WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasmonic coupling interference

  1. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  2. Compact and broadband directional coupling and demultiplexing in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhihong; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Han, Zhanghua

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically, numerically, and experimentally demonstrate that a directional coupling function can be realized with a wide bandwidth (greater than 200 nm) in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect. The functional size of the structure...

  3. Interference of conically scattered light in surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Aaron; Vollmer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal films are a well studied phenomena when excited using prism coupled geometries such as the Kretschmann attenuated total reflection configuration. Here we describe a novel interference pattern in the conically scattered light emanating from such a configuration when illuminated by a focused beam. We observe conditions indicating only self-interference of scattered surface plasmon polaritions without any contributions from specular reflection. The spatial evolution of this field is described in the context of Fourier optics and has applications in highly sensitive surface plasmon based biosensing.

  4. Interference effects with surface plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Nikolay Victorovich

    2008-01-01

    A surface plasmon is a purely two-dimensional electromagnetic excitation bound to the interface between metal and dielectric and quickly decaying away from it. A surface plasmon is able to concentrate light on sub-wavelength scales – a feature that is attractive for nano-photonics and integrated

  5. Interference of Multiple Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Yuan, Xiaocong; Lin, Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from strongly electromagnetic confinement and enhancement effects, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) hold great promises for tailoring light on micro and nanoscale. By contrast with previous efforts which massively concentrate on localized SPP mode, we investigated the propagating SPPs in this paper. A number of symmetrical gratings on metal surface are employed to excite multiple SPPs. Interestingly, the exotic interfering phenomena have been observed. They show good agreement with free-space interferences and take advantage of precise controllability. These findings will be promising in the applications of optical tweezers and SPP lithography. (paper)

  6. Double Fano resonances in plasmon coupling nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fei; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Fano resonances are investigated in nanorods with symmetric lengths and side-by-side assembly. Single Fano resonance can be obtained by a nanorod dimer, and double Fano resonances are shown in nanorod trimers with side-by-side assembly. With transverse plasmon excitation, Fano resonances are caused by the destructive interference between a bright superradiant mode and dark subradiant modes. The bright mode originates from the electric plasmon resonance, and the dark modes originate from the magnetic resonances induced by near-field inter-rod coupling. Double Fano resonances result from double dark modes at different wavelengths, which are induced and tuned by the asymmetric gaps between the adjacent nanorods. Fano resonances show a high figure of merit and large light extinction in the periodic array of assembled nanorods, which can potentially be used in multiwavelength sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions. (paper)

  7. Coupled plasmon modes and their localization in graded plasmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.J.; Yakubo, K.; Yu, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmonic waves occur in the subwavelength scale with transverse confinement below the diffraction limit. In this work, we report results of longitudinal localization-delocalization transitions of coupled plasmon modes in graded chains of metallic nanodots. Two graded models are studied: graded index of refraction in the host medium and incremental spacing between the nanoparticles. The coupled plasmon modes in these graded systems exhibit strong localization, showing a tunable passband in finite size systems. These localized modes survive in presence of weak loss in the nanodots. To understand the localization mechanism, we construct equivalent systems of one-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, whose coupling strength or masses are gradually varied from one end to the other, with additional on-site potentials. Confining and transmitting electromagnetic energy in these structures may pave new way for many fruitful applications in plasmonics

  8. Mesoscopic quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke

    for the spontaneous emission of mesoscopic quantum emitters is developed. The light-matter interaction is in this model modied beyond the dipole expectancy and found to both suppress and enhance the coupling to plasmonic modes in excellent agreement with our measurements. We demonstrate that this mesoscopic effect......This thesis reports research on quantum dots coupled to dielectric and plasmonic nano-structures by way of nano-structure fabrication, optical measurements, and theoretical modeling. To study light-matter interaction, plasmonic gap waveguides with nanometer dimensions as well as samples for studies...... to allow for e- cient plasmon-based single-photon sources. Theoretical studies of coupling and propagation properties of plasmonic waveguides reveal that a high-refractive index of the medium surrounding the emitter, e.g. nGaAs = 3.5, limits the realizability of ecient plasmon-based single-photon sources...

  9. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  10. Plasmonic solutions for coupling and modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu

    We present our design results for efficient coupling and modulation in plasmonic structures. Fiber coupling to a plasmonic slot waveguide is significantly increased by a metallic nanoantenna with additional reflectors or by the configuration of several connected antennas. We also show that the pl......We present our design results for efficient coupling and modulation in plasmonic structures. Fiber coupling to a plasmonic slot waveguide is significantly increased by a metallic nanoantenna with additional reflectors or by the configuration of several connected antennas. We also show...... that the plasmonic four-layer waveguide with patterned ITO layer can modulate light with higher transmission and the same modulation depth as a waveguide with a uniform ITO layer....

  11. Tailoring double Fano profiles with plasmon-assisted quantum interference in hybrid exciton-plasmon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongxing; Wu, Jiarui; Gu, Ying; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    We propose tailoring of the double Fano profiles via plasmon-assisted quantum interference in a hybrid exciton-plasmon system. Tailoring is performed by the interference between two exciton channels interacting with a common localized surface plasmon. Using an applied field of low intensity, the absorption spectrum of the hybrid system reveals a double Fano lineshape with four peaks. For relatively large field intensity, a broad flat window in the absorption spectrum appears which results from the destructive interference between excitons. Because of strong constructive interference, this window vanishes as intensity is further increased. We have designed a nanometer bandpass optical filter for visible light based on tailoring of the optical spectrum. This study provides a platform for quantum interference that may have potential applications in ultracompact tunable quantum devices.

  12. Plasmon-plasmon coupling in nested fullerenes: photoexcitation of interlayer plasmonic cross modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, Mathew A; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T

    2011-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of a two-layer fullerene-onion system, C 60 -C 240 , strong plasmonic couplings between the nested fullerenes are demonstrated. The resulting hybridization produces four cross-over plasmons generated from the bonding and antibonding mixing of excited charge clouds of individual fullerenes. This suggests the possibility of designing buckyonions exhibiting plasmon resonances with specified properties and may motivate future research to modify the resonances with encaged atoms, molecules or clusters. (fast track communication)

  13. Coupled-resonator-induced plasmonic bandgaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujia; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-10-15

    By drawing an analogy with the conventional photonic crystals, the plasmonic bandgaps have mainly employed the periodic metallic structures, named as plasmonic crystals. However, the sizes of the plasmonic crystals are much larger than the wavelengths, and the large sizes considerably decrease the density of the photonic integration circuits. Here, based on the coupled-resonator effect, the plasmonic bandgaps are experimentally realized in the subwavelength waveguide-resonator structure, which considerably decreases the structure size to subwavelength scales. An analytic model and the phase analysis are established to explain this phenomenon. Both the experiment and simulation show that the plasmonic bandgap structure has large fabrication tolerances (>20%). Instead of the periodic metallic structures in the bulky plasmonic crystals, the utilization of the subwavelength plasmonic waveguide-resonator structure not only significantly shrinks the bandgap structure to be about λ 2 /13, but also expands the physics of the plasmonic bandgaps. The subwavelength dimension, together with the waveguide configuration and robust realization, makes the bandgap structure easy to be highly integrated on chips.

  14. Coupling single emitters to quantum plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the controlled coupling of single-photon emitters to propagating surface plasmons has been intensely studied, which is fueled by the prospect of a giant photonic nonlinearity on a nanoscaled platform. In this article, we will review the recent progress on coupling single emitters...

  15. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  16. Plasmonic-photonic crystal coupled nanolaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Callard, Ségolène; Jamois, Cécile; Chevalier, Céline; Feng, Di; Belarouci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a hybrid photonic-plasmonic nanolaser that combines the light harvesting features of a dielectric photonic crystal cavity with the extraordinary confining properties of an optical nano-antenna. For this purpose, we developed a novel fabrication method based on multi-step electron-beam lithography. We show that it enables the robust and reproducible production of hybrid structures, using a fully top-down approach to accurately position the antenna. Coherent coupling of the photonic and plasmonic modes is highlighted and opens up a broad range of new hybrid nanophotonic devices. (paper)

  17. Quantum emitters coupled to surface plasmons of an nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzsotjan, David; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a system consisting of a single, as well as two emitters strongly coupled to surface plasmon modes of a nanowire using a Green's function approach. Explicit expressions are derived for the spontaneous decay rate into the plasmon modes and for the atom-plasmon coupling as well......-qubit quantum gate. We also discuss a possible realization of interesting many-body Hamiltonians, such as the spin-boson model, using strong emitter-plasmon coupling. Udgivelsesdato: 27 August...

  18. Direct optical measurement of light coupling into planar waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, Antti M; Toppari, J Jussi

    2013-01-14

    Coupling of light into a thin layer of high refractive index material by plasmonic nanoparticles has been widely studied for application in photovoltaic devices, such as thin-film solar cells. In numerous studies this coupling has been investigated through measurement of e.g. quantum efficiency or photocurrent enhancement. Here we present a direct optical measurement of light coupling into a waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles. We investigate the coupling efficiency into the guided modes within the waveguide by illuminating the surface of a sample, consisting of a glass slide coated with a high refractive index planar waveguide and plasmonic nanoparticles, while directly measuring the intensity of the light emitted out of the waveguide edge. These experiments were complemented by transmittance and reflectance measurements. We show that the light coupling is strongly affected by thin-film interference, localized surface plasmon resonances of the nanoparticles and the illumination direction (front or rear).

  19. Plasmons in Dimensionally Mismatched Coulomb Coupled Graphene Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, S M; Shylau, A A; Jauho, A P

    2017-09-22

    We calculate the plasmon dispersion relation for Coulomb coupled metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons and doped monolayer graphene. The crossing of the plasmon curves, which occurs for uncoupled 1D and 2D systems, is split by the interlayer Coulomb coupling into a lower and an upper plasmon branch. The upper branch exhibits an unusual behavior with end points at finite q. Accordingly, the structure factor shows either a single or a double peak behavior, depending on the plasmon wavelength. The new plasmon structure is relevant to recent experiments, its properties can be controlled by varying the system parameters and be used in plasmonic applications.

  20. Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the surface plasmon polariton interference, generated via a ‘buried’ gold grating, and imaged using a phase-sensitive Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM). The phase-resolved PSTM measurement unravels the complex surface plasmon polariton interference fields at the gold-air

  1. Exciton-plasmon coupling interactions: from principle to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, En; Lin, Weihua; Sun, Mengtao; Liang, Wenjie; Song, Yuzhi

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of exciton-plasmon coupling and the conversion of exciton-plasmon-photon have been widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we introduce the exciton-plasmon interaction from basic principle to applications. There are two kinds of exciton-plasmon coupling, which demonstrate different optical properties. The strong exciton-plasmon coupling results in two new mixed states of light and matter separated energetically by a Rabi splitting that exhibits a characteristic anticrossing behavior of the exciton-LSP energy tuning. Compared to strong coupling, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced absorption, enhanced fluorescence, or fluorescence quenching, there is no perturbation between wave functions; the interaction here is called the weak coupling. SP resonance (SPR) arises from the collective oscillation induced by the electromagnetic field of light and can be used for investigating the interaction between light and matter beyond the diffraction limit. The study on the interaction between SPR and exaction has drawn wide attention since its discovery not only due to its contribution in deepening and broadening the understanding of SPR but also its contribution to its application in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, low threshold laser, biomedical detection, quantum information processing, and so on.

  2. Visualizing hybridized quantum plasmons in coupled nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jensen, Kristian Lund; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    of the dynamical dielectric function, which is computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). For freestanding wires, the energy of both surface and bulk plasmon modes deviate from the classical result for low wire radii and high momentum transfer due to effects of electron spill-out, nonlocal......˚ separation, this mode is replaced by a charge-transfer plasmon, which blue shifts with decreasing separation in agreement with experiment and marks the onset of the strong tunneling regime....

  3. Silver-graphene oxide based plasmonic spacer for surface plasmon-coupled fluorescence emission enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Sathish Ramamurthy, Sai

    2017-06-01

    We report the application of single layered graphene oxide (SLGO) and silver decorated SLGO (Ag-SLGO) as plasmonic spacer material for obtaining enhanced fluorescence from a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) radiating dipole in a surface plasmon-coupled emission platform. To this end, we have decorated SLGO with biphasic silver nanoparticles using an in situ deposition technique to achieve 112-fold fluorescence enhancements.

  4. Plasmonic metalens based on coupled resonators for focusing of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan

    2016-11-29

    As an essential functionality, flexible focusing of surface plasmons (SPs) is of particular interest in nonlinear optics and highly integrated plasmonic circuitry. Here, we developed a versatile plasmonic metalens, a metasurface comprised of coupled subwavelength resonators, whose optical responses exhibit a remarkable feature of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We demonstrate numerically and experimentally how a proper spatial design of the unit elements steers SPs to arbitrary foci based on the holographic principles. More specifically, we show how to control the interaction between the constituent EIT resonators to efficiently manipulate the focusing intensity of SPs. We also demonstrated that the proposed metalens is capable of achieving frequency division multiplexing. The power and simplicity of the proposed design would offer promising opportunities for practical plasmonic devices.

  5. On-chip plasmon-induced transparency based on plasmonic coupled nanocavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-17

    On-chip plasmon-induced transparency offers the possibility of realization of ultrahigh-speed information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made to date because it is difficult to obtain on-chip plasmon-induced transparency using only a single meta-molecule in plasmonic circuits. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy to realize on-chip plasmon-induced transparency in a nanoscale U-shaped plasmonic waveguide side-coupled nanocavity pair. High tunability in the transparency window is achieved by covering the pair with different organic polymer layers. It is possible to realize ultrafast all-optical tunability based on pump light-induced refractive index change of a graphene cover layer. Compared with previous reports, the overall feature size of the plasmonic nanostructure is reduced by more than three orders of magnitude, while ultrahigh tunability of the transparency window is maintained. This work also provides a superior platform for the study of the various physical effects and phenomena of nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  6. Optical Realization of Double-Continuum Fano Interference and Coherent Control in Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arju, Nihal; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Khanikaev, Alexander; Purtseladze, David; Shvets, Gennady

    2015-06-01

    Classical realization of a ubiquitous quantum mechanical phenomenon of double-continuum Fano interference using metasurfaces is experimentally demonstrated by engineering the near-field interaction between two bright and one dark plasmonic modes. The competition between the bright modes, one of them effectively suppressing the Fano interference for the orthogonal light polarization, is discovered. Coherent control of optical energy concentration and light absorption by the ellipticity of the incident light is theoretically predicted.

  7. Enhanced magneto-plasmonic effect in Au/Co/Au multilayers caused by exciton–plasmon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, S.M., E-mail: m_hamidi@sbu.ac.ir; Ghaebi, O.

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, we have investigated magneto optical Kerr rotation using the strong coupling of exciton–plasmon. For this purpose, we have demonstrated strong coupling phenomenon using reflectometry measurements. These measurements revealed the formation of two split polaritonic extrema in reflectometry as a function of wavelength. Then we have shown exciton–plasmon coupling in dispersion diagram which presented an anti-crossing between the polaritonic branches. To assure the readers of strong coupling, we have shown an enhanced magneto-optical Kerr rotation by comparing the reflectometry results of strong coupling of surface Plasmon polariton of Au/Co/Au multilayer and R6G excitons with surface Plasmon polariton magneto-optical kerr effect experimental setup. - Highlights: • The magneto optical Kerr rotation has been investigated by using the strong coupling of exciton–plasmon. • We have shown exciton–plasmon coupling in dispersion diagram which presented an anti-crossing between the polaritonic branches. • Strong coupling of surface plasmon polariton and exciton have been yielded to the enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect. • Plasmons in Au/Co/Au multilayer and exciton in R6G have been coupled to enhance magneto-optical activity.

  8. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    We obtained experimentally strong plasmon interactions between localized surface plasmon with delocalized surface plasmon polaritons in a new nanosystem of silver semishells island film arrays arranged as a closed-packing structure coupled to an adjacent thin silver film. We show that plasmon int...

  9. Coupling between plasmonic films and nanostructures: from basics to applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic film-nanoparticles coupled systems have had a renewed interest for the past 5 years both for the richness of the provided plasmonic modes and for their high technological potential. Many groups started to investigate the optical properties of film-nanoparticles coupled systems, as to whether the spacer layer thickness is tens of nanometers thick or goes down to a few nanometers or angstroms, even reaching contact. This article reviews the recent breakthroughs in the physical understanding of such coupled systems and the different systems where nanoparticles on top of the spacer layer are either isolated/random or form regular arrays. The potential for applications, especially as perfect absorbers or transmitters is also put into evidence.

  10. Dynamic Control of Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Au Nanodisk–J-Aggregate Hybrid Nanostructure Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Jensen, Linlin; Jensen, Lasse; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    We report the dynamic control of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au nanodisk arrays adsorbed with J-aggregate molecules by incident angle of light. The angle-resolved spectra of an array of bare Au nanodisks exhibit continuous shifting of localized surface plasmon resonances. This characteristic enables the production of real-time, controllable spectral overlaps between molecular and plasmonic resonances, and the efficient measurement of plasmon-exciton coupling as a function of wavelength with one or fewer nanodisk arrays. Experimental observations of varying plasmon-exciton coupling match with coupled dipole approximation calculations.

  11. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  12. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.

    2016-02-19

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  13. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.; Xu, Q.; Li, Q.; Xu, Y.; Gu, J.; Tian, Z.; Ouyang, C.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  14. Hybrid plasmonic systems: from optical transparencies to strong coupling and entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen K.

    2018-02-01

    Classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanical models of quantum dots and molecules interacting with plasmonic systems are discussed. Calculations show that just one quantum dot interacting with a plasmonic system can lead to interesting optical effects, including optical transparencies and more general Fano resonance features that can be tailored with ultrafast laser pulses. Such effects can occur in the limit of moderate coupling between quantum dot and plasmonic system. The approach to the strong coupling regime is also discussed. In cases with two or more quantum dots within a plasmonic system, the possibility of quantum entanglement mediated through the dissipative plasmonic structure arises.

  15. A ``plasmonic cuvette'': dye chemistry coupled to plasmonic interferometry for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Vince S.; Feng, Jing; Flanigan, Patrick W.; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Pacifici, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    A non-invasive method for the detection of glucose is sought by millions of diabetic patients to improve personal management of blood glucose over a lifetime. In this work, the synergistic advantage of combining plasmonic interferometry with an enzyme-driven dye assay yields an optical sensor capable of detecting glucose in saliva with high sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor, coined a "plasmonic cuvette," is built around a nano-scale groove-slit-groove (GSG) plasmonic interferometer coupled to an Amplex-red/Glucose-oxidase/Glucose (AR/GOx/Glucose) assay. The proposed device is highly sensitive, with a measured intensity change of 1.7×105%/m (i.e., one order of magnitude more sensitive than without assay) and highly specific for glucose sensing in picoliter volumes, across the physiological range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva (20-240 μm). Real-time glucose monitoring in saliva is achieved by performing a detailed study of the underlying enzyme-driven reactions to determine and tune the effective rate constants in order to reduce the overall assay reaction time to ˜2 min. The results reported suggest that by opportunely choosing the appropriate dye chemistry, a plasmonic cuvette can be turned into a general, real-time sensing scheme for detection of any molecular target, with high sensitivity and selectivity, within extremely low volumes of biological fluid (down to femtoliters). Hereby, we present the results on glucose detection in artificial saliva as a notable and clinically relevant case study.

  16. The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiong-gan; Wang, Zhi-guo; Tan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide is investigated theoretically using Green's function method. Our result suggests that the gain and loss parameters influence the amplitude and phase of the fields localized in the two cavities. For the case of balanced gain and loss, the fields of the two cavities are always of equi-amplitude but out of phase. A plasmon induced transparency (PIT)-like transmission peak can be achieved by the destructive interference of two fields with anti-phase. For the case of unbalanced gain and loss, some unexpected responses of structure are generated. When the gain is more than the loss, the system response is dissipative at around the resonant frequency of the two cavities, where the sum of reflectance and transmittance becomes less than one. This is because the lossy cavity, with a stronger localized field, makes the main contribution to the system response. When the gain is less than the loss, the reverse is true. It is found that the metal loss dissipates the system energy but facilitates the gain cavity to make a dominant effect on the system response. This mechanism may have a potential application for optical amplification and for a plasmonic waveguide switch. (paper)

  17. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  18. Coupling effects in 3D plasmonic structures templated by Morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaqing; Shen, Qingchen; Yang, Shuai; He, Gufeng; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2018-01-03

    This paper presents the study of the coupling effects of three dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures templated by Morpho butterfly wings. Different from the random deposition of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or conformal coating of metallic layers on butterfly wings reported previously, the 3D plasmonic nanostructures studied in this work consist of gold (Au) nanostrips quasi-periodically arranged in 3D, which allows us to investigate the plasmonic coupling effects. Through refractive index (RI) matching, the plasmonic coupling can be differentiated from the optical contribution of butterfly wings. By tuning the deposition thickness of Au from 30 to 90 nm, the plasmonic coupling effects between the 3D Au nanostrips are gradually enhanced. In particular, the near-field coupling results in two resonant modes and enhances the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals.

  19. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  20. Correlation Effects on the Coupled Plasmon Modes of a Double Quantum Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, N. P. R.; Nicholls, J. T.; Linfield, E. H.

    1997-01-01

    At temperatures comparable to the Fermi temperature, we have measured a plasmon enhanced Coulomb drag in a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well electron system. This measurement provides a probe of the many-body corrections to the coupled plasmon modes, and we present a detailed comparison between exp...

  1. Control and near-field detection of surface plasmon interference patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Petr; Neuman, Tomáš; Břínek, Lukáš; Šamořil, Tomáš; Kalousek, Radek; Dub, Petr; Varga, Peter; Šikola, Tomáš

    2013-06-12

    The tailoring of electromagnetic near-field properties is the central task in the field of nanophotonics. In addition to 2D optics for optical nanocircuits, confined and enhanced electric fields are utilized in detection and sensing, photovoltaics, spatially localized spectroscopy (nanoimaging), as well as in nanolithography and nanomanipulation. For practical purposes, it is necessary to develop easy-to-use methods for controlling the electromagnetic near-field distribution. By imaging optical near-fields using a scanning near-field optical microscope, we demonstrate that surface plasmon polaritons propagating from slits along the metal-dielectric interface form tunable interference patterns. We present a simple way how to control the resulting interference patterns both by variation of the angle between two slits and, for a fixed slit geometry, by a proper combination of laser beam polarization and inhomogeneous far-field illumination of the structure. Thus the modulation period of interference patterns has become adjustable and new variable patterns consisting of stripelike and dotlike motifs have been achieved, respectively.

  2. Array of nanoparticles coupling with quantum-dot: Lattice plasmon quantum features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanogli, Ahmad; Gecim, H. Selcuk

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the interaction of lattice plasmon with quantum-dot in order to mainly examine the quantum features of the lattice plasmon containing the photonic/plasmonic properties. Despite optical properties of the localized plasmon, the lattice plasmon severely depends on the array geometry, which may influence its quantum features such as uncertainty and the second-order correlation function. To investigate this interaction, we consider a closed system containing an array of the plasmonic nanoparticles and quantum-dot. We analyze this system with full quantum theory by which the array electric far field is quantized and the strength coupling of the quantum-dot array is analytically calculated. Moreover, the system's dynamics are evaluated and studied via the Heisenberg-Langevin equations to attain the system optical modes. We also analytically examine the Purcell factor, which shows the effect of the lattice plasmon on the quantum-dot spontaneous emission. Finally, the lattice plasmon uncertainty and its time evolution of the second-order correlation function at different spatial points are examined. These parameters are dramatically affected by the retarded field effect of the array nanoparticles. We found a severe quantum fluctuation at points where the lattice plasmon occurs, suggesting that the lattice plasmon photons are correlated.

  3. Ultracompact Refractive Index Sensor Based on Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Jian-Jun; Tang Wei-Hua; Xiao Jing-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Using an ultracompact groove-slit-groove (GSG) structure, a refractive index sensor with a broadband response is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Due to the interference of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), the transmission spectra in the GSG structure exhibit oscillation behaviors in a broad bandwidth, and they are quite sensitive to the refractive index of the surroundings. Based on the principle, the characteristics of its refractive index sensing are demonstrated experimentally. In the experiment, the structure is illuminated with a bulk light source (not a tightly focused light source) from the back side. This decreases the difficulty of the experimental measurement and can protect strong light sources from damaging the detection samples. Meanwhile, the whole structure of the sensor can be made more ultracompact without considering the influence of the incident waves

  4. Strong Coupling and Entanglement of Quantum Emitters Embedded in a Nanoantenna-Enhanced Plasmonic Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, Matthias [Institut; Heilpern, Tal [Center; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Pfeiffer, Walter [Fakultät

    2017-10-12

    Establishing strong coupling between spatially separated and thus selectively addressable quantum emitters is a key ingredient to complex quantum optical schemes in future technologies. Insofar as many plasmonic nanostructures are concerned, however, the energy transfer and mutual interaction strength between distant quantum emitters can fail to provide strong coupling. Here, based on mode hybridization, the longevity and waveguide character of an elliptical plasmon cavity are combined with intense and highly localized field modes of suitably designed nanoantennas. Based on FDTD simulations a quantum emitter-plasmon coupling strength hg = 16.7 meV is reached while simultaneously keeping a small plasmon resonance line width h gamma(s) = 33 meV. This facilitates strong coupling, and quantum dynamical simulations reveal an oscillatory exchange of excited state population arid a notable degree of entanglement between the quantum emitters spatially separated by 1.8 mu m, i.e., about twice the operating wavelength.

  5. A Plasmonic Temperature-Sensing Structure Based on Dual Laterally Side-Coupled Hexagonal Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyuan Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic temperature-sensing structure, based on a metal-insulator-metal (MIM waveguide with dual side-coupled hexagonal cavities, is proposed and numerically investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method in this paper. The numerical simulation results show that a resonance dip appears in the transmission spectrum. Moreover, the full width of half maximum (FWHM of the resonance dip can be narrowed down, and the extinction ratio can reach a maximum value by tuning the coupling distance between the waveguide and two cavities. Based on a linear relationship between the resonance dip and environment temperature, the temperature-sensing characteristics are discussed. The temperature sensitivity is influenced by the side length and the coupling distance. Furthermore, for the first time, two concepts—optical spectrum interference (OSI and misjudge rate (MR—are introduced to study the temperature-sensing resolution based on spectral interrogation. This work has some significance in the design of nanoscale optical sensors with high temperature sensitivity and a high sensing resolution.

  6. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  7. Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berini, P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Kim, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    referred to as “extraordinary optical transmission.” Surface plasmons are intimately involved in the response of “metamaterials” and “metasurfaces” constructed from deep subwavelength metallic features, producing esoteric macroscopic properties such as a negative refractive index, or a permittivity...... or localized at metal nanostructures. Light suitable for exciting surface plasmons is typically within or near the visible but may extend into the infrared and ultraviolet regions. Metallic structures that support surface plasmons are highly varied, including planar arrangements of metal films, stripes...

  8. Highly sensitive nano-porous lattice biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kim, Ok-Geun; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-11-07

    We propose a design for a highly sensitive biosensor based on nanostructured anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. A gold-deposited AAO substrate exhibits both optical interference and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In our sensor, application of these disparate optical properties overcomes problems of limited sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range seen in similar biosensors. We fabricated uniform periodic nanopore lattice AAO templates by two-step anodizing and assessed their suitability for application in biosensors by characterizing the change in optical response on addition of biomolecules to the AAO template. To determine the suitability of such structures for biosensing applications, we immobilized a layer of C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody on a gold coating atop an AAO template. We then applied a CRP antigen (Ag) atop the immobilized antibody (Ab) layer. The shift in reflectance is interpreted as being caused by the change in refractive index with membrane thickness. Our results confirm that our proposed AAO-based biosensor is highly selective toward detection of CRP antigen, and can measure a change in CRP antigen concentration of 1 fg/ml. This method can provide a simple, fast, and sensitive analysis for protein detection in real-time.

  9. Dynamic Tuning of Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Arrays of Nanodisk-J-aggregate Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2010-07-21

    Figure Presented Dynamic tuning of plasmon-exclton resonant coupling in arrays of nanodisk-J-aggregate complexes is demonstrated. The angle-resolved spectra of an array of bare gold nanodisks exhibit continuous shifting of localized surface plasmon resonance. This characteristic enables the production of real-time, controllable spectral overlap between molecular resonance and plasmóme resonance. The resonant interaction strength as a function of spectral overlap is explored and the coupling strength changes with the incident angle of a probe light, in accord with simulations based on coupled dipóle approximation method. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxue; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chuncong; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we report the study of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in the bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators. It is demonstrated that the interferences between the dark plasmons excited by two bright plasmon resonators can be controlled by the incident light polarization. The constructive interference strengthens the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, leading to a more prominent EIT-like transparency window of the metamaterial. In contrary, destructive interference suppresses the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, destroying the interference pathway that forms the EIT-like transmission. Based on this observation, the plasmonic EIT switching can be realized by changing the polarization of incident light. This phenomenon may find applications in optical switching and plasmon-based information processing.

  11. Electromagnetic near-field coupling induced polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission in plasmonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Kai-Jun; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin-Min; Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Shi-Hua; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Hu, Wei-Da; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of polarization conversion in a plasmonic metasurface structure, in which each unit cell consists of a metal bar and four metal split-ring resonators (SRRs). Such effect is attributed to the fact that the dark plasmon mode of SRRs (bar), which radiates cross-polarized component, is induced by the bright plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) due to the electromagnetic near-field coupling between bar and SRRs. We find that there are two ways to achieve a large cross-polarized component in our proposed metasurface structure. The first way is realized when the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is in resonance, while at this time the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is not at resonant state. The second way is realized when the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is resonantly excited, while the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is at nonresonant state. It is also found that the linearly polarized light can be rotated by 56.50 after propagation through the metasurface structure. Furthermore, our proposed metasurface structure exhibits an asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized light. Our findings take a further step in developing integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation and modulation.

  12. Controlled coupling of NV defect centers to plasmonic and photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Michael, E-mail: michael.barth@physik.hu-berlin.d [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Schietinger, Stefan; Schroeder, Tim; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond have recently emerged as promising candidates for a number of applications in the fields of quantum optics and quantum information, such as single photon generation and spin qubit operations. The performance of these defect centers can strongly be enhanced through coupling to plasmonic and photonic nanostructures, such as metal particles and optical microcavities. Here, we demonstrate the controlled assembly of such hybrid structures via manipulation with scanning near-field probes. In particular, we investigate the plasmonic enhancement of the single photon emission through coupling to gold nanospheres as well as the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the optical modes of microsphere resonators and photonic crystal cavities. These systems represent prototypes of fundamental nanophotonic/plasmonic elements and provide control on the generation and coherent transfer of photons on the level of a single quantum emitter.

  13. Substantially Enhancing Quantum Coherence of Electrons in Graphene via Electron-Plasmon Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanghui; Qin, Wei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Wei, Laiming; Fan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huayang; Gwo, Shangjr; Zeng, Changgan; Hou, J G; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2017-10-13

    The interplays between different quasiparticles in solids lay the foundation for a wide spectrum of intriguing quantum effects, yet how the collective plasmon excitations affect the quantum transport of electrons remains largely unexplored. Here we provide the first demonstration that when the electron-plasmon coupling is introduced, the quantum coherence of electrons in graphene is substantially enhanced with the quantum coherence length almost tripled. We further develop a microscopic model to interpret the striking observations, emphasizing the vital role of the graphene plasmons in suppressing electron-electron dephasing. The novel and transformative concept of plasmon-enhanced quantum coherence sheds new insight into interquasiparticle interactions, and further extends a new dimension to exploit nontrivial quantum phenomena and devices in solid systems.

  14. UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    the electromagnetic interaction shows significant plasmonic interaction at the interface between the gold and semiconductor particles as shown in...crystal facets possessing hexagonal symmetry, and the (000 ) basal plane of the seeded, wurzite ZnO nanocrytals. Au particle size played a crucial...discovered. Au particle size played a crucial role in determining the structure and morphology of newly forming crystallites. Small (~4 nm) Au seeds

  15. UV Nano Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    the electromagnetic interaction shows significant plasmonic interaction at the interface between the gold and semiconductor particles as shown in...crystal facets possessing hexagonal symmetry, and the (000 ) basal plane of the seeded, wurzite ZnO nanocrytals. Au particle size played a crucial...discovered. Au particle size played a crucial role in determining the structure and morphology of newly forming crystallites. Small (~4 nm) Au seeds

  16. Alpha-fetoprotein detection by using a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence fiber-optic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Feng; Chen, Ran-Chou; Li, Ying-Chang; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chou, Chien

    2007-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection by using a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence (LSPCF) fiber-optic biosensor is setup and experimentally demonstrated. It is based on gold nanoparticle (GNP) and coupled with localized surface plasmon wave on the surface of GNP. In this experiment, the fluorophores are labeled on anti-AFP which are bound to protein A conjugated GNP. Thus, LSPCF is excited with high efficiency in the near field of localized surface plasmon wave. Therefore, not only the sensitivity of LSPCF biosensor is enhanced but also the specific selectivity of AFP is improved. Experimentally, the ability of real time measurement in the range of AFP concentration from 0.1ng/ml to 100ng/ml was detected. To compare with conventional methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or radioimmunoassay (RIA), the LSPCF fiber-optic biosensor performs higher or comparable detection sensitivity, respectively.

  17. Plasmonic Coupling in Three-Dimensional Au Nanoparticle Assemblies Fabricated by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrum Sohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated optical properties of three-dimensional (3D assemblies of Au nanoparticles (NPs, which were fabricated by dewetting of thin Au layers on anodic aluminum oxides (AAO. The NP assembly had hexagonal array of repeated multiparticle structures, which consisted of six trimers on the AAO surface and one large NP in the AAO pore (pore-NP. We performed finite-difference time-domain simulation to explain the optical response of the NP assemblies and compared the calculation results with experimental data. Such complementary studies clearly revealed how the plasmonic coupling between the constituent NPs influenced the spectral response of our NP assemblies. In particular, comparison of the assemblies with and without pore-NPs suggested that strong plasmonic coupling between trimers and pore-NP significantly affected the spectra and the field distribution of the NP assemblies. Plasmonic multi-NP assemblies could provide us new platforms to realize novel optoelectronic devices.

  18. Plasmonic reflectors and high-Q nano-cavities based on coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contra-directional coupling, a composite structure consisting of two coupled metal-insulator-metal (MIM waveguides is proposed to act as an attractive plasmonic reflector. By introducing a defect into one of the MIM waveguides, we show that such a composite structure can be operated as a plasmonic nanocavity with a high quality factor. Both symmetric and anti-symmetric cavity modes are supported in the plasmonic cavity, and their resonance frequencies can be tuned by controlling the defect width. The present structures could have a significant impact for potential applications such as surface plasmon mirrors, filters and solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  19. Coupling of single quantum emitters to plasmons propagating on mechanically etched wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Lu, Ying-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center in a nanodiamond to propagating plasmonic modes of mechanically etched silver nanowires. The mechanical etch is performed on single crystalline silver nanoplates by the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever to produce wires...

  20. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  1. A BIOSENSOR USING COUPLED PLASMON WAVEGUIDE RESONANCE COMBINED WITH HYPERSPECTRAL FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAN DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a biosensor that is capable for simultaneous surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensing and hyperspectral fluorescence analysis in this paper. A symmetrical metal-dielectric slab scheme is employed for the excitation of coupled plasmon waveguide resonance (CPWR in the present work. Resonance between surface plasmon mode and the guided waveguide mode generates narrower full width half-maximum of the reflective curves which leads to increased precision for the determination of refractive index over conventional SPR sensors. In addition, CPWR also offers longer surface propagation depths and higher surface electric field strengths that enable the excitation of fluorescence with hyperspectral technique to maintain an appreciable signal-to-noise ratio. The refractive index information obtained from SPR sensing and the chemical properties obtained through hyperspectral fluorescence analysis confirm each other to exclude false-positive or false-negative cases. The sensor provides a comprehensive understanding of the biological events on the sensor chips.

  2. Simulation of Plasmonics Nanodevices with Coupled Maxwell and Schrödinger Equations using the FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell and Schrödinger equations are coupled to incorporate quantum effects for the simulation of plasmonics nanodevices. Maxwell equations with Lorentz-Drude (LD dispersive model are applied to large size plasmonics components, whereas coupled Maxwell and Schrödinger equations are applied to components where quantum effects are needed. The finite difference time domain method (FDTD is applied to simulate these coupled equations.

  3. Enhanced Luminescence Performance of Quantum Wells by Coupling Piezo-Phototronic with Plasmonic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Jiang, Chunyan; Du, Chunhua; Jing, Liang; Liu, Mengmeng; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-27

    With a promising prospect of light-emitting diodes as an attractive alternative to conventional light sources, remaining challenges still cannot be addressed owing to their limited efficiency. Among the continued scientific efforts, significant improvement on the emission efficiency has been achieved via either piezo-phototronic effect-based strain modulation or resonant excitation of plasmons in metallic nanostructures. Here, we present the investigation on the coupling process between piezo-phototronic effect and localized surface plasmonic resonance for enhancing the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells coated with Ag nanoparticles. The underlying physical mechanism of experimental results originates from tuning plasmonic resonance controlled by the shift of emission wavelength via piezo-phototronic effect, and it is further confirmed with the support of theoretical calculations. As a result, our research provides an approach to the integration of plasmonics with piezo-phototronic effect and brings widespread applications to high-efficiency artificial lighting, on-chip integrated plasmonic circuits, subwavelength optical communication, and micro-optoelectronic mechanical systems.

  4. Molecular plasmonics: The role of rovibrational molecular states in exciton-plasmon materials under strong-coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2017-03-01

    We extend the model of exciton-plasmon materials to include a rovibrational structure of molecules using wave-packet propagations on electronic potential energy surfaces. Our model replaces conventional two-level emitters with more complex molecules, allowing us to examine the influence of alignment and vibrational dynamics on strong coupling with surface plasmon-polaritons. We apply the model to a hybrid system comprising a thin layer of molecules placed on top of a periodic array of slits. Rigorous simulations are performed for two types of molecular systems described by vibrational bound-bound and bound-continuum electronic transitions. Calculations reveal new features in transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra, including the observation of significantly higher values of the Rabi splitting and vibrational patterns clearly seen in the corresponding spectra. We also examine the influence of anisotropic initial conditions on optical properties of hybrid materials, demonstrating that the optical response of the system is significantly affected by an initial prealignment of the molecules. Our work demonstrates that prealigned molecules could serve as an efficient probe for the subdiffraction characterization of the near-field near metal interfaces.

  5. Imaging slit-coupled surface plasmon polaritons using conventional optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehfuz, R; Chowdhury, F A; Chau, K J

    2012-05-07

    We develop a technique that now enables surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) coupled by nano-patterned slits in a metal film to be detected using conventional optical microscopy with standard objective lenses. The crux of this method is an ultra-thin polymer layer on the metal surface, whose thickness can be varied over a nanoscale range to enable controllable tuning of the SPP momentum. At an optimal layer thickness for which the SPP momentum matches the momentum of light emerging from the slit, the SPP coupling efficiency is enhanced about six times relative to that without the layer. The enhanced efficiency results in distinctive and bright plasmonic signatures near the slit visible by naked eye under an optical microscope. We demonstrate how this capability can be used for parallel measurement through a simple experiment in which the SPP propagation distance is extracted from a single microscope image of an illuminated array of nano-patterned slits on a metal surface. We also use optical microscopy to image the focal region of a plasmonic lens and obtain results consistent with a previously-reported results using near-field optical microscopy. Measurement of SPPs near a nano-slit using conventional and widely-available optical microscopy is an important step towards making nano-plasmonic device technology highly accessible and easy-to-use.

  6. Luminescence of Quantum Dots by Coupling with Nonradiative Surface Plasmon Modes in a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.J.; van de Lagemaat, J.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic coupling between quantum dots (QDs) and surface plasmons (SPs) is investigated by a luminescence spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We show that tunneling luminescence from the dot is excited by coupling with the nonradiative plasmon mode oscillating at the metallic tunneling gap formed during the STM operation. This approach to the SP excitation reveals aspects of the SP-QD coupling not accessible to the more conventional optical excitation of SPs. In the STM, luminescence from the dot is observed when and only when the SP is in resonance with the fundamental transition of the dot. The tunneling luminescence spectrum also suggests that excited SP-QD hybrid states can participate in the excitation of QD luminescence. Not only the SP excitation regulates the QD luminescence but the presence of the dot at the tunneling gap imposes restrictions to the SP that can be excited in the STM, in which the SP cannot exceed the energy of the fundamental transition of the dot. The superior SP-QD coupling observed in the STM is due to the tunneling gap acting as a tunable plasmonic resonator in which the dot is fully immersed.

  7. Anisotropic plasmon-coupling dimerization of a pair of spherical electron gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Balassis, Antonios; Huang, Danhong

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered a novel feature in the plasmon excitations for a pair of Coulomb-coupled non-concentric spherical two-dimensional electron gases (S2DEGs). Our results show that the plasmon excitations for such pairs depend on the orientation with respect to the external electromagnetic probe field. The origin of this anisotropy of the inter-sphere Coulomb interaction is due to the directional asymmetry of the electrostatic coupling of electrons in excited states which depend on both the angular momentum quantum number L and its projection M on the axis of quantization taken as the probe E-field direction. We demonstrate the anisotropic inter-sphere Coulomb coupling in space and present semi-analytic results in the random-phase approximation both perpendicular and parallel to the axis of quantization. For the incidence of light with a finite orbital or spin angular momentum, the magnetic field generated from an induced oscillating electric dipole on one sphere can couple to an induced magnetic dipole on another sphere in a way that is dependent on whether the direction is parallel or perpendicular to the probe E field. Such an effect from the plasmon spatial correlation is expected to be experimentally observable by employing circularly polarized light or a helical light beam for incidence. The S2DEG serves as a simple model for fullerenes as well as metallic dimers, when the energy bands are far apart. (paper)

  8. Water-Based Assembly and Purification of Plasmon-Coupled Gold Nanoparticle Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bidault

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple one-pot water-based scheme to produce gold nanoparticle groupings with short interparticle spacings. This approach combines a cross-linking molecule and a hydrophilic passivation layer to control the level of induced aggregation. Suspensions of dimers and trimers are readily obtained using a single electrophoretic purification step. The final interparticle spacings allow efficient coupling of the particle plasmon modes as verified in extinction spectroscopy.

  9. Extremely small polarization beam splitter based on a multimode interference coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wu, Hao; Shi, Yaocheng; Dai, Daoxin

    2014-01-15

    A novel polarization beam splitter (PBS) with an extremely small footprint is proposed based on a multimode interference (MMI) coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The MMI section, covered with a metal strip partially, is designed to achieve mirror imaging for TE polarization. On the other hand, for TM polarization, there is almost no MMI effect since the higher-order TM modes are hardly excited due to the hybrid plasmonic effect. With this design, the whole PBS including the 1.1 μm long MMI section as well as the output section has a footprint as small as ∼1.8 μm×2.5 μm. Besides, the fabrication process is simple since the waveguide dimension is relatively large (e.g., the input/output waveguides widths w ≥300 nm and the MMI width w(MMI)=800 nm). Numerical simulations show that the designed PBS has a broad band of ∼80 nm for an ER >10 dB as well as a large fabrication tolerance to allow a silicon core width variation of -30 nm<Δw<50 nm and a metal strip width variation of -200 nm<Δw(m)<0.

  10. Silver Nanoshell Plasmonically Controlled Emission of Semiconductor Quantum Dots in the Strong Coupling Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2016-04-26

    Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.

  11. Dynamical coupling of plasmons and molecular excitations by hybrid quantum/classical calculations: time-domain approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakko, Arto; Rossi, Tuomas P; Nieminen, Risto M

    2014-01-01

    The presence of plasmonic material influences the optical properties of nearby molecules in untrivial ways due to the dynamical plasmon-molecule coupling. We combine quantum and classical calculation schemes to study this phenomenon in a hybrid system that consists of a Na 2 molecule located in the gap between two Au/Ag nanoparticles. The molecule is treated quantum-mechanically with time-dependent density-functional theory, and the nanoparticles with quasistatic classical electrodynamics. The nanoparticle dimer has a plasmon resonance in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the Na 2 molecule has an electron-hole excitation in the same energy range. Due to the dynamical interaction of the two subsystems the plasmon and the molecular excitations couple, creating a hybridized molecular-plasmon excited state. This state has unique properties that yield e.g. enhanced photoabsorption compared to the freestanding Na 2 molecule. The computational approach used enables decoupling of the mutual plasmon-molecule interaction, and our analysis verifies that it is not legitimate to neglect the backcoupling effect when describing the dynamical interaction between plasmonic material and nearby molecules. Time-resolved analysis shows nearly instantaneous formation of the coupled state, and provides an intuitive picture of the underlying physics. (paper)

  12. LO-phonon and plasmon coupling in neutron-transmutation-doped GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, K.; Sakai, K.; Okada, M.

    1996-01-01

    Coupling between the longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon mode and the longitudinal plasma mode in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) semi-insulating GaAs was studied using Raman-scattering spectroscopy and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. When the electron concentration due to the activation of NTD impurities (Ge Ga and Se As ) approaches ∼8x10 16 cm -3 , the LO-phonon endash plasmon coupling is observed. This behavior is consistent with the free-electron absorption due to the activation of NTD impurities in samples annealed above 600 degree C. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Plasmonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and popularity of film-based SPR sensing. This review surveys the current plasmonic biosensor landscape with emphasis on the basic operating principles of each plasmonic sensing technique and the practical considerations when developing a sensing platform with the various techniques. The 'gold standard' film SPR technique is reviewed briefly, but special emphasis is devoted to the up-and-coming localized surface plasmon resonance and plasmonically coupled sensor technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Coupled plasmon-exciton induced transparency and slow light in plexcitonic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panahpour, Ali; Silani, Yaser; Farrokhian, Marzieh

    2012-01-01

    Classical analogues of the well-known effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in quantum optics have been the subject of considerable research in recent years from microwave to optical frequencies, because of their potential applications in slow light devices, studying nonlinear...... effects in low-loss nanostructures, and development of low-loss metamaterials. A large variety of plasmonic structures has been proposed for producing classical EIT-like effects in different spectral ranges. The current approach for producing plasmon-induced transparency is usually based on precise design...... effects in metamaterials composed of such coupled NPs. To reveal more details of the wave-particle and particle-particle interactions, the electric field distribution and field lines of Poynting vector inside and around the NPs are calculated using the finite element method. Finally, using extended...

  15. Coupled field induced conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiangqian, E-mail: xqjiang@hit.edu.cn; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-12-15

    We study the control of quantum interference in a four-level atom driven by three coherent fields forming a closed loop. The spontaneous emission spectrum shows two sets of peaks which are dramatically influenced by the fields. Due to destructive quantum interference, a dark line can be observed in the emission spectrum, and the condition of the dark line is given. We found that the conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference can be achieved through controlling the Rabi frequency of the external fields.

  16. Strong-coupling of WSe2 in ultra-compact plasmonic nanocavities at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Marie-Elena; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Alexeev, Evgeny M; Kos, Dean; Carnegie, Cloudy; Deacon, Will; de Pury, Alex Casalis; Große, Christoph; de Nijs, Bart; Mertens, Jan; Tartakovskii, Alexander I; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2017-11-03

    Strong coupling of monolayer metal dichalcogenide semiconductors with light offers encouraging prospects for realistic exciton devices at room temperature. However, the nature of this coupling depends extremely sensitively on the optical confinement and the orientation of electronic dipoles and fields. Here, we show how plasmon strong coupling can be achieved in compact, robust, and easily assembled gold nano-gap resonators at room temperature. We prove that strong-coupling is impossible with monolayers due to the large exciton coherence size, but resolve clear anti-crossings for greater than 7 layer devices with Rabi splittings exceeding 135 meV. We show that such structures improve on prospects for nonlinear exciton functionalities by at least 10 4 , while retaining quantum efficiencies above 50%, and demonstrate evidence for superlinear light emission.

  17. Unidirectional reflectionless phenomena in a non-Hermitian quantum system of quantum dots coupled to a plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Cong; Jin, Xing Ri; Zhang, Ying Qiao; Lee, YoungPak

    2018-02-19

    Unidirectional reflectionless phenomena are investigated theoretically in a non-Hermitian quantum system composed of several quantum dots and a plasmonic waveguide. By adjusting the phase shifts between quantum dots, single- and dual-band unidirectional reflectionlessnesses are realized at exceptional points based on two and three quantum dots coupled to a plasmonic waveguide, respectively. In addition, single- and dual-band unidirectional perfect absorptions with high quality factors are obtained at the vicinity of exceptional points.

  18. Observation of Fano-Type Interference in a Coupled Cavity-Atom System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yong; Tan Zheng; Wang Jin; Zhan Ming-Sheng; Zhu Yi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of the Fano-type interference in a coupled cavity-atom system by confining the laser-cooled "8"5Rb atoms in an optical cavity. The asymmetric Fano profile is obtained through quantum interference in a three-level atomic system coherently coupled to a single mode cavity field. The observed Fano profile can be explained by the interference between the intra-cavity dark state and the polariton state of the coupled cavity-atom system. The possible applications of our observations include all-optical switching, optical sensing and narrow band optical filters. (paper)

  19. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in the Strong Coupling Regime: Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng; Cadusch, Jasper; Chakraborty, Debadi; Smith, Trevor A; Roberts, Ann; Sader, John E; Davis, Timothy J; Gómez, Daniel E

    2016-04-13

    Reversible exchange of photons between a material and an optical cavity can lead to the formation of hybrid light-matter states where material properties such as the work function [ Hutchison et al. Adv. Mater. 2013 , 25 , 2481 - 2485 ], chemical reactivity [ Hutchison et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012 , 51 , 1592 - 1596 ], ultrafast energy relaxation [ Salomon et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2009 , 48 , 8748 - 8751 ; Gomez et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 4340 - 4346 ], and electrical conductivity [ Orgiu et al. Nat. Mater. 2015 , 14 , 1123 - 1129 ] of matter differ significantly to those of the same material in the absence of strong interactions with the electromagnetic fields. Here we show that strong light-matter coupling between confined photons on a semiconductor waveguide and localized plasmon resonances on metal nanowires modifies the efficiency of the photoinduced charge-transfer rate of plasmonic derived (hot) electrons into accepting states in the semiconductor material. Ultrafast spectroscopy measurements reveal a strong correlation between the amplitude of the transient signals, attributed to electrons residing in the semiconductor and the hybridization of waveguide and plasmon excitations.

  20. Spontaneous decay of a single quantum dot coupled to a metallic slot waveguide in the presence of leaky plasmonic modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2010-01-01

    in which the metallic slot waveguide is embedded. Compared to the ideal case of a homogenous dielectric environment, the coupling efficiency of an emitter to a metallic slot waveguide is significantly reduced. We attribute the reduction to the coupling to leaky plasmonic modes. By increasing the refractive...

  1. Optimization of top coupling grating for very long wavelength QWIP based on surface plasmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Shen, Junling; Liu, Xiaolian; Ni, Lu; Wang, Saili

    2017-09-01

    The relative coupling efficiency of two-dimensional (2D) grating based on surface plasmon for very long wavelength quantum well infrared detector is analyzed by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method algorithm. The relative coupling efficiency with respect to the grating parameters, such as grating pitch, duty ratio, and grating thickness, is analyzed. The calculated results show that the relative coupling efficiency would reach the largest value for the 14.5 μm incident infrared light when taking the grating pitch as 4.4 μm, the duty ratio as 0.325, and the grating thickness as 0.07 μm, respectively.

  2. Dynamically tunable slow light based on plasmon induced transparency in disk resonators coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xu; Wang, Tao; Liu, Bo; He, Yu; Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast and low-power dynamically tunable single channel and multichannel slow light based on plasmon induced transparencies (PITs) in disk resonators coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide system with a nonlinear optical Kerr medium is investigated both numerically and analytically. A coupled-mode theory (CMT) is introduced to analyze this dynamically tunable single channel slow light structure. Multichannel slow light is realized in this plasmonic waveguide structure based on a bright–dark mode coupling mechanism. In order to reduce the pump intensity and obtain ultrafast response time, the traditional nonlinear Kerr material is replaced by monolayer graphene. It is found that the magnitude of the single PIT window can be controlled between 0.08 and 0.48, while the corresponding group index is controlled between 14.5 and 2.0 by dynamically decreasing pump intensity from 11.7 to 4.4 MW cm −2 . Moreover, the phase shift multiplication effect is found in this structure. This work paves a new way towards the realization of highly integrated optical circuits and networks, especially for wavelength-selective, all-optical storage and nonlinear devices. (paper)

  3. Interference in the resonance fluorescence of two incoherently coupled transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, Martin; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescence light emitted by a four-level system in J=1/2 to J=1/2 configuration driven by a monochromatic laser field and in an external magnetic field is studied. We show that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence emitted on the π transitions shows a signature of spontaneously generated interference effects. The degree of interference in the fluorescence spectrum can be controlled by means of the external magnetic field, provided that the Lande g factors of the excited and the ground state doublet are different. For a suitably chosen magnetic field strength, the relative weight of the Rayleigh line can be completely suppressed, even for low intensities of the coherent driving field. The incoherent fluorescence spectrum emitted on the π transitions exhibits a very narrow peak whose width and weight depend on the magnetic field strength. We demonstrate that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence emitted on the σ transitions shows an indirect signature of interference. A measurement of the relative peak heights in the spectrum from the σ transitions allows us to determine the branching ratio of the spontaneous decay of each excited state into the σ channel

  4. Chiral Molecule-Enhanced Extinction Ratios of Quantum Dots Coupled to Random Plasmonic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Lior; Yochelis, Shira; Jayarathna, Dilhara; Bhunia, Dinesh; Achim, Catalina; Paltiel, Yossi

    2018-03-06

    Devices based on self-assembled hybrid colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) coupled with specific organic linker molecules are a promising way to simply realize room-temperature, spectrally tunable light detectors. Nevertheless, this type of devices usually has low quantum efficiency. Plasmonics has been shown as an efficient tool in guiding and confining light at nanoscale dimensions. As plasmonic modes exhibit highly confined fields, they locally increase light-matter interactions and consequently enhance the performance of CQD-based photodetectors. Recent publications presented experimental results of large extinction enhancement from a monolayer of CQDs coupled to random gold nanoislands using a monolayer of organic alkyl linkers. We report here that a twofold larger extinction enhancement in the visible spectrum is observed when a monolayer of helical chiral molecules connects the CQDs to the gold structure instead of a monolayer of achiral linkers. We also show that this effect provides insight into the chirality of the molecules within the monolayer. In future work, we plan to evaluate the potential of these results to be used in the construction of a more efficient and sensitive photon detector based on surface QDs, as well as to supply a simple way to map the chirality of a single chiral monolayer.

  5. Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, C; Bonnand, C; Plenet, J C; Brehier, A; Parashkov, R; Lauret, J S; Deleporte, E; Bellessa, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the particularities of the strong coupling regime occurring between surface plasmon (SP) modes and excitons. Two different active materials were deposited on a silver film: a cyanine dye J-aggregate, and a two-dimensional layered perovskite-type semiconductor. The dispersion relations, which are deduced from angular resolved reflectometry spectra, present an anticrossing characteristic of the strong coupling regime. The wavevector is a good parameter to determine the Rabi splitting. Due to the large interaction energies (several hundreds of milli-electron-volts), the calculations at constant angle can induce an overestimation of the Rabi splitting of more than a factor of two. Another property of polaritons based on SP is their nonradiative character. In order to observe the polaritonic emission, it is thus necessary to use particular extraction setups, such as gratings or prisms. Otherwise only the incoherent emission can be detected, very similar to the bare exciton emission

  6. Interference coupling analysis based on a hybrid method: application to a radio telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing-Lin; Qiu, Yang; Tian, Jin; Liu, Qi

    2018-02-01

    Working in a way that passively receives electromagnetic radiation from a celestial body, a radio telescope can be easily disturbed by external radio frequency interference as well as electromagnetic interference generated by electric and electronic components operating at the telescope site. A quantitative analysis of these interferences must be taken into account carefully for further electromagnetic protection of the radio telescope. In this paper, based on electromagnetic topology theory, a hybrid method that combines the Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT) equation and transfer function is proposed. In this method, the coupling path of the radio telescope is divided into strong coupling and weak coupling sub-paths, and the coupling intensity criterion is proposed by analyzing the conditions in which the BLT equation simplifies to a transfer function. According to the coupling intensity criterion, the topological model of a typical radio telescope system is established. The proposed method is used to solve the interference response of the radio telescope system by analyzing subsystems with different coupling modes separately and then integrating the responses of the subsystems as the response of the entire system. The validity of the proposed method is verified numerically. The results indicate that the proposed method, compared with the direct solving method, reduces the difficulty and improves the efficiency of interference prediction.

  7. Plasmon field enhancement oscillations induced by strain-mediated coupling between a quantum dot and mechanical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong

    2017-06-23

    We utilize the surface plasmon field of a metal nanoparticle (MNP) to show strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot-mechanical resonator hybrid system including a quantum dot (QD) embedded within a conical nanowire (NW) and a MNP in the presence of an external field. Based on the numerical solutions of the master equation, we find that a slow oscillation, originating from the strain-mediated coupling between the QD and the NW, appears in the time evolution of the plasmon field enhancement. The results show that the period (about [Formula: see text]) of the slow oscillation is equal to that of the mechanical resonator of NW, which suggests that the time-resolved measurement of the plasmon field enhancement can be easily achieved based on the current experimental conditions. Its amplitude increases with the increasing strain-mediated coupling strength, and under certain conditions there is a linear relationship between them. The slow oscillation of the plasmon field enhancement provides valuable tools for measurements of the mechanical frequency and the strain-mediated coupling strength.

  8. Side-coupled cavity model for surface plasmon-polariton transmission across a groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.S.Q.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the transmission properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) across a rectangular groove in a metallic film can be described by an analytical model that treats the groove as a side-coupled cavity to propagating SPPs on the metal surface. The coupling efficiency to the groove is quantified by treating it as a truncated metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulations and mode orthogonality relations are employed to derive the basic scattering coefficients that describe the interaction between the relevant modes in the system. The modeled SPP transmission and reflection intensities show excellent agreement with full-field simulations over a wide range of groove dimensions, validating this intuitive model. The model predicts the sharp transmission minima that occur whenever an incident SPP resonantly couples to the groove. We also for the first time show the importance of evanescent, reactive MDM SPP modes to the transmission behavior. SPPs that couple to this mode are resonantly enhanced upon reflection from the bottom of the groove, leading to high field intensities and sharp transmission minima across the groove. The resonant behavior exhibited by the grooves has a number of important device applications, including SPP mirrors, filters, and modulators.

  9. Efficiency droop suppression of distance-engineered surface plasmon-coupled photoluminescence in GaN-based quantum well LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ag coated microgroove with extreme large aspect-ratio of 500:1 was fabricated on p-GaN capping layer to investigate the coupling behavior between quantum wells and surface plasmon in highly spatial resolution. Significant photoluminescence enhancement was observed when the distance between Ag film and QWs was reduced from 220 nm to about 20 nm. A maximum enhancement ratio of 18-fold was achieved at the groove bottom where the surface plasmonic coupling was considered the strongest. Such enhancement ratio was found highly affected by the excitation power density. It also shows high correlation to the internal quantum efficiency as a function of coupling effect and a maximum Purcell Factor of 1.75 was estimated at maximum coupling effect, which matches number calculated independently from the time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. With such Purcell Factor, the efficiency was greatly enhanced and the droop was significantly suppressed.

  10. All-optical bistable logic control based on coupled Tamm plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Li; Jiang, Yao; Zhu, Ye Yu; Wang, Fen; Rao, Yun Jiang

    2013-10-15

    A method for realizing low-threshold all-optical bistable logic control is proposed based on Tamm plasmons (TPs), which are formed in an asymmetric dielectric Bragg reflector (DBR)-metal-DBR (ADMD) structure with a layer of Kerr medium embedded. The ADMD structure supports two TPs due to coupling of trapped modes at each metal-DBR interface, generating two dips in the structure's reflection spectrum. Thus, control (i.e., pump) and controlled (i.e., probe) light with wavelengths close to the two dips, respectively, can be imported. It is verified theoretically that, thanks to the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity related to excitation of high-quality TP, bistable switching at very low injection intensity can be initiated by strength or direction variation of the pump. Meanwhile, the probe changes correspondingly with the pump. Thus, all-optical bistable logic operation of the probe can be controlled by the pump.

  11. Computational and Mathematical Modeling of Coupled Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Susan Anne Elizabeth

    This research focuses on conducting an extensive computational investigation and mathematical analysis into the average voltage response of arrays of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). These arrays will serve as the basis for the development of a sensitive, low noise, significantly lower Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) antenna integrated with Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) using the SQUID technology. The goal for this antenna is to be capable of meeting all requirements for Guided Missile Destroyers (DDG) 1000 class ships for Information Operations/Signals Intelligence (IO/SIGINT) applications in Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (V/UHF) bands. The device will increase the listening capability of receivers by moving technology into a new regime of energy detection allowing wider band, smaller size, more sensitive, stealthier systems. The smaller size and greater sensitivity will allow for ships to be “de-cluttered” of their current large dishes and devices, replacing everything with fewer and smaller SQUID antenna devices. The fewer devices present on the deck of a ship, the more invisible the ship will be to enemy forces. We invent new arrays of SQUIDs, optimized for signal detection with very high dynamic range and excellent spur-free dynamic range, while maintaining extreme small size (and low radar cross section), wide bandwidth, and environmentally noise limited sensitivity, effectively shifting the bottle neck of receiver systems forever away from the antenna itself deeper into the receiver chain. To accomplish these goals we develop and validate mathematical models for different designs of SQUID arrays and use them to invent a new device and systems design. This design is capable of significantly exceeding, per size weight and power, state-of-the-art receiver system measures of performance, such as bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, and spurious-free dynamic range.

  12. Optical Properties of Complex Plasmonic Materials Studied with Extended Effective Medium Theories Combined with Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Nadal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we fabricate gold nanocomposites and model their optical properties. The nanocomposites are either homogeneous films or gratings containing gold nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix. The samples are fabricated using a recently developed technique making use of laser interferometry. The gratings present original plasmon-enhanced diffraction properties. In this work, we develop a new approach to model the optical properties of our composites. We combine the extended Maxwell–Garnett model of effective media with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA method and compute both the absorption spectra and the diffraction efficiency spectra of the gratings. We show that such a semi-analytical approach allows us to reproduce the original plasmonic features of the composites and can provide us with details about their inner structure. Such an approach, considering reasonably high particle concentrations, could be a simple and efficient tool to study complex micro-structured system based on plasmonic components, such as metamaterials.

  13. Cue-independent memory impairment by reactivation-coupled interference in human declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Cao, Zhijun; Chen, Biqing; Cai, Huaqian; Wu, Yanhong; Rao, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Memory is a dynamic process. While memory becomes increasingly resistant to interference after consolidation, a brief reactivation renders it unstable again. Previous studies have shown that interference, when applied upon reactivation, impairs the consolidated memory, presumably by disrupting the reconsolidation of the memory. However, attempts have failed in disrupting human declarative memory, raising a question about whether declarative memory becomes unstable upon reactivation. Here, we used a double-cue/one-target paradigm, which associated the same target with two different cues in initial memory formation. Only one cue/target association was later reactivated and treated with behavioral interference. Our results showed, for the first time, that reactivation-coupled interference caused cue-independent memory impairment that generalized to other cues associated with the memory. Critically, such memory impairment appeared immediately after interference, before the reconsolidation process was completed, suggesting that common manipulations of reactivation-coupled interference procedures might disrupt other processes in addition to the reconsolidation process in human declarative memory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Engineering Plasmonic Nanocrystal Coupling through Template-Assisted Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greybush, Nicholas J.

    The construction of materials from nanocrystal building blocks represents a powerful new paradigm for materials design. Just as nature's materials orchestrate intricate combinations of atoms from the library of the periodic table, nanocrystal "metamaterials" integrate individual nanocrystals into larger architectures with emergent collective properties. The individual nanocrystal "meta-atoms" that make up these materials are themselves each a nanoscale atomic system with tailorable size, shape, and elemental composition, enabling the creation of hierarchical materials with predesigned structure at multiple length scales. However, an improved fundamental understanding of the interactions among individual nanocrystals is needed in order to translate this structural control into enhanced functionality. The ability to form precise arrangements of nanocrystals and measure their collective properties is therefore essential for the continued development of nanocrystal metamaterials. In this dissertation, we utilize template-assisted self-assembly and spatially-resolved spectroscopy to form and characterize individual nanocrystal oligomers. At the intersection of "top-down" and "bottom-up" nanoscale patterning schemes, template-assisted self-assembly combines the design freedom of lithography with the chemical control of colloidal synthesis to achieve unique nanocrystal configurations. Here, we employ shape-selective templates to assemble new plasmonic structures, including heterodimers of Au nanorods and upconversion phosphors, a series of hexagonally-packed Au nanocrystal oligomers, and triangular formations of Au nanorods. Through experimental analysis and numerical simulation, we elucidate the means through which inter-nanocrystal coupling imparts collective optical properties to the plasmonic assemblies. Our self-assembly and measurement strategy offers a versatile platform for exploring optical interactions in a wide range of material systems and application areas.

  15. Managing multiple roles - Personality, stress, and work-family interference in dual-earner couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today many parents have multiple roles. This study examined how personality, domain-specific stress, and work-family interference are interrelated. Questionnaire data of 276 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings demonstrated that job

  16. Femtosecond pulse with THz repetition frequency based on the coupling between quantum emitters and a plasmonic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilei; Ding, Yinxing; Jiao, Rongzhen; Duan, Gaoyan; Yu, Li

    2018-03-01

    Nanoscale pulsed light is highly desirable in nano-integrated optics. In this paper, we obtained femtosecond pulses with THz repetition frequency via the coupling between quantum emitters (QEs) and plasmonic resonators. Our structure consists of a V -groove (VG) plasmonic resonator and a nanowire embedded with two-level QEs. The influences of the incident light intensity and QE number density on the transmission response for this hybrid system are investigated through semiclassical theory and simulation. The results show that the transmission response can be modulated to the pulse form. And the repetition frequency and extinction ratio of the pulses can be controlled by the incident light intensity and QE number density. The reason is that the coupling causes the output power of nanowire to behave as an oscillating form, the oscillating output power in turn causes the field amplitude in the resonator to oscillate over time. A feedback system is formed between the plasmonic resonator and the QEs in the nanowire. This provides a method for generating narrow pulsed lasers with ultrahigh repetition frequencies in plasmonic systems using a continuous wave input, which has potential applications in generating optical clock signals at the nanoscale.

  17. High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Han; Tu, Charng-Gan; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Su, Chia-Ying; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung

    2017-02-01

    Besides lighting, LEDs can be used for indoor data transmission. Therefore, a large modulation bandwidth becomes an important target in the development of visible LED. In this regard, enhancing the radiative recombination rate of carriers in the quantum wells of an LED is a useful method since the modulation bandwidth of an LED is related to the carrier decay rate besides the device RC time constant To increase the carrier decay rate in an LED without sacrificing its output power, the technique of surface plasmon (SP) coupling in an LED is useful. In this paper, the increases of modulation bandwidth by reducing mesa size, decreasing active layer thickness, and inducing SP coupling in blue- and green-emitting LEDs are illustrated. The results are demonstrated by comparing three different LED surface structures, including bare p-type surface, GaZnO current spreading layer, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for inducing SP coupling. In a single-quantum-well, blue-emitting LED with a circular mesa of 10 microns in radius, SP coupling results in a modulation bandwidth of 528.8 MHz, which is believed to be the record-high level. A smaller RC time constant can lead to a higher modulation bandwidth. However, when the RC time constant is smaller than 0.2 ns, its effect on modulation bandwidth saturates. The dependencies of modulation bandwidth on injected current density and carrier decay time confirm that the modulation bandwidth is essentially inversely proportional to a time constant, which is inversely proportional to the square-root of carrier decay rate and injected current density.

  18. On the importance of nonlocal effects on the description of emitter-plasmon coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures present several characteristics that make them ideal templates for the modification and control of the emission properties of quantum emitters such as organic molecules, fluorescent dyes and quantum dots. State-of-the-art plasmonic architectures strongly enhance and confine...... dimensions, allowing the design of ultranarrow plasmonic cavities and the precise positioning of emitters inside them. In these situations, however, a description beyond classical electrodynamics is rendered unavoidable, as nonclassical effects such as electron spill-out, tunnelling, and nonlocal screening...

  19. Tunable plasmon-induced absorption effects in a graphene-based waveguide coupled with graphene ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Nian; Xia, Sheng-Xuan; Fu, Guang-Lai; Liang, Mei-Zhen; Qin, Meng; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a structure composed of two graphene waveguides and dual coupled graphene ring resonators (GRRs) to achieve a plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) effect. A three-level plasmonic system and a temporal coupled mode theory (CMT) are utilized to verify the simulation results. Moreover, a double-window-PIA effect can be conveniently attained by introducing another GRR with proper parameters to meet more specific acquirement in optical modulation process. The pronounced PIA resonances can be tuned in a number of ways, such as by adjusting the coupling distance between the GRRs and the couplings between the GRR and the waveguide, and tuning the radius and the Fermi energy of the GRRs. Besides, the produced PIA effect shows a high group delay up to - 1 . 87 ps, exhibiting a particularly prominent fast-light feature. Our results have potential applications in the realization of THz-integrated spectral control and graphene plasmonic devices such as sensors, filters, ultra-fast optical switches and so on.

  20. Split resonance modes of a AuBRC plasmonic nanosystem caused by the coupling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yuan; Kan, Caixia; Xu, Haiying; Wang, Changshun

    2016-01-01

    A plasmonic nanosystem can give rise to particular optical responses due to a coupling effect. In this work, we investigate the optical properties and field distributions of a novel ‘matrioska’ nanocavity structure composed of a Au nanorod (AuNR) within a nanobox (AuNB) via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. This nanocavity can be fabricated by a two-step wet-chemical method. The multiple SPR modes of optical spectrum for nanocavity are caused by the strong interaction between the AuNR-core and AuNB-shell when the incident light is perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of the Au box/rod nanocavity (AuBRC). The SPR modes are known as the dipole–dipole bonding resonance mode in the lower-energy region and the antibonding resonance mode in the higher-energy region. It is proposed that AuBRC can escape the orientation confinement of AuNR because the multiple modes occur and provide a potential application for the enhancement of the photoluminescence signal. Additionally, the SPR modes red-shift with increasing the offset of the AuNR-core, whereas the SPR mode dramatically blue-shifts when the conductive coupling is formed. The intense ‘hot-spot’ could be induced within a small interaction region in the conductive coupled system. The SPR line-shape of high quality would also be promoted. The SPR is highly sensitive to the medium, which is promising in the sensing and detecting devices. (paper)

  1. Rotated grating coupled surface plasmon resonance on wavelength-scaled shallow rectangular gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, A.; Szekeres, G.; Balázs, J.; Somogyi, A.; Csete, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Theoretical investigation of rotated grating coupling phenomenon was performed on a multilayer comprising 416-nmperiodic shallow rectangular polymer grating on bimetal film made of gold and silver layers. During the multilayer illumination by 532 nm wavelength p-polarized light the polar and azimuthal angles were varied. In presence of 0-35 nm, 0-50 nm and 15-50 nm thick polymer-layers at the valleys and hills splitting was observed on the dual-angle dependent reflectance in two regions: (i) close to 0° azimuthal angle corresponding to incidence plane parallel to the periodic pattern (P-orientation); and (ii) around ~33.5°/29°/30° azimuthal angle (C-orientation), in agreement with our previous experimental studies. The near-field study revealed that in P-orientation the E-field is enhanced at the glass side with p/2 periodicity at the first minimum appearing at 49°/50°/52° polar angles, and comprises maxima below both the valleys and hills; while E-field enhancement is observable both at the glass and polymer side with p-periodicity at the second minimum developing at 55°/63/64° tilting, comprising maxima intermittently below the valleys or above the hills. In Corientation coupled plasmonic modes are observable, involving modes propagating along the valleys at the secondary maxima appearing at ~35°/32°/32° azimuthal and ~49°/51°/56° polar angles, while modes confined along the polymer hills are observable at the primary minima, which are coupled most strongly at the ~31.5°/25°/28° azimuthal and ~55°/63°/66° polar angles. The secondary peak observable in C-orientation is proposed for biosensing applications, since the supported modes are confined along the valleys, where biomolecules prefer to attach.

  2. Top-down fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures for deterministic coupling to single quantum emitters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaff, W.; Vos, A.; Hanson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanostructures can be used to harvest and guide the emission of single photon emitters on-chip via surface plasmon polaritons. In order to develop and characterize photonic devices based on emitter-plasmon hybrid structures, a deterministic and scalable fabrication method for such structures

  3. Mechanical control of the plasmon coupling with Au nanoparticle arrays fixed on the elastomeric film via chemical bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Elena; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Au nanoparticle arrays on the flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film. The nanoparticles were bound to the film via a covalent bond by a ligand exchange reaction. Thanks to the strong chemical bonding, highly stable and uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticle arrays were fixed on the PDMS film. The Au nanoparticle arrays were characterized by the UV-vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The UV-vis and SEM measurements showed the uniformity of the surface-dispersed Au nanoparticles, and SERS measurement confirmed the chemistry of the PDMS film. Reflecting the high stability and the uniformity of the Au nanoparticle arrays, the plasmon wavelength of the Au nanoparticles reversely changed with modulation of the interparticle distance, which was induced by the stretching of the PDMS film. The plasmon wavelength linearly decreased from 664 to 591 nm by stretching of 60%. The plasmon wavelength shift can be explained by the change in the strength of the plasmon coupling which is mechanically controlled by the mechanical strain.

  4. Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2015-02-14

    Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.

  5. Plasmon-Assisted Selective and Super-Resolving Excitation of Individual Quantum Emitters on a Metal Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2018-03-14

    Hybrid systems composed of multiple quantum emitters coupled with plasmonic waveguides are promising building blocks for future integrated quantum nanophotonic circuits. The techniques that can super-resolve and selectively excite contiguous quantum emitters in a diffraction-limited area are of great importance for studying the plasmon-mediated interaction between quantum emitters and manipulating the single plasmon generation and propagation in plasmonic circuits. Here we show that multiple quantum dots coupled with a silver nanowire can be controllably excited by tuning the interference field of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Because of the period of the interference pattern is much smaller than the diffraction limit, we demonstrate the selective excitation of two quantum dots separated by a distance as short as 100 nm. We also numerically demonstrate a new kind of super-resolution imaging method that combines the tunable surface plasmon interference pattern on the NW with the structured illumination microscopy technique. Our work provides a novel high-resolution optical excitation and imaging method for the coupled systems of multiple quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides, which adds a new tool for studying and manipulating single quantum emitters and single plasmons for quantum plasmonic circuitry applications.

  6. Selective enhancement of surface-state emission and simultaneous quenching of interband transition in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals using localized plasmon coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan [Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander [Physical Chemistry/Electrochemistry Group, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Bergstr. 66b, Dresden 01062 (Germany)], E-mail: volkan@bilkent.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    We propose and demonstrate the controlled modification and selective enhancement of surface-state emission in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals (NCs) by plasmon-coupling them with proximal metal nanostructures. By carefully designing nano-Ag films to match their localized plasmon resonance spectrally with the surface-state emission peak of CdS NCs, we experimentally show that the surface-state emission is substantially enhanced in the visible wavelength, while the interband (band-edge) transition at the shorter wavelength far away from the plasmon resonance is simultaneously significantly suppressed. With such plasmon tuning and consequent strong plasmon coupling specifically for the surface-state transitions, the surface-state emission is made stronger than the band-edge emission. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 12.7-fold in the ratio of the surface-state peak emission to the band-edge peak emission of the plasmon-coupled film sample compared with that in solution. Such a plasmonic engineering of surface-state emission in trap-rich CdS white nanoluminophors holds great promise for future solid-state lighting.

  7. Selective enhancement of surface-state emission and simultaneous quenching of interband transition in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals using localized plasmon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate the controlled modification and selective enhancement of surface-state emission in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals (NCs) by plasmon-coupling them with proximal metal nanostructures. By carefully designing nano-Ag films to match their localized plasmon resonance spectrally with the surface-state emission peak of CdS NCs, we experimentally show that the surface-state emission is substantially enhanced in the visible wavelength, while the interband (band-edge) transition at the shorter wavelength far away from the plasmon resonance is simultaneously significantly suppressed. With such plasmon tuning and consequent strong plasmon coupling specifically for the surface-state transitions, the surface-state emission is made stronger than the band-edge emission. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 12.7-fold in the ratio of the surface-state peak emission to the band-edge peak emission of the plasmon-coupled film sample compared with that in solution. Such a plasmonic engineering of surface-state emission in trap-rich CdS white nanoluminophors holds great promise for future solid-state lighting

  8. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  9. Grating-Coupled Surface Plasmon Resonance (GC-SPR) Optimization for Phase-Interrogation Biosensing in a Microfluidic Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Gazzola, Enrico; Capaldo, Pietro; Borile, Giulia; Romanato, Filippo

    2018-05-18

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors have the advantage of being label-free, enzyme-free and real-time. However, their spreading in multidisciplinary research is still mostly limited to prism-coupled devices. Plasmonic gratings, combined with a simple and cost-effective instrumentation, have been poorly developed compared to prism-coupled system mainly due to their lower sensitivity. Here we describe the optimization and signal enhancement of a sensing platform based on phase-interrogation method, which entails the exploitation of a nanostructured sensor. This technique is particularly suitable for integration of the plasmonic sensor in a lab-on-a-chip platform and can be used in a microfluidic chamber to ease the sensing procedures and limit the injected volume. The careful optimization of most suitable experimental parameters by numerical simulations leads to a 30⁻50% enhancement of SPR response, opening new possibilities for applications in the biomedical research field while maintaining the ease and versatility of the configuration.

  10. Slow light based on plasmon-induced transparency in dual-ring resonator-coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Shiping; Li, Hongjian; He, Zhihui; Li, Boxun; Yang, Hui; Cao, Guangtao

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical and numerical investigation of the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect in a dual-ring resonator-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide system. A transfer matrix method (TMM) is introduced to analyse the transmission and dispersion properties in the transparency window. A tunable PIT is realized in a constant separation design. The phase dispersion and slow-light effect are discussed in both the resonance and non-resonance conditions. Finally, a propagation constant based on the TMM is derived for the periodic system. It is found that the group index in the transparency window of the proposed structure can be easily tuned by the period p, which provides a new understanding, and a group index ∼51 is achieved. The quality factor of resonators can also be effective in adjusting the dispersion relation. These observations could be helpful to fundamental research and applications for integrated plasmonic devices. (paper)

  11. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale......, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons...... in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron...

  12. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus, E-mail: cropers@gwdg.de [4th Physical Institute - Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.

  13. The Physics and Applications of a 3D Plasmonic Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Brandon B.

    In this work, the dynamics of electromagnetic field interactions with free electrons in a 3D metallic nanostructure is evaluated theoretically. This dissertation starts by reviewing the relevant fundamentals of plasmonics and modern applications of plasmonic systems. Then, motivated by the need to have a simpler way of understanding the surface charge dynamics on complex plasmonic nanostructures, a new plasmon hybridization tree method is introduced. This method provides the plasmonicist with an intuitive way to determine the response of free electrons to incident light in complex nanostructures within the electrostatic regime. Next, a novel 3D plasmonic nanostructure utilizing reflective plasmonic coupling is designed to perform biosensing and plasmonic tweezing applications. By applying analytical and numerical methods, the effectiveness of this nanostructure at performing these applications is determined from the plasmonic response of the nanostructure to an excitation beam of coherent light. During this analysis, it was discovered that under certain conditions, this 3D nanostructure exhibits a plasmonic Fano resonance resulting from the interference of an in-plane dark mode and an out-of-plane bright mode. In evaluating this nanostructure for sensing changes in the local dielectric environment, a figure of merit of 68 is calculated, which is competitive with current localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensors. By evaluating the Maxwell stress tensor on a test particle in the vicinity of the nanostructure, it was found that under the right conditions, this plasmonic nanostructure design is capable of imparting forces greater than 10.5 nN on dielectric objects of nanoscale dimensions. The results obtained in these studies provides new routes to the design and engineering of 3D plasmonic nanostructures and Fano resonances in these systems. In addition, the nanostructure presented in this work and the design principles it utilizes have shown

  14. Flexible method based on four-beam interference lithography for fabrication of large areas of perfectly periodic plasmonic arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vala, Milan; Homola, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 15 (2014), s. 18778-18789 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Interference lithography * Polymer substrate * Four-beam interference Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.488, year: 2014

  15. Study of uranium matrix interference on ten analytes using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A. (A.Q. Khan Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan))

    1993-08-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of 12 elements in uranium hexafluoride feed for enrichment to reactor grade material (about 3%), vary from 1 to 100 ppm ([mu]g/g). Using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, 51 lines of tine of these elements (B, Cr, Mo, P, Sb, Si, Ta, Ti, V and W) has been studied with a uranium matrix to investigate the matrix interference on the basis of signal to background (SBR), and background to background ratios (BBR). Detection limits and limits of quantitative determination (LQDs) were calculated for these elements in a uranium matrix using SBR and relative standard deviation of the background signal (RSD[sub B]) approach. In almost all cases, the uranium matrix interference reduces the SBRs to the extent that direct trace analysis is impossible. A uranium sample having known concentrations of impurities (around LQDs) was directly analysed with results that showed reasonable accuracy and precision. (Author).

  16. Surface plasmon coupling dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures and radiative efficiency improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke; Chen, Yuntian

    2014-01-01

    for InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures. By using a thin SiN dielectric layer between Ag and GaN we manage to modify and improve surface plasmon coupling effects, and we attribute this to the improved scattering of the nanoparticles at the quantum-well emission wavelength. The results are interpreted using...... numerical simulations, where absorption and scattering cross-sections are studied for different sized particles on GaN and GaN/SiN substrates....

  17. Critical coupling of surface plasmons in graphene attenuated total reflection geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, Mauro, E-mail: cuevas@df.uba.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Facultad de Ingeniería y Tecnología Informática, Universidad de Belgrano, Villanueva 1324, C1426BMJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-12-09

    We study the optical response of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure in Otto configuration with graphene sheet, paying especial attention to the occurrence of total absorption. Our results show that due to excitation of surface plasmons on the graphene sheet, two different conditions of total absorption may occur. At these conditions, the energy loss of the surface plasmon by radiation is equal to its energy loss by absorption into the graphene sheet. We give necessary conditions on ATR parameters for the existence of total absorption. - Highlights: • Attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure with graphene sheet. • Surface plasmons and power matched condition. • Necessary conditions on ATR parameters for the existence of total absorption.

  18. Critical coupling of surface plasmons in graphene attenuated total reflection geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We study the optical response of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure in Otto configuration with graphene sheet, paying especial attention to the occurrence of total absorption. Our results show that due to excitation of surface plasmons on the graphene sheet, two different conditions of total absorption may occur. At these conditions, the energy loss of the surface plasmon by radiation is equal to its energy loss by absorption into the graphene sheet. We give necessary conditions on ATR parameters for the existence of total absorption. - Highlights: • Attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure with graphene sheet. • Surface plasmons and power matched condition. • Necessary conditions on ATR parameters for the existence of total absorption.

  19. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  20. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  1. Interference coupling mechanisms in Silicon Strip Detectors - CMS tracker "wings" A learned lesson for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Rivetta, C

    2009-01-01

    The identification of coupling mechanisms between noise sources and sensitive areas of the front-end electronics (FEE) in the previous CMS tracker sub-system is critical to optimize the design and integration of integrated circuits, sensors and power distribution circuitry for the proposed SLHC Silicon Strip Tracker systems. This paper presents a validated model of the noise sensitivity observed in the Silicon Strip Detector-FEE of the CMS tracker that allows quantifying both the impact of the noise coupling mechanisms and the system immunity against electromagnetic interferences. This model has been validated based on simulations using finite element models and immunity tests conducted on prototypes of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) and Outer Barrel (TOB) systems. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in the design of future detectors to increase the immunity against electromagnetic noise.

  2. Coulomb Drag as a Probe of Coupled Plasmon Modes in Parallel Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    parameters. The acoustic mode causes a sharp upturn in the scaled drag rate with increasing temperature at T≈0.2TF. Other experimental signatures of the plasmon-dominated drag rate are a d-3 dependence on the well separation d and a peak as a function of relative densities at matched Fermi velocities....

  3. Grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance gas sensing based on titania anatase nanoporous films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Enrico; Cittadini, Michela; Brigo, Laura; Brusatin, Giovanna; Guglielmi, Massimo; Romanato, Filippo; Martucci, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Nanoporous TiO2 anatase film has been investigated as sensitive layer in Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors for the detection of hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds, specifically methanol and isopropanol. The sensors consist of a TiO2 nanoporous matrix deposited above a metallic plasmonic grating, which can support propagating Surface Plasmon Polaritons. The spectral position of the plasmonic resonance dip in the reflectance spectra was monitored and correlated to the interaction with the target gases. Reversible blue-shifts of the resonance frequency, up to more than 2 THz, were recorded in response to the exposure to 10000 ppm of H2 in N2 at 300°C. This shift cannot be explained by the mere refractive index variation due to the target gas filling the pores, that is negligible. Reversible red-shifts were instead recorded in response to the exposure to 3000 ppm of methanol or isopropanol at room temperature, of magnitudes up to 14 THz and 9 THz, respectively. In contrast, if the only sensing mechanism was the mere pores filling, the shifts should have been larger during the isopropanol detection. We therefore suggest that other mechanisms intervene in the analyte/matrix interaction, capable to produce an injection of electrons into the sensitive matrix, which in turn induces a decrease of the refractive index.

  4. Grating-coupled surface plasmon enhanced short-circuit current in organic thin-film photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Akira; Aoki, Nobutaka; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced organic thin-film photovoltaic cells and their improved photocurrent properties. The cell consists of a grating substrate/silver/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS structure. Blu-ray disk recordable substrates are used as the diffraction grating substrates on which silver films are deposited by vacuum evaporation. P3HT:PCBM films are spin-coated on silver/grating substrates. Low conductivity PEDOT:PSS/PDADMAC layer-by-layer ultrathin films deposited on P3HT:PCBM films act as the hole transport layer, whereas high conductivity PEDOT:PSS films deposited by spin-coating act as the anode. SPR excitations are observed in the fabricated cells upon irradiation with white light. Up to a 2-fold increase in the short-circuit photocurrent is observed when the surface plasmon (SP) is excited on the silver gratings as compared to that without SP excitation. The finite-difference time-domain simulation indicates that the electric field in the P3HT:PCBM layer can be increased using the grating-coupled SP technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Manipulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional materials coupled to boron nitride heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinm@coe.neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.

  6. Three-mode coupling interference patterns in the dynamic structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sahul, R.; Stonaha, P. J.; Budai, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    A longstanding controversy for relaxor ferroelectrics has been the origin of the "waterfall" effect in the phonon dispersion curves, in which low-energy transverse phonons cascade into vertical columns. Originally interpreted as phonons interacting with polar nanoregions (PNRs), it was later explained as an interference effect of coupling damped optic and acoustic phonons. In light of a recently discovered PNR vibrational mode near the "waterfall" wave vector [M. E. Manley, J. W. Lynn, D. L. Abernathy, E. D. Specht, O. Delaire, A. R. Bishop, R. Sahul, and J. D. Budai, Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4683], we have reexamined this feature using neutron scattering on [100]-poled PMN-30%PT [0.6 Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3-0.3 PbTi O3] . We find that the PNR mode couples to both optic and acoustic phonons and that this results in complex patterns in the dynamic structure factor, including intensity pockets and peaks localized in momentum-energy space. These features are fully explained by extending the mode-coupling model to include three coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the transverse optic, acoustic, and PNR modes.

  7. Periodic Arrays of Film-Coupled Cubic Nanoantennas as Tunable Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Yannopapas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show theoretically that a two-dimensional periodic array of metallic nanocubes in close proximity to a metallic film acts as a metasurface with tunable absorbance. The presence of a metallic film underneath the array of plasmonic nanocubes leads to an impedance matched plasmonic metasurface enhancing up to 4 times the absorbance of incident radiation, in the spectral region below 500 nm. The absorbance spectrum is weakly dependent on the angle of incidence and state of polarization of incident light a functionality which can find application in thermo-photovoltaics. Our calculations are based on a hybrid layer-multiple-scattering (hLMS method based on a discrete-dipole approximation (DDA/T-matrix point matching method.

  8. Coupled two-quantum-transition probability for laser photons and microwave plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of a plasmon-state vector analogous to a photon-field oscillator allows within the rotating-wave approximation, transformation to a time-independent interaction Hamiltonian, so that Fermi's golden rule can be applied to the two-quantum transition. Although the existence of a vector potential is necessary for the oscillator state vectors, only the multipolar Hamiltonian need be used for the off-resonant frequencies

  9. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metal nanoparticle for fluorescence cell imaging. ► Non-invasive emission detection of coenzyme in cell on time-resolved confocal microscope. ► Near-field interaction of flavin adenine dinucleotide with silver substrate. ► Isolation of emissions by coenzymes from cellular autofluorescence on fluorescence cell imaging. -- Abstract: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.

  10. Metal plasmon-coupled fluorescence imaging and label free coenzyme detection in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jian@cfs.bioment.umaryland.edu [Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Fu, Yi [Center for Fluorescence Spectroscopy, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Li, Ge [Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhao, Richard Y. [Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Microbiology-Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticle for fluorescence cell imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-invasive emission detection of coenzyme in cell on time-resolved confocal microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near-field interaction of flavin adenine dinucleotide with silver substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of emissions by coenzymes from cellular autofluorescence on fluorescence cell imaging. -- Abstract: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a key metabolite in cellular energy conversion. Flavin can also bind with some enzymes in the metabolic pathway and the binding sites may be changed due to the disease progression. Thus, there is interest on studying its expression level, distribution, and redox state within the cells. FAD is naturally fluorescent, but it has a modest extinction coefficient and quantum yield. Hence the intrinsic emission from FAD is generally too weak to be isolated distinctly from the cellular backgrounds in fluorescence cell imaging. In this article, the metal nanostructures on the glass coverslips were used as substrates to measure FAD in cells. Particulate silver films were fabricated with an optical resonance near the absorption and the emission wavelengths of FAD which can lead to efficient coupling interactions. As a result, the emission intensity and quantum yield by FAD were greatly increased and the lifetime was dramatically shortened resulting in less interference from the longer lived cellular background. This feature may overcome the technical limits that hinder the direct observation of intrinsically fluorescent coenzymes in the cells by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence cell imaging on the metallic particle substrates may provide a non-invasive strategy for collecting the information of coenzymes in cells.

  11. Effect of Surface Plasmon Coupling to Optical Cavity Modes on the Field Enhancement and Spectral Response of Dimer-Based sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-09-05

    We present a theoretical approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the near-field intensity at a plasmonic dimer gap (hot spot) through coupling the electric localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of a silver hemispherical dimer with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The strong coupling is demonstrated by the large anticrossing in the reflection spectra and a Rabi splitting of 76 meV. Up to 2-fold enhancement increase can be achieved compared to that without using the cavity. Such high field enhancement has potential applications in optics, including sensors and high resolution imaging devices. In addition, the resonance splitting allows for greater flexibility in using the same array at different wavelengths. We then further propose a practical design to realize such a device and include dimers of different shapes and materials.

  12. Dynamics of coupled plasmon polariton wave packets excited at a subwavelength slit in optically thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Lingxiao; Seideman, Tamar; Petek, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We study by numerical simulations the excitation and propagation dynamics of coupled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave packets (WPs) in optically thin Ag films and a bulk Ag/vacuum interface under the illumination of a subwavelength slit by 400 nm continuous wave (cw) and femtosecond pulsed light. The generated surface fields include contributions from both SPPs and quasicylindrical waves, which dominate in different regimes. We explore aspects of the coupled SPP modes in Ag thin films, including symmetry, propagation, attenuation, and the variation of coupling with incident angle and film thickness. Simulations of the electromagnetic transients initiated with femtosecond pulses reveal new features of coupled SPP WP generation and propagation in thin Ag films. Our results show that, under pulsed excitation, the SPP modes in an Ag thin film break up into two distinct bound surface wave packets characterized by marked differences in symmetries, group velocities, attenuation lengths, and dispersion properties. The nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scale excitation and propagation dynamics of the coupled SPP WPs are revealed in detail by movies recording the evolution of their transient field distributions.

  13. Role of inter-tube coupling and quantum interference on electrical transport in carbon nanotube junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Srijeet; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti

    2016-09-01

    Due to excellent transport properties, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show a lot of promise in sensor and interconnect technology. However, recent studies indicate that the conductance in CNT/CNT junctions are strongly affected by the morphology and orientation between the tubes. For proper utilization of such junctions in the development of CNT based technology, it is essential to study the electronic properties of such junctions. This work presents a theoretical study of the electrical transport properties of metallic Carbon nanotube homo-junctions. The study focuses on discerning the role of inter-tube interactions, quantum interference and scattering on the transport properties on junctions between identical tubes. The electronic structure and transport calculations are conducted with an Extended Hückel Theory-Non Equilibrium Green's Function based model. The calculations indicate conductance to be varying with a changing crossing angle, with maximum conductance corresponding to lattice registry, i.e. parallel configuration between the two tubes. Further calculations for such parallel configurations indicate onset of short and long range oscillations in conductance with respect to changing overlap length. These oscillations are attributed to inter-tube coupling effects owing to changing π orbital overlap, carrier scattering and quantum interference of the incident, transmitted and reflected waves at the inter-tube junction.

  14. Constructive interference between disordered couplings enhances multiparty entanglement in quantum Heisenberg spin glass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Utkarsh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Disordered systems form one of the centrestages of research in many body sciences and lead to a plethora of interesting phenomena and applications. A paradigmatic disordered system consists of a one-dimensional array of quantum spin-1/2 particles, governed by the Heisenberg spin glass Hamiltonian with natural or engineered quenched disordered couplings in an external magnetic field. These systems allow disorder-induced enhancement for bipartite and multipartite observables. Here we show that simultaneous application of independent quenched disorders results in disorder-induced enhancement, while the same is absent with individual application of the same disorders. We term the phenomenon as constructive interference and the corresponding parameter stretches as the Venus regions. Interestingly, it has only been observed for multiparty entanglement and is absent for the single- and two-party physical quantities. (paper)

  15. Multiqubit quantum phase gate using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices coupled to superconducting resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Shahid, E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize three-qubit quantum phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling two target qubits using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. The two lowest levels Divides 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket of each SQUID are used to represent logical states while the higher energy levels Divides 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 3 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are utilized for gate realization. Our scheme does not require adiabatic passage, second order detuning, and the adjustment of the level spacing during gate operation which reduce the gate time significantly. The scheme is generalized for an arbitrary n-qubit quantum phase gate. We also apply the scheme to implement three-qubit quantum Fourier transform.

  16. Localized surface plasmons modulated nonlinear optical processes in metal film-coupled and upconversion nanocrystals-coated nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dangyuan

    2016-09-01

    In the first part of this talk, I will show our experimental investigation on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal film-coupled nanosphere monomers and dimers both with nanometric gaps. We have developed a new methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and color decoding to "visualizing" unambiguously the spectral and radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in these hybrid nanostructures. Single-particle spectroscopic measurements indicate that these hybrid nanostructures can simultaneously enhance several nonlinear optical processes, such as second harmonic generation, two-photon absorption induced luminescence, and hyper-Raman scattering. In the second part, I will show how the polarization state of the emissions from sub-10 nm upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) can be modulated when they form a hybrid complex with a gold nanorod (GNR). Our single-particle scattering experiments expose how an interplay between excitation polarization and GNR orientation gives rise to an extraordinary polarized nature of the upconversion emissions from an individual hybrid nanostructure. We support our results by numerical simulations and, using Förster resonance energy transfer theory, we uncover how an overlap between the UCNC emission and GNR extinction bands as well as the mutual orientation between emission and plasmonic dipoles jointly determine the polarization state of the UC emissions.

  17. Electro-optic polymeric reflection modulator based on plasmonic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A.; Swillam, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel low power design for polymeric Electro-Optic reflection modulator is proposed based on the Extraordinary Reflection of light from multilayer structure consisting of a plasmonic metasurface with a periodic structure of sub wavelength circular apertures in a gold film above a thin layer of EO polymer and above another thin gold layer. The interference of the different reflected beams from different layer construct the modulated beam, The applied input driving voltage change the polymer refractive index which in turn determine whether the interference is constructive or destructive, so both phase and intensity modulation could be achieved. The resonant wavelength is tuned to the standard telecommunication wavelength 1.55μm, at this wavelength the reflection is minimum, while the absorption is maximum due to plasmonic resonance (PR) and the coupling between the incident light and the plasmonic metasurface.

  18. Plasmon-exciton-polariton lasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, M.; Halpin, A.; Fernández-Dominguez, A.I.; Feist, J.; Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Gómez-Rivas, J.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Strong coupling of Frenkel excitons with surface plasmons leads to the formation of bosonic quasi-particles known as plasmon-exciton-polaritons (PEPs).Localized surface plasmons in nanoparticles are lossy due to radiative and nonradiative decays, which has hampered the realization of polariton

  19. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Lung Cancer Biomarker Using Nanoporous Biosensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Coupled with Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a nanobiosensor to evaluate a lung cancer-specific biomarker. The nanobiosensor is based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO chip and functions on the principles of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR and interferometry. The pore-depth of the fabricated nanoporous AAO chip was 1 µm and was obtained using a two-step electrochemical anodization process. The sensor chip is sensitive to the refractive index (RI changes of the surrounding medium and also provides simple and label-free detection when specific antibodies are immobilized on the gold-deposited surface of the AAO chip. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, the antibodies were immobilized on the surface of the AAO chip, and the lung cancer-specific biomarker was applied atop of the immobilized-antibody layer using the self-assembled monolayer method. The nanoporous AAO chip was used as a sensor system to detect serum amyloid A1, which is a lung cancer-specific biomarker. The specific reaction of the antigen-antibody contributes to the change in the RI. This in turn causes a shift in the resonance spectrum in the refractive interference pattern. The limit of detection (LOD was found to be 100 ag/mL and the biosensor had high sensitivity over a wide concentration range.

  20. A highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons excitation achieved with a metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.

  1. Efficient coupling of a single diamond color center to propagating plasmonic gap modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2013-01-01

    We report on coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a nanodiamond to the propagating gap mode of two parallel placed chemically grown silver nanowires. The coupled NV-center nanowire system is made by manipulating nanodiamonds and nanowires with the tip of an atomic force microscope...

  2. Plasmonic interferometers: From physics to biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xie

    Optical interferometry has a long history and wide range of applications. In recent years, plasmonic interferometer arouses great interest due to its compact size and enhanced light-matter interaction. They have demonstrated attractive applications in biomolecule sensing, optical modulation/switching, and material characterization, etc. In this work, we first propose a practical far-field method to extract the intrinsic phase dispersion, revealing important phase information during interactions among free-space light, nanostructure, and SPs. The proposed approach is confirmed by both simulation and experiment. Then we design novel plasmonic interferometer structure for sensitive optical sensing applications. To overcome two major limitations suffered by previously reported double-slit plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (PMZI), two new schemes are proposed and investigated. (1) A PMZI based on end-fire coupling improves the SP coupling efficiency and enhance the interference contrast more than 50 times. (2) In another design, a multi-layered metal-insulator-metal PMZI releases the requirement for single-slit illumination, which enables sensitive, high-throughput sensing applications based on intensity modulation. We develop a sensitive, low-cost and high-throughput biosensing platform based on intensity modulation using ring-hole plasmonic interferometers. This biosensor is then integrated with cell-phone-based microscope, which is promising to develop a portable sensor for point-of-care diagnostics, epidemic disease control and food safety monitoring.

  3. Matrix interference evaluation employing GC and LC coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uclés, S; Lozano, A; Sosa, A; Parrilla Vázquez, P; Valverde, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2017-11-01

    Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry are currently the most powerful tools employed for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in food control laboratories. However, whatever the multiresidue extraction method, there will be a residual matrix effect making it difficult to identify/quantify some specific compounds in certain cases. Two main effects stand out: (i) co-elution with isobaric matrix interferents, which can be a major drawback for unequivocal identification, and therefore false negative detections, and (ii) signal suppression/enhancement, commonly called the "matrix effect", which may cause serious problems including inaccurate quantitation, low analyte detectability and increased method uncertainty. The aim of this analytical study is to provide a framework for evaluating the maximum expected errors associated with the matrix effects. The worst-case study contrived to give an estimation of the extreme errors caused by matrix effects when extraction/determination protocols are applied in routine multiresidue analysis. Twenty-five different blank matrices extracted with the four most common extraction methods used in routine analysis (citrate QuEChERS with/without PSA clean-up, ethyl acetate and the Dutch mini-Luke "NL" methods) were evaluated by both GC-QqQ-MS/MS and LC-QqQ-MS/MS. The results showed that the presence of matrix compounds with isobaric transitions to target pesticides was higher in GC than under LC in the experimental conditions tested. In a second study, the number of "potential" false negatives was evaluated. For that, ten matrices with higher percentages of natural interfering components were checked. Additionally, the results showed that for more than 90% of the cases, pesticide quantification was not affected by matrix-matched standard calibration when an interferent was kept constant along the calibration curve. The error in quantification depended on the concentration level. In a

  4. Plasmonic properties of gold-coated nanoporous anodic alumina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gold-coated NAA is strongly quenched due to the strong plasmonic coupling. Keywords. Plasmon ... When coated by a thin film of gold, these templates can support surface plasmon resonance. ... 2.2 Equipment for characterization. Surface ...

  5. Graphene plasmonics: physics and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shenyang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmon in graphene possesses many unique properties. It originates from the collective motion of massless Dirac fermions, and the carrier density dependence is distinctively different from conventional plasmons. In addition, graphene plasmon is highly tunable and shows strong energy confinement capability. Most intriguingly, as an atom-thin layer, graphene and its plasmon are very sensitive to the immediate environment. Graphene plasmons strongly couple to polar phonons of the substrate, molecular vibrations of the adsorbates, and lattice vibrations of other atomically thin layers. In this review, we present the most important advances in graphene plasmonics field. The topics include terahertz plasmons, mid-infrared plasmons, plasmon-phonon interactions, and potential applications. Graphene plasmonics opens an avenue for reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces; it is an exciting and promising new subject in the nanophotonics and plasmonics research field.

  6. Flexible Ag-C60 nano-biosensors based on surface plasmon coupled emission for clinical and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Yadavilli, Sairam; Mulpur, Praharsha; Kondiparthi, Neeharika; Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Rao, Apparao M; Podila, Ramakrishna; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2015-10-14

    The relatively low sensitivity of fluorescence detection schemes, which are mainly limited by the isotropic nature of fluorophore emission, can be overcome by utilizing surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). In this study, we demonstrate directional emission from fluorophores on flexible Ag-C60 SPCE sensor platforms for point-of-care sensing, in healthcare and forensic sensing scenarios, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than traditional fluorescence sensing schemes. Adopting the highly sensitive Ag-C60 SPCE platform based on glass and novel low-cost flexible substrates, we report the unambiguous detection of acid-fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria at densities as low as 20 Mtb mm(-2); from non-acid-fast bacteria (e.g., E. coli and S. aureus), and the specific on-site detection of acid-fast sperm cells in human semen samples. In combination with the directional emission and high-sensitivity of SPCE platforms, we also demonstrate the utility of smartphones that can replace expensive and cumbersome detectors to enable rapid hand-held detection of analytes in resource-limited settings; a much needed critical advance to biosensors, for developing countries.

  7. Luminescence lifetime enhanced by exciton-plasmon couple in hybrid CsPbBr3 perovskite/Pt nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxu; Zhang, Jisen; Chen, Yongyi; Jing, Pengtao; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Lijun

    2018-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved spectroscopic studies on plasmonically coupled semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs) have demonstrated the PL quenched and lifetime enhanced of SNPs in the presence of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The hybrid colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite SNPs/Pt MNPs (S-M) structures exhibit novel optical properties due to the synergetic interaction between the individual components. In hybrid S-M nanostructures colloidal chemistry incorporates SNP and MNP into a single unit resulting in the formation of plexciton (or excimon) which has now been established in a series of hybrid structures. The experimental results of femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy based on the time-resolved pump-probe confirm the transformation from excitons to plexcitons. It was found that the experimental data can’t be well described by the theory based on conventional Fӧster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The differences between theory and experiment may be due to the missing some PbBr2 PL peaks, the reason will be revealed further.

  8. Studies on the spectral interference of gadolinium on different analytes in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Thulasidas, S.K.; Natarajan, V.; Airan, Yougant

    2015-01-01

    Due to the multi-electronic nature, rare earth elements are prone to exhibit spectral interference in ICP-AES, which leads to erroneous determination of analytes in presence of such matrix. This interference is very significant, when the analytes are to be determined at trace level in presence of emission rich matrix elements. An attempt was made to understand the spectral interference of Gd on 29 common analytes like Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Fe, Ga, Gd, In, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sr, Tl and Zn using ICP-AES with capacitive Charged Coupled Device (CCD) as detector. The present study includes identification of suitable interference free analytical lines of these analytes, evaluation of correction factor for each analytical line and determination of tolerance levels of these analytical lines along with the ICP-AES based methodology for simultaneous determination of Gd. Based on the spectral interference study, an ICP-AES based method was developed for the determination of these analytes at trace level in presence of Gd matrix without chemical separation. Further the developed methodology was validated using synthetic samples prepared from commercially available reference material solution of individual element; the results were found to be satisfactory. The method was also compared with other existing techniques

  9. Dynamics of a quantum emitter resonantly coupled to both external field and localized surface plasmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerkararyan, Khachatur V.; Yezekyan, Torgom S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2018-01-01

    electromagnetic field. Considering the QDE-field interactions in the regime of strong QDE-field coupling, we show that the feedback provided by the MNP on the QDE (due to the LSP excitation with the field generated by the dipole moment of the QDE transition) influences significantly the coherent process of Rabi...

  10. Intraindividual Coupling of Daily Stressors and Cognitive Interference in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogle, Jacqueline; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The current study examined emotional and cognitive reactions to daily stress. We examined the psychometric properties of a short cognitive interference measure and how cognitive interference was associated with measures of daily stress and negative affect (NA) between persons and within persons over time. Methods. A sample of 87 older adults (Mage = 83, range = 70–97, 28% male) completed measures of daily stress, cognitive interference, and NA on 6 days within a 14-day period. Results. The measure yielded a single-factor solution with good reliability both between and within persons. At the between-person level, NA accounted for the effects of daily stress on individual differences in cognitive interference. At the within-person level, NA and daily stress were unique predictors of cognitive interference. Furthermore, the within-person effect of daily stress on cognitive interference decreased significantly with age. Discussion. These results support theoretical work regarding associations among stress, NA, and cognitive interference, both across persons and within persons over time. PMID:21743045

  11. Development of a Nano-Satellite Micro-Coupling Mechanism with Characterization of a Shape Memory Alloy Interference Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    for the softer martensitic phase was greater than that of the harder austenite phase [8]. When comparing NiTi to stainless steel 304 for resistance...interference joint, consisting of a detwinned martensitic NiTi SMA ring and stainless steel hub, could obtain sufficient axial coupling strength to...titanium (NiTi), shape memory alloy (SMA) cylindrical ring that is press-fit, in its detwinned martensitic phase, into a steel bushing, creating an

  12. Emotional Stroop interference for threatening words is related to reduced EEG δ-β coupling and low attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Arias-Garcia, Elsa; Pantazi, Ioanna; van Schie, Charlotte

    2012-05-01

    Previously, electroencephalographic (EEG) delta-beta coupling (positive correlation between power in the fast beta and slow delta frequency bands) has been related to affective processing. For instance, differences in delta-beta coupling have been observed between people in a psychological stress condition and controls. We previously reported relationships between attentional threat processing and delta-beta coupling and individual differences in attentional control. The present study extended and replicated these findings in a large mixed gender sample (N=80). Results demonstrated that emotional Stroop task interference for threatening words was related to self-reported attentional inhibition capacity and frontal delta-beta coupling. There was no clear gender difference for delta-beta coupling (only a non-significant trend) and the relationship between delta-beta coupling and attentional threat-processing was not affected by gender. These results replicate and extend an earlier finding concerning delta-beta coupling and cognitive affect regulation and further clarify relationships between delta-beta coupling, attentional control, and threat-processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. One-dimensional Tamm plasmons: Spatial confinement, propagation, and polarization properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnov, I. Yu.; Sedov, E. S.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Kucherik, A. O.; Arakelian, S. M.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Tamm plasmons are confined optical states at the interface of a metal and a dielectric Bragg mirror. Unlike conventional surface plasmons, Tamm plasmons may be directly excited by an external light source in both TE and TM polarizations. Here we consider the one-dimensional propagation of Tamm plasmons under long and narrow metallic stripes deposited on top of a semiconductor Bragg mirror. The spatial confinement of the field imposed by the stripe and its impact on the structure and energy of Tamm modes are investigated. We show that the Tamm modes are coupled to surface plasmons arising at the stripe edges. These plasmons form an interference pattern close to the bottom surface of the stripe that involves modification of both the energy and loss rate for the Tamm mode. This phenomenon is pronounced only in the case of TE polarization of the Tamm mode. These findings pave the way to application of laterally confined Tamm plasmons in optical integrated circuits as well as to engineering potential traps for both Tamm modes and hybrid modes of Tamm plasmons and exciton polaritons with meV depth.

  14. Electron mobility in monoclinic β-Ga2O3—Effect of plasmon-phonon coupling, anisotropy, and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2017-11-01

    This work reports an investigation of electron transport in monoclinic \\beta-Ga2O3 based on a combination of density functional perturbation theory based lattice dynamical computations, coupling calculation of lattice modes with collective plasmon oscillations and Boltzmann theory based transport calculations. The strong entanglement of the plasmon with the different longitudinal optical (LO) modes make the role LO-plasmon coupling crucial for transport. The electron density dependence of the electron mobility in \\beta-Ga2O3 is studied in bulk material form and also in the form of two-dimensional electron gas. Under high electron density a bulk mobility of 182 cm2/ V.s is predicted while in 2DEG form the corresponding mobility is about 418 cm2/V.s when remote impurities are present at the interface and improves further as the remote impurity center moves away from the interface. The trend of the electron mobility shows promise for realizing high electron mobility in dopant isolated electron channels. The experimentally observed small anisotropy in mobility is traced through a transient Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the anisotropy of the IR active phonon modes is responsible for giving rise to the anisotropy in low-field electron mobility.

  15. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Urbas, Augustine M; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters. (paper)

  16. Influence of plasmon coupling on the photoluminescence of ZnS/Ag nanoparticles obtained by laser irradiation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rafaela; Graff, Ismael L.; de Oliveira, Vinicius S.; Schreiner, Wido H.; Bezerra, Arandi G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the photoluminescence, optical absorption and structural properties of ZnS submitted to laser irradiation in water and isopropyl alcohol. Nanoparticles were produced by irradiating micro-sized ZnS particles dispersed in both liquids, with and without the addition of Ag nanoparticles, taking advantage of the laser-assisted fragmentation effect. When ZnS microparticles are irradiated either in pure water or isopropyl alcohol a considerable size reduction is achieved (from micra to few nanometers). The photoluminescence of these nanoparticles mainly occurs in the UV, centered at 350 nm, and with smaller intensity in the visible, centered at 600 nm. Irradiation of ZnS microparticles dispersed in colloidal silver triggers a reaction between both materials, modifying its optical absorption and photoluminescent properties. After irradiation of ZnS in alcohol containing Ag nanoparticles, a giant increase of the UV photoluminescence is observed. Interestingly, when the irradiation is performed in aqueous Ag nanoparticles colloids, the photoluminescence suffers a red-shift towards the violet-blue. The data show that core-shell (Ag-ZnO) nanostructures are formed after irradiation and the visible emission likely originates from the ZnO shell grown around silver nanoparticles. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in the liquid medium promotes a stronger absorption of the laser beam during irradiation due to the coupling with the surface plasmon resonance, fostering intense reactions among ZnS, Ag nanoparticles, and the liquid medium. Our study shows that with a simple change of the liquid medium wherein the irradiation is conducted the photoluminescence can be tuned from UV to visible and core-shell nanostructures can be obtained.

  17. Non-equilibrium study of spin wave interference in systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern

  18. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  19. Geometric phase in a split-beam experiment measured with coupled neutron interference loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.; Ioffe, A.

    1996-01-01

    A geometric phase factor is derived for a split-beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolutions. The geometric phase is given by one half of the solid angle independent of the spin of the beam. We observe this geometric phase with a two-loop neutron interferometer, where a reference beam can be added to the beam from one interference loop. All the experimental results show complete agreement with our theoretical treatment. (author)

  20. Electron energy transfer effect in Au NS/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx heterostructures via localized surface plasmon resonance coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunfeng; Zhai, Jizhi; Bi, Gang; Wu, Huizhen

    2016-09-15

    Localized surface plasmon resonance coupling effects (LSPR) have attracted much attention due to their interesting properties. This Letter demonstrates significant photoluminescence (PL) enhancement in the Au NS/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx heterostructures via the LSPR coupling. The observed PL emission enhancement is mainly attributed to the hot electron energy transfer effect related to the LSPR coupling. For the energy transfer effect, photo-generated electrons will be directly extracted into Au SPs, rather than relaxed into exciton states. This energy transfer process is much faster than the diffusion and relaxation time of free electrons, and may provide new ideas on the design of high-efficiency solar cells and ultrafast response photodetectors.

  1. Effect of capacitive feedback on the characteristics of direct current superconducting quantum interference device coupled to a multiturn input coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minotani, T.; Enpuku, K.; Kuroki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Distortion of voltage versus flux (V endash Φ) relation of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) coupled to a multiturn input coil is studied. First, resonant behavior of the coupled SQUID due to the so-called input coil resonance is clarified. It is shown that large rf noise flux is produced by the input coil resonance. This rf flux is added to the SQUID, and results in large rf voltage across the SQUID. In the case where parasitic capacitance exists between the input coil and the ground of the SQUID, this rf voltage produces the rf flux again, i.e., a feedback loop for the rf flux is formed. Taking into account this capacitive feedback, we study the V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. Numerical simulation shows that the V endash Φ relation is distorted considerably by the feedback mechanism. The simulation result explains well the experimental V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. The combination of the input coil resonance with the capacitive feedback is the most likely mechanism for the distorted V endash Φ curve of the coupled SQUID. The condition for occurrence of the distorted V endash Φ curve due to the capacitive feedback is also obtained, and methods to prevent degradation are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Flagging and correcting non-spectral matrix interferences with spatial emission profiles and gradient dilution in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Yan; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix interference remains one of the most daunting challenges commonly encountered in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the present study, a method is described that enables identification and correction of matrix interferences in axial-viewed ICP-AES through a combination of spatial mapping and on-line gradient dilution. Cross-sectional emission maps of the plasma are used to indicate the presence of non-spectral (plasma-related and sample-introduction-related) matrix interferences. In particular, apparent concentrations of an analyte species determined at various radial locations in the plasma differ in the presence of a matrix interference, which allows the interference to be flagged. To correct for the interference, progressive, on-line dilution of the sample, performed by a gradient high-performance liquid-chromatograph pump, is utilized. The spatially dependent intensities of analyte emission are monitored at different levels of sample dilution. As the dilution proceeds, the matrix-induced signal variation is reduced. At a dilution where the determined concentrations become independent of location in the plasma, the matrix interference is minimized. - Highlights: • Non-spectral matrix interference in ICP-AES is flagged and minimized. • Emission from different locations of the plasma are collected simultaneously. • Spatially dependent determined concentrations indicate the presence of interference. • Gradient dilution is performed on both calibration standards and sample. • Optimal dilution factor to minimize interference is found as dilution increases

  3. Flagging and correcting non-spectral matrix interferences with spatial emission profiles and gradient dilution in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yan; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M., E-mail: hieftje@indiana.edu

    2015-08-01

    Matrix interference remains one of the most daunting challenges commonly encountered in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the present study, a method is described that enables identification and correction of matrix interferences in axial-viewed ICP-AES through a combination of spatial mapping and on-line gradient dilution. Cross-sectional emission maps of the plasma are used to indicate the presence of non-spectral (plasma-related and sample-introduction-related) matrix interferences. In particular, apparent concentrations of an analyte species determined at various radial locations in the plasma differ in the presence of a matrix interference, which allows the interference to be flagged. To correct for the interference, progressive, on-line dilution of the sample, performed by a gradient high-performance liquid-chromatograph pump, is utilized. The spatially dependent intensities of analyte emission are monitored at different levels of sample dilution. As the dilution proceeds, the matrix-induced signal variation is reduced. At a dilution where the determined concentrations become independent of location in the plasma, the matrix interference is minimized. - Highlights: • Non-spectral matrix interference in ICP-AES is flagged and minimized. • Emission from different locations of the plasma are collected simultaneously. • Spatially dependent determined concentrations indicate the presence of interference. • Gradient dilution is performed on both calibration standards and sample. • Optimal dilution factor to minimize interference is found as dilution increases.

  4. Multiple transparency windows and Fano interferences induced by dipole-dipole couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, E. C.; Borges, H. S.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the optical properties of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to a one-dimensional array of N other TLSs with dipole-dipole coupling between the first neighbors. The first TLS is probed by a weak field, and we assume that it has a decay rate much greater than the decay rates of the other TLSs. For N =1 and in the limit of a Rabi frequency of a probe field much smaller than the dipole-dipole coupling, the optical response of the first TLS, i.e., its absorption and dispersion, is equivalent to that of a three-level atomic system in the configuration which allows one to observe the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon. Thus, here we investigate an induced transparency phenomenon where the dipole-dipole coupling plays the same role as the control field in EIT in three-level atoms. We describe this physical phenomenon, named a dipole-induced transparency (DIT), and investigate how it scales with the number of coupled TLSs. In particular, we have shown that the number of TLSs coupled to the main TLS is exactly equal to the number of transparency windows. The ideas presented here are very general and can be implemented in different physical systems, such as an array of superconducting qubits, or an array of quantum dots, spin chains, optical lattices, etc.

  5. Experimental demonstration of tunable directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons with a subwavelength metallic double slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metal film by a subwavelength double slit under backside illumination, based on the interference of SPPs generated by the two slits. By varying the incident angle, the SPPs can be tunably directed into two opposite propagating directions with a predetermined splitting ratio. Under certain incident angle, unidirectional SPP excitation can be achieved. This compact directional SPP coupler is potentially useful for many on-chip applications. As an example, we show the integration of the double-slit couplers with SPP Bragg mirrors, which can effectively realize selective coupling of SPPs into different ports in an integrated plasmonic chip.

  6. Terahertz plasmon-induced transparency based on asymmetric dual-disk resonators coupled to a semiconductor InSb waveguide and its biosensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahamat, Yadollah; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    An ultracompact double eight-shaped plasmonic structure for the realization of plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in the terahertz (THz) region has been studied. The device consists of a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor bus waveguide coupled to the dual-disk resonators. Indium antimonide is employed to excite SPP in the THz region. The transmission characteristics of the proposed device are simulated numerically by the finite-difference time-domain method. In addition, a theoretical analysis based on the coupled-mode theory for transmission features is presented and compared with the numerical results. Results are in good agreement. Also, the dependence of PIT frequency characteristics on the radius of the outer disk is discussed in detail. In addition, by removing one of the outer disk resonators, double-PIT peaks can be observed in the transmission spectrum, and the physical mechanism of the appeared peaks is investigated. Finally, an application of the proposed structure for distinguishing different states of DNA molecules is discussed. Results show that the maximum sensitivity with 654 GHz/RIU-1 could be obtained for a single PIT structure. The frequency shifts equal to 37 and 99 GHz could be observed for the denatured and the hybridized DNA states, respectively.

  7. Dependencies of surface plasmon coupling effects on the p-GaN thickness of a thin-p-type light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Ying; Lin, Chun-Han; Yao, Yu-Feng; Liu, Wei-Heng; Su, Ming-Yen; Chiang, Hsin-Chun; Tsai, Meng-Che; Tu, Charng-Gan; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, C C

    2017-09-04

    The high performance of a light-emitting diode (LED) with the total p-type thickness as small as 38 nm is demonstrated. By increasing the Mg doping concentration in the p-AlGaN electron blocking layer through an Mg pre-flow process, the hole injection efficiency can be significantly enhanced. Based on this technique, the high LED performance can be maintained when the p-type layer thickness is significantly reduced. Then, the surface plasmon coupling effects, including the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency, increase in output intensity, reduction of efficiency droop, and increase of modulation bandwidth, among the thin p-type LED samples of different p-type thicknesses that are compared. These advantageous effects are stronger as the p-type layer becomes thinner. However, the dependencies of these effects on p-type layer thickness are different. With a circular mesa size of 10 μm in radius, through surface plasmon coupling, we achieve the record-high modulation bandwidth of 625.6 MHz among c-plane GaN-based LEDs.

  8. High efficiency all-optical plasmonic diode based on a nonlinear side-coupled waveguide-cavity structure with broken symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong-Qin; Liu, Bin; Hu, Jin-Feng; He, Xing-Dao

    2018-05-01

    An all-optical plasmonic diode, comprising a metal-insulator-metal waveguide coupled with a stub cavity, is proposed based on a nonlinear Fano structure. The key technique used is to break structural spatial symmetry by a simple reflector layer in the waveguide. The spatial asymmetry of the structure gives rise to the nonreciprocity of coupling efficiencies between the Fano cavity and waveguides on both sides of the reflector layer, leading to a nonreciprocal nonlinear response. Transmission properties and dynamic responses are numerically simulated and investigated by the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain method. In the proposed structure, high-efficiency nonreciprocal transmission can be achieved with a low power threshold and an ultrafast response time (subpicosecond level). A high maximum transmittance of 89.3% and an ultra-high transmission contrast ratio of 99.6% can also be obtained. The device can be flexibly adjusted for working wavebands by altering the stub cavity length.

  9. Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled (-80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

  10. Chromatographic retention of molybdenum, titanium and uranium complexes for removal of some interferences in inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, S.-J.; Palmieri, M.D.; Fritz, J.S.; Houk, R.S.; Iowa State Univ., of Science and Technology, Ames

    1987-01-01

    Complexes of molybdenum(VI) or titanium(IV) with N-methylfurohydroxamic acid (N-MFHA) are retained on a column packed with polystyrene/divinylbenzene. At the pH values chosen, copper, zinc and cadmium are washed rapidly through the column and are detected by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry without interference from metal oxide ions of titanium or molybdenum. Detection limits are 1 to 2 μg l -1 , and analyte recoveries are essentially 100%. The resin capacity for the titanium and molybdenum complexes is sufficient for several hundred injections, and the complexes can be readily washed from the column. Uranium(VI) also forms a stable complex with N-MFHA, and ionization interference caused by excess of uranium can be avoided by chromatographic removal of the uranium complex. Various other potentially interfering elements with aqueous oxidation states of +4 or higher (e.g. Sn, W, Hf or Zr) could also be separated by this technique. 33 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Corrosion Behavior of X80 Steel with Coupled Coating Defects under Alternating Current Interference in Alkaline Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Li, Caiyu; Qian, Hongchang; Li, Jun; Huang, Liang; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-06-28

    The corrosion behavior of X80 steel in the presence of coupled coating defects was simulated and studied under the interference of alternating current (AC) in an alkaline environment. The results from electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode potential of the coating defect with the smaller exposed area was lower than that with the larger area, which indicated that the steel with the smaller coating defect was more prone to corrosion. The result of weight loss tests also showed that the smaller coating defect had induced a higher corrosion rate. However, the corrosion rate of X80 steel at the larger coating defect decreased gradually with the increase of the larger defect area at a constant smaller defect area. The corrosion morphology images showed that the coating defects with smaller areas suffered from more severe pitting corrosion.

  12. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Gu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Jun; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena

  13. Investigation of spectral interference effects on determination of uranium concentration in phosphate ore by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachari, Ayoob H.; Jalali, Fatemeh; Alahyarizadeh, Ghasem [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Engineering Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of spectral interferences on determination of the uranium concentration in phosphate ore were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Eleven high intensity emission lines including four lines recommended by ICP-OES apparatus were chosen to determine the uranium concentration. The ore samples were collected from phosphate acid producing industry in the south of Iran. Three different acid combinations [(HNO{sub 3}:HCl:HF-2:6:2), (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HF-3:3:3), (HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:HF-4:2:2)] used in microwave digestion method to explore the spectral interference effects in different solvent environments. The results showed that the trusty uranium concentration, obtained in the 367.007 nm, 386.592 nm, 389.036 nm and 409.014 nm by second acid digestion method which were 0.665 ppm, 0.972 ppm, 0.670 ppm and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Although the line of 409.014 nm was reported as the best line for determining of the uranium concentration in several literatures, the results showed that this line has a significant spectral interference with vanadium in some ores which should be considered in determining of the uranium concentration. Spectral interference effects of some elements which have high concentrations in the phosphate ore including Ca, Fe, Mg, Pb, V, Mn, and Ti on the line intensities were also investigated. Results indicated that the chosen elements affect emission intensities of all of 11 lines. They also indicated that the line of 409.014 nm provides a trusty precision in the determination of the uranium concentration in the ore sample with low vanadium concentration (at least, U/V ratio of 1:5). Results show that the line of 409.014 nm provides acceptable precision with some corrections in comparison with other selected lines. For instance in high concentrations of other elements including Fe and Ti in the ore samples, strong influences on the line intensities of the 367.007 nm (by Fe

  14. A study of the interference of cesium and phosphate in the low power inductively coupled radiofrequency argon plasma using spatially resolved emission and absorption measurements, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on interferences in the radio frequency inductively coupled atmospheric argon plasma (ICP) is reviewed. Even for the most extensively investigated interferences of aluminum, phosphate and alkali elements on calcium, the studies are mostly descriptive. Inter-pretation of these data is impeded by conflicting results, the absence of thermal equilibrium and the lack of radially resolved observations. The present study of a low-power ICP $ KW) utilizes the Abel inversion technique for emission and absorption measurements of atom and ion lines to clarify the mechanism of interferences on calcium and magnesium due to phosphate and cesium. Under conditions of large carrier gas flow (4.5 l/min) the pronounced interferences are the result of three combined effects: volatilization interference, a change in excitation temperature and a shift in the ionization equilibrium. At lower carrier gas flow (1.4 l/min) the interferences are markedly reduced but still due to the same three effects. The relative preponderance of a particular type of interference depends upon the height of observation and upon the particular combination of analyte and interferent considered

  15. Use of gradient dilution to flag and overcome matrix interferences in axial-viewing inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Yan; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the undisputed power of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), its users still face serious challenges in obtaining accurate analytical results. Matrix interference is perhaps the most important challenge. Dilution of a matrix-containing sample is a common practice to reduce matrix interference. However, determining the optimal dilution factor requires tedious and time-consuming offline sample preparation, since emission lines and the effect of matrix interferences are affected differently by the dilution. The current study exploits this difference by employing a high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump prior to the nebulizer to perform on-line mixing of a sample solution and diluent. Linear gradient dilution is performed on both the calibration standard and the matrix-containing sample. By ratioing the signals from two emission lines (from the same or different elements) as a function of dilution factor, the analyst can not only identify the presence of a matrix interference, but also determine the optimal dilution factor needed to overcome the interference. A ratio that does not change with dilution signals the absence of a matrix interference, whereas a changing ratio indicates the presence of an interference. The point on the dilution profile where the ratio stabilizes indicates the optimal dilution factor to correct the interference. The current study was performed on axial-viewing ICP-AES with o-xylene as the solvent

  16. Quantum Plasmonics: Quantum Information at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-06

    A schematic of the plasmonic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment conducted is shown in Figure 2, utilizing a plasmonic beam splitter designed for a 50-50...Bunching of photons at the output port of a 4-port beam splitter due to quantum interference. In order to reach the quantum regime, the coincidence...ports of a 4-port beam splitter , as shown in Figure 1. Quantum interference manifests itself via both photons detected in the same output port

  17. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  18. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  19. Terahertz plasmonic Bessel beamformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnai, Yasuaki; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Jahn, David; Koch, Martin; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate terahertz Bessel beamforming based on the concept of plasmonics. The proposed planar structure is made of concentric metallic grooves with a subwavelength spacing that couple to a point source to create tightly confined surface waves or spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Concentric scatterers periodically incorporated at a wavelength scale allow for launching the surface waves into free space to define a Bessel beam. The Bessel beam defined at 0.29 THz has been characterized through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This approach is capable of generating Bessel beams with planar structures as opposed to bulky axicon lenses and can be readily integrated with solid-state terahertz sources

  20. Enhancement of plasmon-induced charge separation efficiency by coupling silver nanocubes with a thin gold film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyoshi, Kazutaka; Saito, Koichiro; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2016-10-01

    Plasmon-induced charge separation (PICS), in which an energetic electron is injected from a plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) to a semiconductor on contact, is often inhibited by a protecting agent adsorbed on the NP. We addressed this issue for an Ag nanocube-TiO2 system by coating it with a thin Au layer or by inserting the Au layer between the nanocubes (NCs) and TiO2. Both of the electrodes exhibit much higher photocurrents due to PICS than the electrodes without the Au film or the Ag NCs. These photocurrent enhancements can be explained in terms of PICS with accelerated electron transfer, in which electron injection from the Ag NCs or Ag@Au core-shell NCs to TiO2 is promoted by the Au film, or PICS enhanced by a nanoantenna effect, in which the electron injection from the Au film to TiO2 is enhanced by optical near field generated by the Ag NC.

  1. Light-emitting waveguide-plasmon polaritions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Murai, S.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of light in an optical waveguide strongly coupled to a periodic array of metallic nanoantennas. This coupling gives rise to hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons (WPPs), which undergo a transmutation from plasmon to waveguide mode and vice versa as the eigenfrequency

  2. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  3. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  4. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  5. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  6. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  7. Gap and channeled plasmons in tapered grooves: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, C. L. C.; Stenger, Nicolas; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Tapered metallic grooves have been shown to support plasmons - electromagnetically coupled oscillations of free electrons at metal-dielectric interfaces - across a variety of configurations and V-like profiles. Such plasmons may be divided into two categories: gap-surface plasmons (GSPs) that are......Tapered metallic grooves have been shown to support plasmons - electromagnetically coupled oscillations of free electrons at metal-dielectric interfaces - across a variety of configurations and V-like profiles. Such plasmons may be divided into two categories: gap-surface plasmons (GSPs...... platform to explore the fundamental science of plasmon excitations and their interactions. In this Review, we provide a research status update of plasmons in tapered grooves, starting with a presentation of the theory and important features of GSPs and CPPs, and follow with an overview of the broad range...

  8. Non-spectral interferences due to the presence of sulfuric acid in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Poyo, M. Carmen; Grindlay, Guillermo; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain); Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de, E-mail: margaretha.deloos@ugent.be [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Analytical Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281 - S12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mora, Juan, E-mail: juan.mora@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Results of a systematic study concerning non-spectral interferences from sulfuric acid containing matrices on a large number of elements in inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are presented in this work. The signals obtained with sulfuric acid solutions of different concentrations (up to 5% w w{sup −1}) have been compared with the corresponding signals for a 1% w w{sup −1−} nitric acid solution at different experimental conditions (i.e., sample uptake rates, nebulizer gas flows and r.f. powers). The signals observed for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +} and {sup 75}As{sup +} were significantly higher when using sulfuric acid matrices (up to 2.2-fold for {sup 128}Te{sup +} and {sup 78}Se{sup +} and 1.8-fold for {sup 75}As{sup +} in the presence of 5 w w{sup -1} sulfuric acid) for the whole range of experimental conditions tested. This is in agreement with previously reported observations. The signal for {sup 31}P{sup +} is also higher (1.1-fold) in the presence of sulfuric acid. The signal enhancements for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +}, {sup 75}As{sup +} and {sup 31}P{sup +} are explained in relation to an increase in the analyte ion population as a result of charge transfer reactions involving S{sup +} species in the plasma. Theoretical data suggest that Os, Sb, Pt, Ir, Zn and Hg could also be involved in sulfur-based charge transfer reactions, but no experimental evidence has been found. The presence of sulfuric acid gives rise to lower ion signals (about 10–20% lower) for the other nuclides tested, thus indicating the negative matrix effect caused by changes in the amount of analyte loading of the plasma. The elemental composition of a certified low-density polyethylene sample (ERM-EC681K) was determined by ICP-MS after two different sample digestion procedures, one of them including sulfuric acid. Element concentrations were in agreement with the certified values, irrespective of the acids used for the digestion. These

  9. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  10. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R ... in the plasmon band. This is demonstrated by using the strong nucleophiles, cyanide and cysteamine, as ligands. The “dissolution paths” in terms of peak wavelength and amplitude shifts differ significantly between different types of analytes, which are suggested as a means to obtain selectivity of the detection...... that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free electron density...

  11. Plasmonic gold nanocrystals coupled with photonic crystal seamlessly on TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes for efficient visible light photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Zhang, Lianbin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Zhang, Hongnan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    A visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material is designed by rationally selecting Au nanocrystals and assembling them with the TiO2-based photonic crystal substrate. The selection of the Au nanocrystals is so

  12. A Variable Single Photon Plasmonic Beamsplitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander

    Plasmonic structures can both be exploited for scaling down optical components beyond the diffraction limit and enhancing andcollecting the emission from a single dipole emitter. Here, we experimentally demonstrate adiabatic coupling between two silvernanowires using a nitrogen vacancy center as ...

  13. Plasmon hybridization in complex metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng

    With Plasmon Hybridization (PH) and Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, we theoretically investigated the optical properties of some complex metallic nanostructures (coupled nanoparticle/wire, nanostars, nanorings and combined ring/disk nanocavity systems). We applied the analytical formulism of PH studying the plasmonic coupling of a spherical metallic nanoparticle and an infinite long cylindrical nanowire. The plasmon resonance of the coupled system is shown shifted in frequency, which highly depends on the polarization of incident light relative to the geometry of the structure. We also showed the nanoparticle serves as an efficient antenna coupling the electromagnetic radiation into the low-energy propagating wire plasmons. We performed an experimental and theoretical analysis of the optical properties of gold nanorings with different sizes and cross sections. For light polarized parallel to the ring, the optical spectrum sensitively depends on the incident angle. When light incidence is normal to the ring, two dipolar resonance is observed. As the incident light is titled, some previously dark mulipolar plasmon resonances will be excited as a consequence of the retardation. The concept of plasmon hybridization is combined with the power of brute-force numerical methods to understand the plasmonic properties of some very complicated nanostructures. We showed the plasmons of a gold nanostar are a result of hybridization of the plasmons of the core and the tips of the particle. The core serves as a nanoantenna, dramatically enhanced the optical spectrum and the field enhancement of the nanostar. We also applied this method analyzing the plasmonic modes of a nanocavity structure composed of a nanodisk with a surrounding minoring. For the concentric combination, we showed the nature of the plasmon modes can be understood as the plasmon hybrization of an individual ring and disk. The interation results in a blueshifted and broadened superradiant antibonding

  14. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  15. Galvanic Replacement Coupled to Seeded Growth as a Route for Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Plasmonic Nanorattles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Zanaga, Daniele; Altantzis, Thomas; Rodal-Cedeira, Sergio; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-09-14

    Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) requires mechanistic understanding toward the development of modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. We demonstrate here an unconventional shape transformation of Au@Ag core-shell NPs (nanorods and nanocubes) into octahedral nanorattles via room-temperature galvanic replacement coupled with seeded growth. The corresponding morphological and chemical transformations were investigated in three dimensions, using state-of-the-art X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) tomography. The addition of a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) plays a key role in this unconventional mechanistic path, in which galvanic replacement is found to dominate initially when the shell is made of Ag, while seeded growth suppresses transmetalation when a composition of Au:Ag (∼60:40) is reached in the shell, as revealed by quantitative XEDS tomography. This work not only opens new avenues toward the shape control of hollow NPs beyond the morphology of sacrificial templates, but also expands our understanding of chemical transformations in nanoscale galvanic replacement reactions. The XEDS electron tomography study presented here can be generally applied to investigate a wide range of nanoscale morphological and chemical transformations.

  16. Plasmonic Solar Cells: From Rational Design to Mechanism Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Seokhyoung; Quan, Li Na; Chung, Kyungwha; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-28

    Plasmonic effects have been proposed as a solution to overcome the limited light absorption in thin-film photovoltaic devices, and various types of plasmonic solar cells have been developed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art progress on the design and fabrication of plasmonic solar cells and their enhancement mechanism. The working principle is first addressed in terms of the combined effects of plasmon decay, scattering, near-field enhancement, and plasmonic energy transfer, including direct hot electron transfer and resonant energy transfer. Then, we summarize recent developments for various types of plasmonic solar cells based on silicon, dye-sensitized, organic photovoltaic, and other types of solar cells, including quantum dot and perovskite variants. We also address several issues regarding the limitations of plasmonic nanostructures, including their electrical, chemical, and physical stability, charge recombination, narrowband absorption, and high cost. Next, we propose a few potentially useful approaches that can improve the performance of plasmonic cells, such as the inclusion of graphene plasmonics, plasmon-upconversion coupling, and coupling between fluorescence resonance energy transfer and plasmon resonance energy transfer. This review is concluded with remarks on future prospects for plasmonic solar cell use.

  17. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Preservation of plasmonic interactions in DLC protected robust organic-plasmonic hybrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been previously shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating [1]. In this work, we investigate...... the influence of such protective layers on plasmonic interactions in organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. We consider systems, consisting of 1-Cyano-quaterphenylene nanofibers on top of gold nano-square plasmonic arrays [2], coated with protective layers of varying thickness. We investigate the spectral position...... response of organic nanofibers. Subsequently, we experimentally characterize the plasmonic coupling between organic nanofibers and underlying substrates by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our findings reveal that the optimal thickness for DLC coating, in terms of mechanical protection while...

  20. Interference between Coulombic and CT-mediated couplings in molecular aggregates: H- to J-aggregate transformation in perylene-based π-stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hestand, Nicholas J.; Spano, Frank C. [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The spectroscopic differences between J and H-aggregates are traditionally attributed to the spatial dependence of the Coulombic coupling, as originally proposed by Kasha. However, in tightly packed molecular aggregates wave functions on neighboring molecules overlap, leading to an additional charge transfer (CT) mediated exciton coupling with a vastly different spatial dependence. The latter is governed by the nodal patterns of the molecular LUMOs and HOMOs from which the electron (t{sub e}) and hole (t{sub h}) transfer integrals derive. The sign of the CT-mediated coupling depends on the sign of the product t{sub e}t{sub h} and is therefore highly sensitive to small (sub-Angstrom) transverse displacements or slips. Given that Coulombic and CT-mediated couplings exist simultaneously in tightly packed molecular systems, the interference between the two must be considered when defining J and H-aggregates. Generally, such π-stacked aggregates do not abide by the traditional classification scheme of Kasha: for example, even when the Coulomb coupling is strong the presence of a similarly strong but destructively interfering CT-mediated coupling results in “null-aggregates” which spectroscopically resemble uncoupled molecules. Based on a Frenkel/CT Holstein Hamiltonian that takes into account both sources of electronic coupling as well as intramolecular vibrations, vibronic spectral signatures are developed for integrated Frenkel/CT systems in both the perturbative and resonance regimes. In the perturbative regime, the sign of the lowest exciton band curvature, which rigorously defines J and H-aggregation, is directly tracked by the ratio of the first two vibronic peak intensities. Even in the resonance regime, the vibronic ratio remains a useful tool to evaluate the J or H nature of the system. The theory developed is applied to the reversible H to J-aggregate transformations recently observed in several perylene bisimide systems.

  1. Interference between Coulombic and CT-mediated couplings in molecular aggregates: H- to J-aggregate transformation in perylene-based π-stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestand, Nicholas J.; Spano, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic differences between J and H-aggregates are traditionally attributed to the spatial dependence of the Coulombic coupling, as originally proposed by Kasha. However, in tightly packed molecular aggregates wave functions on neighboring molecules overlap, leading to an additional charge transfer (CT) mediated exciton coupling with a vastly different spatial dependence. The latter is governed by the nodal patterns of the molecular LUMOs and HOMOs from which the electron (t e ) and hole (t h ) transfer integrals derive. The sign of the CT-mediated coupling depends on the sign of the product t e t h and is therefore highly sensitive to small (sub-Angstrom) transverse displacements or slips. Given that Coulombic and CT-mediated couplings exist simultaneously in tightly packed molecular systems, the interference between the two must be considered when defining J and H-aggregates. Generally, such π-stacked aggregates do not abide by the traditional classification scheme of Kasha: for example, even when the Coulomb coupling is strong the presence of a similarly strong but destructively interfering CT-mediated coupling results in “null-aggregates” which spectroscopically resemble uncoupled molecules. Based on a Frenkel/CT Holstein Hamiltonian that takes into account both sources of electronic coupling as well as intramolecular vibrations, vibronic spectral signatures are developed for integrated Frenkel/CT systems in both the perturbative and resonance regimes. In the perturbative regime, the sign of the lowest exciton band curvature, which rigorously defines J and H-aggregation, is directly tracked by the ratio of the first two vibronic peak intensities. Even in the resonance regime, the vibronic ratio remains a useful tool to evaluate the J or H nature of the system. The theory developed is applied to the reversible H to J-aggregate transformations recently observed in several perylene bisimide systems

  2. Excitations of surface plasmon polaritons by attenuated total reflection, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchesi, D.; Otto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many textbooks and review papers are devoted to plasmonics based on a selection of the numerous bibliography. But none describes the details of the first culmination of plasmonics in 1968, when surface plasmons become a field of optics. The coupling of light with the surface plasmon leads to the surface plasmon polariton (SPP). Therefore, the authors chose to associate historical insight (not avoiding a personal touch), a modern mathematical formulation of the excitation of the SPP by attenuated total reflection (ATR), considered as well understood since decades, and experimental applications since 1969, including recent developments.

  3. Electron beam imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoantenna resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoantennas are metal structures that provide strong optical coupling between a nanoscale volume and the far field. This coupling is mediated by surface plasmons, oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. Increasing the control over the resonant plasmonic field distribution opens up a wide

  4. Surface-Plasmon-Driven Hot Electron Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; He, Shuai; Guo, Wenxiao; Hu, Yue; Huang, Jiawei; Mulcahy, Justin R; Wei, Wei David

    2017-11-30

    Visible-light-driven photochemistry has continued to attract heightened interest due to its capacity to efficiently harvest solar energy and its potential to solve the global energy crisis. Plasmonic nanostructures boast broadly tunable optical properties coupled with catalytically active surfaces that offer a unique opportunity for solar photochemistry. Resonant optical excitation of surface plasmons produces energetic hot electrons that can be collected to facilitate chemical reactions. This review sums up recent theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding the underlying photophysical processes in hot electron generation and discusses various electron-transfer models on both plasmonic metal nanostructures and plasmonic metal/semiconductor heterostructures. Following that are highlights of recent examples of plasmon-driven hot electron photochemical reactions within the context of both cases. The review concludes with a discussion about the remaining challenges in the field and future opportunities for addressing the low reaction efficiencies in hot-electron-induced photochemistry.

  5. Plasmonic gold nanocrystals coupled with photonic crystal seamlessly on TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes for efficient visible light photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-09

    A visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material is designed by rationally selecting Au nanocrystals and assembling them with the TiO2-based photonic crystal substrate. The selection of the Au nanocrystals is so that their surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) wavelength matches the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal and thus that the SPR of the Au receives remarkable assistance from the photonic crystal substrate. The design of the composite material is expected to significantly increase the Au SPR intensity and consequently boost the hot electron injection from the Au nanocrystals into the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a considerably enhanced water splitting performance of the material under visible light. A proof-of-concept example is provided by assembling 20 nm Au nanocrystals, with a SPR peak at 556 nm, onto the photonic crystal which is seamlessly connected on TiO2 nanotube array. Under visible light illumination (>420 nm), the designed material produced a photocurrent density of ∼150 μA cm-2, which is the highest value ever reported in any plasmonic Au/TiO2 system under visible light irradiation due to the photonic crystal-assisted SPR. This work contributes to the rational design of the visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material based on wide band gap metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Influence of near-field coupling from Ag surface plasmons on InGaN/GaN quantum-well photoluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke; Chen, Yuntian

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the borderline between photoluminescence quenching and enhancement of InGaN/GaN quantum-wells due to Ag nanoparticles and their surface plasmon modes. By embedding Ag nanoparticles inside nanohole structures on the p-type layer GaN, luminescence quenching is observed...

  7. Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T; Mock, Jack J; Hucknall, Angus; Wolter, Scott D; Jokerst, Nan M; Smith, David R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2012-10-23

    We demonstrate a plasmon nanoruler using a coupled film nanoparticle (film-NP) format that is well-suited for investigating the sensitivity extremes of plasmonic coupling. Because it is relatively straightforward to functionalize bulk surface plasmon supporting films, such as gold, we are able to precisely control plasmonic gap dimensions by creating ultrathin molecular spacer layers on the gold films, on top of which we immobilize plasmon resonant nanoparticles (NPs). Each immobilized NP becomes coupled to the underlying film and functions as a plasmon nanoruler, exhibiting a distance-dependent resonance red shift in its peak plasmon wavelength as it approaches the film. Due to the uniformity of response from the film-NPs to separation distance, we are able to use extinction and scattering measurements from ensembles of film-NPs to characterize the coupling effect over a series of very short separation distances-ranging from 5 to 20 Å-and combine these measurements with similar data from larger separation distances extending out to 27 nm. We find that the film-NP plasmon nanoruler is extremely sensitive at very short film-NP separation distances, yielding spectral shifts as large as 5 nm for every 1 Å change in separation distance. The film-NP coupling at extremely small spacings is so uniform and reliable that we are able to usefully probe gap dimensions where the classical Drude model of the conducting electrons in the metals is no longer descriptive; for gap sizes smaller than a few nanometers, either quantum or semiclassical models of the carrier response must be employed to predict the observed wavelength shifts. We find that, despite the limitations, large field enhancements and extreme sensitivity persist down to even the smallest gap sizes.

  8. Molecular plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique ""molecular perspective"" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot field as well as for experienced researchers and practitioners. It begins by introducing readers to the optical effects that occur at the nanoscale and particularly their modification in the presence of biomolecules, followed by a concise yet thorough overview of the different methods for the actual fabrication of nanooptical materials. Further chapters address the relevant nanooptics, as well as

  9. Plasmonic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Mangelson, B. F.; Schatz, G. C.; and Mirkin, C. A. “ Silver -based Nanodisk Codes,” ACS Nano, 2010, 9, 5446-5452. 6. Zhang, J.; Langille, M. R...Wei, W. D.; Zhang, H.; Schatz, G.; Boey, F.; Mirkin, C. A. “Free Standing Bimetallic Nanorings and Nanoring Arrays Made by On-Wire Lithography (OWL...Mirkin, C. A.; Marks, L. D.; Van Duyne, R. P. “Correlating the Structure and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Single Silver Right Bipyramids

  10. Local anesthetic inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor signaling by interference with Galpha(q) protein function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollmann, M. W.; Wieczorek, K. S.; Berger, A.; Durieux, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Although local anesthetics are considered primarily Na(+) channel blockers, previous studies suggest a common intracellular site of action on different G protein-coupled receptors. In the present study, we characterized this site for the LPA, m1 muscarinic, and trypsin receptor. Xenopus laevis

  11. Roadmap on plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Mark I.; Kneipp, Katrin; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Saha, Soham; Dutta, Aveek; Ndukaife, Justus; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Reddy, Harsha; Guler, Urcan; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Gholipour, Behrad; Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Soci, Cesare; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Savinov, Vassili; Singh, Ranjan; Groß, Petra; Lienau, Christoph; Vadai, Michal; Solomon, Michelle L.; Barton, David R., III; Lawrence, Mark; Dionne, Jennifer A.; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Esteban, Ruben; Aizpurua, Javier; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Sui; Wang, Danqing; Wang, Weijia; Odom, Teri W.; Accanto, Nicolò; de Roque, Pablo M.; Hancu, Ion M.; Piatkowski, Lukasz; van Hulst, Niek F.; Kling, Matthias F.

    2018-04-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly developing field at the boundary of physical optics and condensed matter physics. It studies phenomena induced by and associated with surface plasmons—elementary polar excitations bound to surfaces and interfaces of good nanostructured metals. This Roadmap is written collectively by prominent researchers in the field of plasmonics. It encompasses selected aspects of nanoplasmonics. Among them are fundamental aspects, such as quantum plasmonics based on the quantum-mechanical properties of both the underlying materials and the plasmons themselves (such as their quantum generator, spaser), plasmonics in novel materials, ultrafast (attosecond) nanoplasmonics, etc. Selected applications of nanoplasmonics are also reflected in this Roadmap, in particular, plasmonic waveguiding, practical applications of plasmonics enabled by novel materials, thermo-plasmonics, plasmonic-induced photochemistry and photo-catalysis. This Roadmap is a concise but authoritative overview of modern plasmonics. It will be of interest to a wide audience of both fundamental physicists and chemists, as well as applied scientists and engineers.

  12. Effect of the quasiparticle-pair interference current on thermal fluctuations in weakly coupled superconductors and on the operation of rf-biased SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    Careful studies of the effect of thermal fluctuations on the I-V characteristics of two different types of weakly coupled superconductors were made. Measurements on externally shunted, oxide-barrier tunnel junctions were found to be in complete quantitative agreement with a theory due to Ambegaokar and Halperin in the limit of β/sub c/ identical with 2eI/sub c/C/sigma 0 2 h much less than 1 where the theory is valid. Similar measurements in the region of β/sub c/ approximately equal to 1 were found to be in qualitative agreement with a theory due to Kurkijarvi and Ambegaokar. Assuming the Ambegaokar and Halperin theory is applicable, measurements on Notarys-Nercereau normal metal underlay weak links indicate the presence of a phase-dependent conductivity predicted by B. D. Josephson in 1962. The magnitude of this conductivity was found to be in agreement with that predicted by theory, however, the sign of the conductivity was found to be in disagreement. A study of the operating characteristics of rf-biased thin-film superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) has also been made and a set of performance parameters developed to optimize the behavior of these devices. The behavior of these SQUIDs has been compared with a theory due to Hansma in order to look for the effect of the phase-dependent quasiparticle-pair interference current. The me []surements were found to be qualitatively different than predicted by Hansma's theory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  13. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  14. Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajenius, M; Khosropanah, P; Hovenier, J N; Gao, J R; Klapwijk, T M; Barbieri, S; Dhillon, S; Filloux, P; Sirtori, C; Ritchie, D A; Beere, H E

    2008-02-15

    We characterize a heterodyne receiver based on a surface-plasmon waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.84 THz as a local oscillator, and an NbN hot electron bolometer as a mixer. We find that the envelope of the far-field pattern of the QCL is diffraction-limited and superimposed onto interference fringes, which are similar to those found in narrow double-metal waveguide QCLs. Compared to the latter, a more directional beam allows for better coupling of the radiation power to the mixer. We obtain a receiver noise temperature of 1050 K when the mixer is at 2 K, which, to our knowledge, is the highest sensitivity reported at frequencies beyond 2.5 THz.

  15. A separation method to overcome the interference of aluminium on zinc determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Djane S. de; Korn, Maria das Graças Andrade; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa; Carvalho, Marcelo Souza de

    2000-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.389–394 The use of polyurethane foam (PUF) to separate zinc from large amounts of aluminium and its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique (ICP-AES) in aluminium matrices is described. The proposed method is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc(II) cation as a thiocyanate complex. Parameters such as effect of pH on zinc sorption, zinc desorption from the foam and analytical features of the procedure w...

  16. Giant spin rotation under quasiparticle-photoelectron conversion: Joint effect of sublattice interference and spin-orbit coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Rashba, E I

    2009-01-01

    Spin- and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a basic experimental tool for unveiling spin polarization of electron eigenstates in crystals. We prove, by using spin-orbit coupled graphene as a model, that photoconversion of a quasiparticle inside a crystal into a photoelectron can...... be accompanied with a dramatic change in its spin polarization, up to a total spin flip. This phenomenon is typical of quasiparticles residing away from the Brillouin-zone center and described by higher rank spinors and results in exotic patterns in the angular distribution of photoelectrons....

  17. Plasmonic Transmission Gratings – Fabrication and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sierant, Aleksandra; Jany, Benedykt; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobrosława

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are collective electron oscillations, confined at metal-dielectric interfaces. Coupling incident photons to SPPs may lead to spectrally broad field enhancement and confinement below the diffraction limit [1]. This phenomenon facilitates various applications......, including highly sensitive refractive index sensing [2], and plasmonic dipole mirrors for cold atoms [3]. Key to a successful application is a strong photon-to-SPP coupling. To this end, prism-based coupling is classically used, but this method contradicts compact device applications. An alternative...... the proposed plasmonic transmission gratings via near-field optical scanning microscopy (NSOM) and goniometric far field measurements. We support the evidence of our analyses with numerical calculations, carried out via rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and finite-difference in time-domain (FDTD...

  18. Coupling of Er light emissions to plasmon modes on In{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Sn nanoparticle sheets in the near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Hiroaki, E-mail: hiroaki@ee.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tabata, Hitoshi [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, 1-3-7 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 1-3-7 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Badalawa, Wasanthamala; Nomura, Wataru; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 1-3-7 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hasebe, Takayuki [Central Customs Laboratory, Ministry of Finance, 5-3-6 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 270-0882 (Japan); Furuta, Shinya [Tomoe Works Co. Ltd., 1-3-6 Namiyoke, Minato-ku, Osaka 552-0001 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    Near-infrared Er photoluminescence (PL) is markedly modified using a plasmonic In{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Sn nanoparticle (NP) sheet. Modeling and optical measurements reveal the presence of different electric fields (E-field) in the NP sheet. The local E-field excited at the interface between the NP sheet and Er-emitting layer of ZnO contributes significantly towards the spectral modifications of Er PL due to matching with the photon energy of Er PL. We also determine the critical temperature for Er PL modifications, which is related to the energy transfer efficiency between Er transition dipoles in ZnO and the plasmon modes on the NP sheet.

  19. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Ni, Zhi-yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively. (paper)

  20. Broad self-trapped and slow light bands based on negative refraction and interference of magnetic coupled modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Tuan; Ni, Zhi-Yao; Zhu, Na; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-13

    We propose a new mechanism to achieve light localization and slow light. Through the study on the coupling of two magnetic surface modes, we find a special convex band that takes on a negative refraction effect. The negative refraction results in an energy flow concellation effect from two degenerated modes on the convex band. The energy flow concellation effect leads to forming of the self-trapped and slow light bands. In the self-trapped band light is localized around the source without reflection wall in the waveguide direction, whereas in the slow light band, light becomes the standing-waves and moving standing-waves at the center and the two sides of the waveguide, respectively.

  1. Reviews in plasmonics 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2010, the first volume of the new book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonic

  2. Method for generation of tunable far infrared radiation from two-dimensional plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Tunable far infrared radiation is produced from two-dimensional plasmons in a heterostructure, which provides large inversion-layer electron densities at the heterointerface, without the need for a metallic grating to couple out the radiation. Instead, a light interference pattern is produced on the planar surface of the heterostructure using two coherent laser beams of a wavelength selected to be strongly absorbed by the heterostructure in order to penetrate through the inversion layer. The wavelength of the far infrared radiation coupled out can then be readily tuned by varying the angle between the coherent beams, or varying the wavelength of the two interfering coherent beams, thus varying the periodicity of the photoconductivity grating to vary the wavelength of the far infrared radiation being coupled out.

  3. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C., E-mail: bonafos@cemes.fr; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Carles, R. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse, Cedex 04 (France); Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F. [CIMAP, CNRS/CEA/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen, Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-09-07

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiN{sub x} to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiN{sub x}/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiN{sub x} matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  4. Demonstration of a variable plasmonic beam splitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we excite surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a silver nano-wire by a single nitrogen-vacancy center located in a diamond nano-crystal. By using the tip of an atomic force microscope, a second nano-wire is brought into the evanescent field of the first wire such tha......In this contribution, we excite surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a silver nano-wire by a single nitrogen-vacancy center located in a diamond nano-crystal. By using the tip of an atomic force microscope, a second nano-wire is brought into the evanescent field of the first wire...... such that surface plasmons can evanescently couple. In our experiment, we are able to tune the coupling strength from one nano-wire to another by adjusting the gap with the aid of the atomic force microscope. Numerical calculations of the coupling strength are carried out, which support the values found...

  5. Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Prashant; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2009-07-01

    Surface plasmons are electromagnetic waves that can exist at metal interfaces because of coupling between light and free electrons. Restricted to travel along the interface, these waves can be channeled, concentrated, or otherwise manipulated by surface patterning. However, because surface roughness and other inhomogeneities have so far limited surface-plasmon propagation in real plasmonic devices, simple high-throughput methods are needed to fabricate high-quality patterned metals. We combined template stripping with precisely patterned silicon substrates to obtain ultrasmooth pure metal films with grooves, bumps, pyramids, ridges, and holes. Measured surface-plasmon-propagation lengths on the resulting surfaces approach theoretical values for perfectly flat films. With the use of our method, we demonstrated structures that exhibit Raman scattering enhancements above 107 for sensing applications and multilayer films for optical metamaterials.

  6. Understanding and controlling plasmon-induced convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxworthy, Brian J.; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Vanka, Surya P.; Toussaint, Kimani C.

    2014-01-01

    The heat generation and fluid convection induced by plasmonic nanostructures is attractive for optofluidic applications. However, previously published theoretical studies predict only nanometre per second fluid velocities that are inadequate for microscale mass transport. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that an array of plasmonic nanoantennas coupled to an optically absorptive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate can generate >micrometre per second fluid convection. Crucially, the ITO distributes thermal energy created by the nanoantennas generating an order of magnitude increase in convection velocities compared with nanoantennas on a SiO2 base layer. In addition, the plasmonic array alters absorption in the ITO, causing a deviation from Beer-Lambert absorption that results in an optimum ITO thickness for a given system. This work elucidates the role of convection in plasmonic optical trapping and particle assembly, and opens up new avenues for controlling fluid and mass transport on the micro- and nanoscale.

  7. Plasmonically amplified fluorescence bioassay with microarray format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.

  8. Design, fabrication and SNOM investigation of plasmonic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon-polaritons are a possible solution for on-chip transportation and manipulation of information. Although there are several possibilities for designing the plasmonic waveguides, the two major caveats for all of them are the coupling to/from external sources and the losses they exhib...

  9. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale, enabl...

  10. Recent Progress on Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optically generated collective electron density waves on metal–dielectric boundaries known as surface plasmons have been of great scientific interest since their discovery. Being electromagnetic waves on gold or silver nanoparticle’s surface, localised surface plasmons (LSP can strongly enhance the electromagnetic field. These strong electromagnetic fields near the metal surfaces have been used in various applications like surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES, plasmonic lithography, plasmonic trapping of particles, and plasmonic catalysis. Resonant coupling of LSPs to fluorophore can strongly enhance the emission intensity, the angular distribution, and the polarisation of the emitted radiation and even the speed of radiative decay, which is so-called plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF. As a result, more and more reports on surface-enhanced fluorescence have appeared, such as SPASER-s, plasmon assisted lasing, single molecule fluorescence measurements, surface plasmoncoupled emission (SPCE in biological sensing, optical orbit designs etc. In this review, we focus on recent advanced reports on plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF. First, the mechanism of PEF and early results of enhanced fluorescence observed by metal nanostructure will be introduced. Then, the enhanced substrates, including periodical and nonperiodical nanostructure, will be discussed and the most important factor of the spacer between molecule and surface and wavelength dependence on PEF is demonstrated. Finally, the recent progress of tipenhanced fluorescence and PEF from the rare-earth doped up-conversion (UC and down-conversion (DC nanoparticles (NPs are also commented upon. This review provides an introduction to fundamentals of PEF, illustrates the current progress in the design of metallic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence signal amplification that utilises propagating and localised surface plasmons.

  11. Ressonàncies en plasmons sobre grafè

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Iranzo, David

    2014-01-01

    Treball final de màster oficial fet en col·laboració amb Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) [ANGLÈS] Graphene is used as a novel, versatile plasmonic material. The most common way to implement resonant light-plasmon coupling is to etch graphene into periodic nanostructures, which is invasive. Here, we study a non-invasive way to engineer graphene plasmon resonances, based on periodic doping profiles. The plasmon r...

  12. Plasmonic leak-free focusing lens under radially polarized illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tan, Qiaofeng; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2010-01-01

    A plasmonic leak-free focusing lens with two asymmetric concentric ring slits under radially polarized illumination is proposed. Each ring slit in the plasmonic lens is designed to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with a relative initial phase controlled by the ring slit parameters. Through mutual interference of the SPPs with different phases excited by the two concentric ring slits at the output metal–dielectric interface, the field intensity towards the center of the focusing lens can be enhanced while that leaking to the counter-focus direction is effectively suppressed. The optimal parameters of the plasmonic leak-free lens are theoretically obtained by satisfying the above condition and its focusing performance is demonstrated by numerical simulation. Furthermore, a plasmonic leak-free lens with multiple double-slit groups is proposed and discussed, which exhibits a higher energy density at the focusing spot of the output interface

  13. On intrinsic and extrinsic origin of plasmon peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Shoichi; Kawai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The origin of the plasmon loss peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectra are discussed based on the (1) intrinsic, (2) extrinsic, (3) quantum interference between (1) and (2), and (4) mixture of (1) and (2). It was believed that the major part of plasmon was due to the extrinsic, the present analysis concludes the major part is intrinsic, depending the excitation energy. This analysis is based on the electron reflection spectra, but valid for X-ray photoelectron spectra. (author)

  14. Low-frequency plasmons in metallic carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Chuu, D.S.; Shung, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    A metallic carbon nanotube could exhibit a low-frequency plasmon, while a semiconducting carbon nanotube or a graphite layer could not. This plasmon is due to the free carriers in the linear subbands intersecting at the Fermi level. The low-frequency plasmon, which corresponds to the vanishing transferred angular momentum, belongs to an acoustic plasmon. For a smaller metallic nanotube, it could exist at larger transferred momenta, and its frequency is higher. Such a plasmon behaves as that in a one-dimensional electron gas (EGS). However, it is very different from the π plasmons in all carbon nanotubes. Intertube Coulomb interactions in a metallic multishell nanotube and a metallic nanotube bundle have been included. They have a strong effect on the low-frequency plasmon. The intertube coupling among coaxial nanotubes markedly modifies the acoustic plasmons in separate metallic nanotubes. When metallic carbon nanotubes are packed in the bundle form, the low-frequency plasmon would change into an optical plasmon, and behave like that in a three-dimensional EGS. Experimental measurements could be used to distinguish metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Fast optoelectric printing of plasmonic nanoparticles into tailored circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, José A.

    2017-04-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are able to control light at nanometre-scale by coupling electromagnetic fields to the oscillations of free electrons in metals. Deposition of such nanoparticles onto substrates with tailored patterns is essential, for example, in fabricating plasmonic structures for enhanced sensing. This work presents an innovative micro-patterning technique, based on optoelectic printing, for fast and straightforward fabrication of curve-shaped circuits of plasmonic nanoparticles deposited onto a transparent electrode often used in optoelectronics, liquid crystal displays, touch screens, etc. We experimentally demonstrate that this kind of plasmonic structure, printed by using silver nanoparticles of 40 nm, works as a plasmonic enhanced optical device allowing for polarized-color-tunable light scattering in the visible. These findings have potential applications in biosensing and fabrication of future optoelectronic devices combining the benefits of plasmonic sensing and the functionality of transparent electrodes.

  16. Comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of surface plasmon polariton modes at uniaxial liquid crystal-metal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yin-Ray; Lee, Tsun-Hsiun; Wu, Zheng-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hung, Yu-Ju

    2015-12-14

    This paper describes the derivation of surface plasmon polariton modes associated with the generalized three-dimensional rotation of liquid crystal molecules on a metal film. The calculated dispersion relation was verified by coupling laser light into surface plasmon polariton waves in a one-dimensional grating device. The grating-assisted plasmon coupling condition was consistent with the formulated k(spp) value. This provides a general rule for the design of liquid-crystal tunable plasmonic devices.

  17. Reviews in plasmonics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2016, the third volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  18. Reviews in plasmonics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2015, the second volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  19. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic...... colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances...... and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk–hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large...

  20. Plasmon-induced carrier polarization in semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Penghui; Tan, Yi; Fang, Hanbing; Hegde, Manu; Radovanovic, Pavle V.

    2018-06-01

    Spintronics1 and valleytronics2 are emerging quantum electronic technologies that rely on using electron spin and multiple extrema of the band structure (valleys), respectively, as additional degrees of freedom. There are also collective properties of electrons in semiconductor nanostructures that potentially could be exploited in multifunctional quantum devices. Specifically, plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals3-10 offer an opportunity for interface-free coupling between a plasmon and an exciton. However, plasmon-exciton coupling in single-phase semiconductor nanocrystals remains challenging because confined plasmon oscillations are generally not resonant with excitonic transitions. Here, we demonstrate a robust electron polarization in degenerately doped In2O3 nanocrystals, enabled by non-resonant coupling of cyclotron magnetoplasmonic modes11 with the exciton at the Fermi level. Using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that intrinsic plasmon-exciton coupling allows for the indirect excitation of the magnetoplasmonic modes, and subsequent Zeeman splitting of the excitonic states. Splitting of the band states and selective carrier polarization can be manipulated further by spin-orbit coupling. Our results effectively open up the field of plasmontronics, which involves the phenomena that arise from intrinsic plasmon-exciton and plasmon-spin interactions. Furthermore, the dynamic control of carrier polarization is readily achieved at room temperature, which allows us to harness the magnetoplasmonic mode as a new degree of freedom in practical photonic, optoelectronic and quantum-information processing devices.

  1. Active multiple plasmon-induced transparencies with detuned asymmetric multi-rectangle resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Jicheng; Lu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    The phenomenon of plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) is realized in surface plasmon polariton waveguide at the visible and near-infrared ranges. By adding one and two resonant cavities, the PIT peak(s) was (were) achieved due to destructive interference between the side-coupled rectangle cavity and the bus waveguide. The proposed structures were demonstrated by the finite element method. The simulation results showed that for three rectangle resonators system, not only can we manipulate each single PIT window, but also the double PIT windows simultaneously by adjusting one of the geometrical parameters of the system; for four rectangle resonators system, by changing the widths, the lengths and the refractive index of three cavities simultaneously, we would realize treble PIT peaks and induce an off-to-on PIT optical response. Our novel plasmonic structures and the findings pave the way for new design and engineering of highly integrated optical circuit such as nanoscale optical switching, nanosensor and wavelength-selecting nanostructure.

  2. Strain-driven alignment of In nanocrystals on InGaAs quantum dot arrays and coupled plasmon-quantum dot emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the alignment of In nanocrystals on top of linear InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays formed by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The alignment is independent of a thin GaAs cap layer on the QDs revealing its origin is due to local strain recognition. This enables nanometer-scale precise lateral and vertical site registration between the QDs and the In nanocrystals and arrays in a single self-organizing formation process. The plasmon resonance of the In nanocrystals overlaps with the high-energy side of the QD emission leading to clear modification of the QD emission spectrum.

  3. Semiconductor plasmonic crystals : active control of THz extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.C.; Gomez Rivas, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of semiconductor particles. Scattering particles of doped semiconductors can sustain localized surface plasmon polaritons, which can be diffractively coupled giving rise to surface lattice resonances. These resonances are

  4. Polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Yang, Quanlong; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Yuehong; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Yanfeng; Ouyang, Chunmei; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Free-space light can be coupled into propagating surface waves at a metal–dielectric interface, known as surface plasmons (SPs). This process has traditionally faced challenges in preserving the incident polarization information and controlling

  5. Plasmonic Landau damping in active environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Niket; Montoni, Nicholas P.; Cherqui, Charles; Masiello, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Optical manipulation of charge on the nanoscale is of fundamental importance to an array of proposed technologies from selective photocatalysis to nanophotonics. Open plasmonic systems where collective electron oscillations release energy and charge to their environments offer a potential means to this end as plasmons can rapidly decay into energetic electron-hole pairs; however, isolating this decay from other plasmon-environment interactions remains a challenge. Here we present an analytic theory of noble-metal nanoparticles that quantitatively models plasmon decay into electron-hole pairs, demonstrates that this decay depends significantly on the nanoparticle's dielectric environment, and disentangles this effect from competing decay pathways. Using our approach to incorporate embedding material and substrate effects on plasmon-electron interaction, we show that predictions from the model agree with four separate experiments. Finally, examination of coupled nanoparticle-emitter systems further shows that the hybridized in-phase mode more efficiently decays to photons whereas the out-of-phase mode more efficiently decays to electron-hole pairs, offering a strategy to tailor open plasmonic systems for charge manipulation.

  6. Switchable directional excitation surface plasmon polaritons with dielectric nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Komissarenko, F.; Bogdanov, A.

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic and elect......We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic...

  7. General mechanism involved in subwavelength optics of conducting microstructures: charge-oscillation-induced light emission and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Peng, Ru-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between light and conducting microstructures or nanostructures can result in a variety of novel phenomena, but their underlying mechanisms have not been completely understood. From calculations of surface charge density waves on conducting gratings and by comparing them with classical surface plasmons, we revealed a general yet concrete picture regarding the coupling of light to free electron oscillation on structured conducting surfaces that can lead to oscillating subwavelength charge patterns (i.e., structured surface plasmons). New wavelets emitted from these light sources then destructively interfere to form evanescent waves. This principle, usually combined with other mechanisms, is mainly a geometrical effect that can be universally involved in light scattering from all periodic and non-periodic structures containing free electrons. This picture may provide clear guidelines for developing conductor-based nano-optical devices.

  8. Novel plasmon nano-lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Marell, M.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We will discuss some of the latest developments in metallic and plasmonic nano-lasers. Furthermore we will present our latest results on further miniaturization of electrically pumped plasmonic nano-lasers and also DFB Plasmon mode devices.

  9. Quenching of the OH and nitrogen molecular emission by methane addition in an Ar capacitively coupled plasma to remove spectral interference in lead determination by atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentiu, T., E-mail: ftibi@chem.ubbcluj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ponta, M., E-mail: mponta@chem.ubbcluj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mihaltan, A.I., E-mail: alinblaj2005@yahoo.co [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Darvasi, E., E-mail: edarvasi@chem.ubbcluj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Frentiu, M., E-mail: frentiu.maria@yahoo.co [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cordos, E., E-mail: emilcordos@gmail.co [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2010-07-15

    A new method is proposed to remove the spectral interference on elements in atomic fluorescence spectrometry by quenching of the molecular emission of the OH radical (A{sup 2{Sigma}+} {yields} X{sup 2{Pi}}) and N{sub 2} second positive system (C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} {yields} B{sup 3{Sigma}}{sub g}) in the background spectrum of medium power Ar plasmas. The experiments were carried out in a radiofrequency capacitively coupled plasma (275 W, 27.12 MHz) by CH{sub 4} addition. The quenching is the result of the high affinity of OH radical for a hydrogen atom from the CH{sub 4} molecule and the collisions of the second kind between nitrogen excited molecules and CH{sub 4}, respectively. The decrease of the emission of N{sub 2} second positive system in the presence of CH{sub 4} is also the result of the deactivation of the metastable argon atoms that could excite the nitrogen molecules. For flow rates of 0.7 l min{sup -1} Ar with addition of 7.5 ml min{sup -1} CH{sub 4}, the molecular emission of OH and N{sub 2} was completely removed from the plasma jet spectrum at viewing heights above 60 mm. The molecular emission associated to CH and CH{sub 2} species was not observed in the emission spectrum of Ar/CH{sub 4} plasma in the ultraviolet range. The method was experimented for the determination of Pb at 283.31 nm by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with electrodeless discharge lamp and a multichannel microspectrometer. The detection limit was 35 ng ml{sup -1}, 2-3 times better than in atomic emission spectrometry using the same plasma source, and similar to that in hollow cathode lamp microwave plasma torch atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

  10. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a plasmonic system comprising of three metal-dielectric-metal parallel slabs: Plasmon- Plasmon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moradbeigi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT in a system consisting of associated arrays of parallel slabs (metal-dielectric-metal is studied. The transmission coefficient, the reflection coefficient and the absorption coefficient as function of the incident light frequency by using the transfer matrix method is calculated and numerically discussed. Influence of the thickness of slab and the type of plasmonic metal on the induced transparency has been investigated. It is shown with decreasing the thickness of intermediate slab of length  (dielectric slab, the induced transparency increases due to the strong plasmon–plasmon couplings.

  12. Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Shahab; Gungor, Kivanc; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2013-04-01

    We report plasmonically coupled light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers that exhibit sensitivity enhancement and spectral range extension with plasmonic nanostructures embedded in their photosensitive nanocrystal platforms. The deposited plasmonic silver nanoparticles of the device increase the optical absorption of a CdTe nanocrystal monolayer incorporated in the device. Controlled separation of these metallic nanoparticles in the vicinity of semiconductor nanocrystals enables optimization of the photovoltage buildup in the proposed nanostructure platform. The enhancement factor was found to depend on the excitation wavelength. We observed broadband sensitivity improvement (across 400-650 nm), with a 2.6-fold enhancement factor around the localized plasmon resonance peak. The simulation results were found to agree well with the experimental data. Such plasmonically enhanced nanocrystal skins hold great promise for large-area UV/visible sensing applications.

  13. Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Dušan; Auroux, Aline

    Basic principles of calorimetry coupled with other techniques are introduced. These methods are used in heterogeneous catalysis for characterization of acidic, basic and red-ox properties of solid catalysts. Estimation of these features is achieved by monitoring the interaction of various probe molecules with the surface of such materials. Overview of gas phase, as well as liquid phase techniques is given. Special attention is devoted to coupled calorimetry-volumetry method. Furthermore, the influence of different experimental parameters on the results of these techniques is discussed, since it is known that they can significantly influence the evaluation of catalytic properties of investigated materials.

  14. Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfeng; Zhou, Yihan; Lou, Yijie; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-05-01

    Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.

  15. Plasmonic computing of spatial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfeng; Zhou, Yihan; Lou, Yijie; Ye, Hui; Qiu, Min; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-05-19

    Optical analog computing offers high-throughput low-power-consumption operation for specialized computational tasks. Traditionally, optical analog computing in the spatial domain uses a bulky system of lenses and filters. Recent developments in metamaterials enable the miniaturization of such computing elements down to a subwavelength scale. However, the required metamaterial consists of a complex array of meta-atoms, and direct demonstration of image processing is challenging. Here, we show that the interference effects associated with surface plasmon excitations at a single metal-dielectric interface can perform spatial differentiation. And we experimentally demonstrate edge detection of an image without any Fourier lens. This work points to a simple yet powerful mechanism for optical analog computing at the nanoscale.

  16. Active control of an edge-mode-based plasmon-induced absorption sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Su, Yi; Lin, Qi; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) effect in a three-dimensional graphene waveguide structure. The PIA window is formed by near-field coupling of the graphene edge mode, the extremely destructive interference between the radiative mode and sub-radiative mode of graphene nanoribbons. The resonance intensity has a significant dependence on the coupling distance between the graphene nanoribbons. At the same time, it is particularly sensitive to the refractive index of the environment, which is promising for sensing devices. In addition, the resonant wavelength can be actively controlled by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. Moreover, it can be seen that the group time delay of the PIA window reaches -0.28   ps , which is a good candidate for ultrafast light application. Finally, additional graphene nanoribbons can also form a double-channel PIA window. Our work may provide an excellent platform for controlling the optical transmission of highly integrated plasmonic components.

  17. Switchable directional excitation surface plasmon polaritons with dielectric nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Komissarenko, F.; Bogdanov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic and elect...... and electric dipole moments supported by the dielectric nanoantenna....

  18. Plasmonic colorimetric sensors based on etching and growth of noble metal nanoparticles: Strategies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyang; Wang, Han; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Choo, Jaebum; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-08-30

    Plasmonic colorimetric sensors have emerged as a powerful tool in chemical and biological sensing applications due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction in the visible range. Among the plasmonic sensors, the most famous sensing mode is the "aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor which is based on plasmon coupling due to nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, this review focuses on the newly-developing plasmonic colorimetric sensing mode - the etching or the growth of metal nanoparticles induces plasmon changes, namely, "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor. This type of sensors has attracted increasing interest because of their exciting properties of high sensitivity, multi-color changes, and applicability to make a test strip. Of particular interest, the test strip by immobilization of nanoparticles on the substrate can avoid the influence of nanoparticle auto-aggregation and increase the simplicity in storage and use. Although there are many excellent reviews available that describe the advance of plasmonic sensors, limited attention has been paid to the plasmonic colorimetric sensors based on etching or growth of metal nanoparticles. This review highlights recent progress on strategies and application of "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensors. We also provide some personal insights into current challenges associated with "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensors and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  20. Effect of Surface Plasmon Coupling to Optical Cavity Modes on the Field Enhancement and Spectral Response of Dimer-Based sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The strong coupling is demonstrated by the large anticrossing in the reflection spectra and a Rabi splitting of 76 meV. Up to 2-fold enhancement increase can be achieved compared to that without using the cavity

  1. A tunable plasmonic nano-antenna based on metal–graphene double-nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhewei; Sun, Chen; Si, Jiangnan; Deng, Xiaoxu

    2018-05-01

    A tunable plasmonic antenna based on metal–graphene nanostructures is proposed in the mid-infrared region, composed of two identical gold nanorods placed on separated graphene sheets. The unidirectional side scattering of the plasmonic antenna achieved by the constructive and destructive interference of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) of the nanorods is investigated using finite-difference time-domain solutions and is theoretically analyzed based on a two point dipole model. The scattering directivity peak of the plasmonic antenna is red-shifted linearly with increasing refractive index of the environment. The scattering direction from the plasmonic antenna is switched actively by tuning the LSPRs of the nanorods with the Fermi energies of the separated graphene sheets. The refractive index sensitivity and active tunable scattering direction of the plasmonic antenna provides a promising application to manipulate light at the nanoscale in the fields of bio-sensing and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Plasmon Ruler with Ångstrom Length Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T.; Mock, Jack J.; Hucknall, Angus; Wolter, Scott D.; Jokerst, Nan M.; Smith, David R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a plasmon nanoruler using a coupled film-nanoparticle (film-NP) format that is well suited for investigating the sensitivity extremes of plasmonic coupling. Because it is relatively straightforward to functionalize bulk, surface plasmon supporting films such as gold, we are able to precisely control plasmonic gap dimensions by creating ultra-thin molecular spacer layers on the gold films, on top of which we immobilize plasmon resonant nanoparticles (NPs). Each immobilized NP becomes coupled to the underlying film and functions as a plasmon nanoruler, exhibiting a distance-dependent resonance red-shift in its peak plasmon wavelength as it approaches the film. Due to the uniformity of response from the film-NPs to separation distance, we are able to use extinction and scattering measurements from ensembles of film-NPs to characterize the coupling effect over a series of very short separation distances – ranging from 5 – 20 Å – and combine these measurements with similar data from larger separation distances extending out to 27 nm. We find that the film-NP plasmon nanoruler is extremely sensitive at very short film-NP separation distances, yielding spectral shifts as large as 5 nm for every 1 Å change in separation distance. The film-NP coupling at extremely small spacings is so uniform and reliable that we are able to usefully probe gap dimensions where the classical Drude model of the conducting electrons in the metals is no longer descriptive; for gap sizes smaller than a few nanometers, either quantum or semi-classical models of the carrier response must be employed to predict the observed wavelength shifts. We find that, despite the limitations, large field enhancements and extreme sensitivity persist down to even the smallest gap sizes. PMID:22966857

  3. Tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiaomeng; Deng, Haidong; Guo, Kangxian

    2014-10-15

    We propose a tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier based on the nonlinear Fano resonance in a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and cavities coupling system. We develop a theoretical model based on the temporal coupled-mode theory to study the device physics of the nanoscale rectifier. We further demonstrate via the finite difference time domain numerical experiment that our idea can be realized in a plasmonic system with an ultracompact size of ~120×800  nm². The tunable plasmonic rectifier could facilitate the all-optical signal processing in nanoscale.

  4. Nonsymmorphic symmetry-protected topological modes in plasmonic nanoribbon lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Wu, Raymond P. H.; Kumar, Anshuman; Si, Tieyan; Fung, Kin Hung

    2018-04-01

    Using a dynamic eigenresponse theory, we study the topological edge plasmon modes in dispersive plasmonic lattices constructed by unit cells of multiple nanoribbons. In dipole approximation, the bulk-edge correspondence in the lattices made of dimerized unit cell and one of its square-root daughter with nonsymmorphic symmetry are demonstrated. Calculations with consideration of dynamic long-range effects and retardation are compared to those given by nearest-neighbor approximations. It is shown that nonsymmorphic symmetry opens up two symmetric gaps where versatile topological edge plasmon modes are found. Unprecedented spectral shifts of the edge states with respect to the zero modes due to long-range coupling are found. The proposed ribbon structure is favorable to electrical gating and thus could serve as an on-chip platform for electrically controllable subwavelength edge states at optical wavelengths. Our eigenresponse approach provides a powerful tool for the radiative topological mode analysis in strongly coupled plasmonic lattices.

  5. An on-chip polarization splitter based on the radiation loss in the bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengwei; Rong, Kexiu; Gan, Fengyuan; Chu, Saisai; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) are one of the key components in the integrated photonic circuits. To increase the integration density, various complex hybrid plasmonic structures have been numerically designed to shrink the footprints of the PBSs. Here, to decrease the complexity of the small hybrid structures and the difficulty of the hybrid micro-nano fabrications, the radiation losses are utilized to experimentally demonstrate an ultra-small, broadband, and efficient PBS in a simple bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprising a dielectric strip on the metal surface supports both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) waveguide modes. Because of the different field confinements, the TE waveguide mode has larger radiation loss than the TM waveguide mode in the bending hybrid strip waveguide. Based on the different radiation losses, the two incident waveguide modes of orthogonal polarization states are efficiently split in the proposed structure with a footprint of only about 2.2 × 2.2 μm2 on chips. Since there is no resonance or interference in the splitting process, the operation bandwidth is as broad as Δλ = 70 nm. Moreover, the utilization of the strongly confined waveguide modes instead of the bulk free-space light (with the spot size of at least a few wavelengths) as the incident source considerably increases the coupling efficiency, resulting in a low insertion loss of <3 dB.

  6. Quantum bus of metal nanoring with surface plasmon polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhirong; Guo Guoping; Tu Tao; Li Haiou; Zou Changling; Ren Xifeng; Guo Guangcan; Chen Junxue; Lu Yonghua

    2010-01-01

    We develop an architecture for distributed quantum computation using quantum bus of plasmonic circuits and spin qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Deterministic quantum gates between two distant spin qubits can be reached by using an adiabatic approach in which quantum dots couple with highly detuned plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring. Plasmonic quantum bus offers a robust and scalable platform for quantum optics experiments and the development of on-chip quantum networks composed of various quantum nodes, such as quantum dots, molecules, and nanoparticles.

  7. Efficient channel-plasmon excitation by nano-mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Han, Zhanghua

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a configuration for efficient channel-plasmon mode excitation using tapered terminations of V-shaped groove waveguides. The plasmon excitation is achieved by directly illuminating tapers of gold V-grooves with a focused laser beam, incident normally onto the sample surface. For near......-infrared wavelengths, we find experimentally as well as numerically, by conducting three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations, that the efficiency of channel-plasmon mode excitation exceeds 10% in the optimum configuration, which is the highest experimentally observed efficiency of coupling from free-propagation...

  8. Plasmon transmutation: inducing new modes in nanoclusters by adding dielectric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Ye, Jian; Liu, Na; Van Dorpe, Pol; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2012-09-12

    Planar clusters of coupled plasmonic nanoparticles support nanoscale electromagnetic "hot spots" and coherent effects, such as Fano resonances, with unique near and far field signatures, currently of prime interest for sensing applications. Here we show that plasmonic cluster properties can be substantially modified by the addition of individual, discrete dielectric nanoparticles at specific locations on the cluster, introducing new plasmon modes, or transmuting existing plasmon modes to new ones, in the resulting metallodielectric nanocomplex. Depositing a single carbon nanoparticle in the junction between a pair of adjacent nanodisks induces a metal-dielectric-metal quadrupolar plasmon mode. In a ten-membered cluster, placement of several carbon nanoparticles in junctions between multiple adjacent nanoparticles introduces a collective magnetic plasmon mode into the Fano dip, giving rise to an additional subradiant mode in the metallodielectric nanocluster response. These examples illustrate that adding dielectric nanoparticles to metallic nanoclusters expands the number and types of plasmon modes supported by these new mixed-media nanoscale assemblies.

  9. Plasmonics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume summarizes recent theoretical developments in plasmonics and its applications in physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and medicine. It focuses on recent advances in several major areas of plasmonics including plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, light scattering, many-body effects, nonlinear optics, and ultrafast dynamics. The theoretical and computational methods used in these investigations include electromagnetic calculations, density functional theory calculations, and nonequilibrium electron dynamics calculations. The book presents a comprehensive overview of these methods as well as their applications to various current problems of interest.

  10. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  11. Phase study of the generated surface plasmon waves in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Xiao, Sanshui; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Interference of surface plasmon (SP) waves plays a key role in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture surrounded by groove structures. In order to characterize interference of the hole and groove-generated SP waves, their phase information was carefully investigated using finite diff...

  12. Plasmonic nanoholes as SERS devices for biosensing applications: An easy route for nanostructures fabrication on glass substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Candeloro, Patrizio; Iuele, Ernesto; Perozziello, Gerardo; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Gentile, Francesco; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2016-01-01

    , such as reproducibility, quantitative analysis and signal background interference. In this work we propose an easy and cheap route, based on a template stripping technique, for producing plasmonic nanostructured films with SERS capabilities. We focus our attention

  13. Inertial and interference effects in optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstens, W; Smith, D Y

    2015-01-01

    Interference between free-space and material components of the displacement current plays a key role in determining optical properties. This is illustrated by an analogy between the Lorentz optical model and a-c circuits. Phase shifts in material-polarization currents, which are inertial, relative to the non-inertial vacuum-polarization current cause interference in the total displacement current and, hence, variation in E-M wave propagation. If the displacement-current is reversed, forward propagation is inhibited yielding the semimetallic reflectivity exhibited by intrinsic silicon. Complete cancellation involves material currents offsetting free-space currents to form current-loops that correspond to plasmons. (paper)

  14. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Lesina, Antonino Calà; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and alumin...

  15. Analyzing intrinsic plasmonic chirality by tracking the interplay of electric and magnetic dipole modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Huang, Yingzhou; Pan, Lujun; Fang, Yurui

    2017-09-11

    Plasmonic chirality represents significant potential for novel nanooptical devices due to its association with strong chiroptical responses. Previous reports on plasmonic chirality mechanism mainly focus on phase retardation and coupling. In this paper, we propose a model similar to the chiral molecules for explaining the intrinsic plasmonic chirality mechanism of varies 3D chiral structures quantitatively based on the interplay and mixing of electric and magnetic dipole modes (directly from electromagnetic field numerical simulations), which forms mixed electric and magnetic polarizability.

  16. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  17. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Aleksandr [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    Next generation ultrabright light sources will operate at megahertz repetition rates with temporal resolution in the attosecond regime. For an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) to operate at such repetition rate requires a high quantum efficiency (QE) cathode to produce electron bunches of 300 pC per 1.5 μJ incident laser pulse. Semiconductor photocathodes have sufficient QE in the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible spectrum, however, they produce picosecond electron pulses due to the electron-phonon scattering. On the other hand, metals have two orders of magnitude less QE, but can produce femtosecond pulses, that are required to form the optimum electron distribution for high efficiency FEL operation. In this work, a novel metallic photocathode design is presented, where a set of nano-cavities is introduced on the metal surface to increase its QE to meet the FEL requirements, while maintaining the fast time response. Photoemission can be broken up into three steps: (1) photon absorption, (2) electron transport to the surface, and (3) crossing the metal-vacuum barrier. The first two steps can be improved by making the metal completely absorbing and by localizing the fields closer to the metal surface, thereby reducing the electron travel distance. Both of these effects can be achieved by coupling the incident light to an electron density wave on the metal surface, represented by a quasi-particle, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The photoemission then becomes a process where the photon energy is transferred to an SPP and then to an electron. The dispersion relation for the SPP defines the region of energies where such process can occur. For example, for gold, the maximum SPP energy is 2.4 eV, however, the work function is 5.6 eV, therefore, only a fourth order photoemission process is possible. In such process, four photons excite four plasmons that together excite only one electron. The yield of such non-linear process depends strongly on the light intensity. In

  18. Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveiro, Iván [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Javier García de Abajo, F., E-mail: javier.garciadeabajo@icfo.es [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-31

    We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.

  19. Photothermal modification of plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a method for geometrically modifying plasmonic structures on a support structure, such as for printing or recording, said method comprising changing a geometry specifically of plasmonic structures, wherein said changing the geometry is carried out by photothermally melting...... at least a portion of each of the plasmonic structures within the second plurality of plasmonic structures by irradiating, the plasmonic structures with incident electromagnetic radiation having an incident intensity in a plane of the second plurality of plasmonic structures, wherein said incident...... intensity is less than an incident intensity required to melt a film of a corresponding material and a corresponding thickness as the plasmonic structures within the second plurality of plasmonic structures....

  20. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  1. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  2. Plasmonic nanospherical dimers for color pixels

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2018-04-20

    Display technologies are evolving more toward higher resolution and miniaturization. Plasmonic color pixels can offer solutions to realize such technologies due to their sharp resonances and selective scattering and absorption at particular wavelengths. Metal nanosphere dimers are capable of supporting plasmon resonances that can be tuned to span the entire visible spectrum. In this article, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. We show that it is possible to obtain RGB pixels in the reflection mode. The longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanosphere dimers along the axis of the dimer is the main contributor to the color of the pixel, while far-field diffractive coupling further enhances and tunes the plasmon resonance. The computational method used is the finite-difference time-domain method. The advantages of this approach include simplicity of the design, bright coloration, and highly polarized function. In addition, we show that it is possible to obtain different colors by varying the angle of incidence, the periodicity, the size of the dimer, the gap, and the substrate thickness.

  3. Searching for better plasmonic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, P.; Ishii, S.; Naik, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics is a research area merging the fields of optics and nanoelectronics by confining light with relatively large free-space wavelength to the nanometer scale - thereby enabling a family of novel devices. Current plasmonic devices at telecommunication and optical frequencies face significan...... for realizing optimal plasmonic material properties for specific frequencies and applications, thereby providing a reference for those searching for better plasmonic materials....

  4. Metal Nitrides for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Schroeder, Jeremy; Guler, Urcan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications.......Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications....

  5. Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhan; Choi, Yunkyoung; Lee, Myungjae; Jeon, Heonsu; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-12-01

    A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures.A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The incident angle dependence of reflectance spectra and the atomic force microscopy image of the Au nanoparticle array on a silk film after 1 hour of ultrasonication. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05172f

  6. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  7. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  8. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  9. Surface plasmon optics for biosensors with advanced sensitivity and throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic biosensors represent a rapidly advancing technology which enables rapid and sensitive analysis of target analytes. This thesis focuses on novel metallic and polymer structures for plasmonic biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (SPF). It comprises four projects addressing key challenges concerning the enhancement of sensitivity and throughput. In the project 1, an advanced optical platform is developed which relies on reference-compensated angular spectroscopy of hydrogel-guided waves. The developed optical setup provides superior refractive index resolution of 1.2×10 -7 RIU and offers an attractive platform for direct detection of small analytes which cannot be analyzed by regular SPR biosensors. The project 2 carries out theoretical study of SPR imaging with advanced lateral resolution by utilizing Bragg scattered surface plasmons (BSSPs) on sub-wavelength metallic gratings. The results reveal that the proposed concept provides better lateral resolution and fidelity of the images. This feature opens ways for high-throughput SPR biosensors with denser arrays of sensing spots. The project 3 investigates surface plasmon coupled-emission from fluorophores in the vicinity of plasmonic Bragg-gratings. The experimental results provide leads on advancing the collection efficiency of fluorescence light by controlling the directions of fluorescence emission. This functionality can directly improve the sensitivity of fluorescence-based assays. In the last project 4, a novel sensing scheme with actively tuneable plasmonic structures is developed by employing thermo-responsive hydrogel binding matrix. The hydrogel film simultaneously serves as a large capacity binding matrix and provides means for actuating of surface plasmons through reversible swelling and collapsing of the hydrogel. This characteristic is suitable for multiplexing of sensing channels in fluorescence-based biosensor scheme (author)

  10. Revealing Nanostructures through Plasmon Polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Marie-Elena; Mertens, Jan; Zheng, Xuezhi; Cormier, Sean; Turek, Vladimir; Benz, Felix; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Deacon, William; Lombardi, Anna; Moshchalkov, Victor V; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2017-01-24

    Polarized optical dark-field spectroscopy is shown to be a versatile noninvasive probe of plasmonic structures that trap light to the nanoscale. Clear spectral polarization splittings are found to be directly related to the asymmetric morphology of nanocavities formed between faceted gold nanoparticles and an underlying gold substrate. Both experiment and simulation show the influence of geometry on the coupled system, with spectral shifts Δλ = 3 nm from single atoms. Analytical models allow us to identify the split resonances as transverse cavity modes, tightly confined to the nanogap. The direct correlation of resonance splitting with atomistic morphology allows mapping of subnanometre structures, which is crucial for progress in extreme nano-optics involving chemistry, nanophotonics, and quantum devices.

  11. How to measure the cooper pair mass using plasmons in low-dimensional superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    The creation of the Cooper pair mass-spectroscopy is suggested. The plasmons in low-dimensional superconductor structures (layers or wires in dielectric background) are theoretically considered to that purpose. The Cooper pair mass m * can be determined by measurements of the Doppler shift of the plasmon frequency when a direct current is applied through the superconductor. The plasmons with frequency ω lower than the superconducting gap 2 Δ can be detected by the same fare-infrared (FIR) absorption technique and grating couplings used previously for investigation of two-dimension (2D) plasmons in semiconductor microstructures. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs

  12. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  13. A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qijing; Chen, Daru; Wu, Genzhu; Peng, Baojin; Xu, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity which is composed of a silver nanoring and a silica toroidal microcavity. The hybrid mode of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity due to the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the dielectric mode is demonstrated with a high quality factor (>1000) and an ultrasmall mode volume (∼0.8 μm 3 ). This microcavity shows great potential in fundamental studies of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and applications in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers. (paper)

  14. A novel plasmonic interferometry and the potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J.; Pornsuwancharoen, N.; Youplao, P.; Aziz, M. S.; Chiangga, S.; Jaglan, J.; Amiri, I. S.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have proposed the plasmonic interferometry concept and analytical details given. By using the conventional optical interferometry, which can be simply calculated by using the relationship between the electric field and electron mobility, the interference mobility visibility (fringe visibility) can be observed. The surface plasmons in the sensing arm of the Michelson interferometer is constructed by the stacked layers of the silicon-graphene-gold, allows to characterize the spatial resolution of light beams in terms of the electron mobility down to 100-nm scales, with measured coherence lengths as low as ∼100 nm for an incident wavelength of 1550 nm. We have demonstrated a compact plasmonic interferometer that can apply to the electron mean free paths measurement, from which the precise determination can be used for the high-resolution mean free path measurement and sensing applications. This system provides the practical simulation device parameters that can be fabricated and tested by the experimental platform.

  15. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  16. Quantum theory of plasmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2014-01-01

    Since very early works on plasma oscillations in solids, it was known that in collective excitations (fluctuations of the charge density) of the electron gas there exists the resonance appearing as a quasiparticle of a special type called the plasmon. The elaboration of the quantum theory of plasmon in the framework of the canonical formalism is the purpose of the present work. We start from the establishment of the Lagrangian of the system of itinerant electrons in metal and the definition of the generalized coordinates and velocities of this system. Then we determine the expression of the Hamiltonian and perform the quantization procedure in the canonical formalism. By means of this rigorous method we can derive the expressions of the Hamiltonians of the interactions of plasmon with photon and all quasiparticles in solid from the first principles. (papers)

  17. Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    The development of advanced dielectric photonic structures has enabled tremendous control over the propagation and manipulation of light. Structures such as waveguides, splitters, mixers, and resonators now play a central role in the telecommunications industry. This book will discuss an exciting new class of photonic devices, known as surface plasmon nanophotonic structures. Surface plasmons are easily accessible excitations in metals and semiconductors and involve a collective motion of the conduction electrons. These excitations can be exploited to manipulate electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies ("light") in new ways that are unthinkable in conventional dielectric structures. The field of plasmon nanophotonics is rapidly developing and impacting a wide range of areas including: electronics, photonics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The book will highlight several exciting new discoveries that have been made, while providing a clear discussion of the underlying physics, the nanofabrication issues...

  18. Are Polyatomic Interferences, Cross Contamination, Mixing-Effect, etc., Obstacles for the Use of Laser Ablation-ICP-MS Coupling as an Operational Technique for Uranium Isotope Ratio Particle Analysis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donard, A.; Pointurier, F.; Pecheyran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of ''environmental samples'', which consists in dust collected with cotton clothes wiped by inspectors on surfaces inside declared nuclear facilities, is a key tool for safeguards. Although two methods (fission tracks-TIMS and SIMS) are already used routinely to determine the isotopic composition of uranium particles, the laser ablationinductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) coupling has been proven to be an interesting option thanks to its rapidity, high sensitivity and high signal/noise ratio. At CEA and UPPA, feasibility of particle analysis using a nanosecond LA device and a quadrupole ICP-MS has been demonstrated. However, despite the obvious potential of LA-ICP-MS for particle analysis, the effect of many phenomena which may bias isotope ratio measurements or lead to false detections must be investigated. Actually, environmental samples contain many types of non-uranium particles (organic debris, iron oxides, etc.) that can form molecular interferences and induce the risk of isotopic measurement bias, especially for minor isotopes (234U, 236U). The influence of these polyatomic interferences on the measurements will be discussed. Moreover, different uranium isotopic compositions can be found in the same sample. Therefore, risks of memory effect and of particle-toparticle cross-contamination by the deposition of ablation debris around the crater have also been investigated. This study has been conducted by using a femtosecond laser ablation device coupled to a high sensitivity sector field ICP-MS. Particles were fixed onto the discs with collodion and were located thanks to their fission tracks so that micrometric particles can be analyzed separately. All uranium isotope ratios were measured. Results are compared with the ones obtained with the fission tracks-TIMS technique on other deposition discs from the same sample. Performance of the method in terms of accuracy, precision, and detection limits are estimated

  19. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  20. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  1. Femtosecond Snapshots of quantum mechanics at work in plasmonic nano-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Fabrizio

    Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscopy enabled a new technique (Photon-Induced Near Field Electron Microscopy, PINEM), capable of controlling electromagnetic fields confined on the surface of nanostructures and image their properties with nm-resolution in direct space and fs resolution in time. In this presentation, we will show some recent results where the standing wave formed by the plasmonic field confined on the surface of one silver nano-wire was imaged together with its energy exchange with the imaging electrons. In these results, both the interference and the quantization of the plasmonic near field could be imaged simultaneously, revealing both a quantum and a classical aspect of the electromagnetic field in one snapshot. The implications of these results will be discussed, and we will also present new ideas and methodologies to go beyond such an experiment and image the interaction between single electrons and single plasmons. We will also show that shaping the electron density in a thin film via light pulses is possible by taking advantage of the plasmon-plasmon interference and the ability of light polarization to control the excitation of different plasmonic field geometries in ad hoc designed nanostructures. Movies of the propagation of plasmons will also be presented, providing insights into their speed, propagation losses and the effect of confinment. This work was supported by an ERC Grant USED.

  2. Finite-element modeling of spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter at nanoscale proximity to plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Gregersen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    of the plasmonic waveguide can be arbitrary. The fraction of the energy coupled to the plasmonic mode can be calculated exactly, which can be used to determine the efficiency with which single optical plasmons are generated. We apply our numerical method to calculate the coupling of a quantum emitter......We develop a self-consistent finite-element method to quantitatively study spontaneous emission from emitters in nanoscale proximity of plasmonic waveguides. In the model, it is assumed that only one guided mode is dominatingly excited by the quantum emitter, while the cross section...

  3. Angular plasmon response of gold nanoparticles arrays: approaching the Rayleigh limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marae-Djouda Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The regular arrangement of metal nanoparticles influences their plasmonic behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that the coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes can give rise to extremely narrow plasmon resonances. This is the case when the single-particle localized surface plasmon resonance (λLSP is very close in value to the Rayleigh anomaly wavelength (λRA of the nanoparticles array. In this paper, we performed angle-resolved extinction measurements on a 2D array of gold nano-cylinders designed to fulfil the condition λRA<λLSP. Varying the angle of excitation offers a unique possibility to finely modify the value of λRA, thus gradually approaching the condition of coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes. The experimental observation of a collective dipolar resonance has been interpreted by exploiting a simplified model based on the coupling of evanescent diffracted waves with plasmon modes. Among other plasmon modes, the measurement technique has also evidenced and allowed the study of a vertical plasmon mode, only visible in TM polarization at off-normal excitation incidence. The results of numerical simulations, based on the periodic Green’s tensor formalism, match well with the experimental transmission spectra and show fine details that could go unnoticed by considering only experimental data.

  4. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonicmaterials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially usefuloptical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct opticalscattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures thatcouple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, whichis mediated by surface plasmons, depends on their shape and arrangement.Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silvernanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using theLangmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticlespacing, density, and packing symmetry allows for tunability of theoptical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategyoffers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials forapplication in spectroscopic sensors, sub-wavelength optics, andintegrated devices that utilize field enhancement effects.

  5. Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marell, Milan J H; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Barcones, Beatrix; Koopmans, Bert; Nötzel, Richard; Smit, Meint K; Hill, Martin T

    2011-08-01

    We investigate electrically pumped, distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, based on gap-plasmon mode metallic waveguides. The waveguides have nano-scale widths below the diffraction limit and incorporate vertical groove Bragg gratings. These metallic Bragg gratings provide a broad bandwidth stop band (~500 nm) with grating coupling coefficients of over 5000/cm. A strong suppression of spontaneous emission occurs in these Bragg grating cavities, over the stop band frequencies. This strong suppression manifests itself in our experimental results as a near absence of spontaneous emission and significantly reduced lasing thresholds when compared to similar length Fabry-Pérot waveguide cavities. Furthermore, the reduced threshold pumping requirements permits us to show strong line narrowing and super linear light current curves for these plasmon mode devices even at room temperature.

  6. Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.

  7. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  8. Plasmonics light modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are waves propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric and, due to their tight confinement, may be used for nanoscale control of the light propagation. Thus, photonic integrated circuits can benefit from devices using SPPs because of their highly...

  9. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samyobrata Mukherjee

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... spline interpolation from the data of Johnson and Christy. [31]. But first, we have to deal with normalization in order to make our comparisons of the transverse spin for different wavelengths and metal film thicknesses d meaningful. We normalize the power flow into the sys- tem at x = 0 to unity. ∫ ∞. −∞.

  10. Plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamowski, Simon; Mann, Charlie-Ray; Hellbach, Felicitas; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume; Pauly, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, each supporting triply-degenerate localized surface plasmons, couple through the Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction, giving rise to collective plasmons that extend over the whole metamaterial. The latter hybridize with photons forming plasmon polaritons, which are the hybrid light-matter eigenmodes of the system. We derive general analytical expressions to evaluate both plasmon and plasmon-polariton dispersions and the corresponding eigenstates. These are obtained within a Hamiltonian formalism, which takes into account retardation effects in the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles and considers the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles as well as their surrounding. Within this model we predict polaritonic splittings in the near-infrared to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum that depend on polarization, lattice symmetry, and wave-vector direction. Finally, we show that the predictions of our model are in excellent quantitative agreement with conventional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations, but with the advantages of analytical insight and significantly reduced computational cost.

  11. Sensitive plasmonic-photonic nanosensor as a morphologic mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    SalmanOgli, Ahmad; Salimi, Kouroush; Farhadnia, Farshad; Usta, Duygu Deniz

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a new nanosensor is assembled in the form of a phantom model to optically scan the breast for early cancer detection based on the plasmonic and plasmonic-photonic interaction phenomena. Sensing is carried out through a user-friendly method by improving imaging through the traditional optical tomography method. The novelty of the designed sensor is attributed to the coupling of the nanoparticle plasmonic near-field intensity to the far-field region (photonic mode interaction with the near-field plasmon resonance). It is shown that the plasmonic-photonic interaction has a dramatic influence on the gradient image and therefore, the edge detection and segmentation of the image are effectively altered. This is due to the fact that the plasmonic fields of the nanoparticles in the near- and far-field manipulate the field gradient, which leads to a modification of the intensity discontinuities at different interfaces. In fact, it is well-known that the fundamental idea behind edge detection is utilized to detect parts of the image where the intensity varies rapidly. Based on this knowledge, interestingly, it is shown that the segmentation and edge detection of the image are improved by the manipulating optical properties of the mask.

  12. Mechanism of plasmon-mediated enhancement of photovoltaic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, W; Jacak, J; Donderowicz, W; Jacak, L; Krasnyj, J

    2011-01-01

    Metallic nanospheres (Au, Ag, Cu) deposited on a photovoltaic (PV)-active semiconductor surface can act as light converters, collecting energy of incident photons in plasmon oscillations. This energy can be next transferred to a semiconductor substrate via a near-field channel, in a more efficient manner in comparison with the direct photo-effect. We explain this enhancement by inclusion of indirect interband transitions in a semiconductor layer due to the near-field coupling with plasmon radiation in nanoscale of the metallic components, where the momentum is not conserved as the system is not translationally invariant. The model of the nanosphere plasmons is developed (random phase approximation, analytical version, adjusted to description of large metallic clusters, with a radius of 10-60 nm) including surface and volume modes. Damping of plasmons is analysed via Lorentz friction, and irradiation losses in the far- and near-field regimes. Resulting resonance shifts are verified experimentally for Au and Ag colloidal water solutions with respect to particle size. Probability of the electron interband transition (within the Fermi golden rule) in the substrate semiconductor induced by coupling to plasmons in the near-field regime turns out to be significantly larger than for coupling of electrons to planar-wave photons. This is of practical importance for enhancement of thin-film solar cell efficiency, both for semiconductor type (such as III-V semiconductor based cells) and for conjugate-polymer-based or dye organic plastic cells, intensively developed at present. We have described also a non-dissipative collective mode of surface plasmons in a chain of near-field-coupled metallic nanospheres, for particular size, separation parameters and wavelengths. This would find an application in sub-diffraction electro-photonic circuit arrangement and for possible energy transport in solar cells, in particular in organic materials with low mobility of carriers.

  13. Plasmon sidebands in the gain spectrum of an electron-hole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Cam; Nguyen Van Hieu; Nguyen Ai Viet.

    1987-06-01

    The theory is represented for the recombination of the electron-hole pair into the photon with and without the emission of the plasmon-phonon coupled modes. In calculating the energies of the plasmon and the plasmon-phonon coupled modes as well as the vertices of their effective interactions the quantum field theory method has been applied. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the experimental result in the main part EHP 0 and the first sideband EHP - of the gain spectrum. (author). 6 refs, 9 figs

  14. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy.

  15. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismondi A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Gismondi,1 Valentina Nanni,1 Giacomo Reina,2 Silvia Orlanducci,2 Maria Letizia Terranova,2 Antonella Canini1 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Abstract: For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. Keywords: citropten, cytoskeletal structure, plant secondary metabolite, melanoma, internalization kinetics

  16. Plasmonic Organic Photovoltaics: Unraveling Plasmonic Enhancement for Realistic Cell Geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating plasmonic nanoparticles in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices can increase the optical thickness of the organic absorber layer while keeping its physical thickness small. However, trade-offs between various structure parameters have caused contradictions regarding the effectiveness...... of plasmonics in the literature, that have somewhat stunted the progressing of a unified theoretical understanding for practical applications. We examine the optical enhancement mechanisms of practical PCDTBT:PC70BM OPV cells incorporating metal nanoparticles. The plasmonic near- and far-field contributions...... show that an already optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM cell can be further optically enhanced by plasmonic effects by at least 20% with the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles....

  17. Plasmon-organic fiber interactions in diamond-like carbon coated nanostructured gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecki, Paweł Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiuočenko, Oksana; Leißner, Till; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Adam, Jost; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such protective layers on plasmonic interactions in organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. We consider systems, consisting of 1-Cyano-quaterphenylene nanofibers on top of gold nano-square plasmonic arrays, coated with protective layers of varying thickness. We numerically investigate the spectral position of surface plasmon polariton resonances and electric field intensity, as a function of protective layer thickness, using the finite-difference time-domain method. To confirm the numerically indicated field enhancement preservation on top of protective layers, we experimentally map the second harmonic response of organic nanofibers. Subsequently, we characterize the plasmonic coupling between organic nanofibers and underlying substrates, considered as one of the main loss channels for photoluminescence from nanofibers, by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our findings reveal that, for the investigated system, plasmonic interactions are preserved for DLC coatings up to 55 nm. This is relevant for the fabrication of new passive and active plasmonic components with increased durability and hence prolonged lifetime.

  18. Collective phenomena in photonic, plasmonic and hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Povinelli, Michelle; Astratov, Vasily N; Zayats, Anatoly V; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2011-10-24

    Preface to a focus issue of invited articles that review recent progress in studying the fundamental physics of collective phenomena associated with coupling of confined photonic, plasmonic, electronic and phononic states and in exploiting these phenomena to engineer novel devices for light generation, optical sensing, and information processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation, allo...

  20. Retardation effects on the dispersion and propagation of plasmons in metallic nanoparticle chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Charles A.; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We consider a chain of regularly-spaced spherical metallic nanoparticles, where each particle supports three degenerate localized surface plasmons. Due to the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles, the localized plasmons couple to form extended collective modes. Using an open quantum system approach in which the collective plasmons are interacting with vacuum electromagnetic modes and which, importantly, readily incorporates retardation via the light-matter coupling, we analytically evaluate the resulting radiative frequency shifts of the plasmonic bandstructure. For subwavelength-sized nanoparticles, our analytical treatment provides an excellent quantitative agreement with the results stemming from laborious numerical calculations based on fully-retarded solutions to Maxwell’s equations. Indeed, the explicit expressions for the plasmonic spectrum which we provide showcase how including retardation gives rise to a logarithmic singularity in the bandstructure of transverse-polarized plasmons. We further study the impact of retardation effects on the propagation of plasmonic excitations along the chain. While for the longitudinal modes, retardation has a negligible effect, we find that the retarded dipolar interaction can significantly modify the plasmon propagation in the case of transverse-polarized modes. Moreover, our results elucidate the analogy between radiative effects in nanoplasmonic systems and the cooperative Lamb shift in atomic physics.

  1. DNA-Nanotechnology-Enabled Chiral Plasmonics: From Static to Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Duan, Xiaoyang; Liu, Na

    2017-12-19

    The development of DNA nanotechnology, especially the advent of DNA origami, has made DNA ideally suited to construct nanostructures with unprecedented complexity and arbitrariness. As a fully addressable platform, DNA origami can be used to organize discrete entities in space through DNA hybridization with nanometer accuracy. Among a variety of functionalized particles, metal nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) feature an important pathway to endow DNA-origami-assembled nanostructures with tailored optical functionalities. When metal particles are placed in close proximity, their particle plasmons, i.e., collective oscillations of conduction electrons, can be coupled together, giving rise to a wealth of interesting optical phenomena. Nevertheless, characterization methods that can read out the optical responses from plasmonic nanostructures composed of small metal particles, and especially can optically distinguish in situ their minute conformation changes, are very few. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy has proven to be a successful means to overcome these challenges because of its high sensitivity in discrimination of three-dimensional conformation changes. In this Account, we discuss a variety of static and dynamic chiral plasmonic nanostructures enabled by DNA nanotechnology. In the category of static plasmonic systems, we first show chiral plasmonic nanostructures based on spherical AuNPs, including plasmonic helices, toroids, and tetramers. To enhance the CD responses, anisotropic gold nanorods with larger extinction coefficients are utilized to create chiral plasmonic crosses and helical superstructures. Next, we highlight the inevitable evolution from static to dynamic plasmonic systems along with the fast development of this interdisciplinary field. Several dynamic plasmonic systems are reviewed according to their working mechanisms. We first elucidate a reconfigurable plasmonic cross structure that can execute DNA-regulated conformational

  2. An Introduction to Graphene Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P.A.D.; Peres, N. M. R.

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving...... the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field....

  3. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  4. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  5. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon. These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented.

  6. Generation and Controlled Routing of Single Plasmons on a Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Huck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the excitation of single surface plasmon polaritons on a silver nanowire using a nitrogen vacancy center and the subsequent controlled coupling to a second silver nanowire. The coupling efficiency and thus the splitting ratio between the nanowires is controlled by adjusting the gap...... size between the wires with an atomic force microscope. By numerical methods, we estimate the splitting ratios for different gap sizes, and the results support the values obtained in the experiment.......We demonstrate the excitation of single surface plasmon polaritons on a silver nanowire using a nitrogen vacancy center and the subsequent controlled coupling to a second silver nanowire. The coupling efficiency and thus the splitting ratio between the nanowires is controlled by adjusting the gap...

  7. Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Boer-Duchemin, E; Zhang, Y; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G

    2011-04-29

    Inelastic electron tunnelling excitation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a thin gold film is demonstrated. This is done by combining a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) with an inverted optical microscope. Analysis of the leakage radiation in both the image and Fourier planes unambiguously shows that the majority (up to 99.5%) of the detected photons originate from propagating SPPs with propagation lengths of the order of 10  µm. The remaining photon emission is localized under the STM tip and is attributed to a tip-gold film coupled plasmon resonance as evidenced by the bimodal spectral distribution and enhanced emission intensity observed using a silver STM tip for excitation.

  8. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Brucoli, G.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of efficient local coupling of light into surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes is an important concern in miniaturization of plasmonic components. Here we present experimental and numerical investigations of efficiency of local SPP excitation on gold ridges of rectangular profile...... positioned on a gold film. The excitation is accomplished by illuminating the metal surface normally with a focused laser beam. Wavelength dependence and dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges are examined. Using leakage radiation microscopy, the efficiency of ˜20% is demonstrated...

  9. Plasmon-polariton modes of dense Au nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hongdan; Lemmens, Peter; Wulferding, Dirk; Cetin, Mehmet Fatih [IPKM, TU-BS, Braunschweig (Germany); Tornow, Sabine; Zwicknagl, Gertrud [IMP, TU-BS, Braunschweig (Germany); Krieg, Ulrich; Pfnuer, Herbert [IFP, LU Hannover (Germany); Daum, Winfried; Lilienkamp, Gerhard [IEPT, TU Clausthal (Germany); Schilling, Meinhard [EMG, TU-BS, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Using optical absorption and other techniques we study plasmon-polariton modes of dense Au nanowire arrays as function of geometrical parameters and coupling to molecular degrees of freedom. For this instance we electrochemically deposit Au nanowires in porous alumina with well controlled morphology and defect concentration. Transverse and longitudinal modes are observed in the absorption spectra resulting from the anisotropic plasmonic structure. The longitudinal mode shows a blue shift of energy with increasing length of the wires due to the more collective nature of this response. We compare our observations with model calculations and corresponding results on 2D Ag nanowire lattices.

  10. Surface plasmon polariton propagation in organic nanofiber based plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Jauernik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic wave packet propagation is monitored in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides realized from para-hexaphenylene nanofibers deposited onto a 60 nm thick gold film. Using interferometric time resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy we are able to determine...

  11. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  12. Rapid one-pot propargylamine synthesis by plasmon mediated catalysis with gold nanoparticles on ZnO under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Béjar, María; Peters, Kate; Hallett-Tapley, Geniece L; Grenier, Michel; Scaiano, Juan C

    2013-02-28

    Surface plasmon excitation of gold nanoparticles on ZnO in the presence of an aldehyde, an amine and phenylacetylene led to rapid and selective formation of propargylamines with good yields (50-95%) at room temperature. Plasmon mediated catalysis is the best available route for this ternary coupling.

  13. Graphene quantum interference photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  14. Substation electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felic, G.; Shihab, S.

    1997-01-01

    The electric and magnetic transients in high voltage substations were studied. The electric field measurements were carried out in a 66 kV switchyard of a 500/220/66 kV substation in Melbourne, Australia. The measured waveforms make up a database to be used for reference in the testing of substation control and protection equipment. The objective of this study was to characterize the radiated interference caused by the operation of disconnect switches and circuit breakers. Disconnect switch transients can be a serious hazard for substations because the slow moving contacts during opening and closing can result in arcing events of several seconds duration. Circuit breaker transients were considered to be less hazardous. Transient magnetic fields of at least several tens of A/m can occur during the energization of the capacitor bank. Substation electronic equipment should be tested and protected against the coupling of these transients in order to avoid breakdowns. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Tunable multipole resonances in plasmonic crystals made by four-beam holographic lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, X.; Prybolsky, S.; Shepard, G. D.; Strauf, S., E-mail: Strauf@stevens.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on the Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures confine light to sub-wavelength scales, resulting in drastically enhanced light-matter interactions. Recent interest has focused on controlled symmetry breaking to create higher-order multipole plasmonic modes that store electromagnetic energy more efficiently than dipole modes. Here we demonstrate that four-beam holographic lithography enables fabrication of large-area plasmonic crystals with near-field coupled plasmons as well as deliberately broken symmetry to sustain multipole modes and Fano-resonances. Compared with the spectrally broad dipole modes we demonstrate an order of magnitude improved Q-factors (Q = 21) when the quadrupole mode is activated. We further demonstrate continuous tuning of the Fano-resonances using the polarization state of the incident light beam. The demonstrated technique opens possibilities to extend the rich physics of multipole plasmonic modes to wafer-scale applications that demand low-cost and high-throughput.

  16. Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Han, Yunxin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Xu, Siyu

    2018-06-03

    As a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) has drawn more attention due to its potential of realizing on-chip sensing, slow light and nonlinear effect enhancement. However, the performance of a plasmonic system is always limited by the metal ohmic loss. Here, we numerically report a PIT system with gain materials based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide. The corresponding phenomenon can be theoretically analyzed by coupled mode theory (CMT). After filling gain material into a disk cavity, the system intrinsic loss can be compensated by external pump beam, and the PIT can be greatly fueled to achieve a dramatic enhancement of slow light performance. Finally, a double-channel enhanced slow light is introduced by adding a second gain disk cavity. This work paves way for a potential new high-performance slow light device, which can have significant applications for high-compact plasmonic circuits and optical communication.

  17. Plasmon-exciton-polariton lasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, M.; Halpin, A.; Fernandez, A. I.; Feist, J.; Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; J. Gomez Rivas,

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanostructures provide a toolkit for the generation of coherent light below the diffraction limit. Plasmonic-based lasing relies on the population inversion of emitters (such as organic fluorophores) along with feedback provided by plasmonic resonances. In this regime, known as weak

  18. Near-field Spectroscopy of Surface Plasmons in Flat Gold Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, Marc; Shuford, Kevin L.; Schatz, George C.; Dahanayaka, D.H.; Bumm, Lloyd A; Klimov, Victor I.

    2007-01-01

    We use near-field interference spectroscopy with a broadband femtosecond, white-light probe to study local surface plasmon resonances in flat gold nanoparticles (FGNPs). Depending on nanoparticle dimensions, local near-field extinction spectra exhibit none, one, or two resonances in the range of visible wavelengths (1.6-2.6 eV). The measured spectra can be accurately described in terms of interference between the field emitted by the probe aperture and the field reradiated by driven FGNP surface plasmon oscillations. The measured resonances are in good agreement with those predicted by calculations using discrete dipole approximation. We observe that the amplitudes of these resonances are dependent upon the spatial position of the near-field probe, which indicates the possibility of spatially selective excitation of specific plasmon modes

  19. Plasmonic tunnel junctions for single-molecule redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Bart; Benz, Felix; Barrow, Steven J; Sigle, Daniel O; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Palma, Aniello; Carnegie, Cloudy; Kamp, Marlous; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Scherman, Oren A; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2017-10-20

    Nanoparticles attached just above a flat metallic surface can trap optical fields in the nanoscale gap. This enables local spectroscopy of a few molecules within each coupled plasmonic hotspot, with near thousand-fold enhancement of the incident fields. As a result of non-radiative relaxation pathways, the plasmons in such sub-nanometre cavities generate hot charge carriers, which can catalyse chemical reactions or induce redox processes in molecules located within the plasmonic hotspots. Here, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows us to track these hot-electron-induced chemical reduction processes in a series of different aromatic molecules. We demonstrate that by increasing the tunnelling barrier height and the dephasing strength, a transition from coherent to hopping electron transport occurs, enabling observation of redox processes in real time at the single-molecule level.

  20. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  2. Plasmon holographic experiments: theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeeck, J.; Dyck, D. van; Lichte, H.; Potapov, P.; Schattschneider, P.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical framework is described to understand the results of plasmon holography experiments leading to insight in the meaning of the experimental results and pointing out directions for future experiments. The framework is based on the formalism of mutual intensity to describe how coherence is transferred through an optical system. For the inelastic interaction with the object, an expression for the volume plasmon excitations in a free electron gas is used as a model for the behaviour of aluminium. The formalism leads to a clear graphical intuitive tool for understanding the experiments. It becomes evident that the measured coherence is solely related to the angular distribution of the plasmon scattering in the case of bulk plasmons. After describing the framework, the special case of coherence outside a spherical particle is treated and the seemingly controversial idea of a plasmon with a limited coherence length obtained from experiments is clarified

  3. Plasmon resonances of Ag capped Si nanopillars fabricated using mask-less lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2015-01-01

    of a substrate dramatically changes the intensity of these two LSPR modes by introducing constructive and destructive interference patterns with incident and reflected fields. Experimental scattering spectra can be interpreted using theoretical simulations. The Ag NP substrate displays a broad plasmonic...

  4. IETS and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....

  5. Single-Molecule Detection in Nanogap-Embedded Plasmonic Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce nanogap-embedded silver plasmonic gratings for single-molecule (SM visualization using an epifluorescence microscope. This silver plasmonic platform was fabricated by a cost-effective nano-imprint lithography technique, using an HD DVD template. DNA/ RNA duplex molecules tagged with Cy3/Cy5 fluorophores were immobilized on SiO 2 -capped silver gratings. Light was coupled to the gratings at particular wavelengths and incident angles to form surface plasmons. The SM fluorescence intensity of the fluorophores at the nanogaps showed approximately a 100-fold mean enhancement with respect to the fluorophores observed on quartz slides using an epifluorescence microscope. This high level of enhancement was due to the concentration of surface plasmons at the nanogaps. When nanogaps imaged with epifluorescence mode were compared to quartz imaged using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy, more than a 30-fold mean enhancement was obtained. Due to the SM fluorescence enhancement of plasmonic gratings and the correspondingly high emission intensity, the required laser power can be reduced, resulting in a prolonged detection time prior to photobleaching. This simple platform was able to perform SM studies with a low-cost epifluorescence apparatus, instead of the more expensive TIRF or confocal microscopes, which would enable SM analysis to take place in most scientific laboratories.

  6. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  7. Monitoring the electrochemical responses of neurotransmitters through localized surface plasmon resonance using nanohole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nantao; Lu, Yanli; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Jiajia; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Gang Logan; Liu, Qingjun

    2017-07-15

    In this study, a novel spectroelectrochemical method was proposed for neurotransmitters detection. The central sensing device was a hybrid structure of nanohole array and gold nanoparticles, which demonstrated good conductivity and high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensitivity. By utilizing such specially-designed nanoplasmonic sensor as working electrode, both electrical and spectral responses on the surface of the sensor could be simultaneously detected during the electrochemical process. Cyclic voltammetry was implemented to activate the oxidation and recovery of dopamine and serotonin, while transmission spectrum measurement was carried out to synchronously record to LSPR responses of the nanoplasmonic sensor. Coupling with electrochemistry, LSPR results indicated good integrity and linearity, along with promising accuracy in qualitative and quantitative detection even for mixed solution and in brain tissue homogenates. Also, the detection results of other negatively-charged neurotransmitters like acetylcholine demonstrated the selectivity of our detection method for transmitters with positive charge. When compared with traditional electrochemical signals, LSPR signals provided better signal-to-noise ratio and lower detection limits, along with immunity against interference factors like ascorbic acid. Taking the advantages of such robustness, the coupled detection method was proved to be a promising platform for point-of-care testing for neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Floating dielectric slab optical interconnection between metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsu; Park, Junghyun; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2009-01-19

    A simple and effective optical interconnection which connects two distanced single metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon waveguides by a floating dielectric slab waveguide (slab bridge) is proposed. Transmission characteristics of the suggested structure are numerically studied using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and design rules based on the study are given. In the wave-guiding part, if the slab bridge can support more than the fundamental mode, then the transmission efficiency of the interconnection shows strong periodic dependency on the length of the bridge, due to the multi-mode interference (MMI) effect. Otherwise, only small fluctuation occurs due to the Fabry-Pérot effect. In addition, light beating happens when the slab bridge is relatively short. In the wave-coupling part, on the other hand, gap-assisted transmission occurs at each overlapping region as a consequence of mode hybridization. Periodic dependency on the length of the overlap region also appears due to the MMI effect. According to these results, we propose design principles for achieving both high transmission efficiency and stability with respect to the variation of the interconnection distance, and we show how to obtain the transmission efficiency of 68.3% for the 1mm-long interconnection.

  9. Non-spectroscopic surface plasmon sensor with a tunable sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Qiuling; Han, Xu; Hu, Chuang; Zhang, Jiasen

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-spectroscopic surface plasmon sensor with a tunable sensitivity which is based on the relationship between the wave number of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on metal film and the refractive index of the specimen in contact with the metal film. A change in the wave number of the SPPs results in a variation in the propagation angle of the leakage radiation of the SPPs. A reference light is used to interfere with the leakage radiation, and the refractive index of the specimen can be obtained by measuring the period of the interference fringes. The sensitivity of the sensor can be tuned by changing the incident direction of the reference light and this cannot be realized by conventional surface plasmon sensors. For a reference angle of 1.007°, the sensitivity and resolution of the sensor are 4629 μm/RIU (RIU stands for refractive index unit) and 3.6 × 10 −4 RIU, respectively. In addition, the sensor only needs a monochromatic light source, which simplifies the measurement setup and reduces the cost

  10. Plasmonic percolation: Plasmon-manifested dielectric-to-metal transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huanjun

    2012-08-28

    Percolation generally refers to the phenomenon of abrupt variations in electrical, magnetic, or optical properties caused by gradual volume fraction changes of one component across a threshold in bicomponent systems. Percolation behaviors have usually been observed in macroscopic systems, with most studies devoted to electrical percolation. We report on our observation of plasmonic percolation in Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures. When the Pd volume fraction in the shell consisting of palladium and water approaches the plasmonic percolation threshold, ∼70%, the plasmon of the nanostructure transits from red to blue shifts with respect to that of the unshelled Au nanorod. This plasmonic percolation behavior is also confirmed by the scattering measurements on the individual core-shell nanostructures. Quasistatic theory and numerical simulations show that the plasmonic percolation originates from a positive-to-negative transition in the real part of the dielectric function of the shell as the Pd volume fraction is increased. The observed plasmonic percolation is found to be independent of the metal type in the shell. Moreover, compared to the unshelled Au nanorods with similar plasmon wavelengths, the Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures exhibit larger refractive index sensitivities, which is ascribed to the expulsion of the electric field intensity from the Au nanorod core by the adsorbed Pd nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.

    2016-03-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  12. Plasmonic percolation: Plasmon-manifested dielectric-to-metal transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huanjun; Wang, Feng; Li, Kun; Woo, Katchoi; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Quan; Sun, Ling Dong; Zhang, Xixiang; Lin, Haiqing; YAN, Chunhua

    2012-01-01

    Percolation generally refers to the phenomenon of abrupt variations in electrical, magnetic, or optical properties caused by gradual volume fraction changes of one component across a threshold in bicomponent systems. Percolation behaviors have usually been observed in macroscopic systems, with most studies devoted to electrical percolation. We report on our observation of plasmonic percolation in Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures. When the Pd volume fraction in the shell consisting of palladium and water approaches the plasmonic percolation threshold, ∼70%, the plasmon of the nanostructure transits from red to blue shifts with respect to that of the unshelled Au nanorod. This plasmonic percolation behavior is also confirmed by the scattering measurements on the individual core-shell nanostructures. Quasistatic theory and numerical simulations show that the plasmonic percolation originates from a positive-to-negative transition in the real part of the dielectric function of the shell as the Pd volume fraction is increased. The observed plasmonic percolation is found to be independent of the metal type in the shell. Moreover, compared to the unshelled Au nanorods with similar plasmon wavelengths, the Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures exhibit larger refractive index sensitivities, which is ascribed to the expulsion of the electric field intensity from the Au nanorod core by the adsorbed Pd nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Determination of As and Se in crude oil diluted in xylene by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a dynamic reaction cell for interference correction on {sup 80}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Fernanda Inda de [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duyck, Christiane B., E-mail: cbduyck@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, 24020-150, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. [Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello da Petrobras (CENPES) (Brazil); Saint' Pierre, Tatiana D. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Arsenic and selenium can be found in crude oils and represent an important source of pollution when released to the environment during any stage of extraction or refinery. These elements present low sensitivity in the direct determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), due to their high ionization potential, and are also prone to spectral interferences. Hydride generation (HG) can be alternatively employed for the separation of these analytes from the sample matrix and introduction into the instrument. However, the required sample preparation usually increases the analysis time. In this work, a method was developed for the determination of As and Se in crude oil by ICP-MS, after sample dilution in xylene. The use of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) allowed for the overcoming of Ar{sub 2}{sup +} interference on {sup 80}Se, but was not necessary for As, since interference on m/z 75 was not observed. The optimized operational conditions for {sup 75}As and {sup 80}Se were: 1350 W of RF power, 0.4 L min{sup -1} of Ar nebulizer and 0.7 L min{sup -1} of Ar auxiliary flow rates. The DRC conditions for {sup 80}Se were 0.5 L min{sup -1} of methane and rejection parameter q (Rpq) of 0.2. The analyses were carried out by analyte addition and the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for As and 0.1 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for Se. The accuracy was verified by the analysis of residual fuel oil certified material, with agreement at a 95% confidence level. Nine Brazilian crude oil samples were analyzed and the results compared to those obtained by hydride generation ICP-MS. In this case, samples were decomposed with nitric acid in a digester block, the analytes pre-reduced with HCl 6 mol L{sup -1} and the determination carried out by external calibration. Although better instrumental LODs were obtained by HG (0.002 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of As and 0.04 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of Se), the direct determination of As and Se in crude oil diluted in xylene by DRC

  14. Inductively coupled plasma – Tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS): A powerful and universal tool for the interference-free determination of (ultra)trace elements – A tutorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Resano, Martín [University of Zaragoza, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Vanhaecke, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Vanhaecke@UGent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-09-24

    This paper is intended as a tutorial review on the use of inductively coupled plasma – tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) for the interference-free quantitative determination and isotope ratio analysis of metals and metalloids in different sample types. Attention is devoted both to the instrumentation and to some specific tools and procedures available for advanced method development. Next to the more typical reaction gases, e.g., H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, also the use of promising alternative gases, such as CH{sub 3}F, is covered, and the possible reaction pathways with those reactive gases are discussed. A variety of published applications relying on the use of ICP-MS/MS are described, to illustrate the added value of tandem mass spectrometry in (ultra)trace analysis. - Highlights: • First review on tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). • Clear description of operating principles of ICP-MS/MS. • Description on how to make use of product ion scans, precursor ion scans and neutral gain scans in method development. • Overview of applications published so far.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma – Tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS): A powerful and universal tool for the interference-free determination of (ultra)trace elements – A tutorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Resano, Martín; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial review on the use of inductively coupled plasma – tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) for the interference-free quantitative determination and isotope ratio analysis of metals and metalloids in different sample types. Attention is devoted both to the instrumentation and to some specific tools and procedures available for advanced method development. Next to the more typical reaction gases, e.g., H_2, O_2 and NH_3, also the use of promising alternative gases, such as CH_3F, is covered, and the possible reaction pathways with those reactive gases are discussed. A variety of published applications relying on the use of ICP-MS/MS are described, to illustrate the added value of tandem mass spectrometry in (ultra)trace analysis. - Highlights: • First review on tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). • Clear description of operating principles of ICP-MS/MS. • Description on how to make use of product ion scans, precursor ion scans and neutral gain scans in method development. • Overview of applications published so far.

  16. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-02-11

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  17. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Yang, Ying-Wei; Jensen, Lasse; Fang, Lei; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Flood, Amar H.; Weiss, Paul S.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  18. Molecular cavity optomechanics as a theory of plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelli, Philippe; Galland, Christophe; Piro, Nicolas; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-02-01

    The exceptional enhancement of Raman scattering by localized plasmonic resonances in the near field of metallic nanoparticles, surfaces or tips (SERS, TERS) has enabled spectroscopic fingerprinting down to the single molecule level. The conventional explanation attributes the enhancement to the subwavelength confinement of the electromagnetic field near nanoantennas. Here, we introduce a new model that also accounts for the dynamical nature of the plasmon-molecule interaction. We thereby reveal an enhancement mechanism not considered before: dynamical backaction amplification of molecular vibrations. We first map the system onto the canonical Hamiltonian of cavity optomechanics, in which the molecular vibration and the plasmon are parametrically coupled. We express the vacuum optomechanical coupling rate for individual molecules in plasmonic 'hot-spots' in terms of the vibrational mode's Raman activity and find it to be orders of magnitude larger than for microfabricated optomechanical systems. Remarkably, the frequency of commonly studied molecular vibrations can be comparable to or larger than the plasmon's decay rate. Together, these considerations predict that an excitation laser blue-detuned from the plasmon resonance can parametrically amplify the molecular vibration, leading to a nonlinear enhancement of Raman emission that is not predicted by the conventional theory. Our optomechanical approach recovers known results, provides a quantitative framework for the calculation of cross-sections, and enables the design of novel systems that leverage dynamical backaction to achieve additional, mode-selective enhancements. It also provides a quantum mechanical framework to analyse plasmon-vibrational interactions in terms of molecular quantum optomechanics.

  19. Plasmonic Circuit Theory for Multiresonant Light Funneling to a Single Spatial Hot Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tyler W; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-09-14

    We present a theoretical framework, based on plasmonic circuit models, for generating a multiresonant field intensity enhancement spectrum at a single "hot spot" in a plasmonic device. We introduce a circuit model, consisting of an array of coupled LC resonators, that directs current asymmetrically in the array, and we show that this circuit can funnel energy efficiently from each resonance to a single element. We implement the circuit model in a plasmonic nanostructure consisting of a series of metal bars of differing length, with nearest neighbor metal bars strongly coupled electromagnetically through air gaps. The resulting nanostructure resonantly traps different wavelengths of incident light in separate gap regions, yet it funnels the energy of different resonances to a common location, which is consistent with our circuit model. Our work is important for a number of applications of plasmonic nanoantennas in spectroscopy, such as in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Plasmonic enhancement of electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Gaponenko, S. V.; Demir, H. V.

    2018-01-01

    Here plasmonic effect specifically on electroluminescence (EL) is studied in terms of radiative and nonradiative decay rates for a dipole near a metal spherical nanoparticle (NP). Contribution from scattering is taken into account and is shown to play a decisive role in EL enhancement owing to pronounced size-dependent radiative decay enhancement and weak size effect on non-radiative counterpart. Unlike photoluminescence where local incident field factor mainly determines the enhancement possibility and level, EL enhancement is only possible by means of quantum yield rise, EL enhancement being feasible only for an intrinsic quantum yield Q0 red-orange range only. Independently of positive effect on quantum yield, metal nanoparticles embedded in an electroluminescent device will improve its efficiency at high currents owing to enhanced overall recombination rate which will diminish manifestation of Auger processes. The latter are believed to be responsible for the known undesirable efficiency droop in semiconductor commercial quantum well based LEDs at higher current. For the same reason plasmonics can diminish quantum dot photodegradation from Auger process induced non-radiative recombination and photoionization thus opening a way to avoid negative Auger effects in emerging colloidal semiconductor LEDs.

  1. Excitation of nanowire surface plasmons by silicon vacancy centers in nanodiamonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Davydov, Valery A.; Agafonov, Viatcheslav N.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon vacancy (SiV) centers in diamonds have emerged as a very promising candidate for quantum emitters due to their narrow emission line resulting in their indistinguishability. While many different quantum emitters have already been used for the excitation of various propagating plasmonic modes......, the corresponding exploitation of SiV centers has remained so far uncharted territory. Here, we report on the excitation of surface plasmon modes supported by silver nanowires using SiV centers in nanodiamonds. The coupling of SiV center fluorescence to surface plasmons is observed, when a nanodiamond situated...

  2. Active Plasmonics: Principles, Structures, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nina; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2018-03-28

    Active plasmonics is a burgeoning and challenging subfield of plasmonics. It exploits the active control of surface plasmon resonance. In this review, a first-ever in-depth description of the theoretical relationship between surface plasmon resonance and its affecting factors, which forms the basis for active plasmon control, will be presented. Three categories of active plasmonic structures, consisting of plasmonic structures in tunable dielectric surroundings, plasmonic structures with tunable gap distances, and self-tunable plasmonic structures, will be proposed in terms of the modulation mechanism. The recent advances and current challenges for these three categories of active plasmonic structures will be discussed in detail. The flourishing development of active plasmonic structures opens access to new application fields. A significant part of this review will be devoted to the applications of active plasmonic structures in plasmonic sensing, tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering, active plasmonic components, and electrochromic smart windows. This review will be concluded with a section on the future challenges and prospects for active plasmonics.

  3. Tailored Surfaces/Assemblies for Molecular Plasmonics and Plasmonic Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Pascal; Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2017-06-12

    Molecular plasmonics uses and explores molecule-plasmon interactions on metal nanostructures for spectroscopic, nanophotonic, and nanoelectronic devices. This review focuses on tailored surfaces/assemblies for molecular plasmonics and describes active molecular plasmonic devices in which functional molecules and polymers change their structural, electrical, and/or optical properties in response to external stimuli and that can dynamically tune the plasmonic properties. We also explore an emerging research field combining molecular plasmonics and molecular electronics.

  4. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  5. Poloidal and toroidal plasmons and fields of multilayer nanorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garapati, K. V.; Salhi, M.; Kouchekian, S.; Siopsis, G.

    2017-01-01

    Composite and janus type metallodielectric nanoparticles are increasingly considered as a means to control the spatial and temporal behavior of electromagnetic fields in diverse applications such as coupling to quantum emitters, achieving invisibility cloaks, and obtaining quantum correlations between qubits. We investigate the surface modes of a toroidal nanostructure and obtain the canonical plasmon dispersion relations and resonance modes for arbitrarily layered nanorings. Unlike particle plasmon eigenmodes in other geometries, the amplitudes of the eigenmodes of tori exhibit a distinct forward and backward coupling. We present the plasmon dispersion relations for several relevant toroidal configurations in the quasistatic limit and obtain the dominant retarded dispersion relations of a single ring for comparison, discuss mode complementarity and hybridization, and introduce two new types of toroidal particles in the form of janus nanorings. The resonance frequencies for the first few dominant modes of a ring composed of plasmon supporting materials such as gold, silver, and aluminum are provided and compared to those for a silicon ring. A generalized Green's function is obtained for multilayer tori allowing for calculation of the scattering response to interacting fields. Employing the Green's function, the scalar electric potential distribution corresponding to individual poloidal and toroidal modes in response to an arbitrarily polarized external field and the field of electrons is obtained. The results are applied to obtain the local density of states and decay rate of a dipole near the center of the torus.

  6. Poloidal and toroidal plasmons and fields of multilayer nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, K. V.; Salhi, M.; Kouchekian, S.; Siopsis, G.; Passian, A.

    2017-04-01

    Composite and janus type metallodielectric nanoparticles are increasingly considered as a means to control the spatial and temporal behavior of electromagnetic fields in diverse applications such as coupling to quantum emitters, achieving invisibility cloaks, and obtaining quantum correlations between qubits. We investigate the surface modes of a toroidal nanostructure and obtain the canonical plasmon dispersion relations and resonance modes for arbitrarily layered nanorings. Unlike particle plasmon eigenmodes in other geometries, the amplitudes of the eigenmodes of tori exhibit a distinct forward and backward coupling. We present the plasmon dispersion relations for several relevant toroidal configurations in the quasistatic limit and obtain the dominant retarded dispersion relations of a single ring for comparison, discuss mode complementarity and hybridization, and introduce two new types of toroidal particles in the form of janus nanorings. The resonance frequencies for the first few dominant modes of a ring composed of plasmon supporting materials such as gold, silver, and aluminum are provided and compared to those for a silicon ring. A generalized Green's function is obtained for multilayer tori allowing for calculation of the scattering response to interacting fields. Employing the Green's function, the scalar electric potential distribution corresponding to individual poloidal and toroidal modes in response to an arbitrarily polarized external field and the field of electrons is obtained. The results are applied to obtain the local density of states and decay rate of a dipole near the center of the torus.

  7. Plasmonic Devices for Near and Far-Field Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-11-30

    Plasmonics is an important branch of nanophotonics and is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the free electrons in a metal at metallic/dielectric interfaces or in small metallic nanostructures. The electric component of an exciting electromagnetic field can induce collective electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Such oscillations lead to the localization of the fields that can be at sub-wavelength scale and to its significant enhancement relative to the excitation fields. These two characteristics of localization and enhancement are the main components that allow for the guiding and manipulation of light beyond the diffraction limit. This thesis focuses on developing plasmonic devices for near and far-field applications. In the first part of the thesis, we demonstrate the detection of single point mutation in peptides from multicomponent mixtures for early breast cancer detection using selfsimilar chain (SCC) plasmonic devices that show high field enhancement and localization. In the second part of this work, we investigate the anomalous reflection of light for TM polarization for normal and oblique incidence in the visible regime. We propose gradient phase gap surface plasmon (GSP) metasurfaces that exhibit high conversion efficiency (up to ∼97% of total reflected light) to the anomalous reflection angle for blue, green and red wavelengths at normal and oblique incidence. In the third part of the thesis, we present a theoretical approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the near-field intensity at a plasmonic dimer gap (hot spot) through coupling the electric localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of a silver hemispherical dimer with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. In the fourth part of this work, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. In the fifth and final part of the

  8. Plasmonic Horizon in Gold Nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cynthia; Sivun, Dmitry; Ziegler, Johannes; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Hrelescu, Calin; Klar, Thomas A

    2018-02-14

    An electromagnetic wave impinging on a gold nanosponge coherently excites many electromagnetic hot-spots inside the nanosponge, yielding a polarization-dependent scattering spectrum. In contrast, a hole, recombining with an electron, can locally excite plasmonic hot-spots only within a horizon given by the lifetime of localized plasmons and the speed carrying the information that a plasmon has been created. This horizon is about 57 nm, decreasing with increasing size of the nanosponge. Consequently, photoluminescence from large gold nanosponges appears unpolarized.

  9. High-resolution electron-beam patternable nanocomposite containing metal nanoparticles for plasmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abargues, R; Marques-Hueso, J; Canet-Ferrer, J; Pedrueza, E; Valdes, J L; Jimenez, E; MartInez-Pastor, J P

    2008-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing noble metal nanoparticles are promising materials for plasmonic applications. In this paper, we report on a high-resolution negative-tone nanocomposite resist based on poly(vinyl alcohol) where silver nanoparticles and nanopatterns are simultaneously generated by electron-beam lithography. Our results indicate nanostructures with a relatively high concentration of nanoparticles and, consequently, an electromagnetic coupling among the nanoparticles. Therefore, the patternable nanocomposite described in this work may be a suitable material for future plasmonic circuitry

  10. Tamm-plasmon and surface-plasmon hybrid-mode based refractometry in photonic bandgap structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Srivastava, Triranjita; Jha, Rajan

    2014-02-15

    The transverse magnetic (TM) polarized hybrid modes formed as a consequence of coupling between Tamm plasmon polariton (TM-TPP) mode and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode exhibit interesting dispersive features for realizing a highly sensitive and accurate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. We found that the TM-TPP modes, formed at the interface of distributed Bragg reflector and metal, are strongly dispersive as compared to SPP modes at optical frequencies. This causes an appreciably narrow interaction bandwidth between TM-TPP and SPP modes, which leads to highly accurate sensing. In addition, appropriate tailoring of dispersion characteristics of TM-TPP as well as SPP modes could ensure high sensitivity of a novel SPR platform. By suitably designing the Au/TiO₂/SiO₂-based geometry, we propose a TM-TPP/SPP hybrid-mode sensor and achieve a sensitivity ≥900  nm/RIU with high detection accuracy (≥30  μm⁻¹) for analyte refractive indices varying between 1.330 and 1.345 in 600-700 nm wavelength range. The possibility to achieve desired dispersive behavior in any spectral band makes the sensing configuration an extremely attractive candidate to design sensors depending on the availability of optical sources.

  11. Phonon-assisted damping of plasmons in three- and two-dimensional metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Fabio; Novko, Dino; Draxl, Claudia

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effects of crystal lattice vibrations on the dispersion of plasmons. The loss function of the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) in two and three dimensions is evaluated numerically in the presence of electronic coupling to an optical phonon mode. Our calculations are based on many-body perturbation theory for the dielectric function as formulated by the Hedin-Baym equations in the Fan-Migdal approximation. The coupling to phonons broadens the spectral signatures of plasmons in the electron-energy loss spectrum (EELS) and it induces the decay of plasmons on timescales shorter than 1 ps. Our results further reveal the formation of a kink in the plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional HEG, which marks the onset of plasmon-phonon scattering. Overall, these features constitute a fingerprint of plasmon-phonon coupling in EELS of simple metals. It is shown that these effects may be accounted for by resorting to a simplified treatment of the electron-phonon interaction which is amenable to first-principles calculations.

  12. Plasmonics and single-molecule detection in evaporated silver-island films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moula, G.; Aroca, R.F. [Materials and Surface Science Group, University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada); Rodriguez-Oliveros, R.; Sanchez-Gil, J.A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Albella, P. [Centro de Fisica de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 Donostia, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The plasmonic origin of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) leads to the concept of hotspots and plasmon coupling that can be realized in the interstitial regions, or on specially engineered, silver and gold nanostructures. It is also possible to achieve spatial locations of high local field or hotspots on silver-island films (SIF) allowing single-molecule detection (SMD). When a single monomolecular layer coating the SIFs contains dye molecules dispersed in it, single-molecule impurities, (with an average of one hundred dye molecules in 1 {mu}m{sup 2}, which is the field of view of the micro-Raman system), SMD is observed as a rare statistical event. Here, the SMD results for silver-island films are presented, with the same nominal mass thickness, but differing in the localized surface plasmon resonance that is a function of the temperature of substrate during deposition. A blue-shifted plasmon can be seen as a decrease in plasmon coupling for deposition at higher temperature. A simple two-particle model for localized plasmon resonance coupling calculations, including the shape and substrate effects seems to explain the trend of observations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Interference Calculus A General Framework for Interference Management and Network Utility Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a mathematical framework for modeling and optimizing interference-coupled multiuser systems. At the core of this framework is the concept of general interference functions, which provides a simple means of characterizing interdependencies between users. The entire analysis builds on the two core axioms scale-invariance and monotonicity. The proposed network calculus has its roots in power control theory and wireless communications. It adds theoretical tools for analyzing the typical behavior of interference-coupled networks. In this way it complements existing game-theoretic approaches. The framework should also be viewed in conjunction with optimization theory. There is a fruitful interplay between the theory of interference functions and convex optimization theory. By jointly exploiting the properties of interference functions, it is possible to design algorithms that outperform general-purpose techniques that only exploit convexity. The title “network calculus” refers to the fact tha...

  14. Polarization-resolved optical response of plasmonic particle-on-film nanocavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Li, G.-C.; Lo, T. W.; Lei, D. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Placing a metal nanoparticle atop a metal film forms a plasmonic particle-on-film nanocavity. Such a nanocavity supports strong plasmonic coupling that results in rich hybridized plasmon modes, rendering the cavity a versatile platform for exploiting a wide range of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy applications. In this paper, we fully address the polarization-resolved, orientation-dependent far-field optical responses of plasmonic monomer- and dimer-on-film nanocavities by numerical simulations and experiments. With polarization-resolved dark-field spectroscopy, the distinct plasmon resonances of these nanocavities are clearly determined from their scattering spectra. Moreover, the radiation patterns of respective plasmon modes, which are often mixed together in common dark-field imaging, can be unambiguously resolved with our proposed quasi-multispectral imaging method. Explicitly, the radiation pattern of the monomer-on-film nanocavity gradually transitions from a solid spot in the green imaging channel to a doughnut ring in the red channel when tuning the excitation polarization from parallel to perpendicular to the sample surface. This observation holds true for the plasmonic dimer-on-film nanocavity with the dimer axis aligned in the incidence plane; when the dimer axis is normal to the incidence plane, the pattern transitions from a solid spot to a doughnut ring both in the red channel. These studies not only demonstrate a flexible polarization control over the optical responses of plasmonic particle-on-film nanostructures but also enrich the optical tool kit for far-field imaging and spectroscopy characterization of various plasmonic nanostructures.

  15. Plasmonic Manipulation of Light for Sensing and Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani Khakestar, Heidar

    Plasmonics is a successful new field of science and technology that exploits the exclusive optical properties of metallic nanostructures to manipulate and concentrate light at nano-meter length scales. When light hits the surface of gold or silver nanoparticles it can excite collective oscillations of the conduction electrons called surface plasmons. This surface plasmon undergoes two damping processes; it can decay into photon and reemit the plasmon energy as scattered energy or decay into electron-hole pair with the excitation energy equal to the energy of the plasmon resonance, known as absorption. This high energy electron subsequently undergoes into the carrier multiplication and eventually scatters into the electrons with lower energy. We used Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Finite-Element Method (Comsol) to design nanoscale structures to act as nanoantenna for light harvesting and consequently manipulating radiative and absorption properties of them for Sensing and Photovoltaic applications. To manipulate near and far field we designed our structures in a way that the bright and dark plasmon modes overlap and couple to each other. This process is called Fano resonance and introduces a transparency window in the far-field spectra. At the same time it increases the near-field enhancement. We applied the changes in near-field and far-field to SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) and LSPR (Localized Surface plasmon Resonance) shift for sensing purposes. We modeled Fano resonances with classical harmonic oscillator and reproduced the same feature with a simple equation of motion. We used this model to replicate scattering spectra from different geometries and explain the cathodoluminescence results obtained from nanoscale gold clusters structure. All of these nanoantenna optical properties and applications are due to the reemission ability of the plasmon energy to the vacuum and confining optical field, but the plasmon energy can decay into a high

  16. An introduction to graphene plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, P A D

    2016-01-01

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving towards more advanced topics. This book is essentially self-contained and brings together a number of different topics about the field that are scattered in the vast literature. The text is composed of eleven chapters and of a set of detailed appendices. It can be read in two different ways: Reading only the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field.

  17. Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Frigerio, Jacopo; Samarelli, Antonio; Gallacher, Kevin; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Sakat, Emilie; Calandrini, Eugenio; Millar, Ross W.; Giliberti, Valeria; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Ortolani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The use of heavily doped semiconductors to achieve plasma frequencies in the mid-IR has been recently proposed as a promising way to obtain high-quality and tunable plasmonic materials. We introduce a plasmonic platform based on epitaxial n-type Ge grown on standard Si wafers by means of low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Due to the large carrier concentration achieved with P dopants and to the compatibility with the existing CMOS technology, SiGe plasmonics hold promises for mid-IR applications in optoelectronics, IR detection, sensing, and light harvesting. As a representative example, we show simulations of mid-IR plasmonic waveguides based on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constants of the grown materials.

  18. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Iorsh, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials...

  19. Strong Plasmon-Phonon Splitting and Hybridization in 2D Materials Revealed through a Self-Energy Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Saavedra, J. R. M.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    splitting due to this coupling, resulting in a characteristic avoided crossing scheme. We base our results on a computationally efficient approach consisting in including many-body interactions through the electron self-energy. We specify this formalism for a description of plasmons based upon a tight...... nanotriangles with varied size, where we predict remarkable peak splittings and other radical modifications in the spectra due to plasmon interactions with intrinsic optical phonons. Our method is equally applicable to other 2D materials and provides a simple approach for investigating coupling of plasmons...

  20. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  1. Enhanced and Tunable Optical Quantum Efficiencies from Plasmon Bandwidth Engineering in Bimetallic CoAg Nanoparticles (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    size for the Co-Ag systems . in Fig. 2(b). Fig. 2(c) compares the plasmon resonance energy and the bandwidth of the bimetallic systems as a function...nanoparticle shape and size effects on aluminum oxide-induced enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and quantum dot emission J. Appl. Phys. 118, 124302...thin film photovoltaics : A case-study on organic devices J. Appl. Phys. 116, 114510 (2014); 10.1063/1.4896167 Cascaded plasmon resonant field

  2. Semiconductors for plasmonics and metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, G.V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals with semiconduct......Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals...... with semiconductors can alleviate these problems if only semiconductors could exhibit negative real permittivity. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a low loss semiconductor that can show negative real permittivity in the NIR. A comparative assessment of AZO-based plasmonic devices such as superlens and hyperlens...... with their metal-based counterparts shows that AZO-based devices significantly outperform at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. This provides a strong stimulus in turning to semiconductor plasmonics at the telecommunication wavelengths. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)....

  3. Parametric dependence of two-plasmon decay in homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Dejan R

    2010-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of two-plasmon decay in a homogeneous plasma slab near the quarter-critical density is constructed in order to improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of the daughter electron plasma waves in plasma in the course of the instability. The scaling of the amplitudes of the participating waves with laser and plasma parameters is investigated. The secondary coupling of two daughter electron plasma waves with an ion-acoustic wave is assumed to be the principal mechanism of saturation of the instability. The impact of the inherently nonresonant nature of this secondary coupling on the development of two-plasmon decay is researched and it is shown to significantly influence the electron plasma wave dynamics. Its inclusion leads to nonuniformity of the spatial profile of the instability and causes the burst-like pattern of the instability development, which should result in the burst-like hot-electron production in homogeneous plasma.

  4. Ultrashort hybrid metal-insulator plasmonic directional coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noghani, Mahmoud Talafi; Samiei, Mohammad Hashem Vadjed

    2013-11-01

    An ultrashort plasmonic directional coupler based on the hybrid metal-insulator slab waveguide is proposed and analyzed at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. It is first analyzed using the supermode theory based on mode analysis via the transfer matrix method in the interaction region. Then the 2D model of the coupler, including transition arms, is analyzed using a commercial finite-element method simulator. The hybrid slab waveguide is composed of a metallic layer of silver and two dielectric layers of silica (SiO2) and silicon (Si). The coupler is optimized to have a minimum coupling length and to transfer maximum power considering the layer thicknesses as optimization variables. The resulting coupling length in the submicrometer region along with a noticeable power transfer efficiency are advantages of the proposed coupler compared to previously reported plasmonic couplers.

  5. Application of Surface Plasmonics for Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed

    This thesis addresses the lack of an efficient semiconductor light source at green emission colours. Considering InGaN based quantum-well (QW) light-emitters and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), various ways of applying surface plasmonics and nano-patterning to improve the efficiency, are investigated....... By placing metallic thin films or nanoparticles (NPs) in the near-field of QW light-emitters, it is possible to improve their internal quantum efficiency (IQE) through the Purcell enhancement effect. It has been a general understanding that in order to achieve surface plasmon (SP) coupling with QWs......-QW coupling does not necessarily lead to emission enhancement. The findings of this work show that the scattering and absorption properties of NPs play a crucial role in determining whether the implementation will improve or degrade the optical performance. By applying these principles, a novel design...

  6. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  7. Surface plasmon transmission through discontinuous conducting surfaces: Plasmon amplitude modulation by grazing scattered fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayoral-Astorga, L. A.; Gaspar-Armenta, J. A.; Ramos-Mendieta, F. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 México (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    We have studied numerically the diffraction of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) when it encounters a wide multi-wavelength slit in conducting films. As a jump process a SPP is excited beyond the slit by wave scattering at the second slit edge. The exciting radiation is produced when the incident SPP collapses at the first slit edge. We have found that the transmitted SPP supports inherent and unavoidable interference with grazing scattered radiation; the spatial modulation extends to the fields in the diffraction region where a series of low intensity spots arises. We demonstrate that the SPP generated on the second slab depends on the frequency but not on the wave vector of the collapsed SPP; a SPP is transmitted even when the two metals forming the slit are different. The numerical results were obtained using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with a grid size λ/100.

  8. Coupled wave equations theory of surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Michael O; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Van Duyne, Richard P; Schatz, George C

    2016-09-07

    We present a coupled wave semiclassical theory to describe plasmonic enhancement effects in surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS). A key result is that the plasmon enhanced fields which drive the vibrational equation of motion for each normal mode results in dispersive lineshapes in the SE-FSRS spectrum. This result, which reproduces experimental lineshapes, demonstrates that plasmon-enhanced stimulated Raman methods provide unique sensitivity to a plasmonic response. Our derived SE-FSRS theory shows a plasmonic enhancement of |gpu|(2)ImχR(ω)gst (2)/ImχR(ω), where |gpu|(2) is the absolute square of the plasmonic enhancement from the Raman pump, χR(ω) is the Raman susceptibility, and gst is the plasmonic enhancement of the Stokes field in SE-FSRS. We conclude with a discussion on potential future experimental and theoretical directions for the field of plasmonically enhanced coherent Raman scattering.

  9. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  10. Poloidal and toroidal plasmons and fields of multilayer nanorings

    OpenAIRE

    Garapati, Kumar Vijay; Salhi, Marouane; Kouchekian, Sherwin; Siopsis, George; Passian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Composite and janus type metallo-dielectric nanoparticles are increasingly considered as a means to control the spatial and temporal behavior of electromagnetic fields in diverse applications such as coupling to quantum emitters, achieve invisibility cloaks, and obtain quantum correlations between qubits. We investigate the surface modes of a toroidal nano-structure and obtain the canonical plasmon dispersion relations and resonance modes for arbitrarily layered nanorings. Unlike particle pla...

  11. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  12. Optofluidic plasmonic onchip nanosensor array for biodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has been demonstrated in the past decade to be the gold standard technique for biochemical interaction analysis, and plays an important role in drug discovery and biomedical research. The technique circumvents the need of fluorescence/radioactive tagging or enzymatic detection, enables ultrasensitive remote sensing, and quantitatively monitors bio-interaction in real time. Although SPR has these attractive features that can satisfy most research/clinic requirements, there still exist problems that limit its applications. First, the reflection geometry of the prism coupling scheme adds limitations for high throughput screening application. Additionally, SPR instrumentations are bulky and not suitable for point-of-care settings. Moreover, the SPR sensor is embedded in conventional micro-fluidic cells, in which the sensor performance is limited by inefficient analyte transport. Suspended plasmonic nanohole array (PNA) offers an opportunity to overcome these limitations. A collinear excitation/collection coupling scheme combined with the small footprint of PNA provides unique platform for multiplexing and system minimization. The suspended nanohole structure also offers a unique configuration to integrate nano-photonics with nano-fluidics. This thesis focuses on developing a lab-on-a-chip PNA platform for point-of-care bio-detection. To achieve this, we first demonstrate that the figure-of-merit of our PNA sensor surpasses that of the prism coupled SPR. We also show that the ultrasensitive label-free PNA sensor is able to directly detect intact viruses from biological media at clinically relevant concentrations with little sample preparation. We then present a plasmonic microarray with over one million PNA sensors on a microscope slide for high throughput screening applications. A dual-color filter imaging method is introduced to increase the accuracy, reliability, and signal-to-noise ratio in a highly multiplexed manner. Finally

  13. Polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan

    2017-08-28

    Free-space light can be coupled into propagating surface waves at a metal–dielectric interface, known as surface plasmons (SPs). This process has traditionally faced challenges in preserving the incident polarization information and controlling the directionality of the excited SPs. The recently reported polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of SPs in metasurfaces has attracted much attention for its promise in developing innovative plasmonic devices. However, the unit elements in these works were purposely designed in certain orthogonal polarizations, i.e., linear or circular polarizations, resulting in limited two-level polarization controllability. Here, we introduce a coupled-mode theory to overcome this limit. We demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that, by utilizing the coupling effect between a pair of split-ring-shaped slit resonators, exotic asymmetric excitation of SPs can be obtained under the x-, y-, left-handed circular, and right-handed circular polarization incidences, while the polarization information of the incident light can be preserved in the excited SPs. The versatility of the presented design scheme would offer opportunities for polarization sensing and polarization-controlled plasmonic devices.

  14. Coherent interaction of single molecules and plasmonic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Grotz, Bernhard; Siyushev, Petr; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    Quantum plasmonics opens the option to integrate complex quantum optical circuitry onto chip scale devices. In the past, often external light sources were used and nonclassical light was coupled in and out of plasmonic structures, such as hole arrays or waveguide structures. Another option to launch single plasmonic excitations is the coupling of single emitters in the direct proximity of, e.g., a silver or gold nanostructure. Here, we present our attempts to integrate the research of single emitters with wet-chemically grown silver nanowires. The emitters of choice are single organic dye molecules under cryogenic conditions, which are known to act as high-brightness and extremely narrow-band single photon sources. Another advantage is their high optical nonlinearity, such that they might mediate photon-photon interactions on the nanoscale. We report on the coupling of a single molecule fluorescence emission through the wire over the length of several wavelengths. The transmission of coherently emitted photons is proven by an extinction type experiment. As for influencing the spectral properties of a single emitter, we are able to show a remote change of the line-width of a single terrylene molecule, which is in close proximity to the nanowire.

  15. “RaMassays”: Synergistic Enhancement of Plasmon-Free Raman Scattering and Mass Spectrometry for Multimodal Analysis of Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Ivano; Vassalini, Irene; Bertuzzi, Michela; Bontempi, Nicolò; Memo, Maurizio; Gianoncelli, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    SiO2/TiO2 core/shell (T-rex) beads were exploited as “all-in-one” building-block materials to create analytical assays that combine plasmon-free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry (RaMassays). Such a multi-modal approach relies on the unique optical properties of T-rex beads, which are able to harvest and manage light in both UV and Vis range, making ionization and Raman scattering more efficient. RaMassays were successfully applied to the detection of small (molecular weight, M.W. theobromine couples demonstrated the synergistic reciprocal reinforcement of SERS and SALDI. Finally, the conversion of L-tyrosine in L-DOPA was utilized to probe RaMassays as analytical tools for characterizing reaction intermediates without introducing any spurious effects. RaMassays exhibit important advantages over plasmonic nanoparticles in terms of reproducibility, absence of interference and potential integration in multiplexed devices.

  16. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  17. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  18. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...

  19. Hybrid plasmonic nanodevices: Switching mechanism for the nonlinear emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragas, Andrea V. [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IFIBA CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Control of the light emission at the nanoscale is of central interest in nanophotonics due to the many applications in very different fields, ranging from quantum information to biophysics. Resonant excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in metal nanoparticles create nanostructured and enhanced light fields around those structures, which produce their strong interaction in a hybrid nanodevice with other plasmonic or non-plasmonic objects. This interaction may in turn also modulate the far field with important consequences in the applications. We show in this paper that the nonlinear emission from semiconductor quantum dots is strongly affected by the close presence of metal nanoparticles, which are resonantly excited. Using a pulsed laser, optical second harmonic is generated in the quantum dot, and it is highly enhanced when the laser is tuned around the nanoparticle plasmon resonance. Even more interesting is the demonstration of a switching mechanism, controlled by an external continuous-wave field, which can enhance or extinguish the SH signal, even when the pulsed laser is always on. Experimental observations are in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations, based on the dipole-dipole near-field coupling of the objects forming the hybrid system.

  20. Three-dimensional plasmonic chiral tetramers assembled by DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xibo; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Qiao; García de Abajo, F Javier; Liu, Na; Ding, Baoquan

    2013-05-08

    Molecular chemistry offers a unique toolkit to draw inspiration for the design of artificial metamolecules. For a long time, optical circular dichroism has been exclusively the terrain of natural chiral molecules, which exhibit optical activity mainly in the UV spectral range, thus greatly hindering their significance for a broad range of applications. Here we demonstrate that circular dichroism can be generated with artificial plasmonic chiral nanostructures composed of the minimum number of spherical gold nanoparticles required for three-dimensional (3D) chirality. We utilize a rigid addressable DNA origami template to precisely organize four nominally identical gold nanoparticles into a three-dimensional asymmetric tetramer. Because of the chiral structural symmetry and the strong plasmonic resonant coupling between the gold nanoparticles, the 3D plasmonic assemblies undergo different interactions with left and right circularly polarized light, leading to pronounced circular dichroism. Our experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions. The simplicity of our structure geometry and, most importantly, the concept of resorting on biology to produce artificial photonic functionalities open a new pathway to designing smart artificial plasmonic nanostructures for large-scale production of optically active metamaterials.

  1. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai B., E-mail: udaibhansingh123@gmail.com; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-15

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm{sup −1} along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  2. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons

  3. Plasmonic photonic crystals realized through DNA-programmable assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel J; Zhang, Chuan; Ku, Jessie C; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-01-27

    Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals have well-established enhanced light-matter interactions via high Q factors. Their plasmonic counterparts based on arrays of nanoparticles, however, have not been experimentally well explored owing to a lack of available synthetic routes for preparing them. However, such structures should facilitate these interactions based on the small mode volumes associated with plasmonic polarization. Herein we report strong light-plasmon interactions within 3D plasmonic photonic crystals that have lattice constants and nanoparticle diameters that can be independently controlled in the deep subwavelength size regime by using a DNA-programmable assembly technique. The strong coupling within such crystals is probed with backscattering spectra, and the mode splitting (0.10 and 0.24 eV) is defined based on dispersion diagrams. Numerical simulations predict that the crystal photonic modes (Fabry-Perot modes) can be enhanced by coating the crystals with a silver layer, achieving moderate Q factors (∼10(2)) over the visible and near-infrared spectrum.

  4. Tunable high-channel-count bandpass plasmonic filters based on an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hua; Liu Xueming; Wang Guoxi; Mao Dong

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed a novel type of bandpass plasmonic filter consisting of metal–insulator–metal bus waveguides coupled with a series of side-coupled cavities and stub waveguides. The theoretical modeling demonstrates that our waveguide-resonator system performs a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems, as is confirmed by numerical experiments. The plasmonic EIT-like response enables the realization of nanoscale bandpass filters with multiple channels. Additionally, the operating wavelengths and bandwidths of our filters can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters such as the lengths of stub waveguides and the coupling distances between the cavities and stub waveguides. The ultracompact configurations contribute to the achievement of wavelength division multiplexing systems for optical computing and communications in highly integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  5. Detection of the ODMR signal of a nitrogen vacancy centre in nanodiamond in propagating surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baiaty, Zahraa; Cumming, Benjamin P.; Gan, Xiaosong; Gu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) signal of a nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre can be coupled to propagating surface plasmons for the detection of the NV centre spin states, and of external magnetic fields. By coupling the spin dependent luminescence signal of a NV centre in a nanodiamond (ND) to a chemically synthesized silver nanowire, we demonstrate the readout of the ODMR signal as a reduction in the surface plasmon polariton intensity, with improved contrast in comparison to the emission from the NV centre. Furthermore, on the application of a permanent magnetic field from zero to 13 G, we demonstrate that the Zeeman splitting of the magnetic spin states of the nitrogen vacancy centre ground states can also be detected in the coupled surface plasmons. This is an important step in the development of a compact on-chip information processing system utilizing the nitrogen vacancy in nanodiamond as an on-chip source with efficient magnetometry sensing properties.

  6. Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances with Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Ni, Xingjie

    2012-01-01

    Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance.......Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance....

  7. Dynamics of plasmonic field polarization induced by quantum coherence in quantum dot-metallic nanoshell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S M

    2014-09-01

    When a hybrid system consisting of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle interacts with a laser field, the plasmonic field of the metallic nanoparticle can be normalized by the quantum coherence generated in the quantum dot. In this Letter, we study the states of polarization of such a coherent-plasmonic field and demonstrate how these states can reveal unique aspects of the collective molecular properties of the hybrid system formed via coherent exciton-plasmon coupling. We show that transition between the molecular states of this system can lead to ultrafast polarization dynamics, including sudden reversal of the sense of variations of the plasmonic field and formation of circular and elliptical polarization.

  8. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe; Chen, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings

  9. Propagation of Channel Plasmons at the Visible Regime in Aluminum V-Groove Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Smith, Cameron; Bar-David, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V-grooves are ......Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V......-grooves are fabricated by a process involving UV-photolithography, crystallographic silicon etching, and metal deposition. Polarization measurements of coupling demonstrate a preference to the TM-aligned mode, as predicted in simulations....

  10. Plasmonic superfocusing on metallic tips for near-field optical imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Catalin C.; Olmon, Rob; Berweger, Samuel; Kappus, Alexandria; Kirchner, Friedrich; Ropers, Claus; Saraf, Lax; Raschke, Markus B.

    2008-03-01

    Realization of localized light sources through nonlocal excitation is important in the context of plasmon photonics, molecular sensing, and in particular near-field optical techniques. Here, the efficient conversion of propagating surface plasmons, launched on the shaft of a scanning probe tip, into localized plasmon at the apex provides a true nanoconfined light source. Focused ion beam milling is used to generate periodic surface nanostructures on the tip shaft that allow for tailoring the plasmon excitation. Using ultrashort visible and mid-IR transients the dynamics of the propagation and subsequent scattered emission is characterized. The strong field enhancement and spatial field confinement at the apex is demonstrated studying the coupling of the tip in near-field interaction with a flat sample surface. It is used in scattering near-field spectroscopic imaging (s-SNOM) to probe surface nanostructures with spatial resolution down to 10 nm.

  11. Plasmonic Switches and Sensors Based on PANI-Coated Gold Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nina

    a macroscale array of PANI-coated gold nanorods immobilized on glass slides, whose performance is as good as that of the individual PANI-coated gold nanorods. With much smaller amounts of materials, my core/shell nanorod arrays show peak extinction values and maximal modulation depths that are comparable to those of PANI films with micrometer-scale thicknesses. Switching coupled surface plasmon relative to uncoupled one affords the possibility to achieve the modulation over a wide spectral band and with wealthy plasmonic responses. Thus, I have studied the active control of plasmon coupling in homodimers and homotrimers of PANI-coated gold nanospheres (PGNSs). The dimers and trimers are obtained by reducing the surfactant concentration in the polymerization process of PANI. The reversible proton-doping of PANI enables the control of plasmon coupling to succeed. When the plasmon coupling of the dimers is switched, the wavelength shift of the strongest scattering peak shows an exponential increase with the decrease of the interparticle gap distance. A giant wavelength shift of 231 nm is observed for the dimer with a shell thickness of 10 nm and a gap distance of 0.5 nm. Electrodynamic calculations ascertain that the wavelength shift of the strongest scattering peak originates from the tuning of the dipolar bonding plasmon resonance mode in the dimers. The quadrupolar bonding plasmon resonance mode is turned on and off by switching the doped and undoped state of the dimers with gap distances of less than 3 nm. The active tuning of plasmon coupling is further demonstrated with the trimers of PGNSs, which is sensitive to their configurations. In the triangular configuration, larger vertex angles lead to larger wavelength shifts for the plasmonic tuning. Another strategy for controlling the dielectric properties of PANI shell around gold nanostructures is to change its oxidation level. The variation of the oxidation state of PANI leads to the plasmonic peak wavelength

  12. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3 thin films by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coupled with surface passivation by atom layer deposition of Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuting; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Fan, Haowen; Cheng, Weijie; Lu, Linfeng; Song, Ye; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-12-01

    The short lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers of hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films strongly hindered the PEC performances. Herein, α-Fe2O3 thin films with surface nanowire were synthesized by electrodeposition and post annealing method for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting. The thickness of the α-Fe2O3 films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the duration of the electrodeposition. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Al2O3 shell by atom layer deposition were further introduced to modify the photoelectrodes. Different constructions were made with different deposition orders of Au and Al2O3 on Fe2O3 films. The Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction shows the best PEC performance with 1.78 times enhancement by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of NPs in conjunction with surface passivation of Al2O3 shells. Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the promotion mechanisms. The high PEC performance for Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction electrode could be attributed to the Al2O3 intensified LSPR, effective surface passivation by Al2O3 coating, and the efficient charge transfer due to the Fe2O3-Au Schottky junctions.

  13. A novel plasmonic interferometry and the potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have proposed the plasmonic interferometry concept and analytical details given. By using the conventional optical interferometry, which can be simply calculated by using the relationship between the electric field and electron mobility, the interference mobility visibility (fringe visibility can be observed. The surface plasmons in the sensing arm of the Michelson interferometer is constructed by the stacked layers of the silicon-graphene-gold, allows to characterize the spatial resolution of light beams in terms of the electron mobility down to 100-nm scales, with measured coherence lengths as low as ∼100 nm for an incident wavelength of 1550 nm. We have demonstrated a compact plasmonic interferometer that can apply to the electron mean free paths measurement, from which the precise determination can be used for the high-resolution mean free path measurement and sensing applications. This system provides the practical simulation device parameters that can be fabricated and tested by the experimental platform.

  14. Near field plasmon and force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hollander, R.B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A scanning plasmon near field optical microscope (SPNM) is presented which combines a conventional far field surface plasmon microscope with a stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM). Near field plasmon and force images are recorded simultaneously both with a lateral resolution limited by the

  15. Plasmonically enhanced thermomechanical detection of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Zhu, Hai; Reed, Jason C; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2013-04-10

    Nanoplasmonics has been an attractive area of research due to its ability to localize and manipulate freely propagating radiation on the nanometer scale for strong light-matter interactions. Meanwhile, nanomechanics has set records in the sensing of mass, force, and displacement. In this work, we report efficient coupling between infrared radiation and nanomechanical resonators through nanoantenna enhanced thermoplasmonic effects. Using efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy in this plasmo-thermomechanical platform with a nanoslot plasmonic absorber integrated directly on a nanobeam mechanical resonator, we demonstrate room-temperature detection of nanowatt level power fluctuations in infrared radiation. We expect our approach, which combines nanoplasmonics with nanomechanical resonators, to lead to optically controlled nanomechanical systems enabling unprecedented functionality in biomolecular and toxic gas sensing and on-chip mass spectroscopy.

  16. Understanding quantum interference in general nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to give a new understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of general nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-(inter)action of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-action is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schroedinger current and Dirac current, respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to the fermion magnetic moment, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and nonperturbative self-actions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all. And by comparison with the special formalism of Schroedinger current, the coupling strength of self-action in the limit is found to be ∞. In the perturbative case, the interference from self-action turns out to be the same as that from the standard approach of quantum theory. Then comparing the corresponding coefficients quantitatively we conclude that the coupling strength of self-action in this case falls in the interval [0, 1].

  17. Multiple plasmonically induced transparency for chip-scale bandpass filters in metallic nanowaveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Yue, Zengqi; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new kind of bandpass filters based on the plasmonically induced transparency (PIT) effect in a special metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide system. The finite element method (FEM) simulations illustrate that the obvious PIT response can be generated in the metallic nanostructure with the stub and coupled cavities. The lineshape and position of the PIT peak are particularly dependent on the lengths of the stub and coupled cavities, the waveguide width, as well as the coupling distance between the stub and coupled cavities. The numerical simulations are in accordance with the results obtained by the temporal coupled-mode theory. The multi-peak PIT effect can be achieved by integrating multiple coupled cavities into the plasmonic waveguide. This PIT response contributes to the flexible realization of chip-scale multi-channel bandpass filters, which could find crucial applications in highly integrated optical circuits for signal processing.

  18. Plasmon polaritons in nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique electronic and optical properties. When graphene is electrically/chemically doped, it can support surface plasmon where the light propagates along the surface with a very short wavelength and an extremely small mode volume. The optical...... properties of graphene can be tuned by electrical gating, thus proving a promising way to realize a tunable plasmonic material. We firstly investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides, and show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided...... that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. Then we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The silicon grating is realized by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self...

  19. A high figure of merit localized surface plasmon sensor based on a gold nanograting on the top of a gold planar film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zu-Yin; Wang Li-Na; Hu Hai-Feng; Li Kang-Wen; Ma Xun-Peng; Song Guo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) of a localized surface plasmon (LSP) sensor with gold nanograting on the top of planar metallic film. The sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon sensor is 317 nm/RIU, and the FOM is predicted to be above 8, which is very high for a localized surface plasmon sensor. By employing the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method, we analyze the distribution of the magnetic field and find that the sensing property of our proposed system is attributed to the interactions between the localized surface plasmon around the gold nanostrips and the surface plasmon polarition on the surface of the gold planar metallic film. These findings are important for developing high FOM localized surface plasmon sensors. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Semiconductor plasmonic crystals: active control of THz extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaafsma, M C; Rivas, J Gómez

    2013-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of semiconductor particles. Scattering particles of doped semiconductors can sustain localized surface plasmon polaritons, which can be diffractively coupled giving rise to surface lattice resonances. These resonances are characterized by a large extinction and narrow bandwidth, which can be tuned by controlling the charge carrier density in the semiconductor. The underlaying mechanism leading to this tuneability is explained using the coupled dipole approximation and considering GaAs as the semiconductor. The enhanced THz extinction in arrays of GaAs particles could be tuned in a wide range by optical pumping of charge carriers. (invited article)

  1. Design and characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Chen, Zhuo; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    Ultracompact directional couplers (DCs) based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are analyzed using the effective index method (EIM), with the coupling, both in the parallel interaction region and in- and out-coupling regions, being taken into account. Near-field...... characterization of fabricated DCs performed with a scanning near-field optical microscope verifies the applicability of the EIM in the analysis and design of DLSPPW-based wavelength-selective DCs. The design approach applicable to a large variety of integrated optical waveguides is developed, enabling...

  2. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered...... with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic...

  3. Active resonance tuning of stretchable plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Active resonance tuning is highly desired for the applications of plasmonic structures, such as optical switches and surface enhanced Raman substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the active tunable plasmonic structures, which composed of monolayer arrays of metallic semishells with dielectric...... cores on stretchable elastic substrates. These composite structures support Bragg-type surface plasmon resonances whose frequencies are sensitive to the arrangement of the metallic semishells. Under uniaxial stretching, the lattice symmetry of these plasmonic structures can be reconfigured from...... applications of the stretch-tunable plasmonic structures in sensing, switching, and filtering....

  4. Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Yunyun; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying...... physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing...... of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions....

  5. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  6. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina GRIDINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Performed in this paper is numerical modeling of the angular dependence for light reflectivity R(F in surface plasmon-polariton resonance (SPR realized in Kretschmann geometry when studying the interface gold/suspension of spherical particles (cells in the assumption that the dielectric permittivity of particles suspension is described by the theory of effective medium. It has been shown that availability of suspended particles in solution inevitably results in appearance of an intermediate layer with the ε gradient between gold surface and suspension bulk, as a result of which the SPR angle shifts to lower values. Near the critical angle, the first derivative dR/dF demonstrates a clearly pronounced peak, which allows determining the value for suspension bulk and the gradient in the intermediate layer. Obtained in our experiments were SPR curves for two suspensions of erythrocytes – the dense one (erythrocyte mass after centrifuging and loose solution (whole blood. In the case of erythrocyte mass, fitting the experimental and calculated curves enabled us to quantitatively determine the bulk value for this erythrocyte mass (εb =1.96, thickness of the intermediate layer dm (300…400 nm and gradient in the intermediate layer. On the contrary, the SPR curve for whole blood appeared to be close to that of pure plasma. This fact allows only estimation of the thickness dm~2000...3000 nm as well as minimum ε value in the intermediate layer, which is close to that of plasma (ε = 1.79. Also, discussed is the mechanism of influence of the cell shape near the gold surface on the SPR effect.

  7. Dark Matter Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We study different patterns of interference in WIMP-nuclei elastic scattering that can accommodate the DAMA and CoGeNT experiments via an isospin violating ratio $f_n/f_p=-0.71$. We study interference between the following pairs of mediators: Z and Z', Z' and Higgs, and two Higgs fields. We show ...

  8. Tunable plasmon resonances in anisotropic metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninkhof, J. J.

    2006-09-01

    to the arrays, respectively. The band splitting is attributed to near-field electromagnetic plasmon coupling within the arrays. Finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the combination of particle center-to-center spacing and diameter, rather than inter-particle spacing alone, is the key parameter determining the coupling strength. The resonant electric field is concentrated in the very small gaps between the particles in the array. With the MeV ion beam technique, it is possible to fabricate large substrates with relatively monodisperse oblate ellipsoidal silica-core/metal-shell colloids, with the short axis aligned in the direction of the ion beam. The optical extinction of these particles, is a complex function of the core radius and the shell thickness, due to a competition between phase retardation effects and the coupling between the surface plasmons at the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. After deformation, the extinction is angle- and polarization-dependent. Calculations indicate that large Au-shell particles can sustain cavity modes, for which the electric field is enhanced in almost the full volume of the dielectric core. The resonance frequency is sensitive to the size, shape and dielectric constant of the core, and the polarization direction.

  9. Hotspot-mediated non-dissipative and ultrafast plasmon passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Eva-Maria; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Pupp, Claudia; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Liedl, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles hold great promise as photon handling elements and as channels for coherent transfer of energy and information in future all-optical computing devices. Coherent energy oscillations between two spatially separated plasmonic entities via a virtual middle state exemplify electron-based population transfer, but their realization requires precise nanoscale positioning of heterogeneous particles. Here, we show the assembly and optical analysis of a triple-particle system consisting of two gold nanoparticles with an inter-spaced silver island. We observe strong plasmonic coupling between the spatially separated gold particles, mediated by the connecting silver particle, with almost no dissipation of energy. As the excitation energy of the silver island exceeds that of the gold particles, only quasi-occupation of the silver transfer channel is possible. We describe this effect both with exact classical electrodynamic modelling and qualitative quantum-mechanical calculations. We identify the formation of strong hotspots between all particles as the main mechanism for the lossless coupling and thus coherent ultrafast energy transfer between the remote partners. Our findings could prove useful for quantum gate operations, as well as for classical charge and information transfer processes.

  10. Ultraconfined Plasmonic Hotspots Inside Graphene Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Foley, J J; Gannett, W; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Ni, G X; Zettl, A; Fogler, M M; Wiederrecht, G P; Gray, S K; Basov, D N

    2016-12-14

    We report on a nanoinfrared (IR) imaging study of ultraconfined plasmonic hotspots inside graphene nanobubbles formed in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. The volume of these plasmonic hotspots is more than one-million-times smaller than what could be achieved by free-space IR photons, and their real-space distributions are controlled by the sizes and shapes of the nanobubbles. Theoretical analysis indicates that the observed plasmonic hotspots are formed due to a significant increase of the local plasmon wavelength in the nanobubble regions. Such an increase is attributed to the high sensitivity of graphene plasmons to its dielectric environment. Our work presents a novel scheme for plasmonic hotspot formation and sheds light on future applications of graphene nanobubbles for plasmon-enhanced IR spectroscopy.

  11. EDITORIAL: Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-03-01

    appearing in the 620-800 nm regions of the absorption spectra. A number of research groups have investigated the possibility of exploiting the plasmonic properties of silver and gold nanostructures for optoelectronic devices [7-9]. The advantages can be quite substantial. Researchers in Korea successfully used silver nanoparticles to obtain a 38% increase in performance of blue LEDs by using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN [10]. The researchers attribute the improvement to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate through resonance coupling between the excitons in multiple quantum wells and localized surface plasmons in the silver nanoparticles. In their work reported in this issue Kostya Ostrikov and his co-authors bridge the link between microplasma-assisted electrochemical process parameters and the plasmonic response. As they point out, 'This is an important experimental step towards bringing together plasma chemistry and plasmonics' [1]. All-gas-phase plasma approaches have already been demonstrated for the synthesis of nanoparticles of other metals. X D Pi and colleagues from the University of Minnesota demonstrated how one simple gas-phase process could produce stable silicon nanocrystal emitters with tailored size and surface functionalization [11]. Previously silicon nanocrystals had been prone to emission instabilities in air. Now Ostrikov and colleagues at the University of Sydney, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering in Australia and the Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas in China have studied microplasma-assisted electrochemical synthesis of Ag nanoparticles for plasmonic applications [1]. The synthesis uses moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressures and does not involve any toxic reducing agents. In addition they demonstrate how it allows control over nanoparticle size and interparticle spacing to optimize performance in device applications. Despite the overlap in plasma physics and the origins of plasmonic phenomena, studies of the

  12. Sensing performance analysis on Fano resonance of metallic double-baffle contained MDM waveguide coupled ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Liu, Xiaofei; Di, Yuanjian; Han, Shuaitao; Cui, Xingning; He, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Based on the transmission property and the photon localization characteristic of the surface plasmonic sub-wavelength structure, a metallic double-baffle contained metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide coupled ring resonator is proposed. Like the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), the Fano resonance can be achieved by the interference between the metallic double-baffle resonator and the ring resonator. Based on the coupled mode theory, the transmission property is analyzed. Through the numerical simulation by the finite element method (FEM), the quantitative analysis on the influences of the radius R of the ring and the coupling distance g between the metallic double-baffle resonator and the ring resonator for the figure of merit (FOM) is performed. And after the structure parameter optimization, the sensing performance of the waveguide structure is discussed. The simulation results show that the FOM value of the optimized structure can attain to 5.74 ×104 and the sensitivity of resonance wavelength with refractive index drift is about 825 nm/RIU. The range of the detected refractive index is suitable for all gases. The waveguide structure can provide effective theoretical references for the design of integrated plasmonic devices.

  13. Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T; Boer-Duchemin, E; Zhang, Y; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G

    2011-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunnelling excitation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a thin gold film is demonstrated. This is done by combining a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) with an inverted optical microscope. Analysis of the leakage radiation in both the image and Fourier planes unambiguously shows that the majority (up to 99.5%) of the detected photons originate from propagating SPPs with propagation lengths of the order of 10 μm. The remaining photon emission is localized under the STM tip and is attributed to a tip-gold film coupled plasmon resonance as evidenced by the bimodal spectral distribution and enhanced emission intensity observed using a silver STM tip for excitation.

  14. Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T; Boer-Duchemin, E; Zhang, Y; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G, E-mail: Elizabeth.Boer-Duchemin@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moleculaire d' Orsay (ISMO), CNRS Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2011-04-29

    Inelastic electron tunnelling excitation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a thin gold film is demonstrated. This is done by combining a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) with an inverted optical microscope. Analysis of the leakage radiation in both the image and Fourier planes unambiguously shows that the majority (up to 99.5%) of the detected photons originate from propagating SPPs with propagation lengths of the order of 10 {mu}m. The remaining photon emission is localized under the STM tip and is attributed to a tip-gold film coupled plasmon resonance as evidenced by the bimodal spectral distribution and enhanced emission intensity observed using a silver STM tip for excitation.

  15. Hybrid plasmonic bullseye antennas for efficient photon collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose highly efficient hybrid plasmonic bullseye antennas for collecting photon emission from nm sized quantum emitters. In our approach, the emitter radiation is coupled to surface plasmon polaritons that are consequently converted into highly directional out-of-plane emission. The proposed...... configuration consists of a high-index titania bullseye grating separated from a planar silver film by a thin low-index silica spacer layer. Such hybrid systems are theoretically capable of directing 85% of the dipole emission into a 0.9 NA objective, while featuring a spectrally narrow-band tunable decay rate...... stable operation. For experimental characterization of the antenna properties, a fluorescent nanodiamond containing multiple nitrogen vacancy centers (NV-center) was deterministically placed in the bullseye center, using an atomic force microscope. Probing the NV-center fluorescence we demonstrate...

  16. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  17. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-12-11

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  18. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    to its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic......Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin......-film semiconducting material. For a particular case, we show that coupling to the same type of localized slab-waveguide modes can be obtained by a surface modulation consisting of purely dielectric strips. The purely dielectric device turns out to have a significantly higher broadband enhancement factor compared...

  19. Refractive index sensor based on total scattering of plasmonic nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kaiqiang; Zeng, Qingbing; Hu, Zengrong; Zhan, Yaohui

    2018-03-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can couple free space light into anultrafine space; therefore,they are employed extensively in the refractive index sensors to minimize the device size or further improve the detection sensitivity. In this work, the optical response of the plasmonic nanotube are investigated comprehensively by using full wave finite element method. With a subwavelength scale, the silver nanotube have prominent scattering peaks in the visible range, which is very suitable for observing through the dark field microscope. The geometric dependence of the scattering spectra and the sensing performance are evaluated carefully. Results show that the scattering peaks are in linear relationship to the circumstance refractive index and a sensitivity of 337 nm/RIUcan be achieved easily by such a plasmonicnanotube with an optimized size.

  20. Hybrid dielectric waveguide spectroscopy of individual plasmonic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cuadra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonics is a mature scientific discipline which is now entering the realm of practical applications. Recently, significant attention has been devoted to on-chip hybrid devices where plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated in standard Si3N4 photonic waveguides. Light in these systems is usually coupled at the waveguide apexes by using multiple objectives and/or tapered optical fibers, rendering the analysis of spectroscopic signals a complicated task. Here, we show how by using a grating coupler and a low NA objective, quantitative spectroscopic information similar to standard dark-field spectroscopy can be obtained at the single-nanoparticle level. This technology may be useful for enabling single-nanoparticle studies in non-linear excitation regimes and/or in complex experimental environments, thus enriching the toolbox of nanophotonic methods.

  1. Interference patterns and extinction ratio of the diatom Coscinodiscus granii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Ellegaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical verification of the nature and position of multiple interference points of visible light transmitted through the valve of the centric diatom species Coscinodiscus granii. Furthermore, by coupling the transmitted light into an optical fiber and moving...... the diatom valve between constructive and destructive interference points, an extinction ratio of 20 dB is shown...

  2. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  3. Influence of the flip-flop interaction on a single plasmon transport in 1D waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myong-Chol; Kim, Nam-Chol; Ho, Nam-Chol; Ryom, Ju-Song; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Li, Jian-Bo; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-12-01

    Transport of a single plasmon in the 1D waveguide coupled to two emitters with the flip-flop interaction is discussed theoretically via the real-space approach. We showed that the transmission and reflection of a single plasmon could be changeable by adjusting the flip-flop coupling strength of the QDs, the interaction of QDs with the metallic nanowaveguide, interparticle distance of the QDs and detuning. Setting the interparticle distances properly results in the switching between the complete transmission and the complete reflection. Especially, our results show that the QDs with the flip-flop interaction play important role in the transport of the propagating single plasmon, which is relevant to the Förster resonance energy transfer from donor QD to acceptor QD.

  4. ITO-TiN-ITO Sandwiches for Near-Infrared Plasmonic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaonan; Wang, Zhewei; Wu, Ke; Chong, Haining; Xu, Zemin; Ye, Hui

    2018-05-02

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-based sandwich structures with the insertion of ultrathin (ITO layers show TiN-thickness-dependent properties, which lead to moderate and tunable effective permittivities for the sandwiches. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) of the ITO-TiN-ITO sandwich at the telecommunication window (1480-1570 nm) are activated by prism coupling using Kretschmann configuration. Compared with pure ITO films or sandwiches with metal insertion, the reflectivity dip for sandwiches with TiN is relatively deeper and wider, indicating the enhanced coupling ability in plasmonic materials for telecommunications. The SPP spatial profile, penetration depth, and degree of confinement, as well as the quality factors, demonstrate the applicability of such sandwiches for NIR plasmonic materials in various devices.

  5. Simulations of the spontaneous emission of a quantum dot near a gap plasmon waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Chamanei S., E-mail: cp.hettiarachchige@qut.edu.au; Vernon, Kristy C.; Mcleod, Angus [Plasmonic Device Group, Queensland University of Technology, GPO box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we modeled a quantum dot at near proximity to a gap plasmon waveguide to study the quantum dot-plasmon interactions. Assuming that the waveguide is single mode, this paper is concerned about the dependence of spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot on waveguide dimensions such as width and height. We compare coupling efficiency of a gap waveguide with symmetric configuration and asymmetric configuration illustrating that symmetric waveguide has a better coupling efficiency to the quantum dot. We also demonstrate that optimally placed quantum dot near a symmetric waveguide with 50 nm × 50 nm cross section can capture 80% of the spontaneous emission into a guided plasmon mode.

  6. Simulations of the spontaneous emission of a quantum dot near a gap plasmon waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Chamanei S.; Vernon, Kristy C.; Mcleod, Angus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we modeled a quantum dot at near proximity to a gap plasmon waveguide to study the quantum dot-plasmon interactions. Assuming that the waveguide is single mode, this paper is concerned about the dependence of spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot on waveguide dimensions such as width and height. We compare coupling efficiency of a gap waveguide with symmetric configuration and asymmetric configuration illustrating that symmetric waveguide has a better coupling efficiency to the quantum dot. We also demonstrate that optimally placed quantum dot near a symmetric waveguide with 50 nm × 50 nm cross section can capture 80% of the spontaneous emission into a guided plasmon mode

  7. Modeling molecule-plasmon interactions using quantized radiation fields within time-dependent electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Daniel R.; DePrince, A. Eugene, E-mail: deprince@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4390 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field.

  8. Design of a tunable graphene plasmonic-on-white graphene switch at infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmani, Ali; Zarifkar, Abbas; Sheikhi, Mohammad H.; Miri, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    A tunable Y-branch graphene plasmonic switch operating at the wavelength of 1.55 μm is proposed in which graphene is placed on white graphene. The switch structure is investigated analytically and numerically by the finite difference time domain method. The graphene plasmonic switch considered here supports both transverse magnetic and transverse electric graphene plasmons whose propagation characteristics can be controlled by modulating the external electric field and the temperature of graphene. Our calculations show that by strong coupling between the incident waves and the graphene plasmons of the structure, a high polarization extinction ratio of 45 dB and relatively large bandwidth of 150 nm around the central wavelength of 1.55 μm are achievable. Furthermore, the application of white graphene as the substrate of graphene decreases the propagation loss of the graphene plasmons and the required applied electric field. It is also shown that the propagation mode of the graphene plasmons can be tuned by changing the temperature and the calculated threshold temperature is 650 K.

  9. Bifacial DNA origami-directed discrete, three-dimensional, anisotropic plasmonic nanoarchitectures with tailored optical chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiang; Chen, Zhong; Dai, Gaole; Lu, Xuxing; Ni, Weihai; Wang, Qiangbin

    2013-08-07

    Discrete three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanoarchitectures with well-defined spatial configuration and geometry have aroused increasing interest, as new optical properties may originate from plasmon resonance coupling within the nanoarchitectures. Although spherical building blocks have been successfully employed in constructing 3D plasmonic nanoarchitectures because their isotropic nature facilitates unoriented localization, it still remains challenging to assemble anisotropic building blocks into discrete and rationally tailored 3D plasmonic nanoarchitectures. Here we report the first example of discrete 3D anisotropic gold nanorod (AuNR) dimer nanoarchitectures formed using bifacial DNA origami as a template, in which the 3D spatial configuration is precisely tuned by rationally shifting the location of AuNRs on the origami template. A distinct plasmonic chiral response was experimentally observed from the discrete 3D AuNR dimer nanoarchitectures and appeared in a spatial-configuration-dependent manner. This study represents great progress in the fabrication of 3D plasmonic nanoarchitectures with tailored optical chirality.

  10. Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper, which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required.

  11. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Aniket; Lochan, Abhiram; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.; Gupta, Neeraj; Sharma, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  12. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  13. Plasmonic Paper as a Novel Chem/Bio Detection Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Limei

    The time varying electric field of electromagnetic (EM) radiation causes oscillation of conduction electrons of metal nanoparticles. The resonance of such oscillation, termed localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), falls into the visible spectral region for noble metals such as gold, silver and copper. LSPR of metal nanostructures is sensitive to numerous factors such as composition, size, shape, dielectric properties of surrounding medium, and proximity to other nanostructures (plasmon coupling). The sensitivity of LSPR to the refractive index of surrounding medium renders it an attractive platform for chemical and biological sensing. When the excitation light is in resonance with the plasmon frequency of the metal nanoparticle, it radiates a characteristic dipolar radiation causing a characteristic spatial distribution in which certain areas show higher EM field intensity, which is manifested as electromagnetic field enhancement. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) involves dramatic enhancement of the intensity of the Raman scattering from the analyte adsorbed on or in proximity to a nanostructured metal surface exhibiting such strong EM field enhancement. Both LSPR and SERS have been widely investigated for highly sensitive and label-free chemical & biological sensors. Most of the SERS/LSPR sensors demonstrated so far rely on rigid planar substrates (e.g., glass, silicon) owing to the well-established lithographic approaches, which are routinely employed for either fabrication or assembly of plasmonic nanotransducers. In many cases, their rigid nature results in low conformal contact with the sample and hence poor sample collection efficiency. We hypothesized that paper substrates are an excellent alternative to conventional rigid substrates to significantly improve the (multi-)functionality of LSPR/SERS substrates, dramatically simplify the fabrication procedures and lower the cost. The choice of paper substrates for the implementation of SERS

  14. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  15. Ultracompact Pseudowedge Plasmonic Lasers and Laser Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Hsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chang, Chun-Tse; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Huang, Zhen-Ting; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Yang, Jhen-Hong; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Tzy-Rong; Chen, Kuo-Ping; Gwo, Shangjr; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2018-02-14

    Concentrating light at the deep subwavelength scale by utilizing plasmonic effects has been reported in various optoelectronic devices with intriguing phenomena and functionality. Plasmonic waveguides with a planar structure exhibit a two-dimensional degree of freedom for the surface plasmon; the degree of freedom can be further reduced by utilizing metallic nanostructures or nanoparticles for surface plasmon resonance. Reduction leads to different lightwave confinement capabilities, which can be utilized to construct plasmonic nanolaser cavities. However, most theoretical and experimental research efforts have focused on planar surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nanolasers. In this study, we combined nanometallic structures intersecting with ZnO nanowires and realized the first laser emission based on pseudowedge SPP waveguides. Relative to current plasmonic nanolasers, the pseudowedge plasmonic lasers reported in our study exhibit extremely small mode volumes, high group indices, high spontaneous emission factors, and high Purell factors beneficial for the strong interaction between light and matter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that compact plasmonic laser arrays can be constructed, which could benefit integrated plasmonic circuits.

  16. Highly Controlled Synthesis and Super-Radiant Photoluminescence of Plasmonic Cube-in-Cube Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Sungi; Son, Jiwoong; Lee, Yeonhee; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-12-14

    The plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures have been heavily utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), but the direct photoluminescence (PL) from plasmonic metal nanostructures, especially with plasmonic coupling, has not been widely used as much as SERS and MEF due to the lack of understanding of the PL mechanism, relatively weak signals, and the poor availability of the synthetic methods for the nanostructures with strong PL signals. The direct PL from metal nanostructures is beneficial if these issues can be addressed because it does not exhibit photoblinking or photobleaching, does not require dye-labeling, and can be employed as a highly reliable optical signal that directly depends on nanostructure morphology. Herein, we designed and synthesized plasmonic cube-in-cube (CiC) nanoparticles (NPs) with a controllable interior nanogap in a high yield from Au nanocubes (AuNCs). In synthesizing the CiC NPs, we developed a galvanic void formation (GVF) process, composed of replacement/reduction and void formation steps. We unraveled the super-radiant character of the plasmonic coupling-induced plasmon mode which can result in highly enhanced PL intensity and long-lasting PL, and the PL mechanisms of these structures were analyzed and matched with the plasmon hybridization model. Importantly, the PL intensity and quantum yield (QY) of CiC NPs are 31 times and 16 times higher than those of AuNCs, respectively, which have shown the highest PL intensity and QY reported for metallic nanostructures. Finally, we confirmed the long-term photostability of the PL signal, and the signal remained stable for at least 1 h under continuous illumination.

  17. Manipulation of plasmonic resonances in graphene coated dielectric cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin; Han, Dezhuan; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Graphene sheets can support surface plasmon as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively with electromagnetic waves. Compared with the surface plasmon in conventional metal (e.g., Ag and Au), graphene plasmonic owns many remarkable merits

  18. An optimized surface plasmon photovoltaic structure using energy transfer between discrete nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert; Fu, Sze-Ming; Chung, Yen-Kai; Lai, Shih-Yun; Tseng, Chi-Wei

    2013-01-14

    Surface plasmon enhancement has been proposed as a way to achieve higher absorption for thin-film photovoltaics, where surface plasmon polariton(SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) are shown to provide dense near field and far field light scattering. Here it is shown that controlled far-field light scattering can be achieved using successive coupling between surface plasmonic (SP) nano-particles. Through genetic algorithm (GA) optimization, energy transfer between discrete nano-particles (ETDNP) is identified, which enhances solar cell efficiency. The optimized energy transfer structure acts like lumped-element transmission line and can properly alter the direction of photon flow. Increased in-plane component of wavevector is thus achieved and photon path length is extended. In addition, Wood-Rayleigh anomaly, at which transmission minimum occurs, is avoided through GA optimization. Optimized energy transfer structure provides 46.95% improvement over baseline planar cell. It achieves larger angular scattering capability compared to conventional surface plasmon polariton back reflector structure and index-guided structure due to SP energy transfer through mode coupling. Via SP mediated energy transfer, an alternative way to control the light flow inside thin-film is proposed, which can be more efficient than conventional index-guided mode using total internal reflection (TIR).

  19. Fluorescence Enhancement on Large Area Self-Assembled Plasmonic-3D Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guojian; Wang, Dongzhu; Hong, Wei; Sun, Lu; Zhu, Yongxiang; Chen, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    Discontinuous plasmonic-3D photonic crystal hybrid structures are fabricated in order to evaluate the coupling effect of surface plasmon resonance and the photonic stop band. The nanostructures are prepared by silver sputtering deposition on top of hydrophobic 3D photonic crystals. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructure has a symbiotic relationship with the 3D photonic stop band, leading to highly tunable characteristics. Fluorescence enhancements of conjugated polymer and quantum dot based on these hybrid structures are studied. The maximum fluorescence enhancement for the conjugated polymer of poly(5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) potassium salt by a factor of 87 is achieved as compared with that on a glass substrate due to the enhanced near-field from the discontinuous plasmonic structures, strong scattering effects from rough metal surface with photonic stop band, and accelerated decay rates from metal-coupled excited state of the fluorophore. It is demonstrated that the enhancement induced by the hybrid structures has a larger effective distance (optimum thickness ≈130 nm) than conventional plasmonic systems. It is expected that this approach has tremendous potential in the field of sensors, fluorescence-imaging, and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Communication: Finding destructive interference features in molecular transport junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Matthew G., E-mail: mgreuter@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hansen, Thorsten [Department of Chemistry, H. C. Ørsted Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-14

    Associating molecular structure with quantum interference features in electrode-molecule-electrode transport junctions has been difficult because existing guidelines for understanding interferences only apply to conjugated hydrocarbons. Herein we use linear algebra and the Landauer-Büttiker theory for electron transport to derive a general rule for predicting the existence and locations of interference features. Our analysis illustrates that interferences can be directly determined from the molecular Hamiltonian and the molecule–electrode couplings, and we demonstrate its utility with several examples.

  1. Plasmon instability under four external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.B.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The plasmon instability in a laboratory produced plasma in the presence of four external fields, namely two laser fields, one strong magnetic field and one static electric field, is discussed. The method of unitary transformations is used to transform the problem of electron motion under the four external fields to that of an electron in the presence only of crossed electric and magnetic fields. A kinetic equation for the plasmon population is derived from which the damping (amplification) rate is calculated. We found that the joint action of the four fields results in a relatively larger amplification rate for some values of the static electric field in contrast to the case where no electric field is present. It was also found that the plasmon growth rate favors plasmon wave vectors in an extremely narrow band i.e., the plasmon instability in four external fields is a very selective mechanism for plasmon excitation. (author)

  2. Inverse Faraday effect with plasmon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S; Mendonca, J T

    2011-01-01

    The angular momentum conservation equation is considered for an electron gas, in the presence of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) plasmons propagating along the z-axis. The LG plasmons carry a finite orbital angular momentum despite longitudinal nature, which can be partly transfered to the electrons. For short timescales, such that ion motion can be neglected, plasmons primarily interact with the electrons, creating an azimuthal electric field and generating an axial magnetic field. This effect can be called an inverse Faraday effect due to plasmons. Numerically, it is found that the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances with the plasmon density or with the energy of the electron plasma waves. A comparison of the magnitudes of the axial magnetic field is made for the inverse Faraday effect excited by both plasmons and transverse photons.

  3. Generation of Graphene Surface Plasmons and Their Applications in Beam Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai Yen; Guenneau, Sebastien; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel concept that uses mechanical and electronic properties of graphene to efficiently couple light to surface plasmon polaritons. A graphene-based infrared beam-former based on the concept of surface leaky-wave is also discussed

  4. Chip-integrated plasmonic cavity-enhanced single nitrogen-vacancy center emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    High temporal stability and spin dynamics of individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond crystals make them one of the most promising quantum emitters operating at room temperature. We demonstrate a chip-integrated cavity-coupled emission into propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP...

  5. Detuned-resonator induced transparency in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Radko, Ilya P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of detuned-resonator induced transparency in the near-infrared (∼800  nm) using two detuned racetrack resonators side-coupled to a bus waveguide. Both resonators and the bus waveguide are in the form of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton...

  6. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2016-01-01

    ) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon...

  7. Amplitude and phase of surface plasmon polaritons excited at a step edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klick, Alwin; de la Cruz, Sergio; Lemke, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) at well-defined step edges of a gold–vacuum interface is presented. As a relevant parameter determining the coupling efficiency between laser field and SPP, we identify the ratio betw...

  8. Generation of Graphene Surface Plasmons and Their Applications in Beam Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel concept that uses mechanical and electronic properties of graphene to efficiently couple light to surface plasmon polaritons. A graphene-based infrared beam-former based on the concept of surface leaky-wave is also discussed. © OSA 2015.

  9. Giant enhancement of sum-frequency yield by surface-plasmon excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Vrehen, Q. H. F.; Eliel, E. R.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Valieva, E. V.; Kuzik, L. A.; Petrov, J. E.; Sychugov, V. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    We show experimentally that the radiation generated in infrared-visible sum-frequency mixing at an air-silver interface can be greatly enhanced when the visible input beam excites a surface plasmon-polariton at the interface. With either a prism or a grating used to couple the visible radiation with

  10. Theoretical analysis of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor utilizing a Bragg grating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špačková, Barbora; Homola, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 25 (2009), s. 23254-23264 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance * Fiber optic * Bragg grating * Biosensor * Coupled mode theory Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.278, year: 2009

  11. Near field plasmon and force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Hollander, R.B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A scanning plasmon near field optical microscope (SPNM) is presented which combines a conventional far field surface plasmon microscope with a stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM). Near field plasmon and force images are recorded simultaneously both with a lateral resolution limited by the probe size to about 20 nm. At variance to previous work, utilizing a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a metallic tip, a dielectric silicon-nitride tip is used in contact mode. This arrangement ...

  12. Plasmonically enhanced hot electron based photovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Fatih B; Battal, Enes; Aygun, Levent E; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet; Okyay, Ali K

    2013-03-25

    Hot electron photovoltaics is emerging as a candidate for low cost and ultra thin solar cells. Plasmonic means can be utilized to significantly boost device efficiency. We separately form the tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junction for electron collection and the plasmon exciting MIM structure on top of each other, which provides high flexibility in plasmonic design and tunneling MIM design separately. We demonstrate close to one order of magnitude enhancement in the short circuit current at the resonance wavelengths.

  13. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  14. Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....

  15. Plasmonic doped semiconductor nanocrystals: Properties, fabrication, applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco; Manna, Liberato

    2017-02-01

    Degenerately doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of recent interest to the NC community due to their tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the near infrared (NIR). The high level of doping in such materials with carrier densities in the range of 1021cm-3 leads to degeneracy of the doping levels and intense plasmonic absorption in the NIR. The lower carrier density in degenerately doped semiconductor NCs compared to noble metals enables LSPR tuning over a wide spectral range, since even a minor change of the carrier density strongly affects the spectral position of the LSPR. Two classes of degenerate semiconductors are most relevant in this respect: impurity doped semiconductors, such as metal oxides, and vacancy doped semiconductors, such as copper chalcogenides. In the latter it is the density of copper vacancies that controls the carrier concentration, while in the former the introduction of impurity atoms adds carriers to the system. LSPR tuning in vacancy doped semiconductor NCs such as copper chalcogenides occurs by chemically controlling the copper vacancy density. This goes in hand with complex structural modifications of the copper chalcogenide crystal lattice. In contrast the LSPR of degenerately doped metal oxide NCs is modified by varying the doping concentration or by the choice of host and dopant atoms, but also through the addition of capacitive charge carriers to the conduction band of the metal oxide upon post-synthetic treatments, such as by electrochemical- or photodoping. The NIR LSPRs and the option of their spectral fine-tuning make accessible important new features, such as the controlled coupling of the LSPR to other physical signatures or the enhancement of optical signals in the NIR, sensing application by LSPR tracking, energy production from the NIR plasmon resonance or bio-medical applications in the biological window. In this review we highlight the recent advances in the synthesis of various different plasmonic

  16. Fabricating plasmonic components for nano-and meta-photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Different fabrication approaches for realization of metal-dielectric structures supporting propagating and localized surface plasmons are described including fabrication of nanophotonic waveguides and plasmonic nanoantennae....

  17. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Dias, E. J. C.; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential...... and electric-field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmon counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system’s geometry is contained. We...

  18. Novel plasmonic polarimeter for biomedical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Alec; Chen, Borui; Cartwright, Alexander; Thomay, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Using polarized light in medical imaging is a valuable tool for diagnostic purposes since light traveling through scattering tissues such as skin, blood, or cartilage may be subject to changes in polarization. We present a new detection scheme and sensor that allows for directly measuring the polarization of light electronically using a plasmonic sensor. The sensor we fabricated consists of a plasmonic nano-grating that is embedded in a Wheatstone circuit. Using resistive losses induced by optically excited plasmons has shown promise as a CMOScompatible plasmonic light detector. Since the plasmonic response is sensitive to polarization with respect to the grating orientation, measuring the resistance change under incident light supplies a direct electronic measure of the polarization of light without polarization optics. Increased electron scattering introduced by plasmons in an applied current results in a measurable decrease in electrical conductance of a grating, allowing a purely electronic readout of a plasmonic excitation. Accordingly, because of its plasmonic nature, such a detector is dependent on both the wavelength and polarization of incident light with a response time limited by the surface plasmon lifetime.

  19. Morphing a plasmonic nanodisk into a nanotriangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Franz P; Ditlbacher, Harald; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R; Hohenester, Ulrich

    2014-08-13

    We morph a silver nanodisk into a nanotriangle by producing a series of nanoparticles with electron beam lithography. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we map out the plasmonic eigenmodes and trace the evolution of edge and film modes during morphing. Our results suggest that disk modes, characterized by angular order, can serve as a suitable basis for other nanoparticle geometries and are subject to resonance energy shifts and splittings, as well as to hybridization upon morphing. Similar to the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) in quantum chemistry, we introduce a linear combination of plasmonic eigenmodes to describe plasmon modes in different geometries, hereby extending the successful hybridization model of plasmonics.

  20. Plasmonic enhancement of ultraviolet fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaojin

    Plasmonics relates to the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons at metallic interfaces or in metallic nanostructures. Surface plasmons are collective electron oscillations at a metal surface, which can be manipulated by shape, texture and material composition. Plasmonic applications cover a broad spectrum from visible to near infrared, including biosensing, nanolithography, spectroscopy, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and so on. However, there remains a gap in this activity in the ultraviolet (UV, research. Motivating factors in the study of UV Plasmonics are the direct access to biomolecular resonances and native fluorescence, resonant Raman scattering interactions, and the potential for exerting control over photochemical reactions. This dissertation aims to fill in the gap of Plasmonics in the UV with efforts of design, fabrication and characterization of aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) nanostructures for the application of label-free bimolecular detection via native UV fluorescence. The first contribution of this dissertation addresses the design of Al nanostructures in the context of UV fluorescence enhancement. A design method that combines analytical analysis with numerical simulation has been developed. Performance of three canonical plasmonic structures---the dipole antenna, bullseye nanoaperture and nanoaperture array---has been compared. The optimal geometrical parameters have been determined. A novel design of a compound bullseye structure has been proposed and numerically analyzed for the purpose of compensating for the large Stokes shift typical of UV fluorescence. Second, UV lifetime modification of diffusing molecules by Al nanoapertures has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Lifetime reductions of ~3.5x have been observed for the high quantum yield (QY) laser dye p-terphenyl in a 60 nm diameter aperture with 50 nm undercut. Furthermore, quantum-yield-dependence of lifetime reduction has been

  1. Optical properties of electrically connected plasmonic nanoantenna dimer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Darin T.; Borst, Benjamin D.; Carrick, Cassandra J.; Lent, Joseph M.; Wambold, Raymond A.; Weisel, Gary J.; Willis, Brian G.

    2018-02-01

    We fabricate electrically connected gold nanoantenna arrays of homodimers and heterodimers on silica substrates and present a systematic study of their optical properties. Electrically connected arrays of plasmonic nanoantennas make possible the realization of novel photonic devices, including optical sensors and rectifiers. Although the plasmonic response of unconnected arrays has been studied extensively, the present study shows that the inclusion of nanowire connections modifies the device response significantly. After presenting experimental measurements of optical extinction for unconnected dimer arrays, we compare these to measurements of dimers that are interconnected by gold nanowire "busbars." The connected devices show the familiar dipole response associated with the unconnected dimers but also show a second localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that we refer to as the "coupled-busbar mode." Our experimental study also demonstrates that the placement of the nanowire along the antenna modifies the LSPR. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we confirm the experimental results and investigate the variation of dimer gap and spacing. Changing the dimer gap in connected devices has a significantly smaller effect on the dipole response than it does in unconnected devices. On the other hand, both LSPR modes respond strongly to changing the spacing between devices in the direction along the interconnecting wires. We also give results for the variation of E-field strength in the dimer gap, which will be important for any working sensor or rectenna device.

  2. Photothermal Transport of DNA in Entropy-Landscape Plasmonic Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold

    2017-01-01

    landscapes. Separately, a range of plasmonic configurations have demonstrated active manipulation of nano-objects by harnessing concentrated electric fields. The integration of these two independent techniques promises a range of sophisticated and complementary functions to handle, for example, DNA...... photothermal transport of DNA through the losses of plasmonic modes. The propulsive forces, assisted by in-coupling to propagating channel plasmon polaritons, extend along the V-grooves with a directed motion up to ≈0.5 μm·mW-1 away from the input beam and λ-DNA velocities reaching ≈0.2 μm·s-1·mW-1....... The entropic trapping enables the V-grooves to be flexibly loaded and unloaded with DNA by variation of transverse fluid flow, a process that is selective to biopolymers versus fixed-shape objects and also allows the technique to address the challenges of nanoscale interaction volumes. Our self-aligning, light...

  3. Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....

  4. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B; Ku, Jessie C; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A; Schatz, George C

    2016-04-13

    Mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Interference and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Causal inference with interference is a rapidly growing area. The literature has begun to relax the "no-interference" assumption that the treatment received by one individual does not affect the outcomes of other individuals. In this paper we briefly review the literature on causal inference in the presence of interference when treatments have been randomized. We then consider settings in which causal effects in the presence of interference are not identified, either because randomization alone does not suffice for identification, or because treatment is not randomized and there may be unmeasured confounders of the treatment-outcome relationship. We develop sensitivity analysis techniques for these settings. We describe several sensitivity analysis techniques for the infectiousness effect which, in a vaccine trial, captures the effect of the vaccine of one person on protecting a second person from infection even if the first is infected. We also develop two sensitivity analysis techniques for causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding which generalize analogous techniques when interference is absent. These two techniques for unmeasured confounding are compared and contrasted.

  6. Binaural Interference: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Silman, Shlomo; Silverman, Carol; Emmer, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference with speech recognition has been debated for two decades. Research has taken one of two avenues; group studies or case reports. In group studies, a sample of the elderly population is tested on speech recognition under three conditions; binaural, monaural right and monaural left. The aim is to determine the percent of the sample in which the expected outcome (binaural score-better-than-either-monaural score) is reversed (i.e., one of the monaural scores is better than the binaural score). This outcome has been commonly used to define binaural interference. The object of group studies is to answer the "how many" question, what is the prevalence of binaural interference in the sample. In case reports the binaural interference conclusion suggested by the speech recognition tests is not accepted until it has been corroborated by other independent diagnostic audiological measures. The aim is to attempt to determine the basis for the findings, to answer the "why" question. This article is at once tutorial, editorial and a case report. We argue that it is time to accept the reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference, to eschew group statistical approaches in search of an answer to the "how many" question, and to focus on individual case reports in search of an answer to the "why" question. American Academy of Audiology.

  7. Tunable plasmonic toroidal terahertz metamodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerislioglu, Burak; Ahmadivand, Arash; Pala, Nezih

    2018-04-01

    Optical modulators are essential and strategic parts of micro- and nanophotonic circuits to encode electro-optical signals in the optical domain. Here, by using arrays of multipixel toroidal plasmonic terahertz (THz) metamolecules, we developed a functional plasmonic metamodulator with high efficiency and tunability. Technically, the dynamic toroidal dipole induces nonradiating charge-current arrangements leading to have an exquisite role in defining the inherent spectral features of various materials. By categorizing in a different family of multipoles far from the traditional electromagnetic multipoles, the toroidal dipole corresponds to poloidal currents flowing on the surface of a closed-loop torus. Utilizing the sensitivity of the optically driven toroidal momentum to the incident THz beam power and by employing both numerical tools and experimental analysis, we systematically studied the spectral response of the proposed THz plasmonic metadevice. In this Rapid Communication, we uncover a correlation between the existence and the excitation of the toroidal response and the incident beam power. This mechanism is employed to develop THz toroidal metamodulators with a strong potential to be employed for practical advanced and next-generation communication, filtering, and routing applications.

  8. PAME: plasmonic assay modeling environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic assays are an important class of optical sensors that measure biomolecular interactions in real-time without the need for labeling agents, making them especially well-suited for clinical applications. Through the incorporation of nanoparticles and fiberoptics, these sensing systems have been successfully miniaturized and show great promise for in-situ probing and implantable devices, yet it remains challenging to derive meaningful, quantitative information from plasmonic responses. This is in part due to a lack of dedicated modeling tools, and therefore we introduce PAME, an open-source Python application for modeling plasmonic systems of bulk and nanoparticle-embedded metallic films. PAME combines aspects of thin-film solvers, nanomaterials and fiber-optics into an intuitive graphical interface. Some of PAME’s features include a simulation mode, a database of hundreds of materials, and an object-oriented framework for designing complex nanomaterials, such as a gold nanoparticles encased in a protein shell. An overview of PAME’s theory and design is presented, followed by example simulations of a fiberoptic refractometer, as well as protein binding to a multiplexed sensor composed of a mixed layer of gold and silver colloids. These results provide new insights into observed responses in reflectance biosensors.

  9. Ultra-fast transient plasmonics using transparent conductive oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Marcello; Carnemolla, Enrico G.

    2018-02-01

    During the last decade, plasmonic- and metamaterial-based applications have revolutionized the field of integrated photonics by allowing for deep subwavelength confinement and full control over the effective permittivity and permeability of the optical environment. However, despite the numerous remarkable proofs of principle that have been experimentally demonstrated, few key issues remain preventing a widespread of nanophotonic technologies. Among these fundamental limitations, we remind the large ohmic losses, incompatibility with semiconductor industry standards, and largely reduced dynamic tunability of the optical properties. In this article, in the larger context of the new emerging field of all-dielectric nanophotonics, we present our recent progresses towards the study of large optical nonlinearities in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) also giving a general overview of the most relevant and recent experimental attainments using TCO-based technology. However, it is important to underline that the present article does not represent a review paper but rather an original work with a broad introduction. Our work lays in a sort of ‘hybrid’ zone in the middle between high index contrast systems, whose behaviour is well described by applying Mie scattering theory, and standard plasmonic elements where optical modes originate from the electromagnetic coupling with the electronic plasma at the metal-to-dielectric interface. Beside remaining in the context of plasmonic technologies and retaining all the fundamental peculiarities that promoted the success of plasmonics in the first place, our strategy has the additional advantage to allow for large and ultra-fast tunability of the effective complex refractive index by accessing the index-near-zero regime in bulk materials at telecom wavelength.

  10. An Active Plasmonic to Explore on-Chip Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Fu Chiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the influence of top emission and transparent organic electroluminescence (OEL devices on the color tunability, viewing angle and enhancement light efficiency by surface plasmon grating coupled emission (SPGCE, the effects of coupled active SPPs on the metal nano-grating with organic material interface by cross-coupled into far-field space. Owing to the narrow band emission from the SPGCE, one can observe clear color changes at a certain viewing angle with different permittivities. The experimental and theoretical results showed that OEL-SPGCE at different pitch can match a linear shifting of momentum (DK of about 4.8 mm-1 per 100 nm pitch size. The color changes from -1.1 degree (water, -.07 degree (glucose 10 %, -2.5 degree (glucose 20 %, to 6 degree (glucose 40 % with the increasing permittivities. The OEL-SPGCE biosensor is proposed for the development of novel devices, which is expected to improve the capability of electroluminescent bio-plasmonic resonance measurement devices in the future.

  11. Exciting Graphene Surface Plasmon Polaritons through Light and Sound Interplay

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sé bastien; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We propose a concept that allows for efficient excitation of surface plasmon spolaritons (SPPs) on a thin graphene sheet located on a substrate by an incident electromagnetic field. Elastic vibrations of the sheet, which are generated by a flexural wave, act as a grating that enables the electromagnetic field to couple to propagating graphene SPPs. This scheme permits fast on-off switching of the SPPs and dynamic tuning of their excitation frequency by adjusting the vibration frequency (grating period). Potential applications include single molecule detection and enhanced control of SPP trajectories via surface wave patterning of graphene metasurfaces. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed concept.

  12. Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single-photon...... emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of 20 ± 5 μm for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate, and 58% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode...

  13. Exciting Graphene Surface Plasmon Polaritons through Light and Sound Interplay

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2013-12-05

    We propose a concept that allows for efficient excitation of surface plasmon spolaritons (SPPs) on a thin graphene sheet located on a substrate by an incident electromagnetic field. Elastic vibrations of the sheet, which are generated by a flexural wave, act as a grating that enables the electromagnetic field to couple to propagating graphene SPPs. This scheme permits fast on-off switching of the SPPs and dynamic tuning of their excitation frequency by adjusting the vibration frequency (grating period). Potential applications include single molecule detection and enhanced control of SPP trajectories via surface wave patterning of graphene metasurfaces. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed concept.

  14. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Tillmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  15. Interference in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Interfering factors are evident in both limited reagent (radioimmunoassay) and excess reagent (immunometric assay) technologies and should be suspected whenever there is a discrepancy between analytical results and clinical findings in the investigation of particular diseases. The overall effect of interference in immunoassay is analytical bias in result, either positive or negative of variable magnitude. The interference maybe caused by a wide spectrum of factors from poor sample collection and handling to physiological factors e.g. lipaemia, heparin treatment, binding protein abnormalities, autoimmunity and drug treatments. The range of interfering factors is extensive and difficult to discuss effectively in a short review

  16. Study of surface plasmon resonance of core-shell nanogeometry under the influence of perovskite dielectric environment: Electrostatic approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Nilesh Kumar; Sharma, R. P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We have systematically study the nano-plasmonic coupling to the perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) dielectric media in terms of surface plasmon resonance. The surface plasmon resonances are exhibited by the metal nanoparticles which is the electromagnetic excitation conduction electron when it is irradiated by incident light photon. Tunable behaviour of SPRs can be utilized to enhance the absorption of photon inside the surrounding environment in the wavelength range 300 to 800 nm. We have been selected two different types of nanogeometry such as coated and non-coated metal nanoparticles (radii ranges from 10 to 15 nm) to understand the plasmonic interaction to the dielectric media. Finally, we have observed that the coated nanogeometry is more preferable as compared to non-coated system to analyse the tunability of SPR peaks.

  17. Ferromagnetic linewidth measurements employing electrodynamic model of the magnetic plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, Jerzy; Aleshkevych, Pavlo; Salski, Bartlomiej; Kopyt, Pawel

    2018-02-01

    The mode of uniform precession, or Kittel mode, in a magnetized ferromagnetic sphere, has recently been proven to be the magnetic plasmon resonance. In this paper we show how to apply the electrodynamic model of the magnetic plasmon resonance for accurate measurements of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth ΔH. Two measurement methods are presented. The first one employs Q-factor measurements of the magnetic plasmon resonance coupled to the resonance of an empty metallic cavity. Such coupled modes are known as magnon-polariton modes, i.e. hybridized modes between the collective spin excitation and the cavity excitation. The second one employs direct Q-factor measurements of the magnetic plasmon resonance in a filter setup with two orthogonal semi-loops used for coupling. Q-factor measurements are performed employing a vector network analyser. The methods presented in this paper allow one to extend the measurement range of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth ΔH well beyond the limits of the commonly used measurement standards in terms of the size of the samples and the lowest measurable linewidths. Samples that can be measured with the newly proposed methods may have larger size as compared to the size of samples that were used in the standard methods restricted by the limits of perturbation theory.

  18. UV plasmonic enhancement through three dimensional nano-cavity antenna array in aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jieying; Stevenson, Peter; Montanaric, Danielle; Wang, Yunshan; Shumaker-Parry, Jennifer S.; Harris, Joel M.; Blair, Steve

    2017-08-01

    Metallic nanostructure can enhance fluorescence through excited surface plasmons which increase the local field as well as improve its quantum efficiency. When coupling to cavity resonance with proper gap dimension, gap hot spots can be generated to interact with fluorescence at their excitation/emission region in UV. A 3D nano-cavity antenna array in Aluminum has been conducted to generate local hot spot resonant at fluorescence emission resonance. Giant field enhancement has been achieved through coupling fundamental resonance modes of nanocavity into surface plasmons polaritons (SPPs). In this work, two distinct plasmonic structure of 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna has been studied and its plasmonic response has been scaled down to the UV regime through finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. Two different strategies for antenna fabrication will be conducted to obtain D-coupled Dots-on-Pillar Antenna array (D2PA) through Focus Ion Beam (FIB) and Cap- Hole Pair Antenna array (CHPA) through nanosphere template lithography (NTL). With proper optimization of the structures, D2PA and CHPA square array with 280nm pitch have achieved distinct enhancement at fluorophore emission wavelength 350nm and excitation wavelength 280nm simultaneously. Maximum field enhancement can reach 20 and 65 fold in the gap of D2PA and CHPA when light incident from substrate, which is expected to greatly enhance fluorescent quantum efficiency that will be confirmed in fluorescence lifetime measurement.

  19. Interactions between excitation and extraction modes in an organic-based plasmon-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu, E-mail: nfchiu@ntnu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Le Ster, Maxime [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Material Sciences and Engineering, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rennes, Rennes 35708 (France); Yang, Cheng-Du [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Ming-Hung; Tsai, Feng-Yu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Directional emission properties give rise to a spectral band-gap response enhancement. • The subsequent emission intensity can increase by up to 3.5 times. • FWHM of approximately 60 nm in a defined direction is achieved. • SP coupling rate is approximately 80% on the metal grating structure. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the feasibility of enhancing an organic-based plasmon-emitting diode on the directional light beaming efficiency by near-field surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in both metal grating and polymer grating nanostructures. The interaction between organic/metal and PR/metal interfaces to cause SPPs can facilitate specific directional emission. Directional emission properties give rise to a spectral band-gap response enhancement. Our results also verify that efficient surface plasmon grating coupled emissions (SPGCEs) can improve directionality under index-mediated tuning. Experimental results indicate SP decoupling emission in the visible light. The subsequent emission intensity can increase by up to 3.5 times. Moreover, a narrow FWHM of approximately 60 nm in a defined direction is achieved, and an SP coupling rate is approximately 80% on the metal grating structure. The proposed method is highly promising for use as an active plasmonic emitter and discoloration biosensors with enhanced SPPs resonance energy, owing to interactions with the organic/metal nanostructure.

  20. Plasmon-assisted photoluminescence enhancement of SiC nanocrystals by proximal silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, N.; Dai, D.J.; Fan, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied metal surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence in SiC nanocrystals. ► The integrated emission intensity can be enhanced by 17 times. ► The coupling between SiC emission and Ag plasmon oscillation induces the enhancement. ► The enhancement is tunable with varied spacing thickness of electrolytes. - Abstract: Plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence has wide application potential in many areas, whereas the underlying mechanism is still in debate. We report the photoluminescence enhancement in SiC nanocrystal–Ag nanoparticle coupled system spaced by the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polyelectrolyte bilayers. The integrated luminescence intensity can be improved by up to 17 times. Our analysis indicates that the strong coupling between the SiC nanocrystals and the surface plasmon oscillation of the silver nanoparticles is the major cause of the luminescence enhancement. These findings will help to understand the photoluminescence enhancement mechanism as well as widen the applications of the SiC nanocrystals in photonics and life sciences.