinate (DOS), dihexyl maleate (DHM), methyl cyclohexyl diester (MCDE), diethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), hexanediol dibenzoate (C6), and the commercially available Hexamoll® DINCH.

  5. Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications.

  6. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  7. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  8. [Erythropoietin in plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, C I; Rezaeian, F; Harder, Y; Lohmeyer, J A; Egert, S; Bader, A; Schilling, A F; Machens, H-G

    2013-04-01

    EPO is an autologous hormone, which is known to regulate erythropoiesis. For 30 years it has been used for the therapy of diverse forms of anaemia, such as renal anaemia, tumour-related anaemias, etc. Meanwhile, a multitude of scientific publications were able to demonstrate its pro-regenerative effects after trauma. These include short-term effects such as the inhibition of the "primary injury response" or apoptosis, and mid- and long-term effects for example the stimulation of stem cell recruitment, growth factor production, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. Known adverse reactions are increases of thromboembolic events and blood pressure, as well as a higher mortality in patients with tumour anaemias treated with EPO. Scientific investigations of EPO in the field of plastic surgery included: free and local flaps, nerve regeneration, wound healing enhancement after dermal thermal injuries and in chronic wounds.Acute evidence for the clinical use of EPO in the field of plastic surgery is still not satisfactory, due to the insufficient number of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)-conform clinical trials. Thus, the initiation of more scientifically sound trials is indicated.

  9. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  10. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of substituting an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS for refined glycerol as a polymer plasticizer we have prepared cast gelatin films plasticized with a simulated BCS, i.e., mixtures of glycerol and some of the typical components found in BCS (methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. We measured the tensile properties as a function of plasticizer composition, and analyzed the specific effect of each individual component on tensile properties. We found that it is the unrecovered alkyl esters that largely determine the tensile properties, and that BCS can be successfully used to plasticize cast gelatin films as long as the BCS contains 11 parts by weight, or less, of unrecovered alkyl esters per 100 parts glycerol.

  11. Detoxification of PAX-21 ammunitions wastewater by zero-valent iron for microbial reduction of perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Se Chang; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Oh, Seok-Young

    2011-08-30

    US Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) facilities generate perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) from munitions manufacturing and demilitarization processes. Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's new main charge melt-pour energetic, PAX-21. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. In order to evaluate microbial perchlorate reduction as a practical option for the treatment of perchlorate in PAX-21 wastewater, we conducted biodegradation experiments using glucose as the primary sources of electrons and carbon. Batch experiments showed that negligible perchlorate was removed in microbial reactors containing PAX-21 wastewater while control bottles containing seed bacteria and glucose rapidly and completely removed perchlorate. These results suggested that the constituents in PAX-21 wastewater may be toxic to perchlorate reducing bacteria. A series of batch toxicity test was conducted to identify the toxic constituents in PAX-21 and DNAN was identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. It was hypothesized that pretreatment of PAX-21 by zero-valent iron granules will transform toxic constituents in PAX-21 wastewater to non-toxic products. We observed complete reduction of DNAN to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) and RDX to formaldehyde in abiotic iron reduction study. After a 3-day acclimation period, perchlorate in iron-treated PAX-21 wastewater was rapidly decreased to an undetectable level in 2 days. This result demonstrated that iron treatment not only removed energetic compounds but also eliminated the toxic constituents that inhibited the subsequent microbial process.

  12. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  13. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  14. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  15. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  16. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  17. Frequency dependent changes in NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind eKumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity is thought to mediate several forms of learning, and can be induced by spike trains containing a small number of spikes occurring with varying rates and timing, as well as with oscillations. We computed the influence of these variables on the plasticity induced at a single NMDAR containing synapse using a reduced model that was analytically tractable, and these findings were confirmed using detailed, multi-compartment model. In addition to explaining diverse experimental results about the rate and timing dependence of synaptic plasticity, the model made several novel and testable predictions. We found that there was a preferred frequency for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP such that higher frequency stimuli induced lesser LTP, decreasing as 1/f when the number of spikes in the stimulus was kept fixed. Among other things, the preferred frequency for inducing LTP varied as a function of the distance of the synapse from the soma. In fact, same stimulation frequencies could induce LTP or LTD depending on the dendritic location of the synapse. Next, we found that rhythmic stimuli induced greater plasticity then irregular stimuli. Furthermore, brief bursts of spikes significantly expanded the timing dependence of plasticity. Finally, we found that in the ~5-15Hz frequency range both rate- and timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms work synergistically to render the synaptic plasticity most sensitive to spike-timing. These findings provide computational evidence that oscillations can have a profound influence on the plasticity of an NMDAR-dependent synapse, and show a novel role for the dendritic morphology in this process.

  18. Evolution of root plasticity responses to variation in soil nutrient distribution and concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Root plasticity, a trait that can respond to selective pressure, may help plants forage for nutrients in heterogeneous soils. Agricultural breeding programs have artificially selected for increased yield under comparatively homogeneous soil conditions, potentially decreasing the capacity for plasticity in crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). However, the effects of domestication on the evolution of root plasticity are essentially unknown. Using a split container approach, we examined th...

  19. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  20. Detoxification of PAX-21 ammunitions wastewater by zero-valent iron for microbial reduction of perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Se Chang; Cha, Daniel K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kim, Byung J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, IL 61826-9005 (United States); Oh, Seok-Young, E-mail: quartzoh@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. {yields} DNAN is identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. {yields} Iron treatment not only removes energetic compounds but also eliminates the toxic constituents that inhibit the subsequent microbial process. - Abstract: US Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) facilities generate perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) from munitions manufacturing and demilitarization processes. Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's new main charge melt-pour energetic, PAX-21. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. In order to evaluate microbial perchlorate reduction as a practical option for the treatment of perchlorate in PAX-21 wastewater, we conducted biodegradation experiments using glucose as the primary sources of electrons and carbon. Batch experiments showed that negligible perchlorate was removed in microbial reactors containing PAX-21 wastewater while control bottles containing seed bacteria and glucose rapidly and completely removed perchlorate. These results suggested that the constituents in PAX-21 wastewater may be toxic to perchlorate reducing bacteria. A series of batch toxicity test was conducted to identify the toxic constituents in PAX-21 and DNAN was identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. It was hypothesized that pretreatment of PAX-21 by zero-valent iron granules will transform toxic constituents in PAX-21 wastewater to non-toxic products. We observed complete reduction of DNAN to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) and RDX to formaldehyde in abiotic iron reduction study. After a 3-day acclimation period, perchlorate in iron-treated PAX-21

  1. Foldable container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusuma, G.; Herder, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a foldable container (1) having a bottom plate (2), upstanding long sidewalls (3) and upstanding short sidewalls (4) that are connected to the bottom plate with a hinge, and an optionally detachable roof (5), wherein at least one of the long sidewalls and short sidewalls and

  2. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  3. The scope of plastic surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-03

    Aug 3, 2013 ... areas of surgery (especially general surgery), plastic surgeons are arguably the .... Who do you feel are experts in laparoscopic surgery? e (general surgeons) a. Maxillofacial .... of pressure sore. ORIF = open reduction internal fixation. ... Plastic versus cosmetic surgery: What's the difference? Plast Reconstr.

  4. New Life for Old Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recycling joint venture utilizes innovative technology to reuse plastics Recycling,despite its green connotations,can be a messy business.In China,more than 400,000 companies are engaged in plastic recycling,but 70 percent of them are family enterprises,

  5. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...

  6. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  7. Study on Ammunition Warehouse Management Based on RFID%基于RFID技术的弹药仓库管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛东; 张国海; 胡国栋; 孙立贤

    2012-01-01

    射频识别(RFID)作为一种快速、实时、准确的信息采集与处理技术,为弹药仓库管理中信息的准确性、及时性提供了充分的保证.本文介绍了基于RFID技术的弹药仓储管理系统组成及其功能实现,为弹药仓库管理水平的提升奠定了基础,也为可视化管理信息系统的设计提供了一定借鉴.%Ammunition warehouse management has been rapidly converging with information system management. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is newly developing information technology for collecting and processing data that can ensure information accuracy and in real time.This article introduced the system construction and its function realization ammunition warehouse management system of RFID which established the foundation for the warehouse management and also offer some reference on the design of the visual management information system.

  8. 弹药化验废液电渗析脱盐研究%The Research on Desalination of Waste Liquid of Ammunition Chemical Examination by Electrodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀智; 谢俊磊; 曹宏安; 谷智国

    2012-01-01

    为了解决弹药化验废液盐度高、毒性大且对环境污染严重等问题,采用电渗析技术对弹药化验废液进行脱盐处理.通过实验,研究了电渗析时间、实验温度以及物料流量等因素对脱盐效能的影响,结果表明:电渗析技术用于弹药化验废液脱盐处理是可行的,最佳脱盐温度为30℃.%In order to solve the high salinity, toxic and polluting of ammunition laboratory waste liquid, the waste liquid of ammunition chemical examination was desalinated by electrodialysis. Through the experiment the effect of time and temperature of electrodialysis, material flow on the efficiency of desalination was studied. The experimental results show that the technology used in their laboratory waste liquid electrodialysis desalination processing is feasible, the best temperature for desalination is 30℃.

  9. Universal features of amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Castellanos, David Fernandez; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Plastic yielding of amorphous solids occurs by power-law distributed deformation avalanches whose universality is still debated. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulations are hampered by limited statistical samples, and although existing stochastic models give precise exponents, they require strong assumptions about fixed deformation directions, at odds with the statistical isotropy of amorphous materials. Here, we introduce a fully tensorial, stochastic mesoscale model for amorphous plasticity that links the statistical physics of plastic yielding to engineering mechanics. It captures the complex shear patterning observed for a wide variety of deformation modes, as well as the avalanche dynamics of plastic flow. Avalanches are described by universal size exponents and scaling functions, avalanche shapes, and local stability distributions, independent of system dimensionality, boundary and loading conditions, and stress state. Our predictions consistently differ from those of mean-field depinning models, providing evidence that plastic yielding is a distinct type of critical phenomenon.

  10. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory.

  11. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  12. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  13. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  14. Influence of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures on the Development of Plastic Shrinkage Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Pease, Bradley Justin; Mazzotta, Guy;

    2007-01-01

    settlement of the concrete and tensile stress development in the surface of the concrete, which increase the potential for development of plastic shrinkage cracks. Specifically, this paper studies the development of plastic shrinkage cracks in mortars containing a commercially available shrinkage......-reducing admixture (SRA). Mortars containing SRA show fewer and narrower plastic shrinkage cracks than plain mortars when exposed to the same environmental conditions. It is proposed that the lower surface tension of the pore fluid in the mortars containing SRA results in less evaporation, reduced settlement......, reduced capillary tension, and lower crack-inducing stresses at the topmost layer of the mortar....

  15. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  16. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  17. Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hackl, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.

  18. Design and implementation of ammunition containerization security management system based on RFID%基于RFID的弹药集装化保障管理系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏伟; 何源; 赵宗宁

    2013-01-01

    随着弹药装备发展,传统保障模式存在的弊端不断显现。针对现代军事物流特点,着眼实现部队弹药装备信息化保障,利用数字信息化手段,以RFID技术为核心,配合WiFi应用,率先设计实现了一种弹药集装化保障管理系统。可全程动态实时可视化管理弹药装备,提高了管理能力,增强了安全性,为我军弹药保障实现信息化提供了一定借鉴意义。%With the development of ammunition,the insufficiency of traditional security pattern emerges. In order to realize the military equipment support informatization,according to the characteristics of modern military logistics,taking RFID as the key technology,a kind of ammunition containerization security management system was designed by means of digital informatiza-tion technology and WiFi. The system realized dynamic real-time visualization management of ammunition,improved the manage-ment ability,enhanced security,provided a reference for the ammunition informatization support of Chinese army.

  19. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  20. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  1. Energetic materials: crystallization, characterization and insensitive plastic bonded explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Marino, E.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Scholtes, G.J.H.G.; Duvalois, W.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The product quality of energetic materials is predominantly determined by the crystallization process applied to produce these materials. It has been demonstrated in the past that the higher the product quality of the solid energetic ingredients, the less sensitive a plastic bonded explosive contain

  2. Management of Surfing Injuries: A Plastic Surgeon's Viewpoint. Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Ross

    1989-01-01

    Describes plastic surgery techniques used to irrigate, debride, and close lacerations caused by surfboards. Head lacerations and nose fractures are the most common injuries. According to a survey, lacerations may be deeper than expected from their surface appearance and wounds may contain surfboard fragments. Injury prevention is discussed. (SM)

  3. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  4. Plastic shaping of aqueous alumina suspensions with saccharides and dicarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, H.; Schilling, C.H.; Biner, S.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Traditional methods for the shape-forming of engineering ceramics entail plastic deformation of powder slurries containing hazardous organic liquids as suspending media. Replacing these organics with aqueous media requires the development of environmentally-benign, water-soluble additives which serve as plasticizers and binders. Fundamental studies were performed with aqueous suspensions of colloidal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to evaluate the role of sucrose, maltodextrin, and oxalic acid on viscosity, sedimentation and filtration characteristics, plastic flow behavior of filter cakes, and sinterability. Maltodextrin and oxalic acid systems exhibited superior results, including filtration to high packing-densities and clay-like plasticity with minimal cracking.

  5. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  6. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to pro...

  7. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Frank

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity.

  8. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  9. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  10. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  11. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Isabel A; Golsteijn, Laura; Hendriks, A Jan

    2016-12-15

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingested. In order to assess their risk, the contaminant concentration in the plastics needs to be estimated and differences understood. We collected from literature plastic water partition coefficients of various organic chemicals for seven plastic types: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), high-density, low-density and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (LDPE, HDPE, UHMWPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Most data was available for PDMS (1060) and LDPE (220), but much less for the remaining plastics (73). Where possible, regression models were developed and the partitioning was compared between the different plastic types. The partitioning of chemicals follows the order of LDPE≈HDPE≥PP>PVC≈PS. Data describing the impact of weathering are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, I.A.; Golsteijn, L.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingeste

  13. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, I.A.; Golsteijn, L.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when ingeste

  14. Salt Contents in Soils Under Plastic Greenhouse Gardening in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted on three main soils, brown soil, meadow soil and cinnamon soil, of Shandong Province to study the effect of plastic greenhouse gardening on soil salt contents. As compared to the open fields, the soil nutrient contents in the fields under plastic greenhouse gardening all increased significantly. The organic matter, quickly available N and P increases were extremely significant and the quickly available K increase was also significant. Along with the nutrient increases the soil salt contents increased clearly in all the soils investigated not only in the top layer but also in the deeper layers, being extremely significant in the 0~10 cm layer and significant in the 10~40 cm layers. The salt contents in the plastic greenhouses had significant correlations with the soil available nitrogen and phosphorous. Soils with longer plastic greenhouse gardening time tended to have more salt. The plastic greenhouse soils contained less CO32- and much more NO3- than the open soils, which indicated a higher influence of human intervention in plastic greenhouses. Among the constituent ions, Cl-, NO3-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ had positive while HCO3- had negative significant or extremely significant correlations with total salt, with correlation coefficients being 0.66*, 0.80**, 0.92**, 0.80** and -0.64*, respectively. Nitrate decreased from the top to deeper layers both in the plastic greenhouses and in the open fields. The plastic greenhouse soils contained much more nitrate than the open fields in every layer and even the nitrate contents of the 80~100 cm layer were still several times those of the top layer in the open fields. The main reason for the salt increases was considered to be the inappropriate fertilization and selective absorption of nutrients by plants in the plastic greenhouses. The methods recommended to avoid soil salt increase in the plastic greenhouses were to apply fertilizers rationally according to the soils, vegetables and

  15. Leaching of plastic polymers by plastic vials used for storing homoeopathic medicines: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Homoeopathy, plastic containers/vials are used for the storing/dispensing of ethanol-based medicines instead of glass. Various studies have suggested that plastic components that leach out in stored substances tend to cause contamination and may produce adverse effects in living systems. The present study was aimed to find out chemical composition and leaching behaviour of commonly used plastic vials (PVs if any during the storage of ethanol-based homoeopathic medicines in optimal environment. Material and Methods: The experiments were conducted on two sample sets of PVs. Chemical properties of PV were assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. PV were cut separately [sample-1 (S-1 and sample-2 (S-2] and immersed in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE in conical flask and stored for 7 days at ambient temperature (25° ± 5C with constant rotary shaking. After 7 days, S-1 and S-2 of PV in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE were decanted and filtered. Aliquots (A1 and A2 were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H 1 NMR. The spectral graph obtained by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for PV compositions and spectral graph obtained by H 1 NMR spectroscopy for PV ethanol aliquots were examined for PVs material and PV leaching effect in HGE. Results: FTIR-ATR spectra showed that PV are made up of two types of polyolefin′s compounds i.e. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE. Aliquots of PV in HGE showed the presence benzophenone and its methyl derivative, heat and light stabiliser (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine and amino derivative, antioxidant (4, 4′- thiobis and 2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol and plasticizer bis 2-Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP or Dioctyl phthalate (DOP. Results of study suggest that PVs leach out plastic polymers in HGE. Conclusion: This preliminary experiment suggests that it is not safe to use LDPE/LLDPE plastic for storing

  16. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  17. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment.

  18. Plasticity and creep of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinko, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Here is a systematic presentation of the postulates, theorems and principles of mathematical theories of plasticity and creep in metals, and their applications. Special attention is paid to analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of the classical theories.

  19. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRS PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us Cosmetic Surgery New procedures and advanced technologies offer plastic surgery ... David Berman MD 14 Pidgeon Hill Drive Berman Cosmetic Surgery & S... Sterling, VA 20165 Website Franklin Richards MD Suite ...

  20. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  1. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  2. Exceptional plasticity of silicon nanobridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Cleri, Fabrizio [Institut d' Electronique Microelectronique et Nanotechnologie (CNRS UMR 8520), Universite de Lille I, Avenue Poincare BP60069 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Kakushima, Kuniyuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuda, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mita, Makoto [Department of Spacecraft Engineering, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Miyata, Masaki; Itamura, Noriaki; Sasaki, Naruo [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Endo, Junji, E-mail: tadashii@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [FK Optical laboratory, 1-13-4 Nakano Niiza Saitama, 352-0005 (Japan)

    2011-09-02

    The plasticity of covalently bonded materials is a subject at the forefront of materials science, bearing on a wide range of technological and fundamental aspects. However, covalent materials fracture in a brittle manner when the deformation exceeds just a few per cent. It is predicted that a macroscopically brittle material like silicon can show nanoscale plasticity. Here we report the exceptional plasticity observed in silicon nanocontacts ('nanobridges') at room temperature using a special experimental setup combining a transmission electron microscope and a microelectromechanical system. When accounting for surface diffusion, we succeeded in elongating the nanocontact into a wire-like structure, with a fivefold increase in volume, up to more than twenty times the original length. Such a large plasticity was caused by the stress-assisted diffusion and the sliding of the intergranular, amorphous-like material among the nanocrystals.

  3. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  4. Presence of plastic particles in waterbirds faeces collected in Spanish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Delgado, J A; Guijarro, D; Gosálvez, R U; López-Iborra, G M; Ponz, A; Velasco, A

    2017-01-01

    Plastic intake by marine vertebrates has been widely reported, but information about its presence in continental waterfowl is scarce. Here we analyzed faeces of waterbirds species (European coot, Fulica atra, mallard, Anas platyrhynchos and shelduck, Tadorna tadorna) for plastic debris in five wetlands in Central Spain. We collected 89 faeces of shelduck distributed in four lakes, 43.8% of them presented plastic remnants. Sixty percent of 10 faeces of European coot and 45% of 40 faeces of mallard contained plastic debris. Plastic debris found was of two types, threads and fragments, and were identified as remnants of plastic objects used in agricultural fields surrounding the lakes. Differences in prevalence of plastic in faeces, number of plastic pieces per excrement and size of the plastic pieces were not statistically significant between waterfowl species. Thus, our results suggest that plastic may also be frequently ingested by waterfowl in continental waters, at least in our study area. Future studies should address this potential problem for waterbird conservation in other wetlands to evaluate the real impact of this pollutant on waterbirds living in inland water.

  5. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  6. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... problems in Benin due both to the non-biodegradability of such by-products .... waste plastic bags inclusion process into the construction of buildings, .... (mass MD)and heated to fuse in an appropriate metallic container.

  7. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  8. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  9. [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Seidel, S

    2010-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS.

  10. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  11. Evaluation Of Gas Diffusion Through Plastic Materials Used In Experimental And Sampling Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Plastic materials are often used in experimental and sampling equipment. Plastics are not gas tight, since gases are able to diffuse through the walls of tubing and containers made of plastic. Methods for calculating the significance of gas diffusion through the walls of containers and the walls....... Calculations show that diffusion of oxygen through plastic tubing and reactors into anoxic water can be a serious problem for a series of plastic materials. Comparison of the method for turbulent and laminar flow in tubings shows that the difference is insignificant for most cases. Calculations show also...... that the use of silicone rubber in experimental and sampling equipment to be used for anoxic water is, for most cases, prohibited by oxygen diffusion....

  12. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  13. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-thomsen, Søren; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  14. Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1999-01-01

    Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...

  15. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  16. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  17. The Story of the Plastics Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Don, Ed.

    This is an illustrated informative booklet, designed to serve members of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and the plastics industry as a whole. It provides basic information about the industry's history and growth, plastics raw materials, typical uses of plastics, properties, and methods of processing and fabricating. (Author/DS)

  18. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  19. DEHA-plasticized PVC for retail packaging of fresh meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Naamansen, Ebbe Tubæk

    1998-01-01

    A selection of frequently consumed meat products were packed in two commercial types of plasticized PVC film with declared plasticizer compositions of 11 and 21% di-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), respectively. The meat products were analysed for DEHA after packaging and storage until their "use by......" date. Pretreatment of the meat, including cutting, chopping, cooking and packaging, was performed according to normal practice in a Danish supermarket. All samples contained DEHA, in general the investigation showed that a high fat content in or at the surface of the meat and/or a high storage...

  20. Deformation mechanisms of plasticized starch materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, P-Y; Alix, S; Soulestin, J; Lacrampe, M F; Krawczak, P; Coqueret, X; Dole, P

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of plasticizer and plasticizer amount on the mechanical and deformation behaviors of plasticized starch. Glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol have been used as plasticizers. After extrusion of the various samples, dynamic mechanical analyses and video-controlled tensile tests have been performed. It was found that the nature of plasticizer, its amount as well as the aging of the material has an impact on the involved deformation mechanism. The variations of volume deformation could be explained by an antiplasticization effect (low plasticizer amount), a phase-separation phenomenon (excess of plasticizer) and/or by the retrogradation of starch.

  1. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An Ammunition Dump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    When educators open their "Fibber McGee's closets" of past reforms, a pile of silver bullets will spill out onto the floor. For at least the past 20 years, the sense of public confidence in public education has been fed by an arsenal of such quick, often creative, but largely unsubstantiated remedies for turning schools and kids around.…

  3. Funding Ammunition Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Brewer, Bruce Busler, Bud Drew, Robynn Flamm, James Jackson, Colonel Richard Kramer, Jasmine Liburd, Frederick Rice, Tara Sample, Linda Wilson, and...Coleman, and Cedric Jasmin of Army Headquarters G-4; Gregory Bod- dorf , Dina Crowley, Susan Goodyear, and Kenneth Holderfield of the Army Materiel Com

  4. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  5. 某型特种弹药意外发火研究%The Research of a Type of Special Ammunition Accidental Firing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苌军红; 李便花; 潘会平; 王鹏; 王飞

    2015-01-01

    特种弹药作为一种特殊效应的武器,作战时具有不可替代的作用,小型特种弹药携带方便,操作简单,功能明确。特种弹药随身携行时,弹药的安全性尤为重要。产品的安全性一方面来自产品的设计,另一方面来自生产工艺,随着“以人为本”安全理念的深入,产品设计与工艺制造同样重要。以实际案例为切入点,从产品结构、装配特点等方面对某型特种弹药在振动试验中意外发火进行了分析,对各因素排查,并对影响因素进行了试验验证。研究表明,形成该产品振动意外发火的原因是产品在外观、装配正确性检查和重新装配时,拉火绳被夹在发射筒体与保护套之间,振动试验时,保护套发生位移,增加了拉火绳拉力,使发火丝发生位移,发火丝上的药剂与火帽磨擦导致产品发火。该结果也为产品装配过程应按章操作提出了警示。%As a special effect weapon combat,special ammunition has an irreplaceable role.The small special ammuni-tion is convenient to carry,has simple operation and the clear function.When special ammunition carried along,the safety is very important.Safety aspects come from design of product,on the other hand,from the production process,with the“people-oriented”safety concept deeply,when product design and manufacturing process are equally important.Take the case as the breakthrough point,carry on the analysis to a certain type of special ammunition in the vibration test of acciden-tal firing from the product structure and assembly features,then influence factors are verified.Research shows that the cause of the product vibration accidental firing is the product in appearance,assembly and correctness checking re assembly. When lanyard is sandwiched between the launch tube body and the protection cover in vibration test,protective sleeve is in displacement,pull rope tension is increased,the ignition wire is

  6. Recycling plastics and polymeric wastes. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling and uses of plastic and polymeric scraps and wastes. Topics include communition or grinding of scrap, degradation by heat or chemical reaction, compatibility of various plastics with one another, sorting problems, physical properties of reprocessed materials, economics, public awareness, waste minimization, waste re-use, and foreign experience in plastics recycling. New products made from recycled materials, and products expressly made to be recyclable are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  8. DETERMINATION OF DIPOLE MOMENTS IN PLASTICIZER ADDITIONS FOR CEMENT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Ioukhnevsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a method for determination of dipole moments in chemical plasticizer addition molecules for cement concretes as in powder-state so in the form of aqueous solutions as well.The methodology is based on measuring dielectric substance  permittivity depending on temperature, construction of a diagram (ε – 1/(ε + 2 = f(1/T with subsequent calculation of the molecule dipole moment. The Ossipov’s formula has been used for aqueous solutions of super-plasticizer additions with the purpose to calculate a dipole moment of polar substance in the polar solvent.The obtained values of dipole moments in C-3 super-plasticizer addition molecule are in good agreement with the values obtained as a result of quantum-chemical calculations. 

  9. Gadolinium loaded plastic scintillators for high efficiency neutron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovechkina, Lena; Riley, Kent; Miller, Stuart; Bell, Zane; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2009-08-01

    Gadolinium has the highest thermal neutron absorption cross section of any naturally occurring element, and emits conversion electrons as well as atomic X-rays in over 50% of its neutron captures, which makes it a useful dopant in scintillators for detecting thermal neutrons. Gadolinium isopropoxide was studied as a possible dopant for styrene-based plastic scintillators as a convenient and inexpensive method to produce high-efficiency thermal neutron detectors. Plastic scintillators with gadolinium weight concentrations of up to 3% were transparent, uniform and defect-free and were characterized with spectral measurements performed under x-ray and neutron irradiation. The new material has the same characteristic emission of styrene with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, and a light output of 76% relative to the undoped plastic. A 13 mm thick sample containing 0.5% gadolinium by weight detected 46% of incident thermal neutrons, which makes this an attractive material for a variety of applications.

  10. System Theory Based Gun Ammunition Consumption P rediction Correction Method%基于系统理论方法的炮兵弹药消耗量预测修正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 朱江; 闻传花; 周昊

    2014-01-01

    决策人员长期受到“弹药迷雾”的困扰,针对弹药保障中需求预计涉及多因素、彼此交错的复杂系统问题,基于系统理论,提出了一种融合解释结构模型( ISM)和系统动力学( SD)的弹药消耗预测修正方法。在联合作战背景下对炮兵群弹药消耗问题进行研究,使用解释结构模型研究弹药系统,对弹药保障需求影响因素的相互关系进行了科学的分析和评价,分析了影响弹药保障需求的因素,进而运用系统动力学研究可控制条件下的预测问题。从实验数据分析兵力比对弹药消耗的影响规律,得到有用的结论,并结合战例检验,证明了方法有效,修正了基于任务量公式计算方法的不足,提高了预测的精度。%Ammunition support demand prediction is a complex problem which involved all kinds of intertwined factors. Based on system theory and its derived methods such as ISM(Interpretative Structure Method), SD(System Dynamic), a gun-ammunition-consumption-prediction-correction-method is proposed in this paper. Under the circumstance for predicting the undermanned ammunition consumption of joint war, the ammunition system is analyzed by ISM for constructing the struc-ture of the factors and its relations which affects ammunition support demand systematically. and then by SD,prediction prob-lem under controllability condition is discussed. After analyzing experiment data, some useful conclusion can be got. As a conclusion, this method is validated by a history example, and the results shows the accuracy of prediction will be enhanced by this method, disadvantage of the Task Quantum method will be solved either. It is a new way of thinking about ammunition prediction.

  11. Smartphones and the plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithy, Nada; Ghosh, Sudip

    2013-06-01

    Surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive. Smartphone sales are increasing and have usurped computer sales for the first time. In this context, smartphones are an important portable reference and educational tool, already in the possession of the majority of surgeons in training. Technology in the palm of our hands has led to a revolution of accessible information for the plastic surgery trainee and surgeon. This article reviews the uses of smartphones and applications for plastic surgeons in education, telemedicine and global health. A comprehensive guide to existing and upcoming learning materials and clinical tools for the plastic surgeon is included. E-books, podcasts, educational videos, guidelines, work-based assessment tools and online logbooks are presented. In the limited resource setting of modern clinical practice, savvy plastic surgeons can select technological tools to democratise access to education and best clinical care. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  13. Mitochondria, synaptic plasticity, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Laifenfeld, Daphna

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization of schizophrenia as a disorder of connectivity, i.e., of neuronal?synaptic plasticity, suggests abnormal synaptic modeling and neuronal signaling, possibly as a consequence of flawed interactions with the environment, as at least a secondary mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. Indeed, deficits in episodic memory and malfunction of hippocampal circuitry, as well as anomalies of axonal sprouting and synapse formation, are all suggestive of diminished neuronal plasticity in schizophrenia. Evidence supports a dysfunction of mitochondria in schizophrenia, including mitochondrial hypoplasia, and a dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system, as well as altered mitochondrial-related gene expression. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to alterations in ATP production and cytoplasmatic calcium concentrations, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. All of the latter processes have been well established as leading to altered synaptic strength or plasticity. Moreover, mitochondria have been shown to play a role in plasticity of neuronal polarity, and studies in the visual cortex show an association between mitochondria and synaptogenesis. Finally, mitochondrial gene upregulation has been observed following synaptic and neuronal activity. This review proposes that mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia could cause, or arise from, anomalies in processes of plasticity in this disorder.

  14. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  15. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  16. The Use of Waste Plastic as a Partial Substitution Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Aschuri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, Indonesia faces serious problems managing solid waste such as plastic. Annually, Indonesia produces approximately 5.4 million tons of waste plastic, accounting for 14% of the country’s total solid waste production. Using waste plastic as a partial substitution aggregate in asphalt concrete pavement would be one of solutions for reducing environmental problems from the high volume of waste plastic. Previous studies show that it may be possible to use waste plastic in road pavement to improve the engineering performance of road pavement and increase its service life. This study investigates the performance of asphalt concrete mixtures containing varying amounts of waste plastic as a partial aggregate substitution as compared to that of conventional mixtures. The waste plastic used in this study was chopped into small pieces of approximately passing sieve number 30 and retained sieve number 40, which would replace (by weight a portion of the mineral aggregates. All mixtures were prepared using 5.82% optimum bitumen content. The performance of asphalt concrete characteristics was studied using the Marshall test, The Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test, The Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM test, and the Cantabro Loss (CL test in terms of strength, stiffness modulus, and durability characteristics. In general, laboratory results showed that asphalt concrete mixtures containing waste plastic have higher performance than conventional asphalt concrete mixtures.

  17. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A process for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) removal in plastic was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic became bromine-free with the structure maintained after this treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BFRs transferred into alcohol solvent were easily debrominated by metallic copper. - Abstract: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E and E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90 Degree-Sign C, 2 h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  18. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  19. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  20. Plastic ingestion by Newell's (Puffinus newelli) and wedge-tailed shearwaters (Ardenna pacifica) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Elizabeth C; Lavers, Jennifer L; Berg, Carl J; Raine, André F; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-12-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of pollution in the marine environment. On Kaua'i, HI, USA, 50.0 % of Newell's (Puffinus newelli) and 76.9 % of wedge-tailed shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) fledglings necropsied during 2007-2014 contained plastic items in their digestive tract, while 42.1 % of adult wedge-tailed shearwaters had ingested plastic. For both species, the frequency of plastic ingestion has increased since the 1980s with some evidence that the mass and the number of items ingested per bird have also increased. The color of plastic ingested by the shearwaters was assessed relative to beach-washed plastics by using Jaccard's index (where J = 1 complete similarity). The color (J = 0.65-0.68) of items ingested by both species, and the type ingested by wedge-tailed shearwaters (J = 0.85-0.87), overlapped with plastic available in the local environment indicating moderate selection for plastic color and type. This study has shown that the Hawaiian populations of shearwaters, like many seabird species, provide useful but worrying insights into plastic pollution and the health of our oceans.

  1. Evolution of root plasticity responses to variation in soil nutrient distribution and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Judah D; Rice, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    Root plasticity, a trait that can respond to selective pressure, may help plants forage for nutrients in heterogeneous soils. Agricultural breeding programs have artificially selected for increased yield under comparatively homogeneous soil conditions, potentially decreasing the capacity for plasticity in crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). However, the effects of domestication on the evolution of root plasticity are essentially unknown. Using a split container approach, we examined the differences in root plasticity among three domestication levels of barley germplasm (wild, landrace, and cultivar) grown under different concentrations and distribution patterns of soil nutrients. Domestication level, nutrient concentration, and nutrient distribution interactively affected average root diameter; differential root allocation (within-plant plasticity) was greatest in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum), especially under low nutrient levels. Correlations of within-plant root plasticity and plant size were most pronounced in modern cultivars under low-nutrient conditions. Barley plants invested more resources to root systems when grown in low-nutrient soils and allocated more roots to higher-nutrient locations. Root plasticity in barley is scale dependent and varies with domestication level. Although wild barley harbors a greater capacity for within-plant root plasticity than domesticated barley, cultivars exhibited the greatest capacity to translate within-plant plasticity into increased plant size.

  2. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  3. Plasticity in glutamatergic NTS neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David D

    2008-12-10

    Changes in the physiological state of an animal or human can result in alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory system in order to maintain homeostasis. Accordingly, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are not static but readily adapt under a variety of circumstances. The same can be said for the brainstem circuits that control these systems. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the central integration site of baroreceptor and chemoreceptor sensory afferent fibers. This central nucleus, and in particular the synapse between the sensory afferent and second-order NTS cell, possesses a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of stimuli, both acute and chronic. This brief review is intended to describe the plasticity observed in the NTS as well as the locus and mechanisms as they are currently understood. The functional consequence of NTS plasticity is also discussed.

  4. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  5. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, P.

    2006-04-01

    The use of computational modelling in all areas of science and engineering has in recent years escalated to the point where it underpins much of current research. However, the distinction must be made between computer systems in which no knowledge of the underlying computer technology or computational theory is required and those areas of research where the mastery of computational techniques is of great value, almost essential, for final year undergraduates or masters students planning to pursue a career in research. Such a field of research in the latter category is continuum mechanics, and in particular non-linear material behaviour, which is the core topic of this book. The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Any lack of knowledge in this area however, is of no disadvantage as it serves only as an introduction and the book moves on quickly to continuum plasticity

  7. Lubricant for cold plastic metal working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postolov, Yu.M.; Larina, N.F.; Osadchuk, Ye.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Syroyezhko, A.M.; Vikhorev, A.A.; Yakovlev, V.I.

    1980-03-28

    A lubricant is proposed for cold plastic metal working based on fatty acids from the process of pyrolysis of castor oil (ZhKPM) with increased screening properties and which improve the quality of PV of finished parts. The lubricant contains (percent): cyclohexanol 0.5-60, levulinic and/or ketoenanthic acid 0.5-20, ZhKPM up to 100; the content of ketoenanthic acid in mixture with levulinic acid is 20-50 percent. Tests of the number of proposed lubricants were conducted for cold stampling of parts from a metal strip on a 10 ton mechanical press. Tool stability (number of pieces until adhesion) was 1200-1400, purity class Pv-7. In tests under a similar condition of vegetable oil, ZhKPM and a mixture of ZhKPM with esters (nonlubricant) tool stability was 1100, and the purity class Pv-6.

  8. The Assess Efficiency Model for Shrapnel Cluster Ammunition to Fire Gather Aims%多用途子母弹对集群目标毁伤效率评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙兆军; 刘富书; 钱林方

    2012-01-01

    多用途子母弹是多功能火炮配备的一种集地面打击和防空袭于一体的新型弹药,为充分发挥该弹药的战技性能,并合理地研究其作战使用.在假定单个目标均匀分布的基础上,运用离散的方法研究并建立了单发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击的效率评定模型,在此基础上又建立了多发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击时的效率评定模型,并运用模型进行了计算分析,计算结果表明该模型计算过程简便、精度高、准确性较好.%The multi-function artillery is one of the most important directions of the artillery. The efficiency assess of the shrapnel cluster ammunition for the multi-function artillery is a important study appearance. In order to exert the tactics capability of the weapon and make use of the weapon logicall,the paper assume the single aim distribute equality and use the discrete method to establish the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multi-function artillery to fire gather aims. On the basis of the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multifunction artillery to fire gather aims, the paper establish the assess efficiency model for more multifunction artillerys launch the shrapnel cluster ammunition to fire gather aims, and then use the model to count and analyze the examples. The result indicates that the model is simplet and exact.

  9. Analysis about Rifling Grooves of Small-caliber Ammunition on the Flow Field%膛线沟槽对小口径弹体流场的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵缧; 董富强

    2015-01-01

    早期弹体滚转力矩和马格努斯效应数值计算中多采用简化弹体模型,没有考虑膛线沟槽的影响。但对小口径弹体而言,分析亚音速条件下膛线沟槽的影响对弹道计算至关重要。文中采用Fluent[1]软件对不同攻角和不同滚转速度的流场进行计算,对比光滑弹体和带沟槽弹体的流场差异,得到膛线沟槽对流场的影响规律。分析发现膛线沟槽使得滚转力矩和马格努斯力矩减小。结论认为弹体上的膛线沟槽影响较大,需要在实际工程计算中给予考虑。%In previous studies, rifling grooves generally ignored in simplified model of ammunition when calculating Magnus effect and roll-ing moment of ammunition. However, due to high requirement trajectory of small caliber ammunition, effect of rifling grooves should be studied. With the help of Fluent software, the effect of rifling groove on flow field over small caliber ammunition by comparing CFD results of smooth bullet and rifling grooves bullet. Flow fields for three different angles of attack and three different rolling rates were studied. Re-sults show that the rolling moment and Magnus moment of the bullet smaller if the effect of rifling grooves considered. So the effect of rifling grooves should be considered in practical engineering calculation.

  10. 弹药储供信息技术课程内容体系构建与实践%The Establishment and Practice of Ammunition Storage and Supply Information Technologies Curriculum Content System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军锋; 宣兆龙; 武洪文

    2014-01-01

    文中针对弹药储供信息技术课程教学现状及存在问题,以培养学员信息技术运用能力和岗位任职能力为主旨,构建了弹药保障信息采集、传递、储存、处理、应用为一体的教学内容体系。探索形成了实装实训、模拟虚拟、自主创新的实践教学内容,强化了学员弹药保障信息技术运用能力提高,为培养适应建设信息化军队、打赢信息化条件下联合战争需要的弹药保障人才奠定坚实的基础。%This paper aiming at the current situation and existing problems of ammunition storage and supply information technologies curriculum,the content system of the ammunition support information collection,transmission,storage,processing, application are constructed in order to cultivate the students'ability of information technology applying ability and capacidade professional ability.The practice teaching content of the real practice,virtual simulation and independent innovation are explored and ammunition support information technology applying ability is intensified and improved for students.The curriculum reform establish the solid foundation of ammunition support talents to build informationization army and win joint war under the condition of informationization.

  11. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter. By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  12. Vascular plasticity in cerebrovascular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars I H; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries and micr...

  13. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the risks and trust a board-certified plastic surgeon to perform your cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. ASPS member surgeons have the training and experience that ... 1300 Chain Bridge Road McLean, VA 22101 (703) 790-5454 Timothy Germain ...

  14. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  15. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  16. Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...

  17. For the Classroom: "Plastic" Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students monitor the plastic waste production in their households, research its effects on freshwater and marine life, and propose ways to lessen the problem. Provides objectives, background information, materials, procedures, extension activities, and an evaluation for students. (Author/RT)

  18. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  19. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  20. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills.

  1. Interneuron- and GABAA receptor-specific inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qionger; Duguid, Ian; Clark, Beverley; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Patel, Bijal; Thomas, Philip; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-07-01

    Inhibitory synaptic plasticity is important for shaping both neuronal excitability and network activity. Here we investigate the input and GABAA receptor subunit specificity of inhibitory synaptic plasticity by studying cerebellar interneuron-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. Depolarizing PCs initiated a long-lasting increase in GABA-mediated synaptic currents. By stimulating individual interneurons, this plasticity was observed at somatodendritic basket cell synapses, but not at distal dendritic stellate cell synapses. Basket cell synapses predominantly express β2-subunit-containing GABAA receptors; deletion of the β2-subunit ablates this plasticity, demonstrating its reliance on GABAA receptor subunit composition. The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Our results reveal a novel GABAA receptor subunit- and input-specific form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity that regulates the temporal firing pattern of the principal output cells of the cerebellum.

  2. 箱装发射药储存时的安全性及能量分析%Analysis of the Safety and Energy Content of Ammunition Stored in Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜培学; 任泽霈; 江劲勇; 陈明华; 路桂娥

    2001-01-01

    采用大型通用计算程序PHOENICS(1.4版本)对箱装发射药中含有内部热源的非稳态导热与自然对流换热及辐射换热的耦合问题进行了数值求解。分析和比较了在直角坐标和贴体坐标下发射药内部靠近中心处的最高温度随时间的变化趋势,并对发射药的安全性及发射药所含有的能量进行了分析。%The conjugate heat transfer analysis of transient thermal conduction, natural convection and thermal radiation in a case with ammunition, which is a temperature dependent heat sources, was simulated numerically using PHOENICS (Version 1.4). The variation of the maximum temperature and the self-ignition hazard in the ammunition was analyzed using both body fitted coordinates and cartesian cordinates. The safety and energy content in the ammunition were analyzed for various storage conditions.

  3. 前混式磨料水射流弹药切割机的研究与开发%Research and Development of Premixing Abrasive Water-jet Cutting Machine for Ammunition Destruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝爽; 吕游; 李湘文

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve the disintegration of dangerous ammunitions,an ammunition cutting machine based on premixing abrasive water-jet technology was developed.Through the system design,abrasive supply system study,special actuator development,some problems in application of the technology have been solved.The field experiment showed that the developed cutting machine could safely,economically,environment-friendly and flexibly cut dangerous ammunitions,has been included in the formal army equipments.%为了解决危险弹药解体问题,研制了基于前混式磨料水射流技术的弹药切割机,通过对系统方案设计、磨料供应系统研究、专用执行机构的开发,解决了技术应用中存在的问题,现场试验证明,研制设备达到了安全、可靠、经济、环保、灵活切割危险弹药的目的,已列入部队正式装备。

  4. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Health News on: Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  5. Lecture notes on Elasto-plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hededal, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling......Brief introduction to material modelling within the framework of rate independent elasto-plastic constitutive modelling...

  6. Phenotypic plasticity with instantaneous but delayed switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, Margarete; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Loeschcke, Volker; Gabriel, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, allowing organisms to better adapt to changing environments. Most empirical and theoretical studies are restricted to irreversible plasticity where the expression of a specific phenotype is mostly determined during development. However, reversible pl

  7. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  8. Developmental plasticity and evolution--quo vadis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moczek, A P

    2015-01-01

    The role of developmental (phenotypic) plasticity in ecology and evolution is receiving a growing appreciation among the biologists, and many plasticity-specific concepts have become well established as part of the mainstream evolutionary...

  9. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  10. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior

    2014-09-01

    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  11. Innovation Promotes Development of Plastic Assistant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Driven by the rapid growth of China's plastic product sector, the development of the plastic sector has been accelerated and assistant products are now becoming more multi-function, high performance, high in molecular weight and environmentfriendly.

  12. Fate in humans of the plasticizer, DI (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, arising from transfusion of platelets stored in vinyl plastic bags. [plasticizer migration into human blood from vinyl plastic bags during transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R. J.; Schiffer, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Platelet concentrates were shown to contain 18-38 mg/100 ml of a phthalate plasticizer (DEHP) which arose by migration from the vinyl plastic packs in which the plateletes were prepared and stored. Transfusion of these platelets into 6 adult patients with leukemia resulted in peak blood plasma levels of DEHP ranging from 0.34 - 0.83 mg/100 ml. The blood levels fell mono-exponentially with a mean rate of 2.83 percent per minute and a half-life of 28.0 minutes. Urine was assayed by a method that would measure unchanged DEHP as well as all phthalic acid-containing metabolities. In two patients, at most 60 and 90% of the infused dose, respectively, was excreted in the urine collected for 24 hours post-transfusion. These estimates, however, could be high due to the simultaneous excretion of DEHP remaining from previous transfusions or arising from uncontrolled environmental exposures.

  13. Final LDRD report : advanced plastic scintillators for neutron detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; O' Bryan, Greg; Mrowka, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year, feasibility-scale LDRD project that was conducted with the goal of developing new plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for neutron detection. Copolymers composed of matrix materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and blocks containing trans-stilbene (tSB) as the scintillator component were prepared and tested for gamma/neutron response. Block copolymer synthesis utilizing tSBMA proved unsuccessful so random copolymers containing up to 30% tSB were prepared. These copolymers were found to function as scintillators upon exposure to gamma radiation; however, they did not exhibit PSD when exposed to a neutron source. This project, while falling short of its ultimate goal, demonstrated the possible utility of single-component, undoped plastics as scintillators for applications that do not require PSD.

  14. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  15. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  16. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  17. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  18. The advent of the restorative plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Matthew J; Pribaz, Julian J; Talbot, Simon G; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery is presently typified by the existence of discrete clinical identities, namely that of the cosmetic plastic surgeon and the reconstructive plastic surgeon. The emergence of vascularized composite allotransplantation has been accompanied by the development of a third distinct clinical identity, that of the restorative plastic surgeon. The authors describe the core competencies that characterize this new identity, and discuss the implications of the advent of this new professional paradigm.

  19. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, Liu; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  20. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  1. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S....

  2. Adult myelination:wrapping up neuronal plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan ORourke; Robert Gasperini; Kaylene M.Young

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline the major neural plasticity mechanisms that have been identiifed in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and offer a perspective on how they regulate CNS function. In particular we examine how myelin plasticity can operate alongside neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity to inlfuence information processing and transfer in the mature CNS.

  3. The evolution of age-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Barbara; van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When organisms encounter environments that are heterogeneous in time, phenotypic plasticity is often favored by selection. The degree of such plasticity can vary during an organism''s lifetime, but the factors promoting differential plastic responses at different ages or life stages remain poorly un

  4. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  5. Plastic deformation and contact area of an elastic-plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results of the residual or plastic deformation and the plastic contact area of an elastic–plastic contact of ellipsoid bodies after unloading. There are three regime responses of the deformation and contact area: elastic, elastic–plastic and fully

  6. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride (PVC polymers – an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 103s−1 and temperatures from − 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  7. Strain rate dependence in plasticized and un-plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, M. J.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been made into the mechanical behaviour of two poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymers - an un-plasticized PVC and a diisononyl phthalate (DINP)-plasticized PVC. Measurements of the compressive stress-strain behaviour of the PVCs at strain rates ranging from 10-3 to 103s-1 and temperatures from - 60 to 100∘C are presented. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was also performed in order to understand the material transitions observed in compression testing as the strain rate is increased. This investigation develops a better understanding of the interplay between the temperature dependence and rate dependence of polymers, with a focus on locating the temperature and rate-dependent material transitions that occur during high rate testing.

  8. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  9. Thermoplastic Starch Prepared with Different Plasticizers:Relation between Degree of Plasticization and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, formamide, and urea were used as plasticizers for the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) from corn starch. The properties of TPS were tested by analysis method. The results showed that TPSs were more highly plasticized with amines than alcohols. For the same type of plasticizer, the degree of plasticization decreased as the molecular weight of plasticizer increased. The relationship between plasticization degree and TPS properties was characterized and described by mechanical properties and water absorption. The experimental results showed that when the degree of plasticization increased, the tensile strength decreased and the elongation at breakage and water absorption increased.

  10. 箱装发射药堆的温度变化规律及其安全性分析%Analysis of the temperature variation and the safety of ammunition stored in a stack of cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜培学; 任泽霈; 江劲勇; 陈明华; 路桂娥

    2001-01-01

    为研究箱装发射药堆中发射药的温度、发射药的安全性及其所含有的能量随时间的变化规律,采用求解原始变量的通用计算程序PHOENICS(1.4版本)并结合“虚拟密度法”,对具有多个离散内热源的非稳态导热与自然对流换热的耦合传热过程进行了数值模拟。结果表明,当散热通风条件比较好、环境温度和初始温度较低(≤50℃)时,在经历50年后发射药不会发生热自燃,发射药所含有的能量足够高;而当环境温度和初始温度比较高(如:120℃)时,发射药很快就会发生热自燃;在绝热边界条件下,即使在初始温度、环境温度及环境中空气的温度都较低的情况下,发射药也可能发生热自燃。%Abstract: The aim is to investigate the temperature variation,the self-ignition hazard and the energy content in the ammunition. The conjugate heat transfer analysis of the transient thermal conduction and the natural convection in a stack of cases with ammunition №1 or №2, which are modeled as temperature dependent heat sources, were simulated numerically using PHOENICS(Version 1.4) and the false density method. It was found that with reasonable heat transfer conditions at the boundary and relatively low initial and boundary temperatures(≤50 ℃), the ammunition did not self-ignite within the 50 years time period used for the analysis. If the initial and boundary temperatures were high (120 ℃), the ammunition will self-ignite within about 1 h. If the heat transfer conditions on the boundary were very bad, e.g., thermally isolated boundary conditions, the ammunition self-ignited at relatively low initial and boundary temperatures within the stipulated 50 years period.

  11. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio; Santagata, Gabriella; Malinconico, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The production and management of crops uses plastics for many applications (e.g., low tunnels, high tunnels, greenhouses, mulching, silage bags, hay bales, pheromone traps, coatings of fertilizers or pesticides or hormones or seeds, and nursery pots and containers for growing transplants). All these applications have led some authors to adopt the term "plasticulture" when discussing the use of plastic materials in agriculture and related industries. Unfortunately, the sustainability of this use of plastics is low, and renewability and degradability have become key words in the debate over sustainable production and utilization of plastic. Recently, researchers and the plastics industry have made strong efforts (i) to identify new biopolymers and natural additives from renewable sources that can be used in plastics production and (ii) to enhance the degradability (biological or physical) of the new ecologically sustainable materials. In the present review, we describe the main research results, current applications, patents that have been applied for in the last two decades, and future perspectives on sustainable use of plastics to support crop production. The article presents some promising patents on bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

  12. Relationships Analysis and Public Perception of the Healthy Plastic as One Solution to Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartatik; Hartono, R.; Purnomo, A.; Riasti, B. K.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-02-01

    Direct Plastics are used for various human purposes, ranging from household to industry. Tableware and drink made of plastic is very practical to use, easy to clean, durable and cost far less than tableware made of the other material. However, must also be considered in terms of security in the use of plastic containers for food storage because there are adverse effects. There are seven types of plastic based material used, namely Polyethylene, Terephthalate, High Density Polyethylene, Polyvinyl Chloride or V/PVC, Low Density Polyethylene or LDPE, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Plastics others including polycarbonate. Experts claims that the plastic code numbers 2, 4 and 5 are used for equipment safely eat/drink because it is more stable and safe if used correctly. In this study will analyze the relationship between the recent education, family income to perception and behavior in the use of plastics in food storage daily as one solution to healthy living. The population of this research is all the people in the Solo area particularly housewife and all the people in the productive age. Data were obtained through a survey with cluster random sampling method. Statistical method used is a parametric method and Chi Square test This method is used as an alternative method of parametric when some assumptions are not met. Based on the results of Chi Square test with α = 15% was concluded that recent education and income related to the behavior of people using plastic products as one of the solutions to Healthy Living.

  13. Plastics and microplastics in the oceans: From emerging pollutants to emerged threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2016-05-17

    Plastic production has increased dramatically worldwide over the last 60 years and it is nowadays recognized as a serious threat to the marine environment. Plastic pollution is ubiquitous, but quantitative estimates on the global abundance and weight of floating plastics are still limited, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere and the more remote regions. Some large-scale convergence zones of plastic debris have been identified, but there is the urgency to standardize common methodologies to measure and quantify plastics in seawater and sediments. Investigations on temporal trends, geographical distribution and global cycle of plastics have management implications when defining the origin, possible drifting tracks and ecological consequences of such pollution. An elevated number of marine species is known to be affected by plastic contamination, and a more integrated ecological risk assessment of these materials has become a research priority. Beside entanglement and ingestion of macro debris by large vertebrates, microplastics are accumulated by planktonic and invertebrate organisms, being transferred along food chains. Negative consequences include loss of nutritional value of diet, physical damages, exposure to pathogens and transport of alien species. In addition, plastics contain chemical additives and efficiently adsorb several environmental contaminants, thus representing a potential source of exposure to such compounds after ingestion. Complex ecotoxicological effects are increasingly reported, but the fate and impact of microplastics in the marine environment are still far to be fully clarified.

  14. Cortical plasticity induced by transplantation of embryonic somatostatin or parvalbumin interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunshuo; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian

    2014-12-23

    GABAergic inhibition has been shown to play an important role in the opening of critical periods of brain plasticity. We recently have shown that transplantation of GABAergic precursors from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the source of neocortical parvalbumin- (PV(+)) and somatostatin-expressing (SST(+)) interneurons, can induce a new period of ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) after the endogenous period has closed. Among the diverse subtypes of GABAergic interneurons PV(+) cells have been thought to play the crucial role in ODP. Here we have used MGE transplantation carrying a conditional allele of diphtheria toxin alpha subunit and cell-specific expression of Cre recombinase to deplete PV(+) or SST(+) interneurons selectively and to investigate the contributions of each of these types of interneurons to ODP. As expected, robust plasticity was observed in transplants containing PV(+) cells but in which the majority of SST(+) interneurons were depleted. Surprisingly, transplants in which the majority of PV(+) cells were depleted induced plasticity as effectively as those containing PV(+) cells. In contrast, depleting both cell types blocked induction of plasticity. These findings reveal that PV(+) cells do not play an exclusive role in ODP; SST(+) interneurons also can drive cortical plasticity and contribute to the reshaping of neural networks. The ability of both PV(+) and SST(+) interneurons to induce de novo cortical plasticity could help develop new therapeutic approaches for brain repair.

  15. Plastic waste as a resource. Strategies for reduction and utilization of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual i Camprubí, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Plastic materials have experienced a spectacular rate of growth in recent decades, consequently, production of plastics, and likewise their consumption, has increased markedly since 1950. Moreover, they are lightweight and durable, as well as can be moulded into a variety of products that can be manufactured in many different types of plastic and in a wide range of applications. Inevitably, continually increasing amounts of used plastic are originating daily, resulting in a plastic waste prob...

  16. Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari

    2004-01-01

    The short-term stability and the water sorption of films prepared from binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were evaluated using free films. The aqueous polymer solutions of the free films contained 2% (w/w) film formers, glycerol, or erythritol as a plasticizer...... in the crystallinity of the films are evident within a 3-month period of storage, and the changes in the solid state are dependent on the plasticizer and storage conditions. When stored at ambient conditions for 3 months, the aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with erythritol exhibited a partly...

  17. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  18. Description of the M-integral in an elastic plastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huiyu; Gao, Cheng; Xu, Jinyong; Tang, Yan; Cai, Dayong; Huang, Ranran

    2017-01-01

    By use of finite element analysis method of elastic-plasticity, a calculation of M-integral for 7075 aluminum alloy plate containing different configuration defects was conducted. The effect of plastic energy on path independence of the M-integral is discussed, The variation of M-integral of the holes before and after coalescence under tension loading is studied. Analysis result indicates that M-integral will be path dependent when the plastic zone is passed through by the selected integration contours. There is a jump of the M-integral when coalescence of the holes in a plate occurs. The value of the M-integral is always configuration dependent.

  19. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today′s industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer′s health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  20. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S. K.; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  1. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  2. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.; Zhang, S. L.; Wang, B. Y.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-02-01

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  3. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  4. Biodegradation of Degradable Plastic Polyethylene by Phanerochaete and Streptomyces Species †

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The ability of lignin-degrading microorganisms to attack degradable plastics was investigated in pure shake flask culture studies. The degradable plastic used in this study was produced commercially by using the Archer-Daniels-Midland POLYCLEAN masterbatch and contained pro-oxidant and 6% starch. The known lignin-degrading bacteria Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, S. badius 252, and S. setonii 75Vi2 and fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used. Pro-oxidant activity was accelerated by placin...

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Microstructural Constituents in Welded Transformation-Induced-Plasticity Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.; Hermans, M.J.M.; Zhao, L.; Richardson, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of retained austenite and nonmetallic inclusions in gas tungsten arc (GTA)–welded aluminum-containing transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels is presented. The amount of retained austenite in the heat-affected and fusion zones of welded aluminum-containing TRIP steel

  6. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness......Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...... of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...

  7. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....

  8. Vascular plasticity in cerebrovascular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars I H; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries and micr......Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with little advancement in subacute treatment options. This review aims to cover and discuss novel insight obtained during the last decade into plastic changes in the vasoconstrictor receptor profiles of cerebral arteries...... therapeutic target for prevention of vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation after stroke. Together, those findings provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and point toward a novel way of reducing vasoconstriction, neuronal cell death, and thus neurologic deficits after stroke....

  9. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  10. Exercise and plasticize the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mala, Hana; Wilms, Inge

    Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere. The pla......Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere...... potential through available training methods. Furthermore, research into neurorehabilitation is dependent on input from a number of fields (such as neuropsychology, neurology, physiotherapy, speech and language therapy, special education, and social work) and requires a close collaboration between...

  11. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Srivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA. Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products including variety of modern goods, reusable food storage containers, eyeglass lenses, white dental fillings, sealants, medical equipments etc. In the body, BPA behaves as an estrogen receptor agonist and mimics estrogen hormone. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Children and unborn and new born babies are at high risk of unwanted effects of BPA. Children suffer from chronic exposure to bisphenol A with manifestation of gastrointestinal problems, adrenal stress, immune dysfunction, toxic over load and neurological disorders. Some study in Japan has observed that more BPA can leach from polycarbonate products that have been scratched or is more than 4 years old or used bottles that have been subjected to bottle brushing or dishwashing and sterilization. People exposed to higher levels of BPA due to use of plastic food and beverages containers are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic disorder. Recent studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in the development of weight gain, insulin resistance, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, thyroid hormone disruption, and several other mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes. Urinary BPA levels are found to be associated with diabetes mellitus independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. There is a concern of exposure of BPA to pregnant women that can

  12. Brain plasticity and aerobic fitness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  13. The rise of plastic bioelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Takao; Bao, Zhenan; Malliaras, George G.

    2016-12-01

    Plastic bioelectronics is a research field that takes advantage of the inherent properties of polymers and soft organic electronics for applications at the interface of biology and electronics. The resulting electronic materials and devices are soft, stretchable and mechanically conformable, which are important qualities for interacting with biological systems in both wearable and implantable devices. Work is currently aimed at improving these devices with a view to making the electronic-biological interface as seamless as possible.

  14. The Future of Plastic Surgery: Surgeon's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin; Zor, Fatih

    2015-11-01

    Since the days of Sushruta, innovation has shaped the history of plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons have always been known as innovators or close followers of innovations. With this descriptive international survey study, the authors aimed to evaluate the future of plastic surgeons by analyzing how plastic surgery and plastic surgeons will be affected by new trends in medicine. Aesthetic surgery is the main subclass of plastic surgery thought to be the one that will change the most in the future. Stem cell therapy is considered by plastic surgeons to be the most likely "game changer." Along with changes in surgery, plastic surgeons also expect changes in plastic surgery education. The most approved assumption for the future of plastic surgery is, "The number of cosmetic nonsurgical procedures will increase in the future." If surgeons want to have better outcomes in their practice, they must at least be open minded for innovations if they do not become innovators themselves. Besides the individual effort of each surgeon, international and local plastic surgery associations should develop new strategies to adopt these innovations in surgical practice and education.

  15. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  16. Regulatory mechanisms link phenotypic plasticity to evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have a remarkable capacity to respond to environmental change. They can either respond directly, by means of phenotypic plasticity, or they can slowly adapt through evolution. Yet, how phenotypic plasticity links to evolutionary adaptability is largely unknown. Current studies of plasticity tend to adopt a phenomenological reaction norm (RN) approach, which neglects the mechanisms underlying plasticity. Focusing on a concrete question - the optimal timing of bacterial sporulation - we here also consider a mechanistic approach, the evolution of a gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying plasticity. Using individual-based simulations, we compare the RN and GRN approach and find a number of striking differences. Most importantly, the GRN model results in a much higher diversity of responsive strategies than the RN model. We show that each of the evolved strategies is pre-adapted to a unique set of unseen environmental conditions. The regulatory mechanisms that control plasticity therefore critically link phenotypic plasticity to the adaptive potential of biological populations.

  17. Plastic and free shrinkages cracking of blended white cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, A.M.; White, T.; Ariaratnam, S.; Knutson, K. [Housing and Building National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the plastic and free shrinkages of white portland cement concrete, concrete incorporating silica fume (SF) and concrete incorporating metakaolin (MK) compared to regular plain gray portland cement concrete. An experimental program was designed to investigate the plastic and free shrinkage of concrete containing gray and white blended cement. The paper discussed the experimental details including materials and cement types such as SF, MK, aggregate, and superplasticizer as well as concrete mixtures and specimen preparation including mixture proportions, preparation and curing of concrete specimens, and test specimens. It also presented the determination of concrete properties such as slump of fresh concrete, plastic shrinkage, and dry shrinkage. Test results and discussion of results were also provided. It was concluded that plain white portland cement concrete showed less number of plastic cracks but slightly higher average crack width compared to other concrete mixtures with MK or SF. In addition, free shrinkage behavior of plain white cement and plain gray cement matrix was comparable. 23 refs.

  18. Characteristics of a New Plastic Explosive Named EPX-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elbeih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available EPX-1 is a new plastic explosive (in the research stage which has been prepared for military and civilian applications. EPX-1 explosive contains pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN with different particle size as explosive filler bonded by nonenergetic thermoplastic binder plasticized by dibutyl phthalate (DBP. In this paper, the production method of EPX-1 was described. The crystal morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Heat of combustion was determined experimentally. The compatibility of PETN with the polymeric matrix was studied by vacuum stability test. Sensitivities to impact and friction were measured. The detonation velocity was measured experimentally and the detonation characteristics were calculated by EXPLO5 thermodynamic code. For comparison, Semtex 1A, Semtex 10, Formex P1, and Sprängdeg m/46 were studied. It was concluded that PEX-1 has compatible ingredients, it has the highest detonation velocity of all the studied plastic explosives, and its sensitivity is in the same level of the studied plastic explosives except Semtex 1A.

  19. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  20. Development and Plasticity of Intra- and Intersensory Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Daniel B.; Hillock, Andrea R.; Spankovich, Christopher; Popescu, Maria V.; Royal, David W.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The functional architecture of sensory brain regions reflects an ingenious biological solution to the competing demands of a continually changing sensory environment. While they are malleable, they have the constancy necessary to support a stable sensory percept. How does the functional organization of sensory brain regions contend with these antithetical demands? Here we describe the functional organization of auditory and multisensory (i.e., auditory-visual) information processing in three sensory brain structures: (1) a low-level unisensory cortical region, the primary auditory cortex (A1); (2) a higher-order multisensory cortical region, the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES); and (3) a multisensory subcortical structure, the superior colliculus (SC), We then present a body of work that characterizes the ontogenic expression of experience-dependent influences on the operations performed by the functional circuits contained within these regions. We will present data to support the hypothesis that the competing demands for plasticity and stability are addressed through a developmental transition in operational properties of functional circuits from an initially labile mode in the early stages of postnatal development to a more stable mode in the mature brain that retains the capacity for plasticity under specific experiential conditions. Finally, we discuss parallels between the central tenets of functional organization and plasticity of sensory brain structures drawn from animal studies and a growing literature on human brain plasticity and the potential applicability of these principles to the audiology clinic. PMID:19358458