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Sample records for plasmonic airy beam

  1. Hybrid Airy plasmons with dynamically steerable trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rujiang; Imran, Muhammad; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-26

    With their intriguing diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy plasmons show promise for use in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, high dissipative loss and lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to coupling between optical modes and plasmonic modes, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of the hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting beams along with the emerging developments of optical tweezers and tractor beams.

  2. Generation and near-field imaging of Airy surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Minovich, Alexander; Janunts, Norik; Pertsch, Thomas; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the generation and near-field imaging of nondiffracting surface waves - plasmonic Airy beams, propagating on the surface of a gold metal film. The Airy plasmons are excited by an engineered nanoscale phase grating, and demonstrate significant beam bending over their propagation. We show that the observed Airy plasmons exhibit self-healing properties, suggesting novel applications in plasmonic circuitry and surface optical manipulation.

  3. Airy plasmons in graphene based waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that both the quasi-transverse-magnetic (TM) and quasi-transverseelectric (TE) Airy plasmons can be supported in graphene-based waveguides. The solution of Airy plasmons is calculated analytically and the existence of Airy plasmons is studied under the paraxial approximation. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of quasi-TM Airy plasmons can be steered effectively, especially in multilayer graphene based waveguides. Besides the metals, graphene provides an additional platform to investigate the propagation of Airy plasmons and to design various plasmonic devices.

  4. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to the coupling between an optical mode and a plasmonic mode, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting be...

  5. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rujiang; Imran, Muhammad; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the ter...

  6. Airy beam self-focusing in a photorefractive medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine

    2016-10-01

    The unique bending and shape-preserving properties of optical Airy beams offer a large range of applications in for example beam routing, optical waveguiding, particle manipulation and plasmonics. In these applications and others, the Airy beam may experience nonlinear light-matter interactions which in turn modify the Airy beam properties and propagation. A well-known example is light self-focusing that leads to the formation of spatial soliton. Here, we unveil experimentally the self-focusing properties of a 1D-Airy beam in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. The transient evolution involves both self-bending and acceleration of the initially launched Airy beam due to the onset of an off-shooting soliton and the resulting nonlocal refractive index perturbation. Both the transient and stationary self-focusing properties can be tuned by varying the bias electric field, the injected Airy beam power and the background illumination.

  7. Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2016-05-04

    Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).

  8. Self accelerating electron Airy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-01-01

    We report the first experimental generation and observation of Airy beams of free electrons. The electron Airy beams are generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, that imprints a cubic phase modulation on the beams' transverse plane. We observed the spatial evolution dynamics of an arc-shaped, self accelerating and shape preserving electron Airy beams. We directly observed the ability of electrons to self-heal, restoring their original shape after passing an obstacle. This electromagnetic method opens up new avenues for steering electrons, like their photonic counterparts, since their wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories. Furthermore, these beams can be easily manipulated using magnetic or electric potentials. It is also possible to efficiently self mix narrow beams having opposite signs of acceleration, hence obtaining a new type of electron interferometer.

  9. Generation of electron Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-02-21

    Within the framework of quantum mechanics, a unique particle wave packet exists in the form of the Airy function. Its counterintuitive properties are revealed as it propagates in time or space: the quantum probability wave packet preserves its shape despite dispersion or diffraction and propagates along a parabolic caustic trajectory, even though no force is applied. This does not contradict Newton's laws of motion, because the wave packet centroid propagates along a straight line. Nearly 30 years later, this wave packet, known as an accelerating Airy beam, was realized in the optical domain; later it was generalized to an orthogonal and complete family of beams that propagate along parabolic trajectories, as well as to beams that propagate along arbitrary convex trajectories. Here we report the experimental generation and observation of the Airy beams of free electrons. These electron Airy beams were generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, which imprinted on the electrons' wavefunction a cubic phase modulation in the transverse plane. The highest-intensity lobes of the generated beams indeed followed parabolic trajectories. We directly observed a non-spreading electron wavefunction that self-heals, restoring its original shape after passing an obstacle. This holographic generation of electron Airy beams opens up new avenues for steering electronic wave packets like their photonic counterparts, because the wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories.

  10. Space-variant polarized Airy beam

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally generate an Airy beam with polarization structure while keeping its original amplitude and phase profile intact. This class of Airy beam preserves the acceleration properties. By monitoring their initial polarization structure we have provided insight concerning the self-healing mechanism of Airy beams. We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the self-healing polarization properties of the space-variant polarized Airy beams. Amplitude as well as the polarization structure tends to reform during propagation in spite of the severe truncation of the beam by finite apertures.

  11. The Gouy phase of Airy beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, X.; Gbur, G.; Visser, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    The phase behavior of Airy beams is studied, and their Gouy phase is defined. Analytic expressions for the idealized, infinite-energy type beam are derived. They are shown to be excellent approximations for finite-energy beams generated under typical experimental conditions.

  12. Negative propagation effect in nonparaxial Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaveliuk, Pablo; Martinez-Matos, Oscar

    2012-11-19

    Negative propagation is an unusual effect concerning the local sign change in the Poynting vector components of an optical beam under free propagation. We report this effect for finite-energy Airy beams in a subwavelength nonparaxial regime. This effect is due to a coupling process between propagating and evanescent plane waves forming the beam in the spectral domain and it is demonstrated for a single TE or TM mode. This is contrary to what happens for vector Bessel beams and vector X-waves, for which a complex superposition of TE and TM modes is mandatory. We also show that evanescent waves cannot contribute to the energy flux density by themselves such that a pure evanescent Airy beam is not physically realizable. The break of the shape-preserving and diffraction-free properties of Airy beams in a nonparaxial regime is exclusively caused by the propagating waves. The negative propagation effect in subwavelength nonparaxial Airy beams opens new capabilities in optical traps and tweezers, optical detection of invisibility cloacks and selective on-chip manipulation of nanoparticles.

  13. Airy beams from a microchip laser

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    It is theoretically shown that an end-pumped microchip laser formed by a thin laser crystal with plane-plane but slightly tilted facets can emit, under appropriate pumping conditions and near a crystal edge, a truncated self-accelerating Airy output beam.

  14. Spinning of a submicron sphere by Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Youm; Kim, Saehwa

    2016-01-01

    We show that by employing two incoherent counter-propagating Airy beams, we can manipulate a submicron sphere to spin around a transverse axis. We can control not only the spinning speed, but also the direction of the spinning axis by changing the polarization directions of Airy beams.

  15. Repositioning and steering laser beam power via coherent combination of multiple Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ze; Ye, Zhuoyi; Song, Daohong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-12-10

    We study numerically and experimentally laser coherent combination (LCC) with multiple one- or two-dimensional Airy beams. It is shown that the method of LCC using Airy beams leads to a higher combining efficiency and a better feature of propagation than that using conventional Gaussian beams. Based on such coherent Airy beams combination, we propose a laser steering approach that could achieve large-angle beam steering (over 0.6°) without the need of using any mechanical steering component.

  16. Nonparaxial diffraction analysis of Airy and SAiry beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador; García, Celia; Fimia, Antonio; Madrigal, Roque; Murciano, Angel

    2009-12-07

    We theoretically analyze Airy beams by solving the exact vectorial Helmholtz equation using boundary conditions at a diffraction aperture. As result, the diffracted beams are obtained in the whole space; thus, we demonstrate that the parabolic trajectories are larger than those previously reported, showing that the Airy beams start to form before the Fourier plane. We also demonstrate the possibility of using a new type of Airy beams (SAiry beams) with finite energy that can be generated at the focal plane of the lens due to diffraction by a circular aperture of a spherical wave modified by a cubic phase. The finite energy ensured by the principle of conservation of energy of a diffracted beam.

  17. Creating Airy beams employing a transmissive spatial light modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of two novel methods for shaping the light optical wavefront by employing a transmissive spatial light modulator (SLM). Conventionally, optical Airy beams are created by employing SLMs in the so-called all phase mode. In this mode, a cubic phase distribution is transferred onto an SLM and its Fourier transform generates an Airy beam. The Fourier transform is obtained at the back focal plane of the lens, by employing a physical lens behind the SLM. We show that such an approach fails when a transmissive SLM is used; we present an alternative method for creating Airy beams. In our method, a numerically simulated lens phase distribution is transferred directly onto the SLM, together with the cubic phase distribution. An Airy beam is obtained by the Fourier transform of the cubic phase distribution and is generated behind the SLM, at the focal plane of the numerical lens. We study the deflection properties of the so formed Airy beam and derive the formula for deflection of the intensit...

  18. Optimal control of the ballistic motion of Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Zhang, Peng; Lou, Cibo; Huang, Simon; Xu, Jingjun; Chen, Zhigang

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate the projectile motion of two-dimensional truncated Airy beams in a general ballistic trajectory with controllable range and height. We show that the peak beam intensity can be delivered to any desired location along the trajectory as well as repositioned to a given target after displacement due to propagation through disordered or turbulent media.

  19. Production of accelerating quad Airy beams and their optical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Yile; Chen, Chen; Wu, Jiangmiao; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-16

    Based on a geometric caustic argument and diffraction catastrophe theory, we generate a novel form of accelerating beams using a symmetric 3/2 phase-only pattern. Such beams can be called accelerating quad Airy beams (AQABs) because they look very much like four face-to-face combined Airy beams. Optical characteristics of AQABs are subsequently investigated. The research results show that the beams have axial-symmetrical and centrosymmetrical transverse intensity patterns and quasi-diffraction-free propagation features for their four main lobes while undergoing transverse shift along parabolic trajectories. Moreover, we also demonstrate that AQABs possess self-construction ability when local areas are blocked. The unique optical properties of these beams will make them useful tools for future scientific applications.

  20. Photorefractive and computational holography in the experimental generation of Airy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Rafael A B; Yepes, Indira S V; Gesualdi, Marcos R R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental generation of Airy beams via computational and photorefractive holography. Experimental generation of Airy beams using conventional optical components presents several difficulties and are practically infeasible. Thus, the optical generation of Airy beams has been made from the optical reconstruction of a computer generated hologram implemented in a spatial light modulators. In the photorefractive holography technique, being used for the first time to our knowledge, the hologram of an Airy beam is constructed (recorded) and reconstructed (reading) optically in a nonlinear photorefractive medium. The Airy beam experimental realization was made by a setup of computational and photorefractive holography using a photorefractive Bi_{12}TiO_{20} crystal as holographic recording medium. Airy beams and Airy beam arrays were obtained experimentally as in accordance with the predicted theory; and present excellent prospects for applications in optical trapping and optical comm...

  1. Photorefractive and computational holography in the experimental generation of Airy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Rafael A. B.; Vieira, Tarcio A.; Yepes, Indira S. V.; Gesualdi, Marcos R. R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental generation of Airy beams via computational and photorefractive holography. Experimental generation of Airy beams using conventional optical components presents several difficulties and a practically infeasible. Thus, the optical generation of Airy beams has been made from the optical reconstruction of a computer generated hologram implemented by a spatial light modulator. In the photorefractive holography technique, being used for the first time to our knowledge, the hologram of an Airy beam is constructed (recorded) and reconstructed (read) optically in a nonlinear photorefractive medium. The Airy beam experimental realization was made by a setup of computational and photorefractive holography using a photorefractive Bi12 TiO20 crystal as holographic recording medium. Airy beams and Airy beam arrays were obtained experimentally in accordance with the predicted theory; with excellent prospects for applications in optical trapping and optical communications systems.

  2. Quantitative comparison of self-healing ability between Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wei [Department of Physics and Information Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua 418008 (China); Chu, Xiuxiang, E-mail: xiuxiangchu@yahoo.com [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China)

    2015-09-15

    The self-healing ability during propagation process is one of the most important properties of non-diffracting beams. This ability has crucial advantages to light sheet-based microscopy to reduce scattering artefacts, increase the quality of the image and enhance the resolution of microscopy. Based on similarity between two infinite-dimensional complex vectors in Hilbert space, the ability to a Bessel–Gaussian beam and an Airy beam have been studied and compared. Comparing the evolution of the similarity of Bessel–Gaussian beam with Airy beam under the same conditions, we find that Bessel–Gaussian beam has stronger self-healing ability and is more stable than that of Airy beam. To confirm this result, the intensity profiles of Bessel–Gaussian beam and Airy beam with different similarities are numerically calculated and compared.

  3. Propagation of Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihao, Yu; Ruihuang, Zhao; Fu, Deng; Jiayao, Huang; Chidao, Chen; Xiangbo, Yang; Yanping, Zhao; Dongmei, Deng

    2016-04-01

    The propagation dynamics of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis has been investigated analytically and numerically. The propagation expression of the beams has been obtained. The propagation features of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams are shown with changes of the distribution factor and the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index. The correlations between the ratio and the maximum intensity value during the propagation, and its appearing distance have been investigated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108, 11374107, 10904041, and 11547212), the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars of Guangdong Province, China, the CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, the National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (Grant No. 2015093), and the Science and Technology Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B031800011).

  4. Quantitative study on propagation and healing of Airy beams under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Fei; Zhu, Ziyi; Margiewicz, Jessica; Shi, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the propagation and healing of Airy beams in two dimensions that are obtainable under practical experimental conditions. We introduce an intensity similarity factor to quantitatively describe how an Airy beam retains its original shape. Based on such a figure of merit, we define a shape-retaining distance to quantify how far an Airy beam can keep the shape of its main lobe upon propagation and a healing distance to quantify how soon an initially partially blocked Airy beam can restore its main lobe profile. We perform an analysis on how these two distances scale with experimental parameters. We further use an interference picture to interpret the healing phenomenon of an Airy beam. Our work can serve as a guideline for quantitative performance analysis for applications of Airy beams and can be extended to other special beams in a straightforward fashion.

  5. Nonlinear evolution of Airy-like beams generated by modulated waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Xiaojun; Qi, Xinyuan

    2016-08-20

    We numerically study the formation of modulated waveguide generated Airy-like beams and their subsequent evolution in homogeneous medium. The results show that the Airy-like beams could be generated from narrow Gaussian beams propagating in one-dimensional transverse separation modulated unbent, cosine bent, or logarithm bent waveguide arrays, respectively. The waveguide-generated Airy-like beams maintain their characteristics when propagating without nonlinearity or under the self-defocusing nonlinearity in homogeneous medium, while the beams are distorted under the self-focusing nonlinearity. The deformation depends on the waveguide bending and the outgoing angles of the Airy-like beams. Our results provide a new way to generate and manipulate the Airy-like beam.

  6. Nonparaxial shape-preserving Airy beams with Bessel signature

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata-Rodriguez, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    Spatially accelerating beams that are solutions to the Maxwell equations may propagate along incomplete circular trajectories, after which diffraction broadening takes over and the beams spread out. Taking these truncated Bessel wave fields to the paraxial limit, some authors sustained that it is recovered the known Airy beams (AiBs). Based on the angular spectrum representation of optical fields, we demonstrated that the paraxial approximation rigorously leads to off-axis focused beams instead of finite-energy AiBs. The latter will arise under the umbrella of a nonparaxial approach following elliptical trajectories in place of parabolas. Deviations from full-wave simulations appear more severely in beam positioning rather than its local profile.

  7. Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in defected photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xing; Xiang, Ying; Li, Huagang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate interactions by means of direct numerical simulations between two finite Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beams in different media with the defected photonic lattices in one transverse dimension. We discuss different lattice structures in which the beams with different intensities and phases are launched into the medium, but accelerate in opposite directions. During interactions we see the interference fringe, breathers and soliton pairs generated that are not accelerating. In the linear media, the initial deflection direction of the accelerated beams is changed by adjusting the phase shift and the beam interval. For a certain lattice period, the periodic interference fringe can form. A constructive or destructive interference can vary with the defect depth and phase shift. While the nonlinearity is introduced, the breathers is generated. Especially, the appropriate beam amplitude and lattice depth may lead to the formation of soliton pairs.

  8. Propagation of Airy beams from right-handed material to left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hui-Chuan; Pu Ji-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the ABCD matrix formalism,the propagation property of an Airy beam from right-handed material(RHM)to left-handed material(LHM)is investigated.The result shows that when the Airy beam propagates in the LHM,the intensity self-bending due to its propagation in the RHM can be compensated.In particular,if the propagation distance in the RHM is equal to that in the LHM and the refractive index of the LHM is nL=-1,the transverse intensity distribution of the Airy beam can return to its original state.

  9. Periodic inversion and phase transition of finite energy Airy beams in a medium with parabolic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Weiping; Zhu, Dayu; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-04-20

    We study periodic inversion and phase transition of normal, displaced, and chirped finite energy Airy beams propagating in a parabolic potential. This propagation leads to an unusual oscillation: for half of the oscillation period the Airy beam accelerates in one transverse direction, with the main Airy beam lobe leading the train of pulses, whereas in the other half of the period it accelerates in the opposite direction, with the main lobe still leading - but now the whole beam is inverted. The inversion happens at a critical point, at which the beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one. Thus, there are two distinct phases in the propagation of an Airy beam in the parabolic potential - the normal Airy and the single-peak Gaussian phase. The length of the single-peak phase is determined by the size of the decay parameter: the smaller the decay, the smaller the length. A linear chirp introduces a transverse displacement of the beam at the phase transition point, but does not change the location of the point. A quadratic chirp moves the phase transition point, but does not affect the beam profile. The two-dimensional case is discussed briefly, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.

  10. Optical Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fajun; Zhu, Weiren; Shang, Wuyun; Wang, Meirong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Premaratne, Malin; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-08-01

    We report on the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (OBOs) and Zener tunneling (ZT) of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices with a refractive index ramp. Different from their counterparts in uniform lattices, Airy beams undergoing OBOs show an alternatively switched concave and convex trajectory as well as a periodical revival of input beam profiles. Moreover, the ionic-type photonic lattice established in photorefractive crystal exhibits a reconfigurable lattice structure, which provides a flexible way to tune the amplitude and period of the OBOs. Remarkably, it is demonstrated that the band gap of the lattice can be readily controlled by rotating the lattice inducing beam, which forces the ZT rate to follow two significant different decay curves amidst decreasing index gradient. Our results open up new possibilities for all-optical switching, routing and manipulation of Airy beams.

  11. Multi-gigahertz, femtosecond Airy beam optical parametric oscillator pumped at 78 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A.; Sharma, Varun; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Samanta, G. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a high power ultrafast Airy beam source producing femtosecond pulses at multi-gigahertz (GHz) repetition rate (RR). Based on intra-cavity cubic phase modulation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) designed in high harmonic cavity configuration synchronous to a femtosecond Yb-fiber laser operating at 78 MHz, we have produced ultrafast 2D Airy beam at multi-GHz repetition rate through the fractional increment in the cavity length. While small (Magnesium-oxide doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) crystal for efficient generation of ultrafast Airy beam and broadband mid-IR radiation. Pumping the MgO:PPLN crystal of grating period, Λ = 30 μm and crystal temperature, T = 100 °C using a 5-W femtosecond laser centred at 1064 nm, we have produced Airy beam radiation of 684 mW in ~639 fs (transform limited) pulses at 1525 nm at a RR of ~2.5 GHz. Additionally, the source produces broadband idler radiation with maximum power of 510 mW and 94 nm bandwidth at 3548 nm in Gaussian beam profile. Using an indirect method (change in cavity length) we estimate maximum RR of the Airy beam source to be ~100 GHz. PMID:28262823

  12. Propagation dynamics of finite-energy Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Kun; Li, Peng; Gu, Yu-Zong

    2017-10-01

    We investigate periodic inversion and phase transition of normal and displaced finite-energy Airy beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media with the split-step Fourier method. Numerical simulation results show that parameters such as the degree of nonlocality and amplitude have profound effects on the intensity distribution of the period of an Airy beam. Nonlocal nonlinear media will reduce into a harmonic potential if the nonlocality is strong enough, which results in the beam fluctuating in an approximately cosine mode. The beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one at a critical point, and during propagation the process repeats to form an unusual oscillation. We also briefly discus the two-dimensional case, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.

  13. Intermittent Giant Goos-Hanchen shifts from Airy beams at nonlinear interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Aceves, Alejandro B; McDonald, Graham S

    2013-01-01

    We study the giant Goos-Hanchen shift obtained from an Airy beam impinging on a nonlinear interface. To avoid any angular restriction associated with the paraxial approximation, the analysis is based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear Helmholtz equation. We report the existence of non-standard intermittent and oscillatory regimes for the nonlinear Goos-Hanchen shifts which can be explained in terms of the competition between the critical coupling to a surface mode of the reflected component of the Airy beam and the soliton emission from the refracted beam component.

  14. Widely varying giant Goos-Hänchen shifts from Airy beams at nonlinear interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Aceves, Alejandro B; McDonald, Graham S

    2014-03-15

    We present a numerical study of the giant Goos-Hänchen shifts (GHSs) obtained from an Airy beam impinging on a nonlinear interface. To avoid any angular restriction associated with the paraxial approximation, the analysis is based on the nonlinear Helmholtz equation. We report the existence of nonstandard nonlinear GHSs displaying an extreme sensitivity to the input intensity and the existence of multiple critical values. These intermittent and oscillatory regimes can be explained in terms of competition between critical coupling to a surface mode and soliton emission from the refracted beam component and how this interplay varies with localization of the initial Airy beam.

  15. Reflection and refraction of an Airy beam at a dielectric interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremmos, Ioannis D; Efremidis, Nikolaos K

    2012-06-01

    Reflection and refraction of a finite-power Airy beam at the interface between two dielectric media are investigated analytically and numerically. The formulation takes into account the paraxial nature of the optical beams to derive convenient field evolution equations in coordinate frames moving along Snell's refraction and reflection axes. Through numerical simulations, the self-accelerating dynamics of the Airy-like refracted and reflected beams are observed. Of special interest are the cases of critical incidence at Brewster and total-internal-reflection (TIR) angles. In the former case, we find that the reflected beam achieves self-healing, despite the severe suppression of a part of its spectrum, while, in the latter case, the beam remains nearly unaffected except for the Goos-Hänchen shift. The self-accelerating quality persists even if the beam is trapped by multiple TIRs inside a dielectric film. The grazing incidence of an Airy beam at the interface between two media with close refractive indices is also investigated, revealing that the interface can act as a filter depending on the beam scale and tilt. We finally consider reverse refraction and perfect imaging of an Airy beam into a left-handed medium.

  16. Propagation of an Airy-Gaussian-Vortex beam in a chiral medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sen; Liu, Youwen; Zhang, Huijie; Tang, Liangzun; Feng, Yunxcai

    2017-04-01

    Based on the Huygens diffraction integral, the analytical expressions of electric field distribution of the Airy-Gaussian-Vortex (AiGV) beam in a chiral medium are derived, and its propagation properties are investigated. With increasing the value of chiral parameter γ, the parabolic deflection of the LCP light increases and the RCP light decreases respectively. For the first-order AiGV beam with only one positive or negative optical vortex (OV), a half-moon-shaped intensity profile can be observed because of overlap of the OV and the Airy main lobe, and then the main lobe will be reconstructed and the vortex could be recovered after the overlap position. The intensity distribution of AiGV beam, the deflection trajectories of central positions of Airy beam and OV under different competing parameters between Gaussian and Airy terms have been studied. Furthermore, for the second-order counterrotating AiGV beam with positive and negative vortexes, it could be considered the superposition of two first-order AiGV beams with respective positive and negative vortexes. Two vortexes can regenerate during propagation and the intensity distribution the AiGV beam in the far zone can be controlled by adjusting the coordinates of two vortexes.

  17. Optical Bloch oscillations of an Airy beam in a photonic lattice with a linear transverse index gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fajun; Li, Baoran; Wang, Meirong; Zhu, Weiren; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Premaratne, Malin; Zhao, Jianlin

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically report the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (BO) of an Airy beam in a one-dimensional optically induced photonic lattice with a linear transverse index gradient. The Airy beam experiencing optical BO shows a more robust non-diffracting feature than its counterparts in free space or in a uniform photonic lattice. Interestingly, a periodical recurrence of Airy shape accompanied with constant alternation of its acceleration direction is also found during the BO. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the period and amplitude of BO of an Airy beam can be readily controlled over a wide range by varying the index gradient and/or the lattice period. Exploiting these features, we propose a scheme to rout an Airy beam to a predefined output channel without losing its characteristics by longitudinally modulating the transverse index gradient.

  18. Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in saturable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiling; Peng, Yulian; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Xi; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-08-01

    Based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the interactions of the two Airy-Gaussian components in the incidence are analyzed in saturable media, under the circumstances of the same amplitude and different amplitudes, respectively. It is found that the interaction can be both attractive and repulsive depending on the relative phase. The smaller the interval between two Airy-Gaussian components in the incidence is, the stronger the intensity of the interaction. However, with the equal amplitude, the symmetry is shown and the change of quasi-breathers is opposite in the in-phase case and out-of-phase case. As the distribution factor is increased, the phenomena of the quasi-breather and the self-accelerating of the two Airy-Gaussian components are weakened. When the amplitude is not equal, the image does not have symmetry. The obvious phenomenon of the interaction always arises on the side of larger input power in the incidence. The maximum intensity image is also simulated. Many of the characteristics which are contained within other images can also be concluded in this figure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108 and 10904041), the Foundation for the Author of Guangdong Province Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (Grant No. SYBZZXM201227), and the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars (“Thousand, Hundred, Ten” Program) of Guangdong Province, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China.

  19. Three-dimensional ultrashort optical Airy beams in an inhomogeneous medium with carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, Alexander V., E-mail: alex.zhukov@outlook.sg [Singapore University of Technology & Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore (Singapore); Bouffanais, Roland [Singapore University of Technology & Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore (Singapore); Belonenko, Mikhail B. [Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Volgograd Institute of Business, 400048 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Volgograd State University, 400062 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Dvuzhilov, Ilya S. [Volgograd State University, 400062 Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-11

    In this Letter, we consider the problem of the dynamics of propagation of three-dimensional optical pulses (a.k.a. light bullets) with an Airy profile through a heterogeneous environment of carbon nanotubes. We show numerically that such beams exhibit sustained and stable propagation. Moreover, we demonstrate that by varying the density modulation period of the carbon nanotubes one can indirectly control the pulse velocity, which is a particularly valuable feature for the design and manufacturing of novel pulse delay devices. - Highlights: • Propagation of Airy pulses in CNTs with modulated density. • Light bullets propagate stably. • Influence of Airy parameter is revealed. • Modulation period results in an increase of the pulse velocity.

  20. Propagation of an Airy-Gaussian beam in defected photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xing; Li, Yang; Li, Huagang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate numerically that a finite Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beam varies its trajectory and shape in the defected photonic lattices. The propagation properties and beam self-bending are controlled with modulation depth and period of the photonic lattices, positive and negative defects, beam distribution factor and nonlinearity change. For positive defects, the pseudo-period oscillation and localization of the AiG beam may be formed under a certain condition, while the beam is diffused for negative defects. Moreover, the solitons may appear during the propagation process when the self-focusing nonlinearity is introduced.

  1. Dynamics of Finite Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Multilevel Atomic Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Wang, Shun; Hu, Weifei; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-10-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamics of inward circular finite-energy Airy beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) numbers in a close-Λ three-level atomic vapor with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window. We report that due to the EIT induced by the microwave field, the transverse intensity distribution properties of Airy beam can be feasibly manipulated and modulated through adjusting OAM numbers l and the frequency detuning, as well as the propagation distance, in the multi-level atomic systems. What's more, the rotation of the beam also can be observed with different positions in atomic ensembles. The investigation may provide a useful tool for studying particle manipulation, signal processing and propagation in graded-index (GRIN) fibers.

  2. Three-dimensional ultrashort optical Airy beams in an inhomogeneous medium with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Belonenko, Mikhail B.; Dvuzhilov, Ilya S.

    2017-03-01

    In this Letter, we consider the problem of the dynamics of propagation of three-dimensional optical pulses (a.k.a. light bullets) with an Airy profile through a heterogeneous environment of carbon nanotubes. We show numerically that such beams exhibit sustained and stable propagation. Moreover, we demonstrate that by varying the density modulation period of the carbon nanotubes one can indirectly control the pulse velocity, which is a particularly valuable feature for the design and manufacturing of novel pulse delay devices.

  3. Dual accelerating Airy-Talbot recurrence effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Liu, Xing; Zhong, Weiping; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the dual accelerating Airy-Talbot recurrence effect, i.e., the self-imaging of accelerating optical beams, by propagating a superposition of Airy beams with successively changing transverse displacements. The dual Airy-Talbot effect is a spontaneous recurring imaging of the input and of the input with alternating component signs. It results from the constructive interference of Airy wave functions, which is also responsible for other kinds of Airy beams, for example, Airy breathers. An input composed of finite-energy Airy beams also displays the dual Airy-Talbot effect, but it demands a large transverse displacement and diminishes fast along the propagation direction.

  4. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De

    2015-01-01

    Needle-like electromagnetic fields has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman Spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device(DMD). Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional(1D) and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We...

  5. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan, E-mail: yxren@ustc.edu.cn [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Vaveliuk, Pablo [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC), Cno. Centenario y 506, P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De, E-mail: lrd@ustc.edu.cn [Physics Experiment Teaching Center, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  6. A compact Airy beam light sheet microscope with a tilted cylindrical lens

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhengyi; Prokopas, Martynas; Nylk, Jonathan; Coll Llado, Clara; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Ferrier, David Ellard Keith; Vettenburg, Tom; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-01-01

    We thank the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under grant EP/J01771X/1, the ’BRAINS’ 600th anniversary appeal and Dr. E. Killick for funding. Light-sheet imaging is rapidly gaining importance for imaging intact biological specimens. Many of the latest innovations rely on the propagation-invariant Bessel or Airy beams to form an extended light sheet to provide high resolution across a large field of view. Shaping light to realize propagation-invariant beams often relies...

  7. Soliton pair generation in the interactions of Airy and nonlinear accelerating beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Zheng, Huaibin; Lu, Keqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate numerically the interactions of two in-phase and out-of-phase Airy beams and nonlinear accelerating beams in Kerr and saturable nonlinear media, in one transverse dimension. We find that bound and unbound soliton pairs, as well as single solitons, can form in such interactions. If the interval between two incident beams is large relative to the width of their first lobes, the generated soliton pairs just propagate individually and do not interact. However, if the interval is comparable to the widths of the maximum lobes, the pairs interact and display varied behavior. In the in-phase case, they attract each other and exhibit stable bound, oscillating, and unbound states, after shedding some radiation initially. In the out-of-phase case, they repel each other and after an initial interaction, fly away as individual solitons. While the incident beams display acceleration, the solitons or soliton pairs generated from those beams do not.

  8. Propagation of ring Airy Gaussian beams with optical vortices through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Tao, Rumao; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Wu, Wuming; Wang, Xiaolin; Si, Lei

    2017-03-01

    A new ring Airy Gaussian (RAiG) vortex beam generation method by coherent combination of Gaussian beam array has been proposed. To validate the feasibility of this method, the propagation properties of the RAiG vortex beam and the coherent combining beam in vacuum have been studied and analyzed. From the comparisons of the intensity distributions and phase patterns along the propagation path, we can conclude that the coherent combining beam has the same properties as those of the ideal RAiG vortex beam. So this method can be used to obtain RAiG vortex beam in practice. Then the general analytical expression of the root-mean-square (RMS) beam width of the RAiG vortex beam, which is appropriately generated by coherent combining method, through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence has been derived. The influence of anisotropic turbulence on RMS beam width of the generated RAiG vortex beam has been numerically calculated. This generation method has good appropriation to the ideal RAiG vortex beam and is very useful for deriving the analytical expression of propagation properties through a random media. The conclusions are useful in practical applications, such as laser communication and remote sensing systems.

  9. Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....

  10. Ultracompact beam splitters based on plasmonic nanoslits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanhong; Kohli, Punit

    2011-01-01

    An ultracompact plasmonic beam splitter is theoretically and numerically investigated. The splitter consists of a V-shaped nanoslit in metal films. Two groups of nanoscale metallic grooves inside the slit (A) and at the small slit opening (B) are investigated. We show that there are two energy channels guiding light out by the splitter: the optical and the plasmonic channels. Groove A is used to couple incident light into the plasmonic channel. Groove B functions as a plasmonic scatter. We demonstrate that the energy transfer through plasmonic path is dominant in the beam splitter. We find that more than four times the energy is transferred by the plasmonic channel using structures A and B. We show that the plasmonic waves scattered by B can be converted into light waves. These light waves redistribute the transmitted energy through interference with the field transmitted from the nanoslit. Therefore, different beam splitting effects are achieved by simply changing the interference conditions between the scattered waves and the transmitted waves. The impact of the width and height of groove B are also investigated. It is found that the plasmonic scattering of B is changed into light scattering with increase of the width and the height of B. These devices have potential applications in optical sampling, signal processing, and integrated optical circuits. PMID:21647248

  11. On Characteristics of the Propagation of Airy Beams in Meta-materials%艾里光束在超常介质中的传输特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友文; 李舒; 游开明; 陈列尊; 陆世专; 戴志平; 凌晓辉

    2014-01-01

    艾里光束(Airy beam )是近年来备受关注的新型无衍射激光束之一,艾里激光束具有自由加速、无衍射及自愈等奇异特性,并具有重要应用前景。超常介质为人工微结构材料,它使人们具备按需要设计介质参数的能力。基于一维光束传输方程,获得了超常介质中艾里光束复振幅传输解析表达式。数值计算结果表明,超常介质中艾里光束振幅的大小与在正常介质中完全相同,而振幅的虚部和相位正好相反。所得结果为人们操控艾里光束提供支持。%The Airy beam is a new kind of non-diffracting beam discovered in recent years .Airy beams have exotic characteris-tics such as free acceleration ,non-diffracting laser beam and self-healing ,and so have important application potentials .Meta-materials are artificial microstructures material ,which permit people to design electromagnetic parameters of media at will . Based on the paraxial wave equation ,the analytical expression of complex amplitude of Airy beams in meta-materials is ob-tained ;in addition ,the numerical results show that ,the module of complex amplitude of Airy beams in meta-materials is simi-lar to that of conventional medium ,while the imaginary part and the phase complex amplitude are opposite .The results may provide support for people to better manipulation of the Airy beam .

  12. Tailoring reflection of graphene plasmons by focused ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Weiwei; Wu, Wei; Xiang, Yinxiao; Ren, Mengxin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    Graphene plasmons are of remarkable features that make graphene plasmon elements promising for applications to integrated photonic devices. The fabrication of graphene plasmon components and control over plasmon propagating are of fundamental important. Through near-field plasmon imaging, we demonstrate controllable modifying of the reflection of graphene plasmon at boundaries etched by ion beams. Moreover, by varying ion dose at a proper value, nature like reflection boundary can be obtained. We also investigate the influence of ion beam incident angle on plasmon reflection. To illustrate the application of ion beam etching, a simple graphene wedge-shape plasmon structure is fabricated and performs excellently, proving this technology as a simple and efficient tool for controlling graphene plasmons.

  13. Boundary effects in finite size plasmonic crystals: focusing and routing of plasmonic beams for optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetou, M I; Bouillard, J-S; Segovia, P; Dickson, W; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Zayats, A V

    2015-11-06

    Plasmonic crystals, which consist of periodic arrangements of surface features at a metal-dielectric interface, allow the manipulation of optical information in the form of surface plasmon polaritons. Here we investigate the excitation and propagation of plasmonic beams in and around finite size plasmonic crystals at telecom wavelengths, highlighting the effects of the crystal boundary shape and illumination conditions. Significant differences in broad plasmonic beam generation by crystals of different shapes are demonstrated, while for narrow beams, the propagation from a crystal onto the smooth metal film is less sensitive to the crystal boundary shape. We show that by controlling the boundary shape, the size and the excitation beam parameters, directional control of propagating plasmonic modes and their behaviour such as angular beam splitting, focusing power and beam width can be efficiently achieved. This provides a promising route for robust and alignment-independent integration of plasmonic crystals with optical communication components.

  14. Bohmian trajectories of Airy packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Antonio B., E-mail: anassar@hw.com [Science Department, Harvard-Westlake School, 3700 Coldwater Canyon, Studio City, 91604 (United States); Department of Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Extension Program, 10995 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Miret-Artés, Salvador [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    The discovery of Berry and Balazs in 1979 that the free-particle Schrödinger equation allows a non-dispersive and accelerating Airy-packet solution has taken the folklore of quantum mechanics by surprise. Over the years, this intriguing class of wave packets has sparked enormous theoretical and experimental activities in related areas of optics and atom physics. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, we present new features of Airy wave packet solutions to Schrödinger equation with time-dependent quadratic potentials. In particular, we provide some insights to the problem by calculating the corresponding Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that by using general space–time transformations, these trajectories can display a unique variety of cases depending upon the initial position of the individual particle in the Airy wave packet. Further, we report here a myriad of nontrivial Bohmian trajectories associated to the Airy wave packet. These new features are worth introducing to the subject’s theoretical folklore in light of the fact that the evolution of a quantum mechanical Airy wave packet governed by the Schrödinger equation is analogous to the propagation of a finite energy Airy beam satisfying the paraxial equation. Numerous experimental configurations of optics and atom physics have shown that the dynamics of Airy beams depends significantly on initial parameters and configurations of the experimental set-up.

  15. Surface plasmon interference excited by tightly focused laser beams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhelier, A.; Ignatovich, F.; Bruyant, A.; Huang, C.; Colas des Francs, G.; Weeber, J.-C.; Dereux, A.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Novotny, L.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ de Bourgogne; Univ. of Rochester; Univ Technologique de Troyes

    2007-09-01

    We show that interfering surface plasmon polaritons can be excited with a focused laser beam at normal incidence to a plane metal film. No protrusions or holes are needed in this excitation scheme. Depending on the axial position of the focus, the intensity distribution on the metal surface is either dominated by interferences between counterpropagating plasmons or by a two-lobe pattern characteristic of localized surface plasmon excitation. Our experiments can be accurately explained by use of the angular spectrum representation and provide a simple means for locally exciting standing surface plasmon polaritons.

  16. Optical Manipulation with Plasmonic Beam Shaping Antenna Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Young Chul Jun; Igal Brener

    2012-01-01

    Near-field optical trapping of objects using plasmonic antenna structures has recently attracted great attention. However, metal nanostructures also provide a compact platform for general wavefront engineering of intermediate and far-field beams. Here, we analyze optical forces generated by plasmonic beam shaping antenna structures and show that they can be used for general optical manipulation such as guiding of a dielectric particle along a linear or curved trajectory. This removes the need...

  17. Self-similar parabolic plasmonic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Turitsyn, Sergei K; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate that an interplay between diffraction and defocusing nonlinearity can support stable self-similar plasmonic waves with a parabolic profile. Simplicity of a parabolic shape combined with the corresponding parabolic spatial phase distribution creates opportunities for controllable manipulation of plasmons through a combined action of diffraction and nonlinearity.

  18. Investigation on partially coherent Airy beams and their propagation∗%部分相干Airy光束及其传输的研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔省伟; 陈子阳; 胡克磊; 蒲继雄

    2013-01-01

    Based on the cross-spectral density function of Gaussian Shell-Model and Huygens integral, the expression of partially coherent Airy beam was derived. The non-diffraction and acceleration characteristics of partially coherent Airy beam were theoretically studied and experimentally observed. The experimental observation was consistent with the theoretical prediction. Furthermore, the non-diffraction distance and the transversal acceleration decrease with decreasing coherent length.%  利用高斯-谢尔模型的交叉谱密度公式和惠更斯衍射积分,得到了部分相干Airy光束的表达式。对不同相干度的部分相干Airy光束的无衍射和横向加速偏移的性质进行了理论分析并予以实验验证,结果一致表明部分相干Airy光束也具有无衍射和横向加速度的特性,而且相干度越低,部分相干Airy光束的无衍射距离越短,横向加速度越小。

  19. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Simple high-performance two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique a thin noble metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a tightly focused single nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depends on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. The plasmon...

  20. Terahertz plasmonic laser radiating in an ultra-narrow beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chongzhao; Reno, John L; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic lasers (spasers) generate coherent surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) and could be realized at subwavelength dimensions in metallic cavities for applications in nanoscale optics. Plasmonic cavities are also utilized for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which are the brightest available solid-state sources of terahertz radiation. A long standing challenge for spasers is their poor coupling to the far-field radiation. Unlike conventional lasers that could produce directional beams, spasers have highly divergent radiation patterns due to their subwavelength apertures. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a new technique for implementing distributed-feedback (DFB) that is distinct from any other previously utilized DFB schemes for semiconductor lasers. The so-termed antenna-feedback scheme leads to single-mode operation in plasmonic lasers, couples the resonant SPP mode to a highly directional far-field radiation pattern, and integrates hybrid SPPs in surrounding medium into the ...

  1. Demonstration of a variable plasmonic beam splitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we excite surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a silver nano-wire by a single nitrogen-vacancy center located in a diamond nano-crystal. By using the tip of an atomic force microscope, a second nano-wire is brought into the evanescent field of the first wire such tha......In this contribution, we excite surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a silver nano-wire by a single nitrogen-vacancy center located in a diamond nano-crystal. By using the tip of an atomic force microscope, a second nano-wire is brought into the evanescent field of the first wire...

  2. Fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures with electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was shaped by the goal---coming up new approaches to fabricate plasmonic materials with electron beam induced deposition (EBID). One-step, bottom-up and direct-write are typical adjectives that are used to indicate the advantageous properties of this technique. Thes

  3. Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the focusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) beams with parabolic chains of gold nanoparticles fabricated on thin gold films. SPP focusing with different parabolic chains is investigated in the wavelength range of 700–860 nm, both experimentally and theoretically. Mapping of SPP...

  4. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  5. Propagation properties of right-hand circularly polarized Airy-Gaussian beams through slabs of right-handed materials and left-handed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiayao; Liang, Zijie; Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Zhao, Ruihuang; Chen, Bo; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2015-11-01

    The propagation of right-hand circularly polarized Airy-Gaussian beams (RHCPAiGBs) through slabs of right-handed materials (RHMs) and left-handed materials (LHMs) is investigated analytically and numerically with the transfer matrix method. An approximate analytical expression for the RHCPAiGBs passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived on the basis of the Huygens diffraction integral formula. The intensity and the phase distributions of the RHCPAiGBs through RHMs and LHMs are demonstrated. The influence of the parameter χ0 on the propagation of RHCPAiGBs through RHM and LHM slabs is investigated. The RHCPAiGBs possess transverse-momentum currents, which shows that the physics underlying this intriguing accelerating effect is that of the combined contributions of the transverse spin and transverse orbital currents. Additionally, we go a step further to explore the radiation force including the gradient force and scattering force of the RHCPAiGBs.

  6. Dynamic plasmonic beam shaping by vector beams with arbitrary locally linear polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Z.; Du, L.; Min, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.C.

    2014-01-01

    Vector beams, which have space-variant state of polarization (SOP) comparing with scalar beams with spatially homogeneous SOP, are used to manipulate surface plasmon polarizations (SPPs). We find that the excitation, orientation, and distribution of the focused SPPs excited in a high numerical apert

  7. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Gurbatov, Stanislav; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Simple high-performance, two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique, a thin noble-metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a single tightly focused nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depend on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. Plasmonic properties of the fabricated nanostructures were characterized by dark-field micro-spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence measurements performed on single nanofeatures, as well as by supporting numerical calculations of the related electromagnetic near-fields and Purcell factors. The developed simple two-stage technique represents a new step towards direct large-scale laser-induced fabrication of highly ordered arrays of complex plasmonic nanostructures.

  8. Beam-Size-Invariant Spectropolarimeters Using Gap-Plasmon Metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Fei; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Chen, Yiting

    2017-01-01

    , consisting of three gap-plasmon phase-gradient metasurfaces that occupy 120° circular sectors each, for simultaneous polarization state and wavelength determination. The spectropolarimeters diffract normally incident light to six predesigned directions, whose polar angles are proportional to the light...... the expected polarization selectivity and high angular dispersion (0.0133°/nm for the |x» channel). Moreover, we show that, due to the circular-sector design, polarization analysis can be conducted for optical beams of different diameters without prior calibration, demonstrating thereby the beam...

  9. Airy acoustical-sheet spinner tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2016-09-01

    The Airy acoustical beam exhibits parabolic propagation and spatial acceleration, meaning that the propagation bending angle continuously increases before the beam trajectory reaches a critical angle where it decays after a propagation distance, without applying any external bending force. As such, it is of particular importance to investigate its properties from the standpoint of acoustical radiation force, spin torque, and particle dynamics theories, in the development of novel particle sorting techniques and acoustically mediated clearing systems. This work investigates these effects on a two-dimensional (2D) circular absorptive structure placed in the field of a nonparaxial Airy "acoustical-sheet" (i.e., finite beam in 2D), for potential applications in surface acoustic waves and acousto-fluidics. Based on the characteristics of the acoustic field, the beam is capable of manipulating the circular cylindrical fluid cross-section and guides it along a transverse or parabolic trajectory. This feature of Airy acoustical beams could lead to a unique characteristic in single-beam acoustical tweezers related to acoustical sieving, filtering, and removal of particles and cells from a section of a small channel. The analysis developed here is based on the description of the nonparaxial Airy beam using the angular spectrum decomposition of plane waves in close association with the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. The numerical results demonstrate the ability of the nonparaxial Airy acoustical-sheet beam to pull, propel, or accelerate a particle along a parabolic trajectory, in addition to particle confinement in the transverse direction of wave propagation. Negative or positive radiation force and spin torque causing rotation in the clockwise or the anticlockwise direction can occur depending on the nondimensional parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius) and the location of the cylinder in the beam. Applications in

  10. Curved plasma channels: Kerr lens and Airy prism

    CERN Document Server

    Kasparian, Jérôme; 10.2971/jeos.2009.09039

    2010-01-01

    We analytically calculate the transverse energy fluxes that would be respectively induced in high-power Airy beams by the Kerr self-focusing and the Airy profile itself if they were the only active process. In experimental condition representative of laser filamentation experiments of high-power ultrashort laser pulses in air and condensed media, the Kerr lens induces transverse energy fluxes much larger than the Airy "prism" at the main peak. As a consequence, the curved plasma channels in Airy beams are not only a plasma spark on a curved focus, but indeed self-guided filaments, and their curved trajectory appears as a perturbation due to the linear Airy propagation regime.

  11. Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Gilad M; Levy, Uriel

    2013-03-13

    Great hopes rest on surface plasmon polaritons' (SPPs) potential to bring new functionalities and applications into various branches of optics. In this paper, we demonstrate a pin cushion structure capable of coupling light from free space into SPPs, split them based on the polarization content of the illuminating beam of light, and focus them into small spots. We also show that for a circularly or randomly polarized light, four focal spots will be generated at the center of each quarter circle comprising the pin cushion device. Furthermore, following the relation between the relative intensity of the obtained four focal spots and the relative position of the illuminating beam with respect to the structure, we propose and demonstrate the potential use of our structure as a miniaturized plasmonic version of the well-known four quadrant detector. Additional potential applications may vary from multichannel microscopy and multioptical traps to real time beam tracking systems.

  12. Extinction efficiency of "elastic-sheet" beams by a cylindrical (viscous) fluid inclusion embedded in an elastic medium and mode conversion—Examples of nonparaxial Gaussian and Airy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2016-10-01

    Stemming from the law of the conservation of energy in an elastic medium, this work extends the scope of the previous analysis for a scatterer immersed in a nonviscous liquid [F. G. Mitri, Ultrasonics 62, 20-26 (2015)] to the case of a (viscous) fluid circular cylinder cross-section encased in a homogeneous, isotropic, elastic matrix. Analytical expressions for the absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies (or cross-sections) are derived for "elastic-sheets" (i.e., finite beams in 2D propagating in elastic media) of arbitrary wavefront, in contrast to the ideal case of plane waves of infinite extent. The mathematical expressions are formulated in generalized partial-wave series expansions in cylindrical coordinates involving the beam-shape coefficients of finite elastic-sheet beams with arbitrary wavefront, and the scattering coefficients of the fluid cylinder encased in the elastic matrix. The analysis shows that in elastodynamic scattering, both the scattered L-wave as well as the scattered T-wave contribute to the time-averaged scattered efficiency (or power). However, the extinction efficiency only depends on the scattering coefficients characterizing the same type (L or T) as the incident wave. Numerical computations for the (non-dimensional energy) efficiency factors such as the absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies of a circular cylindrical viscous fluid cavity embedded in an elastic aluminum matrix are performed for nonparaxial focused Gaussian and Airy elastic-sheet beams with arbitrary longitudinal and transverse normally-polarized (shear) wave incidences in the Rayleigh and resonance regimes. A series of elastic resonances are manifested in the plots of the efficiencies as the non-dimensional size parameters for the L- and T-waves are varied. As the beam waist for the nonparaxial Gaussian beam increases, the plane wave result is recovered, while for a tightly focused wavefront, some of the elastic resonances can be suppressed

  13. Gap plasmon resonator arrays for unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Zeyu

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and experimental realization of a kind of miniaturized devices for efficient unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Each device consists of an array of evenly spaced gap plasmon resonators with varying dimensions. Particle swarm optimization is used to achieve a theoretical two dimensional launching efficiency of about 51%, under the normal illumination of a 5-{\\mu}m waist Gaussian beam at 780 nm. By modifying the wavefront of the SPPs, unidirectional SPPs with focused, Bessel and Airy profiles are launched and imaged with leakage radiation microscopy.

  14. Plasmon beams interaction at interface between metal and dielectric with saturable Kerr nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatyeva, Daria O.; Sukhorukov, Anatoly P. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    We present a novel theory of surface plasmon polariton interaction on the surface of dielectric with saturable Kerr nonlinearity. The effect of the total internal reflection of a weak signal plasmon beam from a high-power reference beam is discussed. Both ray and wave theories are used to describe signal propagation. The effect of the signal tunneling through the narrow inhomogeneity induced by the reference beam is considered. (orig.)

  15. Quadrupole lattice resonances in plasmonic crystal excited by cylindrical vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kyosuke; Nomura, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Takeaki; Omura, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Keiji

    2016-10-01

    We report a scheme to exploit low radiative loss plasmonic resonance by combining a dark (subradiant) mode and a lattice resonance. We theoretically demonstrate that such dark-mode lattice resonances in periodic arrays of nanodisks or plasmonic crystals can be excited by vertically incident light beams. We investigate the excitation of lattice resonances in a finite sized, square-lattice plasmonic crystal by two types of cylindrical vector beams and a linearly polarized Gaussian beam. Quadrupole lattice resonances are excited by all three beams, and the largest peak intensity is obtained by using a specific type of cylindrical vector beam. Because of their lower radiative losses with many hotspots, the quadrupole lattice resonances in plasmonic crystal may pave the way for photonic research and applications that require strong light-matter interactions.

  16. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Adeel; Kocabaş, Şükrü Ekin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  17. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Afridi, Adeel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  18. Challenges of fabricating plasmonic and photonic structures with Neon ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Fiutowski, Jacek; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    properties. We are currently studying the capabilities of focussed Helium and Neon ion beam milling for the fabricating of plasmonic and photonic devices. We found that Neon ion beam milling enables us to prepare plasmonic structures, such as trenches (see Fig. 1) and V-grooves without doping and alloying...... effects specific to Galium FIB. Neon FIB milling is superior to Helium FIB milling in terms of the processing speed and smaller levels of implanted ions. From our perspective it is the most promising technique for the fabrication of individual plasmonic devices with a few nanometers precision. The main...... presentation we show the current progress in Neon FIB milling of plasmonic structures. We compare different materials, in particular poly- and mono-crystalline gold as well as thin films of Titanium Nitride, which are commonly used for plasmonic applications....

  19. Generation of diffraction-free plasmonic beams with one-dimensional Bessel profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally generation of diffraction-free plasmonic beams with zeroth- and first-order Bessel intensity profiles using axicon-like structures fabricated on gold film surfaces and designed to operate at a wavelength of 700nm. The central beam features a very low divergence (∼8π...

  20. Wide Field-of-view and Broadband Terahertz Beam Steering Based on Gap Plasmon Geodesic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaipeng; Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiong; Luo, Xiangang

    2017-01-30

    Despite a plethora of applications ranging from wireless communications to sensing and spectroscopy, the current terahertz beam steering technologies suffer from tremendous insert loss, stringent control of electric bias, limited scanning angle, relatively complicated configuration and narrow operation bandwidth, preventing further practical application. We propose and demonstrate a conceptually new approach for terahertz beam steering by virtue of gap plasmon geodesic antennas. By adjusting the geometric dimension of the gap plasmon geodesic antennas, all gap plasmon modes add coherently along a peculiar direction that depends on the geodesic mean surface. Consequently, high directive beams are generated through the antenna, whose direction could be changed within a wide-angle range spanning ±45° by lateral motion of the feed. Furthermore, an assembled antenna structure consisting of four-element geodesic antennas array is proposed for full 360° beam steering, which can operate in a broadband range from 0.8 THz to 1.2 THz.

  1. Wide Field-of-view and Broadband Terahertz Beam Steering Based on Gap Plasmon Geodesic Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaipeng; Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiong; Luo, Xiangang

    2017-01-01

    Despite a plethora of applications ranging from wireless communications to sensing and spectroscopy, the current terahertz beam steering technologies suffer from tremendous insert loss, stringent control of electric bias, limited scanning angle, relatively complicated configuration and narrow operation bandwidth, preventing further practical application. We propose and demonstrate a conceptually new approach for terahertz beam steering by virtue of gap plasmon geodesic antennas. By adjusting the geometric dimension of the gap plasmon geodesic antennas, all gap plasmon modes add coherently along a peculiar direction that depends on the geodesic mean surface. Consequently, high directive beams are generated through the antenna, whose direction could be changed within a wide-angle range spanning ±45° by lateral motion of the feed. Furthermore, an assembled antenna structure consisting of four-element geodesic antennas array is proposed for full 360° beam steering, which can operate in a broadband range from 0.8 THz to 1.2 THz.

  2. Electron beam imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoantenna resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoantennas are metal structures that provide strong optical coupling between a nanoscale volume and the far field. This coupling is mediated by surface plasmons, oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. Increasing the control over the resonant plasmonic field distribution opens up a wide r

  3. On the asymptotic evolution of finite energy Airy wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Posada, P; Sánchez-Curto, J; Aceves, A B; McDonald, G S

    2015-06-15

    In general, there is an inverse relation between the degree of localization of a wave function of a certain class and its transform representation dictated by the scaling property of the Fourier transform. We report that in the case of finite energy Airy wave packets a simultaneous increase in their localization in the direct and transform domains can be obtained as the apodization parameter is varied. One consequence of this is that the far-field diffraction rate of a finite energy Airy beam decreases as the beam localization at the launch plane increases. We analyze the asymptotic properties of finite energy Airy wave functions using the stationary phase method. We obtain one dominant contribution to the long-term evolution that admits a Gaussian-like approximation, which displays the expected reduction of its broadening rate as the input localization is increased.

  4. Beaming of helical light from plasmonic vortices via adiabatically tapered nanotip

    CERN Document Server

    Garoli, Denis; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of far-field propagating optical beams with a desired orbital angular momentum by using a smooth optical mode transformation between a plasmonic vortex and free space Laguerre-Gaussian modes. This is obtained by means of an adiabatically tapered gold tip surrounded by a spiral slit. The proposed physical model, backed up by the numerical study, brings about an optimized structure which is fabricated by using highly reproducible secondary electron lithography technique. Optical measurements of the structure excellently agree with the theoretically predicted far-field distributions. This architecture provides a unique platform for a localized excitation of plasmonic vortices followed by its beaming.

  5. Controlling multipolar surface plasmon excitation through the azimuthal phase structure of electron vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Daniel; Ducati, Caterina

    2016-05-01

    We have theoretically studied how the azimuthal phase structure of an electron vortex beam excites surface plasmons on metal particles of different geometries as observed in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). We have developed a semiclassical approximation combining a ring-shaped beam and the dielectric formalism. Our results indicate that for the case of total orbital angular momentum transfer, we can manipulate surface plasmon multipole excitation and even attain an enhancement factor of several orders of magnitude. Since electron vortex beams interact with particles mostly through effects due to azimuthal symmetry, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the electron beam, anisotropy information (longitudinal and transversal) of the sample may be derived in EELS studies by comparing nonvortex and vortex beam measurements.

  6. Beam filter and splitter based on surface plasmon propagation in ring metal heterowaveguide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaige Zheng; Linhua Xu; Yunyun Chen; Wei Su; Yuzhu Liu

    2014-12-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) beam filter (BF) and beam splitter (BS) constructed using metal heterostructures are proposed and demonstrated numerically. Both structures have a ring metal heterowaveguide, which is constructed by a metal cylinder and a ring dielectric cladding. The two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method is employed to study the properties of the proposed BF and BS, and the results show that SPPs can effectively propagate on bended plasmonic waveguides with dielectric claddings. By introducing dielectric and plasmonic waveguides on both sides of the resonant ring, SPPs can be efficiently excited at the output of the waveguide ring resonator (WRR) through mode coupling. The planar metal heterostructures provide a way for constructing various nanoscale counterparts of conventional planar integrated devices such as filters, splitters, resonators, sensors, optical switches, and so on.

  7. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  8. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai B., E-mail: udaibhansingh123@gmail.com; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-15

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm{sup −1} along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  9. Generation of Graphene Surface Plasmons and Their Applications in Beam Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel concept that uses mechanical and electronic properties of graphene to efficiently couple light to surface plasmon polaritons. A graphene-based infrared beam-former based on the concept of surface leaky-wave is also discussed. © OSA 2015.

  10. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  11. Slow-light Airy wave packets and their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Hang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate (3+1)-dimensional slow-light Airy wave packets in a resonant $\\Lambda$-type three-level atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that in the absence of dispersion the Airy wave packets formed by a probe field consist of two Airy wave packets accelerated in transverse directions and a longitudinal Gaussian pulse with a constant propagating velocity lowered to $10^{-5}\\,c$ ($c$ is the light speed in vacuum). We also show that in the presence of dispersion it is possible to generate another type of slow-light Airy wave packets consisting of two Airy beams in transverse directions and an Airy wave packet in the longitudinal direction. In this case, the longitudinal velocity of the Airy wave packet can be further reduced during propagation. Additionally, we further show that the transverse accelerations (or bending) of the both types of slow-light Airy wave packets can be completely eliminated and the motional trajectories of them can be actively manipulated ...

  12. Beaming Visible Light with a Plasmonic Aperture Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jue-Min; Cuche, Aurélien; Devaux, Eloïse; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2014-04-16

    We investigate experimentally the parameter space defining, in the visible range, the far-field diffraction properties of a single circular subwavelength aperture surrounded by periodic circular grooves milled on a metallic film. Diffraction patterns emerging from such an antenna are recorded under parallel- and perpendicular-polarized illumination at a given illumination wavelength. By monitoring the directivity and the gain of the antenna with respect to a single aperture, we point out the role played by the near-field surface plasmon excitations. The results can be analyzed through a Huygens-Fresnel model, accounting for the coherent interaction between the field radiated by the hole and the plasmonic field, propagating along the antenna surface and diffracted away in free space.

  13. Plasmonic resonance scattering from silver nanowire illuminated by tightly focused singular beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normatov, Alexander; Spektor, Boris; Leviatan, Yehuda; Shamir, Joseph

    2010-08-15

    We investigate scattering features of tightly focused singular beams by placing a cylindrical nanowire in the vicinity of a line phase singularity. Applying an illumination wavelength corresponding to silver cylinder plasmonic resonance, we compare the scattering response with that of a perfect conductor. The rigorous modeling employs a 2D version of the Richards-Wolf focusing method and the source model technique. It is found that a cylinder with a plasmonic resonance produces a strong scattering response by deflecting the power flow toward the optical singularity region, where otherwise the power approaches zero.

  14. Cherenkov terahertz surface plasmon excitation by an electron beam over an ultrathin metal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Rajeev; Rajouria, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of Cherenkov excitation of terahertz (THz) surface plasma wave (SPW), by a relativistic electron beam propagating over an ultrathin metal film deposited on glass, is investigated. The SPW field falls off exponentially in vacuum as well as glass, while the surface plasmon resonant frequency is lowered by the reduction of film thickness. The SPW field causes density bunching of the beam leading to current modulation and generation of THz radiation via the Cherenkov interaction. The frequency of the THz decreases with the energy of the beam, whereas the growth rate increases.

  15. Wide Field-of-view and Broadband Terahertz Beam Steering Based on Gap Plasmon Geodesic Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaipeng; Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiong; Luo, Xiangang

    2017-01-01

    Despite a plethora of applications ranging from wireless communications to sensing and spectroscopy, the current terahertz beam steering technologies suffer from tremendous insert loss, stringent control of electric bias, limited scanning angle, relatively complicated configuration and narrow operation bandwidth, preventing further practical application. We propose and demonstrate a conceptually new approach for terahertz beam steering by virtue of gap plasmon geodesic antennas. By adjusting the geometric dimension of the gap plasmon geodesic antennas, all gap plasmon modes add coherently along a peculiar direction that depends on the geodesic mean surface. Consequently, high directive beams are generated through the antenna, whose direction could be changed within a wide-angle range spanning ±45° by lateral motion of the feed. Furthermore, an assembled antenna structure consisting of four-element geodesic antennas array is proposed for full 360° beam steering, which can operate in a broadband range from 0.8 THz to 1.2 THz. PMID:28134324

  16. Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by electron beam with graphene ribbon arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2017-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as an alternative material to support surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with its excellent properties such as the tight electromagnetic field localization, low dissipative loss, and versatile tunability. Thus, graphene surface plasmon polaritons (GSPs) provide an exciting platform to develop a series of novel devices and systems from the optical band to the terahertz (THz) band. In this paper, theoretical and simulated studies about the excitation of SPPs by an injected electron beam with periodic graphene ribbon arrays deposited on a dielectric medium are presented. The analytical dispersion expression of the GSP mode on the graphene ribbon arrays is obtained by using a modal expansion method along with periodic boundary conditions in the structure. With this result, the dispersion relation, propagation loss, and field pattern of the propagating GSPs for both periodic graphene microribbon arrays and the complete graphene sheet are investigated and analyzed in the THz band. It is shown that the electromagnetic field with a better concentration on the interface can be realized with graphene ribbon arrays compared with the graphene sheet for a given frequency. Besides, the excitation of GSPs by an injected electron beam with graphene ribbon arrays is modeled and implemented by the particle-in-cell simulation based on the finite difference time domain algorithm. GSPs can be excited effectively when the dispersion line of the electron beam and SPPs on the graphene ribbon arrays is matched with each other well. Besides, the dependences of output power on electron beam parameters such as the distance of the electron beam above the graphene ribbon surface and beam voltage are studied and analyzed. Finally, the tunability of graphene conductivity via biased voltage with a ground metal is considered and the tunable excitation of GSPs on the structure with biased drive voltage by the injected electron beam is also realized. The present work can find a

  17. Converting surface plasmon polaritons into spatial bending beams through graded dielectric rectangles over metal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Gang; Fu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2017-01-01

    Spatial bending beams, which preserve their spatial shape while propagating along curved trajectories in free space, offer important application in the fields of fiber sensor, optical trapping, and micromanipulation. In this work, two slits are designed on a metal film to excite surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and a group of dielectric rectangles over metal film is theoretically proposed to directly convert SPPs into spatial beams showing arbitrary bending. The appropriate locations of the dielectric rectangles are calculated by phase-modulation method. Transverse acceleration and nondiffraction characteristics of spatial bending beams are observed. We further demonstrate that the intensity distribution, shape, and propagation length of spatial beams showing arbitrary bending rely on structural parameters of dielectric rectangles and on the distance between dielectric rectangles and metal film. These findings provide guidance in the design and optimization of bending beam generators.

  18. Dynamical manipulation of Cosine-Gauss beams in a graphene plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xueqing; Ning, Tigang; Li, Rujiang; Pei, Li; Zheng, Jingjing; Li, Jing

    2017-06-12

    In this paper, we theoretically propose for the first time that graphene monolayer can be used to manipulate the Cosine-Gauss beams (CGBs). We show that both the transverse oscillation period and propagation length of a CGB can be dynamically manipulated by utilizing the tunability of the graphene's chemical potential. The graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide provides a good platform to investigate the propagation properties of CGBs, which is potentially compatible to the microelectronic technology.

  19. Efficient out-coupling and beaming of Tamm optical states via surface plasmon polariton excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garcia, M.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Taverne, M. P. C.; Chen, L.-F.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Faculty of Engineering, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Murshidy, M. M. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, HU6 7RX Hull (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); Yousef Jameel Science and Technology Research Center, The American University in Cairo (Egypt); Edwards, A. P.; Adawi, A. M. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, HU6 7RX Hull (United Kingdom); Serry, M. Y. [Yousef Jameel Science and Technology Research Center, The American University in Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-06-09

    We present evidence of optical Tamm states to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling. We experimentally demonstrate that for a Bragg stack with a thin metal layer on the surface, hybrid Tamm-SPP modes may be excited when a grating on the air-metal interface is introduced. Out-coupling via the grating to free space propagation is shown to enhance the transmission as well as the directionality and polarization selection for the transmitted beam. We suggest that this system will be useful on those devices, where a metallic electrical contact as well as beaming and polarization control is needed.

  20. Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongzhao; Jin, Yuan; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2017-02-01

    A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which the refractive-index of the laser's surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as the refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of ˜57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which is demonstrated at a much more practical temperature of 78 K . The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (silicon-dioxide) on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning range compared to previously reported results for terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. The key enabling mechanism for tuning is a recently developed antenna-feedback scheme for plasmonic lasers, which leads to the generation of hybrid surface-plasmon-polaritons propagating outside the cavity of the laser with a large spatial extent. The effect of dielectric deposition on QCL's characteristics is investigated in detail including that on maximum operating temperature, peak output power, and far-field radiation patterns. Single-lobed beam with low divergence (<7° ) is maintained through the tuning range. The antenna-feedback scheme is ideally suited for modulation of plasmonic lasers and their sensing applications due to the sensitive dependence of spectral and radiative properties of the laser on its surrounding medium.

  1. Selective propagation and beam splitting of surface plasmons on metallic nanodisk chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuhui; Zhao, Di; Wang, Zhenghan; Chen, Fei; Xiong, Xiang; Peng, Ruwen; Wang, Mu

    2017-05-01

    Manipulating the propagation of surface plasmons (SPs) on a nanoscale is a fundamental issue of nanophotonics. By using focused electron beam, SPs can be excited with high spatial accuracy. Here we report on the propagation of SPs on a chain of gold nanodisks with cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. Experimental evidence for the propagation of SPs excited by the focused electron beam is demonstrated. The wavelength of the transmitted SPs depends on the geometrical parameters of the nanodisk chain. Furthermore, we design and fabricate a beam splitter, which selectively transmits SPs of certain wavelengths to a specific direction. By scanning the sample surface point by point and collecting the CL spectra, we obtain the spectral mapping and identify that the chain of the smaller nanodisks can efficiently transport SPs at shorter wavelengths. This Letter provides a unique approach to manipulate in-plane propagation of SPs.

  2. Studies of surface plasmon resonance sensor using bi-beam differential measurement approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost measurement approach with bi-beam was presented, which can be used for real-time detection and online analysis of solution refractive index, based on systematical analysis and experiments of conventional detection methods on surface plasmon resonance sensor. This novel method was analyzed theoretically and based on it a sensor system set was established. The factors that affect the sensor's sensitivity and working range were discussed. The angular adjustment setup was simplified, errors produced by movable components were avoided and the maneuverability was enhanced with this new method.The noiseproof feature and stability of the sensor system were greatly improved as well.

  3. Demonstration of beam steering via dipole-coupled plasmonic spiral antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Guanghao; Abeysinghe, Don C; Nelson, Robert L; Zhan, Qiwen

    2013-01-01

    Optical antennas have been utilized to tailor the emission properties of nanoscale emitters in terms of the intensity, directivity and polarization. In this letter, we further explore the capability of beam steering via the use a spiral plasmonic structure as a transmitting antenna. According to both numerical simulation and experimental observations, the beaming direction can be steered through introducing a displacement of the feeding point to the spiral antenna from the geometrical center. For a 3-turn Archimedes' spiral antenna, experimental results show that steering angles of 3° and 7° are obtainable when the excitation location is transversally shifted from the center by a displacement of 200 nm and 500 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the emitted photons carry spin angular momentum determined by the chirality of the spiral optical antenna. A steerable nanoscale spin photon source may find important applications in single molecule sensing, quantum optical information processing and integrated photonic circuits.

  4. Infrared beam-steering using acoustically modulated surface plasmons over a graphene monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Paiyen

    2014-09-01

    We model and design a graphene-based infrared beamformer based on the concept of leaky-wave (fast traveling wave) antennas. The excitation of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) over a \\'one-atom-thick\\' graphene monolayer is typically associated with intrinsically \\'slow light\\'. By modulating the graphene with elastic vibrations based on flexural waves, a dynamic diffraction grating can be formed on the graphene surface, converting propagating SPPs into fast surface waves, able to radiate directive infrared beams into the background medium. This scheme allows fast on-off switching of infrared emission and dynamic tuning of its radiation pattern, beam angle and frequency of operation, by simply varying the acoustic frequency that controls the effective grating period. We envision that this graphene beamformer may be integrated into reconfigurable transmitter/receiver modules, switches and detectors for THz and infrared wireless communication, sensing, imaging and actuation systems.

  5. Coherent Terahertz Radiation from Multiple Electron Beams Excitation within a Plasmonic Crystal-like structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxin; Zhou, Yucong; Gang, Yin; Jiang, Guili; Yang, Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    Coherent terahertz radiation from multiple electron beams excitation within a plasmonic crystal-like structure (a three-dimensional holes array) which is composed of multiple stacked layers with 3 × 3 subwavelength holes array has been proposed in this paper. It has been found that in the structure the electromagnetic fields in each hole can be coupled with one another to construct a composite mode with strong field intensity. Therefore, the multiple electron beams injection can excite and efficiently interact with such mode. Meanwhile, the coupling among the electron beams is taken place during the interaction so that a very strong coherent terahertz radiation with high electron conversion efficiency can be generated. Furthermore, due to the coupling, the starting current density of this mechanism is much lower than that of traditional electron beam-driven terahertz sources. This multi-beam radiation system may provide a favorable way to combine photonics structure with electronics excitation to generate middle, high power terahertz radiation.

  6. Diffraction efficiency of plasmonic gratings fabricated by electron beam lithography using a silver halide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, Porwal, S.; Bhartiya, S.; Rao, B. T.; Tiwari, P.; Srivastava, Himanshu; Sharma, T. K.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Naik, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    The silver nanoparticle surface relief gratings of ˜10 μm period are fabricated using electron beam lithography on the silver halide film substrate. Morphological characterization of the gratings shows that the period, the shape, and the relief depth in the gratings are mainly dependent on the number of lines per frame, the spot size, and the accelerating voltage of electron beam raster in the SEM. Optical absorption of the silver nanoparticle gratings provides a broad localized surface plasmon resonance peak in the visible region, whereas the intensity of the peaks depends on the number density of silver nanoparticles in the gratings. The maximum efficiency of ˜7.2% for first order diffraction is observed for the grating fabricated at 15 keV. The efficiency is peaking at 560 nm with ˜380 nm bandwidth. The measured profiles of the diffraction efficiency for the gratings are found in close agreement with the Raman-Nath diffraction theory. This technique provides a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticle grating structures with high diffraction efficiency having broad wavelength tuning.

  7. Diffraction efficiency of plasmonic gratings fabricated by electron beam lithography using a silver halide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: sudheer.rrcat@gmail.com; Tiwari, P.; Srivastava, Himanshu; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Naik, P. A. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Porwal, S. [Solid State Lasers Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Laser Materials Development and Device Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Rao, B. T. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Sharma, T. K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400094 (India); Solid State Lasers Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-07-28

    The silver nanoparticle surface relief gratings of ∼10 μm period are fabricated using electron beam lithography on the silver halide film substrate. Morphological characterization of the gratings shows that the period, the shape, and the relief depth in the gratings are mainly dependent on the number of lines per frame, the spot size, and the accelerating voltage of electron beam raster in the SEM. Optical absorption of the silver nanoparticle gratings provides a broad localized surface plasmon resonance peak in the visible region, whereas the intensity of the peaks depends on the number density of silver nanoparticles in the gratings. The maximum efficiency of ∼7.2% for first order diffraction is observed for the grating fabricated at 15 keV. The efficiency is peaking at 560 nm with ∼380 nm bandwidth. The measured profiles of the diffraction efficiency for the gratings are found in close agreement with the Raman-Nath diffraction theory. This technique provides a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticle grating structures with high diffraction efficiency having broad wavelength tuning.

  8. 艾里光束的远场特性及其演化规律%Propagation characteristics in the far-field and evolution regular of Airy beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程振; 楚兴春; 赵尚弘; 邓博于; 张曦文

    2015-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of Airy beam in the far-field were detailly studied, which start with the theoretical foundation, including the evolution process of intensity distribution, spot diameter and Power in the Bucket (PIB). The change regular of intensity distribution was investigated with the truncation factor a and the arbitrary scale in the transverse x0 and how do a and x0 influence the propagation Distance with Keeping Non-diffraction (DKNd), the Distance in which the Evolution became similar Guassian(DEG) and Self-bending Degree(SbD). The research shows that in the evolution process of intensity distribution which transforms into similar Guassian, the DKNd, DEG and SbD increase with the increase of x0, the DKNd and DEG decrease with the increase of a and a has no effect on SbD. The evolution regular of spot diameter and PIB was also researched. The research shows that the spot diameter fistly remain unchanged and then increases, PIB firstly decreases, then increases and is 0.76 finally in the propagation progress under different values of a.%从艾里光束的理论基础出发,详细研究了艾里光束的远场传输特性,包括场强分布、光斑直径和桶中功率(Power in the Bucket,PIB)的演化过程.探讨了场强分布随截断因子a和任意横向刻度x0的变化规律,以及a和x0对艾里光束保持无衍射性质传输的距离 (Distance with Keeping Non-diffraction,DKNd)、演化成类高斯分布的距离(Distance in which the Evolution became similar Guassian, DEG)和自弯曲程度(Self-bending Degree,SbD)的影响.研究发现:场强分布在演化成类高斯分布过程中,DKNd、DEG和SbD都随着x0的增大而增大,DKNd和DEG随a的增大而减小,a对SbD无影响.研究了艾里光束的光斑直径和PIB的演化规律, 发现在a值不同的情况下,在传输过程中光斑直径先保持不变后增加,PIB先减小后增大,最终等于0.76.

  9. Large tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chongzhao; Reno, John L; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    A new tuning mechanism is demonstrated for single-mode metal-clad plasmonic lasers, in which refractive-index of the laser's surrounding medium affects the resonant-cavity mode in the same vein as refractive-index of gain medium inside the cavity. Reversible, continuous, and mode-hop-free tuning of 57 GHz is realized for single-mode narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), which emit at ~2.8 THz and operate in a liquid-nitrogen cooled dewar. The tuning is based on post-process deposition/etching of a dielectric (Silicon-dioxide) on a QCL chip that has already been soldered and wire-bonded onto a copper mount. This is a considerably larger tuning range compared to previously reported results for single-mode terahertz QCLs with directional far-field radiation patterns. Also, the tuning is demonstrated at the much more practical operating temperature of 78 K, whereas all previous tuning results for terahertz QCLs have been reported at low-temperatures (4-20 K). The key enabling mechanism fo...

  10. Development of a novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance sensor using multiplied beam splitting optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Akihide; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Kawanishi, Ryuta; Nakajima, Hizuru; Zeng, Hulie; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Kaneki, Noriaki; Imato, Toshihiko

    2013-01-08

    A novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system with a multi-point sensing region is described. The use of multiplied beam splitting optics, as a core technology, permitted multi-point sensing to be achieved. This system was capable of simultaneously measuring nine sensing points. Calibration curves for sucrose obtained on nine sensing points were linear in the range of 0-10% with a correlation factor of 0.996-0.998 with a relative standard deviation of 0.090-4.0%. The detection limits defined as S/N = 3 were 1.98 × 10(-6) - 3.91 × 10(-5) RIU. This sensitivity is comparable to that of conventional SPR sensors.

  11. Development of a Novel Two Dimensional Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Using Multiplied Beam Splitting Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihide Hemmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor system with a multi-point sensing region is described. The use of multiplied beam splitting optics, as a core technology, permitted multi-point sensing to be achieved. This system was capable of simultaneously measuring nine sensing points. Calibration curves for sucrose obtained on nine sensing points were linear in the range of 0–10% with a correlation factor of 0.996–0.998 with a relative standard deviation of 0.090–4.0%. The detection limits defined as S/N = 3 were 1.98 × 10−6–3.91 × 10−5 RIU. This sensitivity is comparable to that of conventional SPR sensors.

  12. Absorption enhancement by matching the cross-section of plasmonic nanowires to the field structure of tightly focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normatov, Alexander; Spektor, Boris; Leviatan, Yehuda; Shamir, Joseph

    2011-04-25

    Nanostructured materials, designed for enhanced light absorption, are receiving increased scientific and technological interest. In this paper we propose a physical criterion for designing the cross-sectional shape of plasmonic nanowires for improved absorption of a given tightly focused illumination. The idea is to design a shape which increases the matching between the nanowire plasmon resonance field and the incident field. As examples, we design nanowire shapes for two illumination cases: a tightly focused plane wave and a tightly focused beam containing a line singularity. We show that properly shaped and positioned silver nanowires that occupy a relatively small portion of the beam-waist area can absorb up to 65% of the total power of the incident beam.

  13. Tunable two dimensional optical beam steering with reconfigurable indium tin oxide plasmonic reflectarray metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, A.; Mosallaei, H.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an electrically tunable reflectarray metasurface for two dimensional (2D) beam steering is designed by integration of a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) material into a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic unit-cell. The reflectarray is composed of square-shaped patch nanoantennas placed on a stack of insulator-ITO-metallic ground plane. The resonant characteristic of unit-cell and the accumulation of carrier density at the interface of ITO-insulator play key roles in obtaining over 250° of phase agility at around 218 terahertz (THz), by electrically varying the bias voltage. An array of unit-cells with integrated ITO and 2D voltage biasing distribution (from the side) offer the possibility of designing a reconfigurable antenna in which the main beam can be steered to relatively large angles in both θ- and φ- planes at carefully selected operating frequency. The significant advantage of this design is the dynamically adjustable radiation pattern in both azimuth and elevation planes even after fabrication.

  14. E-Beam Patterned Gold Nanodot Arrays on Optical Fiber Tips for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Lin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam lithography (EBL was used to directly pattern periodic gold nanodot arrays on optical fiber tips. Localized surface plasmon resonance of the E-beam patterned gold nanodot arrays on optical fiber tips was utilized for biochemical sensing. The advantage of the optical fiber based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR sensors is the convenience to work with and work in harsh environments. An optical fiber tip LSPR refractive index sensor of 196 nm per refractive index unit (RIU sensitivity has been demonstrated. The affinity sensing property of the fiber tip sensor was demonstrated using biotin/streptavidin as the receptor/analyte. The detection limit for streptavidin was determined to be 6 pM.

  15. Plasmonic Gold Helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most no...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-Vortex 3D wave packets: Emission of vortex light waves

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, Rodislav

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Due to the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and non-zero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse, especially those having small width.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of Airy-vortex 3D wave packets: emission of vortex light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, Rodislav; Meier, Torsten

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of 3D Airy-vortex wave packets is studied under the action of strong self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Emissions of nonlinear 3D waves out of the main wave packets with the topological charges were demonstrated. Because of the conservation of the total angular momentum, charges of the emitted waves are equal to those carried by the parental light structure. The rapid collapse imposes a severe limitation on the propagation of multidimensional waves in Kerr media. However, the structure of the Airy beam carrier allows the coupling of light from the leading, most intense peak into neighboring peaks and consequently strongly postpones the collapse. The dependence of the critical input amplitude for the appearance of a fast collapse on the beam width is studied for wave packets with zero and nonzero topological charges. Wave packets carrying angular momentum are found to be much more resistant to the rapid collapse.

  18. Plasmon-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on large arrays of individual particles made by electron beam lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Svedendahl, Mikael; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Käll, Mikael

    2013-10-22

    Ultrasensitive biosensing is one of the main driving forces behind the dynamic research field of plasmonics. We have previously demonstrated that the sensitivity of single nanoparticle plasmon spectroscopy can be greatly enhanced by enzymatic amplification of the refractive index footprint of individual protein molecules, so-called plasmon-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique, which is based on generation of an optically dense precipitate catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase at the metal surface, allowed for colorimetric analysis of ultralow molecular surface coverages with a limit of detection approaching the single molecule limit. However, the plasmonic response induced by a single enzyme can be expected to vary for a number of reasons, including inhomogeneous broadening of the sensing properties of individual particles, variation in electric field enhancement over the surface of a single particle and variation in size and morphology of the enzymatic precipitate. In this report, we discuss how such inhomogeneities affect the possibility to quantify the number of molecules bound to a single nanoparticle. The discussion is based on simulations and measurements of large arrays of well-separated gold nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). The new data confirms the intrinsic single-molecule sensitivity of the technique but we were not able to clearly resolve the exact number of adsorbed molecules per single particle. The results indicate that the main sources of uncertainty come from variations in sensitivity across the surface of individual particles and between different particles. There is also a considerable uncertainty in the actual precipitate morphology produced by individual enzyme molecules. Possible routes toward further improvements of the methodology are discussed.

  19. Single-beam self-referenced phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensor with high detection resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Yuen Wu; Ho-Pui Ho

    2008-01-01

    A versatile and low-cost single-beam self-referenced phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance(SPR)sensing system with ultra-high resolution performance is presented.The system exhibits a root-mean-square phase fluctuation of ±0.0028.over a period of 45 min.i.e.a resolution of±5.2×10-9 refractive index units.The enhanced performance has been achieved through the incorporation of three design elements:a true single-beam configuration enabling complete self-referencing so that only the phase change associated with SPR gets detected,a differential measurement scheme to eliminate spurious signals not related to the sensor response,and the elimination of retardation drifts by incorporating temperature stabilization in the liquid crystal phase modulato .Our design should bring the detection sensitivity of non-labeling SPR biosensing closer to that achievable by conventional fluorescence-based techniques.

  20. Generalisasi Fungsi Airy sebagai Solusi Analitik Persamaan Schrodinger Nonlinier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Persamaan Schrodinger adalah persamaan diferensial parsial nonlinier yang menginterpretasikan pergerakan suatu partikel atau atom. Penelitian ini berupaya untuk memperoleh analisis konstruksi bentuk umum solusi ananalitik persamaan Schrodinger nonlinier dengan fungsi Airy. Fungsi Airy adalah solusi persamaan diferensial Airy, adapun langkah pertama adalah manipulasi bentuk persamaan Schrodinger nonlinier menjadi bentuk persamaan Airy dengan menerapkan transformasi Fourier. Dengan demikian didapatkan solusia nanalitik persamaan Airy dengan generalisasi fungsi Airy. Dan langkah selanjutnya adalah menerapkan invers dari transformasi Fourier yang digunakan untuk memdapatkan solusi analitik bagi persamaan Schrodinger nonlinier, dalam hal ini diberikan kondisi awal bilangan kompleks pada invers transformasi Fourier, yaitu. Adapun hasil dari penelitian ini adalah solusi bagi persamaan Schrodinger nonlinier ketika pangkat dari modulusnya di analisis dengan bentuk ganjil dan genap memberikan bentuk solusi yang sama.

  1. Arbitrary bending plasmonic light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Itai; Arie, Ady

    2014-01-17

    We demonstrate the generation of self-accelerating surface plasmon beams along arbitrary caustic curvatures. These plasmonic beams are excited by free-space beams through a two-dimensional binary plasmonic phase mask, which provides the missing momentum between the two beams in the direction of propagation and sets the required phase for the plasmonic beam in the transverse direction. We examine the cases of paraxial and nonparaxial curvatures and show that this highly versatile scheme can be designed to produce arbitrary plasmonic self-accelerating beams. Several different plasmonic beams, which accelerate along polynomial and exponential trajectories, are demonstrated both numerically and experimentally, with a direct measurement of the plasmonic light intensity using a near-field scanning optical microscope.

  2. Arbitrary Bending Plasmonic Light Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Itai

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of self-accelerating surface plasmon beams along arbitrary caustic curvatures. These plasmonic beams are excited by free-space beams through a two-dimensional binary plasmonic phase mask, which provides the missing momentum between the two beams in the direction of propagation, and sets the required phase for the plasmonic beam in the transverse direction. We examine the cases of paraxial and non-paraxial curvatures and show that this highly versatile scheme can be designed to produce arbitrary plasmonic self-accelerating beams. Several different plasmonic beams, which accelerate along polynomial and exponential trajectories, are demonstrated both numerically and experimentally, with a direct measurement of the plasmonic light intensity using a near-field-scanning-optical-microscope.

  3. Plasmon excitations in C{sub 60} by fast charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C. Z. [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Miskovic, Z. L. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Goodman, F. O. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, Y. N. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2013-05-14

    For an isolated C{sub 60} molecule, we study plasmon excitations that are induced by an external, fast moving electron, by using a two-dimensional, spherical, two-fluid hydrodynamic model for the dynamic response of the {sigma} and {pi} electrons in the carbon nanostructure. Second quantization of the linearized hydrodynamic model allows us to discuss how effective is multiple excitation of various plasmon modes. Mean numbers of the excited plasmon modes, differential cross sections, and the total energy loss of the incident electron are calculated by both a quantized model with zero damping and by a semi-classical model with phenomenological damping. Our calculated differential cross sections are compared with experiment.

  4. Electron-beam induced diamond-like-carbon passivation of plasmonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Langley, Daniel; Lin, Jiao; Kou, Shan Shan; Abbey, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Engineered materials with feature sizes on the order of a few nanometres offer the potential for producing metamaterials with properties which may differ significantly from their bulk counterpart. Here we describe the production of plasmonic colour filters using periodic arrays of nanoscale cross shaped apertures fabricated in optically opaque silver films. Due to its relatively low loss in the visible and near infrared range, silver is a popular choice for plasmonic devices, however it is also unstable in wet or even ambient conditions. Here we show that ultra-thin layers of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) can be used to prevent degradation due to oxidative stress, ageing and corrosion. We demonstrate that DLC effectively protects the sub-micron features which make up the plasmonic colour filter under both atmospheric conditions and accelerated aging using iodine gas. Through a systematic study we confirm that the nanometre thick DLC layers have no effect on the device functionality or performance.

  5. Reversed Airy Gaussian and Airy Gaussian vortex light bullets in harmonic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Zhang, Liping; Li, Dongdong; Deng, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    By solving the normalized dimensionless linear Schrödinger-like equation with harmonic potential analytically, we have studied the spatiotemporal Airy Gaussian (AiG) and Airy Gaussian vortex (AiGV) light bullets. The AiG light bullets are composed of the chirped Airy functions in temporal domain and the AiG functions in spatial domain, while AiGV light bullets are AiG light bullets carrying the vortex. By selecting the negative or positive linear chirp we can obtain decelerating or accelerating light bullets, respectively. Combing effects from harmonic potential with the negative quadratic chirp, we can study reversed light bullets in both spatial and temporal domains.

  6. Integrated single- and two-photon light sheet microscopy using accelerating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first light sheet microscope using propagation invariant, accelerating Airy beams that operates both in single- and two-photon modes. The use of the Airy beam permits us to develop an ultra compact, high resolution light sheet system without beam scanning. In two-photon mode, a...

  7. Plasmonic gold helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Höflich, Katja; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2017-02-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most notably, electromagnetic modeling of the corresponding scattering spectra verified that the thickness and quality of the resulting gold shell ensures an optical response equal to that of pure gold nanostructures.

  8. Kas Estonian Airi uus õhkutõus? / Toomas Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Toomas

    2010-01-01

    Autori hinnangul tuleks püstitada Estonian Airi ette reaalsed eesmärgid ning kokku leppida visioon lähiaastateks. Estonian Air vajab koostööd suurema lennunduspartneriga, riik ei tohiks Estonian Airis korrata endisi juhtimisvigu

  9. Beaming photons with spin and orbital angular momentum via a dipole-coupled plasmonic spiral antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Guanghao; Nelson, Robert L; Zhan, Qiwen

    2012-08-13

    We analytically and numerically study the emission properties of an electric dipole coupled to a plasmonic spiral structure with different pitch. As a transmitting antenna, the spiral structure couples the radiation from the electric dipole into circularly polarized emitted photons in the far field. The spin carried by the emitted photons is determined by the handedness of the spiral antenna. By increasing the spiral pitch in the unit of surface plasmon wavelength, these circularly polarized photons also gain orbital angular momentum with different topological charges. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of a geometric phase arising from the interaction of light from point source with the anisotropic spiral structure. The circularly polarized vortex emission from such optically coupled spiral antenna also has high directivity, which may find important applications in quantum optical information, single molecule sensing, and integrated photonic circuits.

  10. Microstructural and plasmonic modifications in Ag–TiO2 and Au–TiO2 nanocomposites through ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Kotnur, Venkata Girish; Avasthi, Devesh Kumar; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporotchenko, Vladimir; Fink, Dietmar; Kienle, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of new fabrication techniques of plasmonic nanocomposites with specific properties is an ongoing issue in the plasmonic and nanophotonics community. In this paper we report detailed investigations on the modifications of the microstructural and plasmonic properties of metal–titania nanocomposite films induced by swift heavy ions. Au–TiO2 and Ag–TiO2 nanocomposite thin films with varying metal volume fractions were deposited by co-sputtering and were subsequently irradiated by 100 MeV Ag8+ ions at various ion fluences. The morphology of these nanocomposite thin films before and after ion beam irradiation has been investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy studies, which showed interesting changes in the titania matrix. Additionally, interesting modifications in the plasmonic absorption behavior for both Au–TiO2 and Ag–TiO2 nanocomposites were observed, which have been discussed in terms of ion beam induced growth of nanoparticles and structural modifications in the titania matrix. PMID:25247124

  11. Microstructural and plasmonic modifications in Ag–TiO2 and Au–TiO2 nanocomposites through ion beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new fabrication techniques of plasmonic nanocomposites with specific properties is an ongoing issue in the plasmonic and nanophotonics community. In this paper we report detailed investigations on the modifications of the microstructural and plasmonic properties of metal–titania nanocomposite films induced by swift heavy ions. Au–TiO2 and Ag–TiO2 nanocomposite thin films with varying metal volume fractions were deposited by co-sputtering and were subsequently irradiated by 100 MeV Ag8+ ions at various ion fluences. The morphology of these nanocomposite thin films before and after ion beam irradiation has been investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy studies, which showed interesting changes in the titania matrix. Additionally, interesting modifications in the plasmonic absorption behavior for both Au–TiO2 and Ag–TiO2 nanocomposites were observed, which have been discussed in terms of ion beam induced growth of nanoparticles and structural modifications in the titania matrix.

  12. Plasmonic properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in GeO2-SiO2 matrix by atom beam sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2016-02-01

    Nanocomposite thin films containing Ag nanoparticles embedded in the GeO2-SiO2 matrix were synthesized by the atom beam co-sputtering technique. The structural, optical and plasmonic properties and the chemical composition of the nanocomposite thin films were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV-visible absorption studies on Ag-SiO2 nanocomposites revealed the presence of a strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles at 413 nm, which showed a blue shift of 26 nm (413 to 387 nm) along with a significant broadening and drastic decrease in intensity with the incorporation of 16 at% of Ge into the SiO2 matrix. TEM studies on Ag-GeO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films confirmed the presence of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 3.8 nm in addition to their aggregates with an average size of 16.2 nm. Thermal annealing in air resulted in strong enhancement in the intensity of the LSPR peak, which showed a regular red shift of 51 nm (from 387 to 438 nm) with the increase in annealing temperature up to 500 °C. XPS studies showed that annealing in air resulted in oxidation of excess Ge atoms in the nanocomposite into GeO2. Our work demonstrates the possibility of controllably tuning the LSPR of Ag nanoparticles embedded in the GeO2-SiO2 matrix by single-step thermal annealing, which is interesting for optical applications.

  13. Research on diffraction and self-acceleration of Airy beam∗%关于Airy光束衍射及自加速性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐阳阳; 肖寒; 王子潇; 吴敏

    2013-01-01

    In 1979, Berry and Balazs [M V Berry and N L Balazs 1979 Am. J. Phys. 47 264] obtained a strict solution of the Schr¨odinger equation with Airy function used as the initial condition, and described the wave function represented by such solution as the Airy wave-packets. They discovered that infinite Airy wave-packet has unique properties such as non-spreading and free acceleration, proving that it is the only nontrivial non-spreading solution of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation in one dimension. However, the observing of the finite Airy beam seems to be more meaningful since wave-packets in reality is inevitably band limited. A certain form of finite Airy beam was investigated by Siviloglou et al. in 2007 [Siviloglou G A, Broky J, Dogariu A, Christodoulides D N 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 213901;Siviloglou G A, Christodoulides D N 2007 Opt. Lett. 32 979]. They noted that the Airy wave packet still exhibits its most exotic feature, i.e., its trend toward free acceleration. While in the present paper we discuss the properties of Airy beam in a few steps further and propose several conclusions. On the one hand, a theoretic explanation is given to solve the matter of the centre of mass of infinite Airy beam. On the other hand, deeper research is conducted on the unique properties of finite Airy beam. Another form of finite Airy beam is discussed by reduction to absurdity, and its field distribution is put forward by numerical simulation. We find that the trajectory of the centroid holds its position, which means that the beam cannot accelerate freely as a whole. Ultimately, we have the conclusion that finite Airy beam can neither freely accelerate nor be non-diffractive.%  对Airy光束的特性做进一步探讨,一方面对无限宽Airy光束的重心问题给出新的理论说明,另一方面着重对有限宽情形下的Airy光束的奇特性质进行探讨。文中采用反证法给出无衍射的讨论,同时结合数值模拟给出高斯函数

  14. Quantum anharmonic oscillator: The airy function approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413, Asseer (Saudi Arabia); University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); AlFaify, S. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, PO Box 9004, Abha 61413, Asseer (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-15

    New and simple numerical method is being reported to solve anharmonic oscillator problems. The method is setup to approach the real potential V(x) of the anharmonic oscillator system as a piecewise linear potential u(x) and to solve the Schrödinger equation of the system using the Airy function. Then, solutions continuity conditions lead to the energy quantification condition, and consequently, the energy eigenvalues. For testing purpose, the method was applied on the sextic and octic oscillators systems. The proposed method is found to be realistic, computationally simple, and having high degrees of accuracy. In addition, it can be applied to any form of potential. The results obtained by the proposed method were seen closely agreeing with results reached by other complicated methods.

  15. Asymptotics of the information entropy of the Airy function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, P [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Yanez, R J [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Buyarov, V [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-18

    The Boltzmann-Shannon information entropy of linear potential wavefunctions is known to be controlled by the information entropy of the Airy function Ai(x). Here, the entropy asymptotics is analysed so that the first two leading terms (previously calculated in the WKB approximation) as well as the following term (already conjectured) are derived by using only the specific properties of the Airy function.

  16. Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C nuclear rainbow scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, S

    2015-01-01

    The Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for $^{16}$O using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at $E_L$=132, 281 and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum at around $\\theta$=76$^\\circ$ in the angular distribution at $E_L$=132 MeV is assigned as the second order Airy minimum $A2$ in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order $A3$. The Airy minima in the 90$^\\circ$ excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O and $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C cluster structure in the low energy region around $E_{c.m.}$=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted ...

  17. Study of Immobilization Procedure on Silver Nanolayers and Detection of Estrone with Diverged Beam Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdulhalim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An immobilization protocol was developed to attach receptors on smooth silver thin films. Dense and packed 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA was used to avoid uncontrolled sulfidization and harmful oxidation of silver nanolayers. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS were added to make the silver surfaces reactive. A comparative study was carried out with different immersion times of silver samples in 11-MUA solutions with different concentrations to find the optimum conditions for immobilization. The signals, during each step of the protocol, were analyzed with a refractometer based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and luminescence techniques. Molecular interactions at the surfaces between the probe and target at the surface nanolayer shift the SPR signal, thus indicating the presence of the substance. To demonstrate specific biosensing, rabbit anti-estrone polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody was immobilized through a linker on 47 nm silver layer deposited on SF11 glass. At the final stage, the representative endocrine disruptor—estrone—was attached and detected in deionized water with a diverging beam SPR imaging sensor.

  18. The Effect of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer on Two-Plasmon Decay in Direct-Drive Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Henchen, R. J.; Davis, A. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Edgell, D. H.; Solodov, A. A.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) in direct-drive implosions was shown to increase the hot electrons generated by two-plasmon decay. Reducing the diameter of the laser spots by 30% significantly reduces CBET and the laser absorption was measured to increase from 75% to nearly 90%. The reduced CBET leads to higher intensity at the quarter-critical density surface, increasing the hot-electron production by a factor of 7 . Adding a thin layer (0.6 to 1.1 μm) of Si to the target ablator reduced the hot-electron fraction by a factor of 2 . Spatially resolved Thomson-scattering measurements show an 15 % increase in the electron temperature and an increase in the Si fraction at the quarter-critical surface when the Si layer is added. Three-dimensional laser-plasma interaction simulations of hot-electron production using the code LPSE show that in addition to the reduced gain (smaller ILn Te), the observed reduction in hot electrons results from increased electron-ion collision frequencies and reduced Landau damping of ion-acoustic waves. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Site-controlled Ag nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy-Towards plasmonic integration technology

    OpenAIRE

    Urbańczyk, Adam; NöTZEL, R

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate site-controlled growth of epitaxial Ag nanocrystals on patterned GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with high degree of long-range uniformity. The alignment is based on lithographically defined holes in which position controlled InAs quantum dots are grown. The Ag nanocrystals self-align preferentially on top of the InAs quantum dots. No such ordering is observed in the absence of InAs quantum dots, proving that the ordering is strain-driven. The presented technique faci...

  20. Manipulating surface plasmon waves by transformation optics: Design examples of a beam squeezer, bend,and omnidirectional absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhen-Zhong; Feng Yi-Jun; Wang Zheng-Bin; Zhao Jun-Ming; Jiang Tian

    2013-01-01

    We present several design examples of how to apply transformation optics and curved space under coordinate transformarion to manipulating the surface plasmon waves in a controlled manner.We demonstrate in detail the design procedure of the plasmonic wave squeezer,in-plane bend and omnidirectional absorber.We show that the approximation method of modifying only the dielectric material of a dielectric-metal surface of the plasmonic device could lead to acceptable performance,which facilitates the fabrication of the device.The functionality of the proposed plasmonic device is verified using three-dimensional full-wave electromagnetic simulations.Aiming at practical realization,we also show the design of a plasmonic in-plane bend and omnidirectional absorber by an alternative transformation scheme,which results in a simple device structure with a tapered isotropic dielectric cladding layer on the top of the metal surface that can be fabricated with existing nanotechnology.

  1. Nanopore formation on Au coated pyramid under electron beam irradiations (plasmonic nanopore on pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Soo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous interests about the single molecule analysis using a sold-state nanopore. The solid-state nanopore can be fabricated either by drilling technique, or diffusion technique by using electron beam irradiations. The solid-state SiN nanopore device with electrical detection technique recently fabricated, however, the solid-state Au nanopore with optical detection technique can be better utilized as the next generation single molecule sensor. In this report, the nanometer size openings with its size less than 10 nm on the diffused membrane on the 200 nm Au pyramid were fabricated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM electron beam irradiations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, etc. After the sample was being kept under a room environment for several months, several Au (111 clusters with ~6 nm diameter formed via Ostwald ripening are observed using a high resolution TEM imaging. The nanopore with Au nanoclusters on the diffused membrane can be utilized as an optical nanopore device.

  2. Vessel extraction using the Buckmaster-Airy filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    A new and powerful technique for vessel extraction from biomedical images using the so called Buckmaster- Airy Filter is designed, prototyped and tested. The design, the prototyping and the testing were performed using computer algebra software, specifically the Maple package ImageTools. Some preliminary experiments were performed ant the results were excellent. Our new technique is based on partial differential equations.. Specifically two dimensional Airy diffusion equation and the two dimensional Buckmaster equation were used for designing the new Buckmaster-Airy Filter. Such new filter is able to enhance the quality of an image, producing simultaneously noise elimination, but without altering the edges of the image. The new Bukmaster-Airy filter is applied to the target image via discrete convolution. The results of some experiments of vessel extraction will be presented; and some lines for future research such as the possible implementation of the Buckmaster-Airy Filter as a new plugging for the program ImageJ, will be proposed.

  3. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  4. SAS pani Estonian Airi aktsiad müüki / Riina Kallas, Tuuli Aug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Riina

    2009-01-01

    SAS müüb enamusosaluse Estonian Airis ja veel kuues tütarfirmas, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts näeb Estonian Airi uue osanikuna mõnda Eesti investorit. Endise Estonian Airi presidendi Erki Urva arvamus

  5. Analysis of Bragg gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons using the bidirectional beam propagation method based on scattering operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Mu, Jianwei; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2007-09-01

    For realization of highly integrated optical circuits, various metallic nanostructures supporting the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons have been extensively studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. This paper reports on the development of a numerically stable and accurate finite-difference-based bidirectional beam propagation method (FD-BiBPM) for analyzing piecewise z-invariant plasmonic structures. Our method is developed based on the scattering operators. The adoption of complex coefficient rational approximations to the square root operator allows to correctly model the propagation of evanescent modes excited at discontinuity interfaces. In view of the large index contrast at metal-dielectric interfaces, a fourth-order accurate finite difference formulation for discretization is incorporated to the present method and its fine treatment of these interfaces guarantees accuracy. By using the present method, the reflection and transmission spectra of the Bragg gratings consisting of a thin metal film embedded in dielectric medium and an array of equidistant metal ridges on each side of the film are calculated. The good agreement of our results with the previously reported simulations illustrates the potential of the newly developed FD-BiBPM for the analysis of longrange surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) waves guided along the described Bragg gratings.

  6. Super-resolution imaging based on virtual Airy spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Guo, Cheng; Cui, Junning; Wu, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Based on the theoretical model of Airy spot, a method is proposed for improving the imaging speed from confocal microscopy. The virtual Airy spot is designed for obtaining the pattern on CCD at detecting plane. Here the size of the spot is determined by the parameters of imaging system and intensity data from point detector, which can receive data quicker than CCD. The treatment can improve the speed of imaging comparing with CCD at receiving end. The virtual structured detection is also utilized for generating high-resolution image. Some numerical simulation results are provided for demonstrating the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...

  8. Local kinetic-energy density of the Airy gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model is used to derive an expression for the local kinetic energy in the linear potential approximation. The expression contains an explicit Laplacian term 2/5((h) over bar(2)/2m)del(mu)(2)(r) that, according to jellium surface calculations, must be a universal feature of any accura...

  9. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  10. Propagation of time-truncated Airy-type pulses in media with quadratic and cubic dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, José Angel Borda; Shaarawi, Amr; Besieris, Ioannis M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe analytically the propagation of Airy-type pulses truncated by a finite-time aperture when second and third order dispersion effects are considered. The mathematical method presented here, based on the superposition of exponentially truncated Airy pulses, is very effective, allowing us to avoid the use of time-consuming numerical simulations. We analyze the behavior of the time truncated Ideal-Airy pulse and also the interesting case of a time truncated Airy pulse with a "defect" in its initial profile, which reveals the self-healing property of this kind of pulse solution.

  11. Molecular Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Willets, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  12. Terahertz beam shaping with metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Based on metasurface, two beam shapers are designed to modulate the wavefront of the terahertz beam. One of the beam shapers is THz ring-Airy beam generator and the other is THz four-focus lens. Each beam shaper is composed of a serious of C-shaped slot antennas, which can be used to modulate the phase and amplitude of the cross-polarized scattered wave. A THz holographic imaging system is utilized to measure the field of the generated beams. The ring- Airy beam shaper is designed by replacing both the phase and amplitude of its initial electric field with the corresponding antennas. In the experiment, an abrupt focus following a parabolic trajectory is subsequently observed. This method can be expanded to other wavebands, such as the visible band, in which the ring-Airy beam shaper can replace traditional computer-generated holography to avoid undesirable multiple diffraction orders. The phase distribution of the four-focus lens is obtained by using the Yang-Gu amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and then encoded to the antennas. Both the focusing and imaging properties are demonstrated. A clear image can be obtained with a bandwidth of 110 GHz. This type of transmissive metasurface beam shaper serves as an attractive alternative to conventional diffractive optical elements based on its small size, ease of fabrication, and low cost.

  13. Interface controlled growth of nanostructures in discontinuous Ag and Au thin films fabricated by ion beam sputter deposition for plasmonic applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Brahma; M Ghanashyam Krishna

    2012-08-01

    The growth of discontinuous thin films of Ag and Au by low energy ion beam sputter deposition is reported. The study focuses on the role of the film–substrate in determining the shape and size of nanostructures achieved in such films. Ag films were deposited using Ar ion energy of 150 eV while the Au films were deposited with Ar ion energies of 250–450 eV. Three types of interfaces were investigated in this study. The first set of film–substrate interfaces consisted of Ag and Au films grown on borosilicate glass and carbon coated Cu grids used as substrates. The second set of films was metallic bilayers in which one of the metals (Ag or Au) was grown on a continuous film of the other metal (Au or Ag). The third set of interfaces comprised of discontinuous Ag and Au films deposited on different dielectrics such as SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2. In each case, a rich variety of nanostructures including self organized arrays of nanoparticles, nanoclusters and nanoneedles have been achieved. The role of the film–substrate interface is discussed within the framework of existing theories of thin film nucleation and growth. Interfacial nanostructuring of thin films is demonstrated to be a viable technique to realize a variety of nanostructures. The use of interfacial nanostructuring for plasmonic applications is demonstrated. It is shown that the surface Plasmon resonance of the metal nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range of wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm by controlling the film–substrate interface.

  14. Estonian Airi juhatuses asub tööle Mart Relve / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Alates 15. juunist asub Estonian Airi juhatuse liikme ja kommertsala asepresidendi ametisse senine R-Kiosk Eesti AS-i juhatuse liige ning tegevdirektor Mart Relve. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Mart Relvega: Töö Estonian Airis ei tule kerge

  15. Estonian Airi juhatuses asub tööle Mart Relve / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Alates 15. juunist asub Estonian Airi juhatuse liikme ja kommertsala asepresidendi ametisse senine R-Kiosk Eesti AS-i juhatuse liige ning tegevdirektor Mart Relve. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Mart Relvega: Töö Estonian Airis ei tule kerge

  16. Cresco sai lahti võlast SASile ja osalusest Estonian Airis / Rivo Sarapik, Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts ning SAS-i asepresident Benny Zakrisson kirjutasid alla Estonian Airi ostu-müügitehingule. Investeerimispank Cresco, millele kuulus 17% Estonian Airist, jääb välja Estonian Airi omanikeringist ning SAS-i nõue Crescole tühistatakse

  17. Riik jätkab Estonian Airi ostukõnelusi / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti valitsus jätkab läbirääkimisi SAS-i osaluse väljaostmiseks Estonian Airist, praegu tehakse Estonian Airi õiguslikku ja finantsilist auditit. Kanadas on kolm Estonian Airi tellimusel valminud lennukit, mille Eestisse jõudmine on viibinud peaaegu aasta

  18. Plasmonic Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Ryan T.

    2014-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and ...

  19. Impacts of cross-phase modulation on modulation instability of Airy pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yingkai; Fu, Xiquan; Bai, Yanfeng

    2016-10-01

    The modulation instability (MI) of Airy pulses with the influence of cross-phase modulation is studied based on the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations in nonlinear media. The main lobe of Airy pulses can be manifested as breakup of MI under interaction with higher power pumped solitons, although the power of Airy pulses is small. By comparing the main lobe's gain spectrum of MI, the gain spectrum has gradually improved with the increase of power of pumped solitons. The gain spectrum of MI of the main lobe is inversely proportional to the truncation coefficient, and then it gradually approaches to that of Gauss pulses with the truncation coefficient increasing to 1. For the side lobes of Airy pulses, there are similar MI but smaller gain spectrum than the main lobe when the pumped solitons is overlapping with corresponding ones of Airy pulses.

  20. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, V V

    2007-01-01

    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for a construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  1. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, V. V.; Guzatov, D. V.

    2007-11-01

    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for the construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  2. Study on the Electron Beam Excitation of Graphene Surface Plasmon Polartions%电子注激励石墨烯表面等离子体激元的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚森; 胡旻; 钟任斌; 陈晓行; 张平; 赵陶; 刘盛纲

    2016-01-01

    对垂直与平行运动电子注激励石墨烯表面等离子体激元进行了详细分析与对比。理论分析与数值计算的结果表明,电子注垂直激励时,石墨烯表面等离子体激元包含丰富的频率分量,沿传播方向衰减,并伴随有度越辐射;平行激励时,其工作频率可通过调节电子注能量或石墨烯化学势进行调谐,且沿传播方向没有衰减,没有渡越辐射。优化电子注能量与石墨烯化学势等参数可使电子注激励的石墨烯表面等离子体激元具有最大功率。电流密度大于500 A/cm2的直流电子注可与石墨烯表面等离子体激元发生注波互作用,从而对其进行持续地激励并放大。%Graphene surface plasmon polaritons have been widely used in terahertz devices in modern science and technologies. In this paper, the excitation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons by perpendicularly and parallel moving electron beams is investigated in details by using Maxwell equations and boundary conditions. The theoretical analysis and numerical calculations show that graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by perpendicular electron beam contain plenty of frequency components which attenuate along with propagation, whereas those excited by parallel electron beam are coherent and tunable, without attenuation along with propagation. The largest power of the excited graphene surface plasmon polaritons can be obtained by optimizing the electron beam energy and the chemical potential of the graphene sheet. And the further study show that graphene surface plasmon polaritons can be excited and amplified by continually moving electron beam when the current density of the beam is large enough. These results are of significance for the applications of graphene in terahertz devices.

  3. Intra-cavity vortex beam generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ? per photon, and may be found as beams expressed in several basis functions, including Laguerre-Gaussian (LGpl) beams1, Bessel-Gaussian beams3 and Airy beams4 to name but a few. LG0l are otherwise known as vortex beams and LG0l beams are routinely... are represented by ?petals? and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the ?petal? fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes. Keywords: Vortex beams, SLM, Laguerre-Gaussian beams, Porro-prism resonator, Petals. 1. INTRODUCTION It is well...

  4. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  5. Gaussian and Airy wave-packets of massive particles with orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Karlovets, Dmitry V

    2014-01-01

    While wave-packet solutions for relativistic wave equations are oftentimes thought to be approximate (paraxial), we demonstrate that there is a family of such solutions, which are exact, by employing a null-plane (light-cone) variables formalism. A scalar Gaussian wave-packet in transverse plane is generalized so that it acquires a well-defined z-component of the orbital angular momentum (OAM), while may not acquire a typical "doughnut" spatial profile. Such quantum states and beams, in contrast to the Bessel ones, may have an azimuthal-angle-dependent probability density and finite quantum uncertainty of the OAM, which is determined by the packet's width. We construct a well-normalized Airy wave-packet, which can be interpreted as a one-particle state for relativistic massive boson, show that its center moves along the same quasi-classical straight path and, what is more important, spreads with time and distance exactly as a Gaussian wave-packet does, in accordance with the uncertainty principle. It is expla...

  6. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  7. Estonian Airi Boeing sattus kaks korda hädaolukorda / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Estonian Airi Boeing ES-ABL sattus 2011. aasta algus kahel korral ohtlikku olukorda. Lennuamet tegi Estonian Airile ettekirjutuse, kuid seda pole ameti kodulehel avaldatud. Lennufirma kapteni ja lennuohutuse inspektori Andreas Kari, lennuameti selgitusi

  8. Digital Plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Gjonaj, Bergin; Johnson, Patrick M; Mosk, Allard P; Kuipers, Kobus; Lagendijk, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The field of plasmonics offers a route to control light fields with metallic nanostructures through the excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs). These surface waves, bound to a metal dielectric interface, tightly confine electromagnetic energy. Active control over SPPs has potential for applications in sensing, photovoltaics, quantum communication, nano circuitry, metamaterials and super-resolution microscopy. We achieve here a new level of control of plasmonic fields using a digital spatial light modulator. Optimizing the plasmonic phases via feedback we focus SPPs at a freely pre-chosen point on the surface of a nanohole array with high resolution. Digital addressing and scanning of SPPs without mechanical motion will enable novel interdisciplinary applications of advanced plasmonic devices in cell microscopy, optical data storage and sensing.

  9. Tables of generalized Airy functions for the asymptotic solution of the differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nosova, L N

    1965-01-01

    Tables of Generalized Airy Functions for the Asymptotic Solution of the Differential Equations contains tables of the special functions, namely, the generalized Airy functions, and their first derivatives, for real and pure imaginary values. The tables are useful for calculations on toroidal shells, laminae, rode, and for the solution of certain other problems of mathematical physics. The values of the functions were computed on the ""Strela"" highspeed electronic computer.This book will be of great value to mathematicians, researchers, and students.

  10. Free-standing chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Eunice Sok Ping; Deng, Jie; Wu, Siji; Khoo, Eng Huat; Liu, Yan Jun

    2014-11-01

    Chiral plasmonic nanostructures offer the ability to achieve strong optical circular dichroism (CD) activity over a broad spectral range, which has been challenging for chiral molecules. Chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively studied based on top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Particularly, in the top-down electron-beam lithography, 3D plasmonic nanostructure fabrication involves layer-by-layer patterning and complex alignment, which is time-consuming and causes many defects in the structures. Here, we present a free-standing 3D chiral plamonic nanostructures using the electron-beam lithography technique with much simplified fabrication processes. The 3D chiral plasmonic nanostructures consist of a free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membrane with well-aligned L-shape metal nanostructures on one side and disk-shape ones on the other side. The free-standing membrane provides an ultra-smooth metal/dielectric interface and uniformly defines the gap between the upper and lower layers in an array of chiral nanostructures. Such free-standing chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong CD at optical frequencies, which can be engineered by simply changing the disk size on one side of the membrane. Experimental results are in good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such free-standing chiral plasmonics holds great potential for chirality analysis of biomolecules, drugs, and chemicals.

  11. Plasmonic Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonics and metamaterials have attracted considerable attention over the past decade, owing to the revolutionary impacts that they bring to both the fundamental physics and practical applications in multiple disciplines. Although the two fields initially advanced along their individual trajectories in parallel, they started to interfere with each other when metamaterials reached the optical regime. The dynamic interplay between plasmonics and metamaterials has generated a number of innovative concepts and approaches, which are impossible with either area alone. This review presents the fundamentals, recent advances and future perspectives in the emerging field of plasmonic metamaterials, aiming to open up new exciting opportunities for nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  12. Estonian Airi käekäik on meie enda kätes / Juhan Parts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Logistikauudiste online intervjuu raames vastas majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister küsimustele, mis puudutasid Estonian Airi tulevikku ning riigi panust logistika- ja transpordisektorisse järgmisel aastal

  13. Spatial filtering with surface plasmon resonance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Siddharth, V.; Bhagat, M.; Aggarwal, S.; Anurag, P.; Jain, M.

    2007-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance based sensors are most useful in measuring the refractive indices of biochemicals. In such sensors a beam of light obliquely incident at an interface of glass and metallic thin film excites resonant plasmon waves in the metal if the angle of incidence or the wavelength is selected properly. The resonance conditions are changed by the refractive indices of any material in contact with the metal film. When resonance occurs the light beam is absorbed strongly. We can easily show that the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance in such a system acts as a high quality spatial notch or band rejection filter.

  14. Quantum Plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Martin-Cano, Paloma A. Huidobro, Esteban Moreno; Diego Martin-Cano; Huidobro, Paloma A.; Esteban Moreno; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum plasmonics is a rapidly growing field of research that involves the study of the quantum properties of light and its interaction with matter at the nanoscale. Here, surface plasmons - electromagnetic excitations coupled to electron charge density waves on metal-dielectric interfaces or localized on metallic nanostructures - enable the confinement of light to scales far below that of conventional optics. In this article we review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical inve...

  15. Plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Chen, Yu Lim; Liu, Ru-Shi; Tsai, Din Ping

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysis has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible light irradiation, increasing the prospect of using sunlight for environmental and energy applications such as wastewater treatment, water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. Plasmonic photocatalysis makes use of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed into semiconductor photocatalysts and possesses two prominent features-a Schottky junction and localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR). The former is of benefit to charge separation and transfer whereas the latter contributes to the strong absorption of visible light and the excitation of active charge carriers. This article aims to provide a systematic study of the fundamental physical mechanisms of plasmonic photocatalysis and to rationalize many experimental observations. In particular, we show that LSPR could boost the generation of electrons and holes in semiconductor photocatalysts through two different effects-the LSPR sensitization effect and the LSPR-powered bandgap breaking effect. By classifying the plasmonic photocatalytic systems in terms of their contact form and irradiation state, we show that the enhancement effects on different properties of photocatalysis can be well-explained and systematized. Moreover, we identify popular material systems of plasmonic photocatalysis that have shown excellent performance and elucidate their key features in the context of our proposed mechanisms and classifications.

  16. Refractive beam shapers for focused laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2016-09-01

    Focusing of laser radiation is most often used approach in various industrial micromachining applications like scribing, PCB drilling, and is important in scientific researches like laser heating in geophysics experiments with diamond anvil cells (DAC). Control of intensity distribution in focal spot is important task since optimum intensity profiles are rather flat-top, doughnut or "inverse-Gauss" than typical for lasers Gaussian profile. Because of high intensity of modern CW and pulsed lasers it is advisable to use refractive beam shaping optics with smooth optical surfaces providing high radiation resistance. Workable optical solutions can be built on the base of diffraction theory conclusion that flat-top intensity profile in focal plane of a lens is created when input beam has Airy-disk intensity distribution. It is suggested to apply refractive beam shapers converting, with minimum wavefront deformation, Gaussian profile of TEM00 beam to a beam with Airy disk intensity distribution, thereby optimizing conditions of interference near the focal plane of a lens after the beam shaper and providing flat-top, doughnut, "inverse-Gauss" profiles. This approach allows operation with CW and ultra-short pulse lasers, using F-theta lenses and objectives, mirror scanners, provides extended depth of field similar to Rayleigh length of comparable TEM00 beam, easy integration in industrial equipment, simple adjustment procedure and switching between profiles, telescope and collimator implementations. There will be considered design basics of beam shapers, analysis of profile behaviour near focal plane, examples of implementations in micromachining systems and experimental DAC setups, results of profile measurements and material processing.

  17. Surface magneto plasmons and their applications in the infrared frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their promising properties, surface magneto plasmons have attracted great interests in the field of plasmonics recently. Apart from flexible modulation of the plasmonic properties by an external magnetic field, surface magneto plasmons also promise nonreciprocal effect and multi-bands of propagation, which can be applied into the design of integrated plasmonic devices for biosensing and telecommunication applications. In the visible frequencies, because it demands extremely strong magnetic fields for the manipulation of metallic plasmonic materials, nano-devices consisting of metals and magnetic materials based on surface magneto plasmon are difficult to be realized due to the challenges in device fabrication and high losses. In the infrared frequencies, highly-doped semiconductors can replace metals, owning to the lower incident wave frequencies and lower plasma frequencies. The required magnetic field is also low, which makes the tunable devices based on surface magneto plasmons more practically to be realized. Furthermore, a promising 2D material-graphene shows great potential in infrared magnetic plasmonics. In this paper, we review the magneto plasmonics in the infrared frequencies with a focus on device designs and applications. We investigate surface magneto plasmons propagating in different structures, including plane surface structures and slot waveguides. Based on the fundamental investigation and theoretical studies, we illustrate various magneto plasmonic micro/nano devices in the infrared, such as tunable waveguides, filters, and beam-splitters. Novel plasmonic devices such as one-way waveguides and broad-band waveguides are also introduced.

  18. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system.

  19. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-02-19

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system.

  20. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...... and breaking. DLC coating with thicknesses between 25 and 105 nm is found to considerably increase the mechanical strength of the substrates while at the same time ensuring conservation of sufficient field enhancements of the gold plasmonic substrates....

  1. Plasmonic optical nanotweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Rehab; El Maklizi, Mahmoud; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic grating structures can be used in many applications such as nanolithography and optical trapping. In this paper, we used plasmonic grating as optical tweezers to trap and manipulate dielectric nano-particles. Different plasmonic grating structures with single, double, and triple slits have been investigated and analyzed. The three configurations are optimized and compared to find the best candidate to trap and manipulate nanoparticles. The three optimized structures results in capability to super focusing and beaming the light effectively beyond the diffraction limit. A high transverse gradient optical force is obtained using the triple slit configuration that managed to significantly enhance the field and its gradient. Therefore, it has been chosen as an efficient optical tweezers. This structure managed to trap sub10nm particles efficiently. The resultant 50KT potential well traps the nano particles stably. The proposed structure is used also to manipulate the nano-particles by simply changing the angle of the incident light. We managed to control the movement of nano particle over an area of (5μm x 5μm) precisely. The proposed structure has the advantage of trapping and manipulating the particles outside the structure (not inside the structure such as the most proposed optical tweezers). As a result, it can be used in many applications such as drug delivery and biomedical analysis.

  2. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R < 5 nm) that can result in a great incr...

  3. Plasmonic films based on colloidal lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Bin; Yu, Ye; Möhwald, Helmuth; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Bai

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the field of plasmonic films fabricated by colloidal lithography. Compared with conventional lithography techniques such as electron beam lithography and focused ion beam lithography, the unconventional colloidal lithography technique with advantages of low-cost and high-throughput has made the fabrication process more efficient, and moreover brought out novel films that show remarkable surface plasmon features. These plasmonic films include those with nanohole arrays, nanovoid arrays and nanoshell arrays with precisely controlled shapes, sizes, and spacing. Based on these novel nanostructures, optical and sensing performances can be greatly enhanced. The introduction of colloidal lithography provides not only efficient fabrication processes but also plasmonic films with unique nanostructures, which are difficult to be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques.

  4. The damped oscillating propagation of the compensating self-accelerating beams

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei-Wei; Yu, Pan-Pan; Wang, Hao-wei; Wang, Zi-qiang; Li, Yin-Mei

    2016-01-01

    We report a new form of compensating accelerating beam generated by amplitude modulation of the symmetric Airy beam (SAB) caustics with an exponential apodization mask. Our numerical study manifests that the compensating beam is with one main-lobe beam structure and can maintain the mean-intensity invariant both in the free space and loss media. Specially, the beam inherits the beamlets structure from the SAB and owns a novel damped oscillating propagation property. We also conduct a comparative study of its propagation property with that of the Airy beam theoretically. And by altering the signs of 2D masks, the main lobe of the compensating beam can be modulated to orientate in four different quadrants flexibly. The proposed compensating accelerating beam is anticipated to get special applications in particle manipulation or plasmas regions.

  5. Fabrication of plasmonic waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-insulator geometries that are used as plasmonic waveguides guiding electromagnetic radiation along metal-dielectric interfaces via excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Three configurations are considered: metal strips, symmetric...... based on metal V-grooves that offer subwavelength confinement are also considered. We focus on recent advances in manufacturing of nanostructured metal strips and metal V-grooves using combined UV, electron-beam and nanoimprint lithography....

  6. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic...

  7. SAS võib omapoolse panusena kustutada osa Estonian Airi laenust / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2011-01-01

    Lennufirma SAS investorsuhete asepresidendi Sture Stoleni sõnul ei ole tõenäoline, et nende firma maksaks mingit raha Estonian Airi kapitali, küll aga ei saa välistada võimalust, et võidakse kustutada osa antud laenust

  8. The first-passage area for drifted Brownian motion and the moments of the Airy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Michael J [Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistique, Universite Paris-Sud. Bat. 100 91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Martin, Richard J [Quantitative Credit Strategy Group, Credit Suisse, One Cabot Square, London, E14 4QJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-07

    An exact expression for the distribution of the area swept out by a drifted Brownian motion till its first-passage time is derived. A study of the asymptotic behaviour confirms earlier conjectures and clarifies their range of validity. The analysis leads to a simple closed-form solution for the moments of the Airy distribution. (fast track communication)

  9. Asymptotic expansions for Riesz fractional derivatives of Airy functions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Temme (Nico); V. Varlamov

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRiesz fractional derivatives of a function, $D_{x}^{\\alpha}f(x)$ (also called Riesz potentials), are defined as fractional powers of the Laplacian. Asymptotic expansions for large $x$ are computed for the Riesz fractional derivatives of the Airy function of the first kind, $Ai(x)$, and

  10. Constraints on Airy function zeros from quantum-mechanical sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, M

    2010-01-01

    We derive new constraints on the zeros of Airy functions by using the so-called quantum bouncer system to evaluate quantum-mechanical sum rules and perform perturbation theory calculations for the Stark effect. Using commutation and completeness relations, we show how to systematically evaluate sums of the form $S_{p}(n) = \\sum_{k \

  11. "Translocal Express" tembutab jälle / Rael Artel, Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Korraldajad 22. ja 23. II Okupatsioonide Muuseumis toimuvast rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Translocal Express. Jubilee Edition", kus vaatluse all on kaasaegse kunsti ja natsionalismi suhted. Seminari kava. Eesti kunstnikest esineb Flo Kasearu, esitletakse Rael Arteli ja Airi Triisbergi raamatut "Public Preparation - Biennale of Young Artists"

  12. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  13. "Translocal Express" tembutab jälle / Rael Artel, Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Korraldajad 22. ja 23. II Okupatsioonide Muuseumis toimuvast rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Translocal Express. Jubilee Edition", kus vaatluse all on kaasaegse kunsti ja natsionalismi suhted. Seminari kava. Eesti kunstnikest esineb Flo Kasearu, esitletakse Rael Arteli ja Airi Triisbergi raamatut "Public Preparation - Biennale of Young Artists"

  14. Positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Könenkamp, R., E-mail: rkoe@pdx.edu [Department of Physics, Portland State University, 1719 SW 10th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We report the positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission in a continuous gap antenna structure of sub-micron size. We show experimentally that a nanoscale area of plasmon-enhanced electron emission can be motioned by changing the polarization of an exciting optical beam of 800 nm wavelength. Finite-difference calculations are presented to support the experiments and to show that the plasmon-enhanced electric field distribution of the antenna can be motioned precisely and predictively.

  15. Technological studies for plasmonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Roxana; Kusko, Cristian; Dinescu, Adrian; Bita, Bogdan; Popescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This work will present the technological processes necessary to experimentally obtain plasmonic metasurfaces for developing flat optical components or diffractive optical elements (DOE) which have reflexion functionalities. This class of metasurfaces offers the possibility to manipulate the beam shape using an array of metallic nanoscale elements patterned on a substrate. The main feature of these structures is that one can manipulate the phase behavior by modifying some of the geometrical parameters of the nano-antennas in order to achieve the required phase shift values for the desired applications. The first important step in experimentally obtaining a plasmonic metasurface structures is the electron beam lithography (EBL) followed by the lift-off method. Due to the small sizes of the gold nano-antennas and tight periodicity of the array a number of impediments can emerge in experimentally obtaining such geometries which can be overcome by the parameter optimization of the employed technologies.

  16. Spatially induced Airy-Bessel light bullets%空间诱导产生艾里-贝塞尔光弹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志君; 吴琼; 周卫东; 吴根柱; 施逸乐

    2012-01-01

    利用波动方程,研究了脉冲贝塞尔光束在自由空间传输时的空间诱导群速度色散(SIGVD)效应.结果表明,三阶SIGVD能使脉冲贝塞尔光束的时域逐渐演化为艾里分布.由于艾里一贝塞尔光弹是一种新奇的时、空都不扩展的局域波包,能在光与物质相互作用的很多应用领域发挥作用.因此,本文提出了通过色散管理技术补偿二阶SIGVD,利用三阶SIGVD在自由空间产生艾里.贝塞尔光弹的方案.为分析这种光弹的时空传输特性,数值模拟了它在色散介质中的传输情况.结果表明,这种光弹能在色散介质中保持空域不衍射、时域不色散的稳定传输.%Based on wave equation, we theoretically study the effect of spatially induced group velocity dispersion (SIGVD) of pulsed Bessel light beam propagation in free space. The results show that the third-order SIGVD can make pulsed Bessel beam gradually evolve into temporally Airy distribution. Airy-Bessel wave packet is such an exotic localized optical wave packet that it can possibly serve versatile tool in the research of light-matter interactions and has extensive applications. Hence we demonstrate the realization scheme of Airy-Bessel light bullets in free space by compensating the second-order SIGVD through utilizing dispersion management technique. To analyze the spatiotemporal propagation properties, we numerically simulate this light bullet propagation in a dispersion medium. The results show that it can retain spatial diffraction-free and temporal dispersion-free propagation in medium.

  17. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the efficiency of surface plasmon polariton excitation by a focused laser beam using gold ridges. The dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges and wavelength dependence are examined. The experimental measurements accomplished...

  18. Molecular plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique ""molecular perspective"" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot field as well as for experienced researchers and practitioners. It begins by introducing readers to the optical effects that occur at the nanoscale and particularly their modification in the presence of biomolecules, followed by a concise yet thorough overview of the different methods for the actual fabrication of nanooptical materials. Further chapters address the relevant nanooptics, as well as

  19. Light-Directed Reversible Assembly of Plasmonic Nanoparticles Using Plasmon-Enhanced Thermophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Peng, Xiaolei; Wang, Mingsong; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Mao, Zhangming; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Becker, Michael F; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-09-21

    Reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles can be used to modulate their structural, electrical, and optical properties. Common and versatile tools in nanoparticle manipulation and assembly are optical tweezers, but these require tightly focused and high-power (10-100 mW/μm(2)) laser beams with precise optical alignment, which significantly hinders their applications. Here we present light-directed reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles with a power intensity below 0.1 mW/μm(2). Our experiments and simulations reveal that such a low-power assembly is enabled by thermophoretic migration of nanoparticles due to the plasmon-enhanced photothermal effect and the associated enhanced local electric field over a plasmonic substrate. With software-controlled laser beams, we demonstrate parallel and dynamic manipulation of multiple nanoparticle assemblies. Interestingly, the assemblies formed over plasmonic substrates can be subsequently transported to nonplasmonic substrates. As an example application, we selected surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, with tunable sensitivity. The advantages provided by plasmonic assembly of nanoparticles are the following: (1) low-power, reversible nanoparticle assembly, (2) applicability to nanoparticles with arbitrary morphology, and (3) use of simple optics. Our plasmon-enhanced thermophoretic technique will facilitate further development and application of dynamic nanoparticle assemblies, including biomolecular analyses in their native environment and smart drug delivery.

  20. Plasmonics based VLSI processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In continuum to my previous paper titled‘Implementation of plasmonics in VLSI’, this paperattempts to explore further, the actual physicalrealization of an all-plasmonic chip. In this paper,various methods of plasmon-basedphotolithography have been discussed and anobservation is made w.r.t the cost effectiveness andease of adaptability. Also, plasmonics based activeelement has been discussed which would helpunravel further arenas ofapproaches and methodstowards the realization of an all-plasmonic chip.

  1. Plasmonically amplified fluorescence bioassay with microarray format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.

  2. Refractive elastic scattering of carbon and oxygen nuclei The mean field analysis and Airy structures

    CERN Document Server

    Szilner, S; Basrak, Z; Freeman, R M; Haas, F; Morsad, A; Brandan, M E; Satchler, G R

    2001-01-01

    The experimental data on the $^{16}$O$+^{12}$C and $^{18}$O$+^{12}$C elastic scatterings and their optical model analysis are presented. Detailed and complete elastic angular distributions have been measured at the Strasbourg Vivitron accelerator at several energies covering the energy range between 5 and 10 MeV per nucleon. The elastic scattering angular distributions show the usual diffraction pattern and also, at larger angles, refractive effects in the form of nuclear rainbow and associated Airy structures. The optical model analysis unambiguously shows the evolution of the refractive scattering pattern. The observed structure, namely the Airy minima, can be consistently described by a nucleus-nucleus potential with a deep real part and a weakly absorptive imaginary part. The difference in absorption in the two systems is explained by an increased imaginary (mostly surface) part of the potential in the $^{18}$O$+^{12}$C system. The relation between the obtained potentials and those reported for the symmet...

  3. Wavelength estimation by using the Airy disk from a diffraction pattern with didactic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Pico-Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a simple and easy to implement method that uses the Airy disk generated from a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern due to a circular aperture will be used to estimate the wavelength of the illuminating laser source. This estimation is based on the measurement of the Airy disk diameter, whose approximation is directly proportional to the wavelength of the light source and to the distance between the aperture and the image plane; and inversely proportional to the diameter of the aperture. Due to the characteristics and versatility of the present proposal, this is perfectly suitable for use in graduate or undergraduate physics laboratories, or even in classrooms for educational and/or demonstrative purposes.

  4. Tailorable reflection of surface plasmons in defect engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiwei; Cai, Wei; Wu, Wei; Xiang, Yinxiao; Ren, Mengxin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-12-01

    The electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of graphene can be significantly altered by defects, thus engineering the defects in graphene is promising for applications in functionalized materials and nanoscale devices. Here the propagations of surface plasmon waves near graphene defect boundaries created by ion beams are studied. Specifically, plasmon reflections are observed near the induced defect boundaries for the first time, which implies that ion-irradiation induced defects act as efficient scattering centers for the plasmonic waves, just like the native grain boundaries. Moreover, engineering the defects with varied ion doses results in tailorable plasmon reflection properties due to changed defect degrees. The controllable plasmon reflections near ion induced defect boundaries open up a new avenue for plasmon wave engineering.

  5. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D., E-mail: dazhi_li@hotmail.com [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Nakajima, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hashida, M. [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wei, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Ako, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-06-03

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation. - Highlights: • An approach to extract terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons is presented. • A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode. • Harmonics of surface plasmon polaritons are possible to radiate.

  6. Engineering optical properties using plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Venkata Ananth

    Plasmonic nanostructures can be engineered to take on unusual optical properties not found in natural materials. The optical responses of plasmonic materials are functions of the structural parameters and symmetry of the nanostructures, material parameters of the nanostructure and its surroundings and the incidence angle, frequency and polarization state of light. The scattering and hence the visibility of an object could be reduced by coating it with a plasmonic material. In this thesis, presented is an optical frequency scattering cancelation device composed of a silicon nanorod coated by a plasmonic gold nanostructure. The principle of operation was theoretically analyzed using Mie theory and the device design was verified by extensive numerical simulations. The device was fabricated using a combination of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography and focused ion beam milling. The optical responses of the scattering cancelation device and a control sample of bare silicon rod were directly visualized using near-field microscopy coupled with heterodyne interferometric detection. The experimental results were analyzed and found to match very well with theoretical prediction from numerical simulations thereby validating the design principles and our implementation. Plasmonic nanostructures could be engineered to exhibit unique optical properties such as Fano resonance characterized by narrow asymmetrical lineshape. We present dynamic tuning and symmetry lowering of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures fabricated on flexible substrates. The tuning of Fano resonance was achieved by application of uniaxial mechanical stress. The design of the nanostructures was facilitated by extensive numerical simulations and the symmetry lowering was analyzed using group theoretical methods. The nanostructures were fabricated using electron beam lithography and optically characterized for various mechanical stress. The experimental results were in good

  7. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation, Riccati equation and Airy functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfear, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    We construct the Green functions (or Feynman's propagators) for the Schr\\"odinger equations of the form $i\\psi_{t}+{1/4}\\psi_{xx}\\pm tx^{2}\\psi =0$ in terms of Airy functions and solve the Cauchy initial value problem in the coordinate and momentum representations. Particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations with variable coefficients are also found.

  8. Constraints on Airy function zeros from quantum-mechanical sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, M.; Robinett, R. W.

    2009-02-01

    We derive new constraints on the zeros of Airy functions by using the so-called quantum bouncer system to evaluate quantum-mechanical sum rules and perform perturbation theory calculations for the Stark effect. Using commutation and completeness relations, we show how to systematically evaluate sums of the form Sp(n) = ∑k≠n1/(ζk - ζn)p, for natural p > 1, where -ζn is the nth zero of Ai(ζ).

  9. Plasmonic rack-and-pinion gear with chiral metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetski, Yuri; Karabchevsky, Alina

    2016-04-01

    The effect of circularly polarized beaming excited by traveling surface plasmons, via chiral metasurface is experimentally studied. Here we show that the propagation direction of the plasmonic wave, evanescently excited on the thin gold film affects the handedness of the scattered beam polarization. Nanostructured metasurface leads to excitation of localized plasmonic modes whose relative spatial orientation induces overall spin-orbit interaction. This effect is analogical to the rack-and-pinion gear: the rotational motion into the linear motion converter. From the practical point of view, the observed effect can be utilized in integrated optical circuits for communication systems, cyber security and sensing.

  10. Dealing with Dependent Uncertainty in Modelling: A Comparative Study Case through the Airy Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of uncertainty in differential equations leads to the emergent area of random differential equations. Under this approach, inputs become random variables and/or stochastic processes. Often one assumes that inputs are independent, a hypothesis that simplifies the mathematical treatment although it could not be met in applications. In this paper, we analyse, through the Airy equation, the influence of statistical dependence of inputs on the output, computing its expectation and standard deviation by Fröbenius and Polynomial Chaos methods. The results are compared with Monte Carlo sampling. The analysis is conducted by the Airy equation since, as in the deterministic scenario its solutions are highly oscillatory, it is expected that differences will be better highlighted. To illustrate our study, and motivated by the ubiquity of Gaussian random variables in numerous practical problems, we assume that inputs follow a multivariate Gaussian distribution throughout the paper. The application of Fröbenius method to solve Airy equation is based on an extension of the method to the case where inputs are dependent. The numerical results show that the existence of statistical dependence among the inputs and its magnitude entails changes on the variability of the output.

  11. Reviews in plasmonics 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2010, the first volume of the new book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonic

  12. Gratings in plasmonic V-groove waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Cuesta, Irene Fernandez; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We introduce visible light optical gratings to surface plasmon V-groove waveguides. Gradient e-beam dosage onto silicon stamp enables structuring V-grooves of varying depth. Nanoimprint lithography maintains a Λ=265 nm corrugation for gold surface devices....

  13. Gratings in plasmonic V-groove waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Cuesta, Irene Fernandez; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We introduce visible light optical gratings to surface plasmon V-groove waveguides. Gradient e-beam dosage onto silicon stamp enables structuring V-grooves of varying depth. Nanoimprint lithography maintains a Λ=265 nm corrugation for gold surface devices....

  14. Femtosecond tunneling response of surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, Taekjip; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    1998-01-01

    We obtain femtosecond (200 fs) time resolution using a scanning tunneling microscope on surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated by two 100 fs laser beams in total internal reflection geometry. The tunneling gap dependence of the signal clearly indicates the tunneling origin of the signal...

  15. Subwavelength Plasmonic Waveguides and Plasmonic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of microfabrication technology and advanced computational tools, nanophotonics has been widely studied for high-speed data transmission, sensitive optical detection, manipulation of ultrasmall objects, and visualization of nanoscale patterns. As an important branch of nanophotonics, plasmonics has enabled light-matter interactions at a deep subwavelength length scale. Plasmonics, or surface plasmon based photonics, focus on how to exploit the optical property of metals with abundant free electrons and hence negative permittivity. The oscillation of free electrons, when properly driven by electromagnetic waves, would form plasmon-polaritons in the vicinity of metal surfaces and potentially result in extreme light confinement. The objective of this article is to review the progress of subwavelength or deep subwavelength plasmonic waveguides, and fabrication techniques of plasmonic materials.

  16. The Physics and Applications of a 3D Plasmonic Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Brandon B.

    In this work, the dynamics of electromagnetic field interactions with free electrons in a 3D metallic nanostructure is evaluated theoretically. This dissertation starts by reviewing the relevant fundamentals of plasmonics and modern applications of plasmonic systems. Then, motivated by the need to have a simpler way of understanding the surface charge dynamics on complex plasmonic nanostructures, a new plasmon hybridization tree method is introduced. This method provides the plasmonicist with an intuitive way to determine the response of free electrons to incident light in complex nanostructures within the electrostatic regime. Next, a novel 3D plasmonic nanostructure utilizing reflective plasmonic coupling is designed to perform biosensing and plasmonic tweezing applications. By applying analytical and numerical methods, the effectiveness of this nanostructure at performing these applications is determined from the plasmonic response of the nanostructure to an excitation beam of coherent light. During this analysis, it was discovered that under certain conditions, this 3D nanostructure exhibits a plasmonic Fano resonance resulting from the interference of an in-plane dark mode and an out-of-plane bright mode. In evaluating this nanostructure for sensing changes in the local dielectric environment, a figure of merit of 68 is calculated, which is competitive with current localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensors. By evaluating the Maxwell stress tensor on a test particle in the vicinity of the nanostructure, it was found that under the right conditions, this plasmonic nanostructure design is capable of imparting forces greater than 10.5 nN on dielectric objects of nanoscale dimensions. The results obtained in these studies provides new routes to the design and engineering of 3D plasmonic nanostructures and Fano resonances in these systems. In addition, the nanostructure presented in this work and the design principles it utilizes have shown

  17. Bending analysis of a functionally graded piezoelectric cantilever beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao; ZHONG Zheng

    2007-01-01

    A new analysis based on Airy stress function method is presented for a functionally graded piezoelectric material cantilever beam.Assuming that the mechanical and electric properties of the material have the same variations along the thickness direction,a two-dimensional plane elasticity solution is obtained for the coupling electroelastic fields of the beam under different loadings.This solution will be useful in analyzing FGPM beam with arbitrary variations of material properties.The influences of the functionally graded material properties on the structural response of the beam subjected to different loads are also studied through numerical examples.

  18. Bending analysis of a functionally graded piezoelectric cantilever beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new analysis based on Airy stress function method is presented for a functionally graded piezoelectric material cantilever beam. Assuming that the mechanical and electric properties of the material have the same variations along the thickness direction, a two-dimensional plane elasticity solution is obtained for the coupling electroelastic fields of the beam under different loadings. This solution will be useful in analyzing FGPM beam with arbitrary variations of material properties. The influences of the functionally graded material properties on the structural response of the beam subjected to different loads are also studied through numerical examples.

  19. Improved surface plasmon enhanced photodetection at an Au-GaAs Schottky junction using a novel molecular beam epitaxy grown Otto coupling structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daboo, C.; Baird, M.J.; Hughes, H.P. (PCS Group, Cavendish Lab., Cambridge (UK)); Apsley, N.; Emeny, M.T. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Great Malvern (UK))

    1991-06-05

    Measurements of reflectivity and photocurrent as a function of angle of incidence and wavelength have been made for a GaAs-AlAs-GaAs-Au Schottky structure based on an Otto coupling geometry which allows incident p-polarized radiation to couple to the surface plasmon (SP) mode at the Au-GaAs interface. At resonance, E fields associated with the SP excitation are concentrated at the GaAs-Au Schottky interface itself, enabling strong enhancement of the internal photoemission photocurrent across the Schottky barrier. Enhancement factors of the order of 20 have been achieved. A direct comparison between the resonant effects of exciting the SP at the GaAs-Au Schottky junction itself and at the outer Au-air interface has been made. A simple model for the photocurrent in the device indicates that the excited photocarriers created in the gold film have a very short scattering length {delta}{approx equal}10 nm, which emphasizes the importance of exciting the SP at the Schottky interface. (orig.).

  20. Basics of quantum plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2015-01-01

    The present work is a topical review of the theoretical research on the quantum theory of plasmons and plasmon-photon interaction. The plasmons are defined as the quanta of the quantized plasmonic field. The corresponding classical plasmonic field was constructed on the basis of the study of collective oscillations of the electron gas in the solid. The electron-electron Coulomb interaction is taken into account. The explicit forms of the plasmon-photon interaction Lagrangian in canonical quantum mechanics and the plasmon-photon interaction action functional in the functional integral approach are derived. They all show that the interaction processes are nonlocal ones. The physical origin of the nonlocality is the complex structure of plasmons as composite quasiparticles: they cannot be considered as point particles, as was assumed in all phenomenological theories.

  1. Plasmon-enhanced optically stimulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, E. J.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ramos, A. P., E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Quimica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Optically Stimulated Luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) have been largely used for personal, medical, and industrial radiation dosimetry. Developing highly sensitive and small-sized radiation detectors and dosimeters is essential for improving spatial resolution and consequently diagnosis quality and treatment efficacy in the case of applications in radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy, for instance. Conventional methods to improve the OSLD sensitivity consist of doping and co-doping the host materials with atoms of other elements, thereby increasing the amount of trapping and/or luminescent centers. Our group is researching on the use of the plasmon properties of noble metal nanoparticles to increase OSL intensity. Upon incidence of a light beam with appropriate resonant wavelengths, the oscillation of the free electrons at the nanoparticle surface originates the Localized Surface Plasmons (LSP) and the consequent plasmon resonance band. The interaction between the LSP and the surrounding luminescent material leads to new optical properties largely employed for enhancing several luminescent processes. Here we will show our results regarding the use of LSP to increase OSLD sensitivity. The interaction between the traps/luminescent centers and the plasmons depends on the distance between them, on the plasmon resonance band intensity and position, as well as on the surrounding medium. Therefore, the plasmon-enhanced luminescence is a promising tool to develop more sensitive and miniaturized OSLD. (Author)

  2. Plasmonics in buried structures

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, I. T.; García de Abajo, Francisco Javier

    2009-01-01

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative los...

  3. Plasmonics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Stefan Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Considered a major field of photonics, plasmonics offers the potential to confine and guide light below the diffraction limit and promises a new generation of highly miniaturized photonic devices. This book combines a comprehensive introduction with an extensive overview of the current state of the art. Coverage includes plasmon waveguides, cavities for field-enhancement, nonlinear processes and the emerging field of active plasmonics studying interactions of surface plasmons with active media.

  4. The software package AIRY 7.0: new efficient deconvolution methods for post-adaptive optics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Andrea; Carbillet, Marcel; Prato, Marco; Boccacci, Patrizia; Bertero, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The Software Package AIRY (acronym of Astronomical Image Restoration in interferometrY) is a complete tool for the simulation and the deconvolution of astronomical images. The data can be a post-adaptive-optics image of a single dish telescope or a set of multiple images of a Fizeau interferometer. Written in IDL and freely downloadable, AIRY is a package of the CAOS Problem-Solving Environment. It is made of different modules, each one performing a specific task, e.g. simulation, deconvolution, and analysis of the data. In this paper we present the last version of AIRY containing a new optimized method for the deconvolution problem based on the scaled-gradient projection (SGP) algorithm extended with different regularization functions. Moreover a new module based on our multi-component method is added to AIRY. Finally we provide a few example projects describing our multi-step method recently developed for deblurring of high dynamic range images. By using AIRY v.7.0, users have a powerful tool for simulating the observations and for reconstructing their real data.

  5. Ühe minuti loengute abil jõuavad väärt teadmised kiiresti ja mugavalt huvilisteni / Airi Ilisson-Cruz ; intervjueerinud Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli loengute sarjast, mille idee autor ja konsultant on Balti Filmi- ja Meediakooli õppejõud Indrek Treufeldt, kaasa löövad Tallinna Ülikooli turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniosakond, produtsent Airi Ilisson-Cruz ja e-õppekeskus, operaatorid-monteerijad Kristjan Madalvee ja Tarmo Lehari. Intervjuu loengusarja produtsendi Airi Ilisson-Cruziga

  6. Bourdieu on püüdnud näidata oma teooriate universaalsust... : Bourdieu / Anders Härm, Airi-Alina Allaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Küsimusele milliste probleemidega tegelemisel Eestis võiks abi olla Pierre Bourdieu' teooriatest vastavad teiste hulgas Airi-Alina Allaste ja Anders Härm. Airi-Alina Allaste toob näiteks kunstisotsioloogia. Anders Härm P. Bourdieu teooriate kasutamisvõimalustest kunstiteaduses. B. Bourdieu teooriate rakendamise näiteks toob ta Johannes Saare ja Epp Lankotsa

  7. Ühe minuti loengute abil jõuavad väärt teadmised kiiresti ja mugavalt huvilisteni / Airi Ilisson-Cruz ; intervjueerinud Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson-Cruz, Airi, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli loengute sarjast, mille idee autor ja konsultant on Balti Filmi- ja Meediakooli õppejõud Indrek Treufeldt, kaasa löövad Tallinna Ülikooli turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniosakond, produtsent Airi Ilisson-Cruz ja e-õppekeskus, operaatorid-monteerijad Kristjan Madalvee ja Tarmo Lehari. Intervjuu loengusarja produtsendi Airi Ilisson-Cruziga

  8. Bourdieu on püüdnud näidata oma teooriate universaalsust... : Bourdieu / Anders Härm, Airi-Alina Allaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Küsimusele milliste probleemidega tegelemisel Eestis võiks abi olla Pierre Bourdieu' teooriatest vastavad teiste hulgas Airi-Alina Allaste ja Anders Härm. Airi-Alina Allaste toob näiteks kunstisotsioloogia. Anders Härm P. Bourdieu teooriate kasutamisvõimalustest kunstiteaduses. B. Bourdieu teooriate rakendamise näiteks toob ta Johannes Saare ja Epp Lankotsa

  9. Surface plasmon resonance in super-periodic metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Haisheng

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated over the past decade. The periodic metal nanostructures have served as new technology platforms in fields such as biological and chemical sensing. An existing method to determine the surface plasmon resonance properties of these metal nanostructures is the measurement of the light transmission or reflection from these nanostructures. The measurement of surface plasmon resonances in either the transmission or reflection allows one to resolve the surface plasmon resonance in metal nanostructures. In this dissertation, surface plasmon resonances in a new type of metal nanostructures were investigated. The new nanostructures were created by patterning traditional periodic nanohole and nanoslit arrays into diffraction gratings. The patterned nanohole and 11anoslit arrays have two periods in the structures. The new nanostructures are called "super-periodic" nanostructures. With rigorous finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical simulations, surface plasmon resonances in super-periodic nanoslit and nanohole arrays were investigated. It was found that by creating a super-period in periodic metal nanostructures, surface plasmon radiations can be observed in the non-zero order diffractions. This discovery presents a new method of characterizing the surface plasmon resonances in metal nanostructures. Super-periodic gold nanoslit and nanohole arrays were fabricated with the electron beam lithography technique. The surface plasmon resonances were measured in the first order diffraction by using a CCD. The experimental results confirm well with the FDTD numerical simulations.

  10. Experimental demonstration of 3D accelerating beam arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianghua; Li, Runze; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Gao, Peng; Han, Guoxia; Lei, Ming

    2016-04-10

    Accelerating beams have attracted much attention in the frontiers of optical physics and technology owing to their unique propagation dynamics of nondiffracting, self-healing, and freely accelerating along curved trajectories. Such behaviors essentially arise from the particular phase factor occurring in their spatial frequency spectrum, e.g., the cubic phase associated to the spectrum of Airy beam. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a sort of accelerating beam arrays, which are composed of spatially separated accelerating beams. By superimposing kinoforms of multifocal patterns into the spatial frequency spectrum of accelerating beams, different types of beam arrays, e.g., Airy beam arrays and two-main-lobe accelerating beam arrays, are generated and measured by scanning a reflection mirror near the focal region along the optical axis. The 3D intensity patterns reconstructed from the experimental data present good agreement with the theoretical counterparts. The combination of accelerating beams with optical beam arrays proposed here may find potential applications in various fields such as optical microscopes, optical micromachining, optical trapping, and so on.

  11. Plasmonic-photonic crystal coupled nanolaser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Taiping; Jamois, Cecile; Chevalier, Celine; Feng, Di; Belarouci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a hybrid photonic-plasmonic nanolaser that combines the light harvesting features of a dielectric photonic crystal cavity with the extraordinary confining properties of an optical nano-antenna. In that purpose, we developed a novel fabrication method based on multi-step electron-beam lithography. We show that it enables the robust and reproducible production of hybrid structures, using fully top down approach to accurately position the antenna. Coherent coupling of the photonic and plasmonic modes is highlighted and opens up a broad range of new hybrid nanophotonic devices.

  12. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  13. Plasmonic Demultiplexer and Guiding

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Chenglong

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional plasmonic demultiplexers for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which consist of concentric grooves on a gold film, are proposed and experimentally demonstrated to realize light-SPP coupling, effective dispersion and multiple-channel SPP guiding. A resolution as high as 10 nm is obtained. The leakage radiation microscopy imaging shows that the SPPs of different wavelengths are focused and routed into different SPP strip waveguides. The plasmonic demultiplexer can thus serve as a wavelength division multiplexing element for integrated plasmonic circuit and also as a plasmonic spectroscopy or filter.

  14. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  15. Wavefront Engineering of Quantum Cascade Lasers Using Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanfang; Capasso, Federico

    2012-12-01

    We review recent work on beam shaping of mid-infrared and far-infrared (terahertz) quantum cascade lasers using plasmonics. Essentials of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are discussed; these include the operating principle based on bandstructure engineering, and beam quality problems associated with laser waveguide design. We explain how metal and semiconductor microstructures can effectively tailor the dispersion properties of mid- and far-infrared surface plasmon polaritons, and therefore can be used as important building blocks for optical devices in these frequencies. The physical principles of three structures are discussed: plasmonic Bragg gratings, designer (spoof) surface plasmon polariton structures, and channel polariton structures. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these structures by realizing various functionalities in QCLs, ranging from beam collimation, polarization control, to multibeam emission, and spatial wavelength demultiplexing. Plasmonics offers a monolithic, compact, and low-loss solution to the problem of poor beam quality of QCLs and may have a large impact on applications such as sensing, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), free-space optical communication, and heterodyne detection of chemicals. The plasmonic designs are scalable and applicable to near-infrared active or passive optical devices.

  16. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  17. Reviews in plasmonics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2016, the third volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  18. Reviews in plasmonics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2015, the second volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  19. Optically tunable plasmonic color filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. J.; Si, G. Y.; Leong, E. S. P.; Wang, B.; Danner, A. J.; Yuan, X. C.; Teng, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    We fabricated sub-wavelength patterned gold plasmonic nanostructures on a quartz substrate through the focused ion beam (FIB) technique. The perforated gold film demonstrated optical transmission peaks in the visible range, which therefore can be used as a plasmonic color filter. Furthermore, by integrating a layer of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with the gold nanostructure to form a hybrid system, we observed a red-shift of transmission peak wavelength. More importantly, the peak intensity can be further enhanced more than 10% in transmittance due to the refractive index match of the media on both sides of it. By optically pumping the hybrid system using a UV light, nematic-isotropic phase transition of the LCs was achieved, thus changing the effective refractive index experienced by the impinging light. Due to the refractive index change, the transmission peak intensity was modulated accordingly. As a result, an optically tunable plasmonic color filter was achieved. This kind of color filters could be potentially applied to many applications, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, liquid crystal display devices, light emitting diodes, etc.

  20. Constraints on Airy function zeros from quantum-mechanical sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, M [Physics Department, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Robinett, R W [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: mabelloni@davidson.edu, E-mail: rick@phys.psu.edu

    2009-02-20

    We derive new constraints on the zeros of Airy functions by using the so-called quantum bouncer system to evaluate quantum-mechanical sum rules and perform perturbation theory calculations for the Stark effect. Using commutation and completeness relations, we show how to systematically evaluate sums of the form S{sub p}(n) = {sigma}{sub k{ne}}{sub n}1/({zeta}{sub k} - {zeta}{sub n}){sup p}, for natural p > 1, where -{zeta}{sub n} is the nth zero of Ai({zeta})

  1. Airy Equation for the Topological String Partition Function in a Scaling Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Murad; Yau, Shing-Tung; Zhou, Jie

    2016-06-01

    We use the polynomial formulation of the holomorphic anomaly equations governing perturbative topological string theory to derive the free energies in a scaling limit to all orders in perturbation theory for any Calabi-Yau threefold. The partition function in this limit satisfies an Airy differential equation in a rescaled topological string coupling. One of the two solutions of this equation gives the perturbative expansion and the other solution provides geometric hints of the non-perturbative structure of topological string theory. Both solutions can be expanded naturally around strong coupling.

  2. Local Heating with Lithographically Fabricated Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Ndukaife, Justus C.; Naik, Gururaj V.;

    2013-01-01

    Titanium nitride is considered a promising alternative plasmonic material and is known to exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances within the near-infrared biological transparency window. Here, local heating efficiencies of disk-shaped nanoparticles made of titanium nitride and gold are compa......Titanium nitride is considered a promising alternative plasmonic material and is known to exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances within the near-infrared biological transparency window. Here, local heating efficiencies of disk-shaped nanoparticles made of titanium nitride and gold...... are compared in the visible and near-infrared regions numerically and experimentally with samples fabricated using e-beam lithography. Results show that plasmonic titanium nitride nanodisks are efficient local heat sources and outperform gold nanodisks in the biological transparency window, dispensing the need...... for complex particle geometries....

  3. Nonlinear plasmonics with Kerr-like media for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Sihon H.; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene; Brantley, Christina L.

    2014-04-01

    Sensing technologies are currently needed for better maintainability, reliability, safety, and monitoring small variable changes on microscopic and nanoscale systems. Plasmonic sensor research has contributed to chemical and biological sensing needs by monitoring ultrafast temporal and spatial changes in optoelectronic systems. Nonlinear plasmonic waveguides with subwavelength confinement can further enhance the capabilities of plasmonic devices. Results in this paper highlight the derivation of the full-vector Maxwell Equations for the single metal- dielectric slot waveguide and the metal -dielectric -metal waveguide with the dielectric having a Kerr-like nonlinearity. These waveguides, typically have metallic losses that compete with nonlinearity at certain frequencies that can hinder surface plasmon wave propagation. By considering temporal and spatial beam propagation in these waveguides one expects to observe novel effects that could be used for sensing applications such as femtosecond pulse propagation with plasmon self-focusing, self-trapping, and frequency conversion with reduction in metallic losses.

  4. Plasmonic resonances in nanostructured transparent conducting oxide films

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jongbum; Emani, Naresh K; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCO) are emerging as possible alternative constituent materials to replace noble metals such as silver and gold for low-loss plasmonic and metamaterial (MMs) applications in the near infrared (NIR) regime. The optical characteristics of TCOs have been studied to evaluate the functionalities and potential of these materials as metal substitutes in plasmonic and MM devices, even apart from their usual use as electrode materials. However, patterning TCOs at the nanoscale, which is necessary for plasmonic and MM devices, is not well-studied. This paper investigates nanopatterning processes for TCOs, especially the lift-off technique with electron-beam lithography, and the realization of plasmonic nanostructures with TCOs. By employing the developed nanopatterning process, we fabricate 2D-periodic arrays of TCO nanodisks and characterize the material's plasmonic properties to evaluate the performance of TCOs as metal substitutes. Light-induced collective oscillations of the free elec...

  5. Plasmon switching: observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation in a sub-wavelength slit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, S B; Gan, C H; van Dijk, T; Ea Kim, B; Schouten, H F; Ubachs, W; Lalanne, P; Visser, T D

    2012-07-02

    We report a plasmon steering method that enables us to dynamically control the direction of surface plasmons generated by a two-mode slit in a thin metal film. By varying the phase between different coherent beams that are incident on the slit, individual waveguide modes are excited. Different linear combinations of the two modes lead to different diffracted fields at the exit of the slit. As a result, the direction in which surface plasmons are launched can be controlled. Experiments confirm that it is possible to distribute an approximately constant surface plasmon intensity in any desired proportion over the two launching directions. We also find that the anti-symmetric mode generates surface plasmons more efficiently than the fundamental symmetric mode.

  6. Modulation of multiple photon energies by use of surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, A.; Lereu, A. L.; Arakawa, E. T.; Wig, A.; Thundat, T.; Ferrell, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    A form of optical modulation at low pulse rates is reported in the case of surface plasmons excited by 1.55-µm photons in a thin gold foil. Several visible-photon energies are shown to be pulsed by the action of the infrared pulses, the effect being maximized when each visible beam also excites surface plasmons. The infrared surface plasmons are implicated as the primary cause of thermally induced changes in the foil. The thermal effects dissipate in sufficiently small times so that operation up to the kilohertz range in pulse repetition frequency is obtained. Unlike direct photothermal phenomena, no phase change is necessary for the effect to be observed.

  7. Propagation of plasmons in designed single crystalline silver nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lu, Ying-Wei; Huck, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate propagation of plasmons in single crystalline silver nanostructures fabricated using a combination of a bottom-up and a top-down approach. Silver nanoplates of thickness around 65 nm and a surface area of about 100 μm2 are made using a wet chemical method. Silver nanotips...... and nanowires are then sculptured by focused ion beam milling. The plasmons are excited by using the fluorescence from the redeposited silver clusters during the milling process. Propagation of plasmons in the nanowires is observed in the visible spectral region. We also observe a cavity effect by measuring...

  8. Efficient channel-plasmon excitation by nano-mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Han, Zhanghua;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a configuration for efficient channel-plasmon mode excitation using tapered terminations of V-shaped groove waveguides. The plasmon excitation is achieved by directly illuminating tapers of gold V-grooves with a focused laser beam, incident normally onto the sample surface. For near......-infrared wavelengths, we find experimentally as well as numerically, by conducting three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations, that the efficiency of channel-plasmon mode excitation exceeds 10% in the optimum configuration, which is the highest experimentally observed efficiency of coupling from free-propagation...

  9. Plasmon cross transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzynski, Leonard; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Li, Changsheng, E-mail: Abdellatif.Akjouj@univ-lille1.fr [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille1, Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Unite de Physique, Batiment P5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2011-09-14

    Plasmon cross transmission avoids the frontal collision between two plasmons traveling in opposite directions along a guide. The guide is made out of equidistant identical metal dots. Thanks to two resonator dots, the plasmon frontal impact is avoided by transmission of the two plasmons from the input guide to an output one. The resonator and guide dots are identical in size and metal composition. The dipole-dipole interactions are restricted to first nearest neighbors. A convenient metal doping is assumed to compensate exactly all attenuations. The parameters are the nearest neighbor distances between the dots. These distances are rescaled to the chain nearest neighbor distance d. The system has two symmetry mirror planes. This simple model enables us to obtain two analytic tuning relations for the plasmon cross transmission. The intensities of the transmitted signals versus kd, where k is the plasmon propagation vector, are also given. (paper)

  10. Coalescence and anti-coalescence of surface plasmons on a lossy beamsplitter

    CERN Document Server

    Vest, Benjamin; Devaux, Éloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasma waves are collective oscillations of electrons that propagate along a metal-dielectric interface. In the last ten years, several groups have reproduced fundamental quantum optics experiments with surface plasmons. Observation of single-plasmon states, waveparticle duality, preservation of entanglement of photons in plasmon-assisted transmission, and more recently, two-plasmon interference have been reported. While losses are detrimental for the observation of squeezed states, they can be seen as a new degree of freedom in the design of plasmonic devices, thus revealing new quantum interference scenarios. Here we report the observation of two-plasmon quantum interference between two freely-propagating, non-guided SPPs interfering on lossy plasmonic beamsplitters. As discussed in the article "Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters" by Barnett et al. (Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998)) , the presence of losses (scattering or absorption) relaxes constraints on the reflection and transmission factors of ...

  11. Laser implantation of plasmonic nanostructures into glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Simon J.; Beliatis, Michail J.; Stolojan, Vlad; Silva, S. Ravi. P.

    2013-01-01

    A laser direct-writing method producing high-resolution patterns of gold, silver and alloy plasmonic nanoparticles implanted into the surface of glass substrates is demonstrated, by scanning a pulsed UV laser beam across selected areas of ultra-thin metal films. The nanoparticles are incorporated beneath the surface of the glass and hence the patterns are scratch-resistant. The physical mechanisms controlling the process are investigated and we demonstrate that this technique can be used to fabricate a wide range of plasmonic optical structures such as wavelength selected diffraction gratings and high-density substrates for lab-on-chip surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.A laser direct-writing method producing high-resolution patterns of gold, silver and alloy plasmonic nanoparticles implanted into the surface of glass substrates is demonstrated, by scanning a pulsed UV laser beam across selected areas of ultra-thin metal films. The nanoparticles are incorporated beneath the surface of the glass and hence the patterns are scratch-resistant. The physical mechanisms controlling the process are investigated and we demonstrate that this technique can be used to fabricate a wide range of plasmonic optical structures such as wavelength selected diffraction gratings and high-density substrates for lab-on-chip surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33629d

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  13. Demonstration of quadrature-squeezed surface plasmons in a gold waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Alexander; Smolka, Stephan; Lodahl, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    We report on the efficient generation, propagation and reemission of squeezed long-range surface-plasmon polaritons in a gold waveguide. Squeezed light is used to excite the nonclassical surface-plasmon polaritons, and the reemitted quantum state is fully characterized by complete quantum...... tomographic reconstruction of the density matrix. We find that the plasmon-assisted transmission of nonclassical light in metallic waveguides can be described by a beam splitter relation. This result is explained theoretically....

  14. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  15. Plasmonic Route to Reconfigurable Polarization Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Tang, X M; Wang, S M; Wang, Q J; Zhu, S N

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) as a bounded mode on a metal/dielectric interface intrinsically has a definite transverse magnetic (TM) polarization that usually lacks further manipulations. However, the in-plane longitudinal components of SPP field can produce versatile polarization states when two orthogonal propagating SPP interfere with each other. Here, we demonstrated a plasmonic polarization router by designing appropriate nanohole arrays that can selectively scatter the interfered SPP fields to desired light beams. It is well proved that our device is able to reconfigure a certain input polarization to all kinds of states with respect to a scattered light. Accompanied with a composite phase modulation by diffractions, multiple focusing beams with different polarization states are simultaneously achieved, promising the possibility in polarization multiplexing and related signal processing. Our design offers a new route for achieving full control of the optical polarizations as well as the optical spin-...

  16. 截面形状对快电子激发纳米双线表面等离激元的影响%Effects of cross-section shape on fast electron beams excited plasmons in the surface of nanowire pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王垒; 蔡卫; 谭信辉; 向吟啸; 张心正; 许京军

    2011-01-01

    采用边界元方法研究了快电子在金属纳米双线中激发间隙表面等离激元(SPP)的性质,比较了在不同横截面形状(包括圆形、尖劈形和不规则形状)下电子所激发SPP的不同.研究表明:在以上波导结构中,快电子都能激发具有较长传播距离和较好局域性的低阶单级-单级耦合的间隙等离激元模式;同时通过对波导无量纲价值参数的比较,发现快电子在纳米双线中激发间隙等离激元对双线波导的横截面形状要求不高,横截面形状真正影响的是高阶等离激元模式的激发,而且快电子在截面形状为尖劈的双线波导中能激发局域性更强的间隙SPP.该研究将对实验中利用电子显微镜手段实现SPP间隙模式的激发具有指导意义.%In this paper,we investigate the gap plasmon excitation by swift electron beams in nanowire pairs, in particular, with different cross-section shapes (including circular, wedge and irregular shape). For all these nanowire pairs, our results show that fast electron beams can efficiently excite low-order monopole-monopole gap plasmons, which possess long propagation distance and well spatial localization. Furthermore, in contrast to high-order plasmons, the excited gap plasmons do not depend highly on cross-section shape of nanowire pairs through comparing the merit parameters in these three kinds of waveguides. Besides, the excited gap mode will be more confined in nanowire pairs with wedge cross-section. Our study will be helpful for the experiments of gap plasmon generation using electron microscope.

  17. Plasmon-assisted optoelectrofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndukaife, Justus C.; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Agwu Nnanna, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    By harnessing the photo-induced heating of a single plasmonic nanostructure and AC E-field in our research at the interface between plasmonics and optofluidics we demonstrate on-demand fluid flow control with unparalleled micron per second-scale velocities. © 2015 OSA....

  18. Dynamically reconfigurable directionality of plasmon-based single photon sources

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yuntian; Koenderink, A Femius

    2010-01-01

    We propose a plasmon-based reconfigurable antenna to controllably distribute emission from single quantum emitters in spatially separated channels. Our calculations show that crossed particle arrays can split the stream of photons from a single emitter into multiple narrow beams. We predict that beams can be switched on and off by switching host refractive index. The design method is based on engineering the dispersion relations of plasmon chains and is generally applicable to traveling wave antennas. Controllable photon delivery has potential applications in classical and quantum communication.

  19. Dynamically reconfigurable directionality of plasmon-based single photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Lodahl, Peter; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2010-01-01

    We propose a plasmon-based reconfigurable antenna to controllably distribute emission from single quantum emitters in spatially separated channels. Our calculations show that crossed particle arrays can split the stream of photons from a single emitter into multiple narrow beams. We predict...... that beams can be switched on and off by switching host refractive index. The design method is based on engineering the dispersion relations of plasmon chains and is generally applicable to traveling wave antennas. Controllable photon delivery has potential applications in classical and quantum communication....

  20. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  1. Fractional calculus transmutation for the Airy WKB solutions and Stokes phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryakova, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    We apply the transmutation method to give a new explanation of the Stokes phenomenon for the Airy differential equation and of the change of the coeffcients in its asymptotic solutions for large values of argument in different parts of the complex plane. As a transmutation operator, a Weyl type fractional order integral is used. But this scheme is a special case of the so-called Poisson- Sonine-Dimovski transmutation operators related to the hyper-Bessel differential equations of arbitrary integer order, and of the generalized fractional calculus operators related to differential equations of fractional multi-order and their solutions, including a number of special functions. We analyze also the previous results of other authors and suggest some perspectives to use the same method in more general cases.

  2. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  3. Plasmons in doped finite carbon nanotubes and their interactions with fast electrons and quantum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Sandra; Cox, Joel D.; de Abajo, F. Javier García

    2016-08-01

    We study the potential of highly doped finite carbon nanotubes to serve as plasmonic elements that mediate the interaction between quantum emitters. Similar to graphene, nanotubes support intense plasmons that can be modulated by varying their level of electrical doping. These excitations exhibit large interaction with light and electron beams, as revealed upon examination of the corresponding light extinction cross-section and electron energy-loss spectra. We show that quantum emitters experience record-high Purcell factors, while they undergo strong mutual interaction mediated by their coupling to the tube plasmons. Our results show the potential of doped finite nanotubes as tunable plasmonic materials for quantum optics applications.

  4. Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallapiccola, Ramona; Gopinath, Ashwin; Stellacci, Francesco; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-04-14

    In this paper we investigate for the first time the near-field optical behavior of two-dimensional Fibonacci plasmonic lattices fabricated by electron-beam lithography on transparent quartz substrates. In particular, by performing near-field optical microscopy measurements and three dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain simulations we demonstrate that near-field coupling of nanoparticle dimers in Fibonacci arrays results in a quasi-periodic lattice of localized nanoparticle plasmons. The possibility to accurately predict the spatial distribution of enhanced localized plasmon modes in quasi-periodic Fibonacci arrays can have a significant impact for the design and fabrication of novel nano-plasmonics devices.

  5. Morphology dependent two photon absorption in plasmonic structures and plasmonic-organic hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Kaweri; Ray, Bhumika; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Sharma, Parag

    2017-05-01

    Two photon absorption coefficients of two distinct plasmonic structures, namely, gold nanoflowers (GNF) and gold nanopebbles (GNP) have been investigated and compared with conventional gold nanospheres (GNS). All three different nanoshapes were synthesized by changing the reaction solvent under the same experimental procedure. Further, hybrids of these plasmonic structures were prepared with an organic dye Eosin yellow (EY), to investigate the morphology effect of plasmonic structures on plasmonic-organic hybrids in terms of their linear extinction spectra and two photon absorption coefficients. The NLO investigations were conducted using 20 ps laser pulses of wavelength 532 nm as an excitation source in single beam Z-scan setup. UV/visible spectroscopy was employed for monitoring plasmon resonances and changes in linear extinction spectra. The experimental outcomes revealed two photon absorption coefficients of EY increased 120%, 32% and 39%, while 69%, 60% and 53% enhancement in the peaks of linear extinction maxima of EY has been observed, when hybridized with GNF, GNS and GNP, respectively. This boost in the optical coefficients may be attributed to dimerization of EY molecules on the surface of nanoparticles. Keeping the toxicity of EY in view, we propose that the two photon absorption coefficients of this dye and control thereof, by the addition of plasmonic structures would be helpful not only in understanding the interactions between plasmons and fluorophore, but also pave an efficient way, to reduce the operative concentration of this hazardous dye in a wide range of applications and thereby, mitigating the environmental degradation caused by its highly concentrated effluents.

  6. Plasmonic-Electronic Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    resonances in two dimensional electron gases. Tunable plasmon absorption resonances were observed and studied in InP-based and GaN -based HEMTs . The...Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena...Nov. 2009, Singapore. 4. “Terahertz Plasmons in Grating-Gate AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs ,” A.V. Muravjov, D.B. Veksler, V.V. Popov, M.S. Shur, N. Pala, X. Hu, R

  7. Plasmonics in Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Lai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With strong spin-orbit coupling, topological insulators have an insulating bulk state, characterized by a band gap, and a conducting surface state, characterized by a Dirac cone. Plasmons in topological insulators show high frequency-tunability in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions with transverse spin oscillations, also called “spin-plasmons”. This paper presents a discussion and review of the developments in this field from the fundamental theory of plasmons in bulk, thin-film, and surface-magnetized topological insulators to the techniques of plasmon excitation and future applications.

  8. Continuous leaky-wave scanning using periodically modulated spoof plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gu Sheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Cai, Ben Geng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-07-12

    The plasmonic waveguide made of uniform corrugated metallic strip can support and guide spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) with high confinements. Here, we propose periodically-modulated plasmonic waveguide composed of non-uniform corrugated metallic strip to convert SSPPs to radiating waves, in which the main beam of radiations can steer continuously as the frequency changes. To increase the radiation efficiency of the periodically-modulated plasmonic waveguide at the broadside, an asymmetrical plasmonic waveguide is further presented to reduce the reflections and realize continuous leaky-wave scanning. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that the radiation efficiency can be improved greatly and the main beam of leaky-wave radiations can steer from the backward quadrant to the forward quadrant, passing through the broadside direction, which generally is difficult to be realized by the common leaky-wave antennas.

  9. Super-Period Gold Nanodisc Grating-Enabled Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrometer Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xueli; Guo, Hong; Bhatt, Ketan H; Zhao, Song Q; Wang, Yi; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor by using an e-beam-patterned super-period gold nanodisc grating on a glass substrate. The super-period gold nanodisc grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. The small subwavelength period enhances localized surface plasmon resonance, and the large diffraction grating period diffracts surface plasmon resonance radiation into different directions corresponding to different wavelengths. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) in addition to the traditional way of measurement using an external optical spectrometer in the zeroth order transmission. A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  10. Optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from plasmonic vortex lens to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Yang, Haifang; Xu, Xiangang; Wang, Zhengping; Petrov, V; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-11-12

    We demonstrate the optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from subwavelength plasmonic vortex lens (PVLs) to light and the generating process of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Illuminating plasmonic vortex lenses with beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum, the SP vortices with orbital angular momentum were generated and inherit the optical angular momentum of light beams and PVLs. The angular momentum of twisting SP electromagnetic field is tunable by the twisted metal/dielectric interfaces of PVLs and angular momentum of illuminating singular light. This work may open the door for several possible applications of SP vortices in subwavelength region.

  11. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  12. Coupling light to a localized surface plasmon-polariton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agio, Mario; Zumofen, Gert; Mojarad, Nassiredin M.; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the interaction of focused Gaussian and radially-polarized beams with a silver nanosphere, with emphasis on the coupling to localized surface plasmon-polaritons. We discuss the overall efficiency, including the effect of the entrance pupil and of absorption in the nanosphere, showing that a Gaussian beam performs better than a radially-polarized beam, when focused by an aplanatic system. We find that more than 50% of the photons in the incident beam can be reflected using realistic focusing parameters.

  13. Optical antennas and plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Q-Han

    2009-01-01

    Optical antenna is a nanoscale miniaturization of radio or microwave antennas that is also governed by the rule of plasmonics. We introduce various types of optical antenna and make an overview of recent developments in optical antenna research. The role of local and surface plasmons in optical antenna is explained through antenna resonance and resonance conditions for specific metal structures are explicitly obtained. Strong electric field is shown to exist within a highly localized region o...

  14. Plasmonic Graphene Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    www.MaterialsViews.com www.advopticalmat.de FU LL P A P ER Guowei Xu,* Jianwei Liu, Qian Wang , Rongqing Hui, Zhijun Chen, Victor A. Maroni, and Judy Wu Plasmonic...decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS surface plasmon, graphene, transparent conductors Guowei Xu, Jianwei Liu, Qian

  15. Enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation with surface-plasmon excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ping; Zhang Ya-Xin; Zhou Jun; Liu Wei-Hao; Zhong Ren-Bin; Liu Sheng-Gang

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code simulation,the enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation with a surface-plasmon mode excited by a single electron bunch and by a premodulated electron beam is considered in the paper.In the simulation,the model is a grating covered by Ag film.The results demonstrate that when the surface-plasmon mode is excited by a single electron bunch,the maximum radiation occurs at an observation angle depending on the surface-plasmon frequency,and the radiation power can be enhanced more than ten times.And for pre-bunched electron beam excitation,when one of the harmonics of the bunching frequency is resonant with that of the surface-plasmon mode,the radiation power is twenty times more than that from a perfectly conducting grating excited by the same premodulated electron beam.

  16. Engineering plasmon dispersion relations : hybrid nanoparticle chain - substrate plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, Paul J.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    We consider the dispersion relations of the optical excitations in a chain of silver nanoparticles situated above a metal substrate and show that they are hybrid plasmon polaritons, composed of localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate a strong dependence of the syste

  17. Nanoparticle movement: plasmonic forces and physical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, P E; Reyes-Coronado, A; Barrera, R G; Rivacoba, A; Echenique, P M; Aizpurua, J

    2012-12-01

    Nanoparticle structures observed in aberration-corrected electron microscopes exhibit many types of behavior, some of which are dominated by intrinsic conditions, unrelated to the microscope environment. Some behaviors are clearly driven by the electron beam, however, and the question arises as to whether these are similar to intrinsic mechanisms, useful for understanding nanoscale behavior, or whether they should be regarded as unwanted modification of as-built specimens. We have studied a particular kind of beam-specimen interaction - plasmon dielectric forces caused by the electric fields imposed by a passing swift electron - identifying four types of forced motion, including both attractive and repulsive forces on single nanoparticles, and coalescent and non-coalescent forces in groups of two or more nanoparticles. We suggest that these forces might be useful for deliberate electron beam guided movement of nanoparticles.

  18. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  19. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technolo...

  20. Generation of terahertz hollow beams by a photonic quasi-crystal flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Liu, Exian; Wang, Ziming; Cai, Weicheng; Liu, Hongfei; Wang, Shuo; Liang, Taiyuan; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    We have designed a decagonal photonic quasi-crystal (PQC) flat lens, which turns an incident terahertz (THz) plane wave into a hollow beam easily and flexibly. The features of the THz hollow beam can be controlled by varying the parameters of a point defect in the center of the lens, i.e., the PQC flat lens can be used as a flexible tool for THz optical captivity or optical tweezer. The results showing that an airy disk, whose mean beam width is similar to the incident wavelength and power-in-the-bucket (PIB) is more than 96%, can be generated in the far field.

  1. Anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams carrying orbital angular momentum in a harmonic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhong, Weiping; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-08-15

    We analytically and numerically investigate an anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams in a harmonic potential. We pick noncentrosymmetric beams of common interest that carry orbital angular momentum. The examples studied include superposed Bessel-Gauss (BG), Laguerre-Gauss (LG), and circular Airy (CA) beams. For the BG beams, periodic inversion, phase transition, and rotation with periodic angular velocity are demonstrated during propagation. For the LG and CA beams, periodic inversion and variable rotation are still there but not the phase transition. On the whole, the "center of mass" and the orbital angular momentum of a beam exhibit harmonic motion, but the motion of the beam intensity distribution in detail is subject to external and internal torques and forces, causing it to be anharmonic. Our results are applicable to other superpositions of finite circularly asymmetric beams.

  2. Observation of quantum tunneling between two plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jonathan A; García-Etxarri, Aitzol; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-02-13

    The plasmon resonances of two closely spaced metallic particles have enabled applications including single-molecule sensing and spectroscopy, novel nanoantennas, molecular rulers, and nonlinear optical devices. In a classical electrodynamic context, the strength of such dimer plasmon resonances increases monotonically as the particle gap size decreases. In contrast, a quantum mechanical framework predicts that electron tunneling will strongly diminish the dimer plasmon strength for subnanometer-scale separations. Here, we directly observe the plasmon resonances of coupled metallic nanoparticles as their gap size is reduced to atomic dimensions. Using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), we manipulate pairs of ~10-nm-diameter spherical silver nanoparticles on a substrate, controlling their convergence and eventual coalescence into a single nanosphere. We simultaneously employ electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to observe the dynamic plasmonic properties of these dimers before and after particle contact. As separations are reduced from 7 nm, the dominant dipolar peak exhibits a redshift consistent with classical calculations. However, gaps smaller than ~0.5 nm cause this mode to exhibit a reduced intensity consistent with quantum theories that incorporate electron tunneling. As the particles overlap, the bonding dipolar mode disappears and is replaced by a dipolar charge transfer mode. Our dynamic imaging, manipulation, and spectroscopy of nanostructures enables the first full spectral mapping of dimer plasmon evolution and may provide new avenues for in situ nanoassembly and analysis in the quantum regime.

  3. Metal Nitrides for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Schroeder, Jeremy; Guler, Urcan;

    2012-01-01

    Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications.......Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications....

  4. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed.......We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  5. Backside configured surface plasmonic enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun, E-mail: xuejun-lu@uml.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Vaillancourt, Jarrod [Applied NanoFemto Technologies, LLC, 181 Stedman St. 2, Lowell, MA 01851 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, we fabricated, measured and compared the quantum dots infrared photodetector enhancement by the top- and backside- configured plasmonic structures. The backside configured plasmonic structure can provide much higher device performance enhancement. Furthermore, the excitation of the surface plasmonic waves by the top- and backside- configured plasmonic structures was analyzed. Detailed simulation results of the electric field at different wavelength from top illumination and backside illumination were provided. The stronger electric field from the backside illumination attributed to the higher enhancement.

  6. Controlling plasmon-enhanced luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmons are collective oscillations of the free electrons in a metal or an ionized gas. Plasmons dominate the optical properties of noble-metal nanoparticles, which enables a variety of applications. This thesis focuses on plasmon-enhanced luminescence of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) and optically

  7. Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    The development of advanced dielectric photonic structures has enabled tremendous control over the propagation and manipulation of light. Structures such as waveguides, splitters, mixers, and resonators now play a central role in the telecommunications industry. This book will discuss an exciting new class of photonic devices, known as surface plasmon nanophotonic structures. Surface plasmons are easily accessible excitations in metals and semiconductors and involve a collective motion of the conduction electrons. These excitations can be exploited to manipulate electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies ("light") in new ways that are unthinkable in conventional dielectric structures. The field of plasmon nanophotonics is rapidly developing and impacting a wide range of areas including: electronics, photonics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The book will highlight several exciting new discoveries that have been made, while providing a clear discussion of the underlying physics, the nanofabrication issues...

  8. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  9. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  10. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  11. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    CERN Document Server

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The use of metal nanostructures for colourization has attracted a great deal of interest with the recent developments in plasmonics. However, the current top-down colourization methods based on plasmonic concepts are tedious and time consuming, and thus unviable for large-scale industrial applications. Here we show a bottom-up approach where, upon picosecond laser exposure, a full colour palette independent of viewing angle can be created on noble metals. We show that colours are related to a single laser processing parameter, the total accumulated fluence, which makes this process suitable for high throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of the laser irradiated surfaces reveal various distributions of nanoparticle sizes which control colour. Quantitative comparisons between experiments and large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations, demonstrate that colours are produced by selective absorption phenomena in heterogeneous nanoclusters. Plasmonic cluster resonances are thus fo...

  12. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Brucoli, G.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of efficient local coupling of light into surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes is an important concern in miniaturization of plasmonic components. Here we present experimental and numerical investigations of efficiency of local SPP excitation on gold ridges of rectangular profile...... positioned on a gold film. The excitation is accomplished by illuminating the metal surface normally with a focused laser beam. Wavelength dependence and dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges are examined. Using leakage radiation microscopy, the efficiency of ˜20% is demonstrated...

  13. K-space polarimetry of bullseye plasmon antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Clara I; Mohtashami, Abbas; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-04-30

    Surface plasmon resonators can drastically redistribute incident light over different output wave vectors and polarizations. This can lead for instance to sub-diffraction sized nanoapertures in metal films that beam and to nanoparticle antennas that enable efficient conversion of photons between spatial modes, or helicity channels. We present a polarimetric Fourier microscope as a new experimental tool to completely characterize the angle-dependent polarization-resolved scattering of single nanostructures. Polarimetry allows determining the full Stokes parameters from just six Fourier images. The degree of polarization and the polarization ellipse are measured for each scattering direction collected by a high NA objective. We showcase the method on plasmonic bullseye antennas in a metal film, which are known to beam light efficiently. We find rich results for the polarization state of the beamed light, including complete conversion of input polarization from linear to circular and from one helicity to another. In addition to uncovering new physics for plasmonic groove antennas, the described technique projects to have a large impact in nanophotonics, in particular towards the investigation of a broad range of phenomena ranging from photon spin Hall effects, polarization to orbital angular momentum transfer and design of plasmon antennas.

  14. Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yuasa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC. The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab.

  15. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applications in the design of low-loss, large dynamic range amplitude modulation, and surface plasmon based terahertz devices.

  16. Structured light for focusing surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z J; Tan, P S; Zhu, S W; Yuan, X-C

    2010-05-10

    We propose a structureless method for focusing surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a flat metal film under illumination of radially polarized cogwheel-like structured light beams. Without metal structures, the locally induced SPPs can further be propagated following the predefined patterns to form symmetric focal spots with dimensions beyond diffraction limit. Benefiting from the radial polarization, this method can be employed to pattern various center-symmetric evanescent distributions for generating SPPs reconfigurably. The SPPs will be propagating and focusing in radial directions.

  17. Handbook of molecular plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Sala, Fabio Della

    2013-01-01

    While several reviews and books on surface nanophotonics and fluorescence spectroscopy are available, an updated focus on molecular plasmonics, including both theoretical methods and experimental aspects, is still lacking. This handbook is a comprehensive overview on the physics of the plasmon-emitter interaction, ranging from electromagnetism to quantum mechanics, from metal-enhanced fluorescence to surface-enhanced Raman scattering, from optical microscopy to synthesis of metal nanoparticles, filling the gap in the literature of this merging field. It allows experimentalists to have a solid

  18. Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Modern communication systems dealing with huge amounts of data at ever increasing speed try to utilize the best aspects of electronic and optical circuits. Electronic circuits are tiny but their operation speed is limited, whereas optical circuits are extremely fast but their sizes are limited by diffraction. Waveguide components utilizing surface plasmon (SP) modes were found to combine the huge optical bandwidth and compactness of electronics, and plasmonics thereby began to be considered as the next chip-scale technology. In this book, the authors concentrate on the SP waveguide configurati

  19. Plasmons in QED vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. Yu.; Kudrin, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The problem of longitudinal oscillations of an electric field and a charge polarization density in a quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum is considered. Within the framework of semiclassical analysis, we calculate time-periodic solutions of bosonized (1 +1 )-dimensional QED (massive Schwinger model). Applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition, we determine the mass spectrum of charge-zero bound states (plasmons) which correspond in quantum theory to the found classical solutions. We show that the existence of such plasmons does not contradict any fundamental physical laws and study qualitatively their excitation in a (3 +1 )-dimensional real world.

  20. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  1. COMPUTATION OF AIRY-HEISKANEN ISOSATIC GRAVITY ANOMALY WITH CONSIDERING CRUST DENSITY MODEL%顾及地壳密度模型的Airy-Heiskanen均衡重力异常的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏章; 李建成

    2010-01-01

    分析了地表沉积层、地壳内部密度异常和Moho面起伏对重力异常的影响,提出采用CRUST2.0提供的地壳密度来取代传统的重力归算中的地壳和地幔密度常数,采用Airy-Heiskanen均衡模型进行均衡重力异常的计算,讨论引入CRUST2.0带来的影响.

  2. Plasmonic and Dielectric Metasurfaces: Design, Fabrication and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional metasurfaces are widely focused on for their ability for flexible light manipulation (phase, amplitude, polarization over sub-wavelength propagation distances. Most of the metasurfaces can be divided into two categories by the material type of unit structure, i.e., plasmonic metasurfaces and dielectric metasurfaces. For plasmonic metasurfaces, they are made on the basis of metallic meta-atoms whose optical responses are driven by the plasmon resonances supported by metallic particles. For dielectric metasurfaces, the unit structure is constructed with high refractive index dielectric resonators, such as silicon, germanium or tellurium, which can support electric and magnetic dipole responses based on Mie resonances. The responses of plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces are all relevant to the characteristics of unit structure, such as dimensions and materials. One can manipulate the electromagnetic field of light wave scattered by the metasurfaces through designing the dimension parameters of each unit structure in the metasurfaces. In this review article, we give a brief overview of our recent progress in plasmonic and dielectric metasurface-assisted nanophotonic devices and their design, fabrication and applications, including the metasurface-based broadband and the selective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM carrying vector beams, N-fold OAM multicasting using a V-shaped antenna array, a metasurface on conventional optical fiber facet for linearly-polarized mode (LP11 generation, graphene split-ring metasurface-assisted terahertz coherent perfect absorption, OAM beam generation using a nanophotonic dielectric metasurface array, as well as Bessel beam generation and OAM multicasting using a dielectric metasurface array. It is believed that metasurface-based nanophotonic devices are one of the devices with the most potential applied in various fields, such as beam steering, spatial light modulator, nanoscale

  3. Terahertz Nonlinearity in Graphene Plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; Winnerl, Stephan; Sushkov, Andrei B; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E; Mittendorff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength graphene structures support localized plasmonic resonances in the terahertz and mid-infrared spectral regimes. The strong field confinement at the resonant frequency is predicted to significantly enhance the light-graphene interaction, which could enable nonlinear optics at low intensity in atomically thin, sub-wavelength devices. To date, the nonlinear response of graphene plasmons and their energy loss dynamics have not been experimentally studied. We measure and theoretically model the terahertz nonlinear response and energy relaxation dynamics of plasmons in graphene nanoribbons. We employ a THz pump-THz probe technique at the plasmon frequency and observe a strong saturation of plasmon absorption followed by a 10 ps relaxation time. The observed nonlinearity is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to unpatterned graphene with no plasmon resonance. We further present a thermal model for the nonlinear plasmonic absorption that supports the experimental results.

  4. Phase effects in guided mode resonances II: measuring the angular phase of a surface plasmon polariton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, M. J.; Brown, T. G.

    2015-02-01

    We show how the phase of a resonant interaction between a focused beam and a guided mode can be directly observed in a pupil imaging experiment, in which the irradiance leaving the pupil of a standard microscope is relayed to an image sensor through a combination Wollaston prism, calcite beam splitter and polarizer. We apply the method to the observation of a surface plasmon polariton resonance excited in a corrugated silver film fabricated using electron beam lithography. We discuss how this particular imaging configuration could be adapted for applications in plasmonic optical sensing.

  5. Hollow plasmonic antennas for broadband SERS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Gabriele C; Malerba, Mario; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Miele, Ermanno; Dipalo, Michele; Ferrara, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The chemical environment of cells is an extremely complex and multifaceted system that includes many types of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and various other components. With the final aim of studying these components in detail, we have developed multiband plasmonic antennas, which are suitable for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and are activated by a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The three-dimensional hollow nanoantennas were produced on an optical resist by a secondary electron lithography approach, generated by fast ion-beam milling on the polymer and then covered with silver in order to obtain plasmonic functionalities. The optical properties of these structures have been studied through finite element analysis simulations that demonstrated the presence of broadband absorption and multiband enhancement due to the unusual geometry of the antennas. The enhancement was confirmed by SERS measurements, which showed a large enhancement of the vibrational features both in the case of resonant excitation and out-of-resonance excitation. Such characteristics indicate that these structures are potential candidates for plasmonic enhancers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  6. Probing the symmetry and phase of localised surface plasmon resonances with modified electron probes

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzinati, Giulio; Lourenço--Martins, Hugo; Martin, Jerôme; Kociak, Mathieu; Verbeeck, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonics, the science and technology of the interaction of light with metallic objects, is fundamentally changing the way we can detect, generate and manipulate light at the nanoscale. While the field is progressing swiftly thanks to the availability of nanoscale manufacturing and analysis methods, fundamental properties such as the symmetries of the plasmonic excitations cannot be accessed by direct measurements, leading to a partial and sometimes incorrect understanding of their properties. Here we overcome this limitation by deliberately shaping the wave--function of a free electron beam to match the symmetry of the plasmonic excitations in a modified transmission electron microscope. We show experimentally and theoretically that this offers selective detection of specific plasmon modes within metallic nanoparticles while filtering out modes with other symmetries. This method shows some resemblance to the widespread use of polarised light for the selective excitation of plasmon modes but adds the advanta...

  7. Controllable conversion of plasmonic Cu2-xS nanoparticles to Au2S by cation exchange and electron beam induced transformation of Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianliang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dewei; Swihart, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Self-doped Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs) were converted into monodisperse Cu2-xS-Au2S NCs of tunable composition, including pure Au2S, by cation exchange. The near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was dampened and red-shifted with increasing Au content. Cation exchange was accompanied by elimination of cation vacancies and a change in crystal structure. Partially exchanged Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell structures evolved to dumbbell-like structures under electron irradiation in the transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  8. All-digital wavefront sensing for structured light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Milione, Giovanni; Alfano, Robert R; Forbes, Andrew

    2014-06-02

    We present a new all-digital technique to extract the wavefront of a structured light beam. Our method employs non-homogeneous polarization optics together with dynamic, digital holograms written to a spatial light modulator to measure the phase relationship between orthogonal polarization states in real-time, thereby accessing the wavefront information. Importantly, we show how this can be applied to measuring the wavefront of propagating light fields, over extended distances, without any moving components. We illustrate the versatility of the tool by measuring propagating optical vortices, Bessel, Airy and speckle fields. The comparison of the extracted and programmed wavefronts yields excellent agreement.

  9. Plasmonics light modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are waves propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric and, due to their tight confinement, may be used for nanoscale control of the light propagation. Thus, photonic integrated circuits can benefit from devices using SPPs because of their highly...

  10. Photocatalysis: Plasmonic solar desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Li, Yat

    2016-06-01

    The sustainability of many existing desalination technologies is questionable. Plasmon-mediated solar desalination has now been demonstrated for the first time, using an aluminium structure that absorbs photons spanning the 200 nm to 2,500 nm wavelength range, and is both cheap and 'clean'.

  11. Aluminum for Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    in plasmon-enhanced light harvesting,14 photocatalysis ,511 surface- enhanced spectroscopies,1216 optics-based sensing,1722 nonlinear optics,2326...optical response of Al nanoparticles has appeared inconsistent relative to calculated spectra, even forwell-characterized geometries. Some studies have...model- ing their optical response. These results pro- vide a method for estimating the metallic purity of aluminum nanoparticles directly from their

  12. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.

  13. Cathodoluminescence plasmon microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttge, M.

    2009-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that are strongly coupled to the collective oscillation of free electrons at an interface between a dielectric and a metal. Strong confinement of the electromagnetic field and tunability of SPP dispersion allow two-dimensional optics. This

  14. Harmonics radiation of graphene surface plasmon polaritons in terahertz regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Hashida, M.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S.

    2016-06-01

    This letter presents an approach to extract terahertz radiation from surface plasmon polaritons excited in the surface of a uniform graphene structure by an electron beam. A sidewall configuration is proposed to lift the surface plasmon mode to be close to the light line, so that some of its harmonics have chances to go above the light line and become radiative. The harmonics are considered to be excited by a train of periodic electron bunches. The physical mechanism in this scheme is analyzed with three-dimensional theory, and the harmonics excitation and radiation are demonstrated through numerical calculations. The results show that this technique could be an alternative to transform the surface plasmon polaritons into radiation.

  15. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  16. Study of surface plasmon chirality induced by Archimedes' spiral grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tomoki; Miyanishi, Shintaro

    2006-06-26

    A chirality of surface plasmons excited on a silver film with Archimedes' spiral grooves during incidence of a circularly polarized light is analytically and numerically studied by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling method. We found that the surface of a plasmon has selective chirality, which is given by the sum of the chiralities of the incident light and the spiral structure. The surface plasmons with the chirality lead to zero-order, first-order, and high-order evanescent Bessel beams with electric charge distributions on the film. This selectivity could be widely applied for chiral detection of the incident light and chiral excitation of several optical modes in nanophotonics.

  17. Manipulating of Different-Polarized Reflected Waves with Graphene-based Plasmonic Metasurfaces in Terahertz Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wu, Yongle; Zhang, Chen; Hong, Weijun; Peng, Biao; Zhu, Jianfeng; Li, Shufang

    2017-09-05

    A graphene-based plasmonic metasurface which can independently control different polarized electromagnetic waves with reasonably small losses in terahertz regime is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This metasurface is composed of graphene based elements. Owing to anisotropic plasmonic resonance of the graphene-based elements, the reflected phases and magnitudes of orthogonally polarized waves can be independently controlled by varying dimensions of the element. Four types of graphene-based plasmonic metasurfaces with different reflected phases distributions are synthesized and simulated, exhibiting diverse functions such as polarized beam splitting, beam deflection, and linear-to-circular polarization conversion. The simulation results demonstrate excellent performances as theoretical expectation. The proposed graphene-based plasmonic metasurface can be applied to realize extremely light-weight, ultra-compact, and high-performances electromagnetic structures for diverse terahertz applications.

  18. Versatile Micropatterning of Plasmonic Nanostructures by Visible Light Induced Electroless Silver Plating on Gold Nanoseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Hironou, Asami; Shen, ZhengJun; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2016-09-14

    A versatile fabrication technique for plasmonic silver (Ag) nanostructures that uses visible light exposure for micropatterning and plasmon resonance tuning is presented. The surface of a glass substrate modified with gold (Au) nanoseeds by a thermal dewetting process was used as a Ag plating platform. When a solution containing silver nitrate and sodium citrate was dropped on the Au nanoseeds under visible light exposure, the plasmon-mediated reduction of Ag ions was induced on the Au nanoseeds to form Ag nanostructures. The plasmon resonance spectra of Ag nanostructures were examined by an absorption spectral measurement and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Some examples of Ag nanostructure patterning were demonstrated by means of light exposure through a photomask, direct writing with a focused laser beam, and the interference between two laser beams. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) was conducted with fabricated Ag nanostructures.

  19. Goos-Hänchen shifts in a four-level quantum system near plasmonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, M.

    2016-05-01

    Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of the reflected and transmitted probe beams through a cavity with a four-level quantum system and plasmonic nanostructure is investigated. It is realized that for different values of distance between plasmonic nanostructure and quantum system, the negative and positive GH shifts of the reflected and transmitted probe beams can be controlled. In addition, it is found that the relative phase of applied fields in the presence of plasmonic nanostructure can be used as an important parameter for controlling the GH shifts in reflected and transmitted light through the cavity. Moreover, the distance effect between four-level quantum system and plasmonic nanostructure has also been discussed on lateral shifts of reflected and transmitted light.

  20. Plasmonic Properties of Nanostructured Diamond Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Films with Nanohole Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas MEŠKINIS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic properties of the diamond like carbon nanocomposite films with embedded silver nanoparticles with patterned nanohole arrays were analyzed in this study. The films were deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering of silver target. Nanopatterning of the films was performed by combining electron beam nanolithography and ion beam etching techniques. Modeling of plasmonic properties was done using the classical Maxwell-Garnett theory. Modeling data and experimental results were in good accordance. Formation of the nanohole pattern in diamond like carbon films doped with silver resulted in decreased intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorbance peak. No new absorbance or transmittance peaks were observed after the nanopattering. It was explained by extraordinary transmission effect in nanostructured DLC : Ag film films due to plasmon polariton resonance inside of the nanoholes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.13193

  1. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepage Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A surface plasmon resonance (SPR scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The surface roughness of the substrate layer is examined for different dielectrics and deposition methods. The Au layer, on which the plasmonic modes are propagating and the biosensing occurs, is also examined. The surface roughness and dielectric values for various deposition rates of very thin Au films are measured. We also investigate an interferometric SPR setup where, due to the power flux transfer between plasmon modes, the specific choice of grating coupler can either decrease or increase the plasmon propagation length.

  2. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Dominic; Carrier, Dominic; Jiménez, Alvaro; Beauvais, Jacques; Dubowski, Jan J

    2011-05-17

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The surface roughness of the substrate layer is examined for different dielectrics and deposition methods. The Au layer, on which the plasmonic modes are propagating and the biosensing occurs, is also examined. The surface roughness and dielectric values for various deposition rates of very thin Au films are measured. We also investigate an interferometric SPR setup where, due to the power flux transfer between plasmon modes, the specific choice of grating coupler can either decrease or increase the plasmon propagation length.

  3. Ultrafast Surface Plasmonic Switch in Non-Plasmonic Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Bévillon, E; Recoules, V; Zhang, H; Li, C; Stoian, R

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast carrier excitation can drastically affect electronic structures and induce brief surface plasmonic response in non-plasmonic metals, potentially creating a plasmonic switch. Using first-principles molecular dynamics and Kubo-Greenwood formalism for laser-excited tungsten we show that carrier heating mobilizes d electrons into collective inter and intraband transitions leading to a sign flip in the imaginary optical conductivity, activating plasmonic properties for the initial non-plasmonic phase. The drive for the optical evolution can be visualized as an increasingly damped quasi-resonance at visible frequencies for pumping carriers across a chemical potential located in a d-band pseudo-gap with energy-dependent degree of occupation. The subsequent evolution of optical indices for the excited material is confirmed by time-resolved ultrafast ellipsometry. The large optical tunability extends the existence spectral domain of surface plasmons in ranges typically claimed in laser se...

  4. Near-field investigation of a plasmonic-photonic hybrid nanolaser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Taiping; Callard, Ségolène; jamois, Cecile; Letartre, Xavier; Chevalier, Celine; Rojo-Romeo, Pedro; Devif, Brice; Viktorovitch, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We report an approach of realization and characterization of a novel plasmonic-photonic hybrid nanodevice. The device comprises a plasmonic nano-antenna (NA) and a defect mode based PC cavity, and were fabricated based on a multi-step electron-beam lithography. The laser emission of the devices was demonstrated and the coupling conditions between the NA and PC cavity were investigated in near-field level.

  5. Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, V S; Gosciniak, J; Bozhevolnyi, S I [Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Rodrigo, S G; MartIn-Moreno, L [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia-Vidal, F J [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Devaux, E; Ebbesen, T W [ISIS, CNRS UMR 7006, Universite Louis Pasteur, 8 allee Monge, BP 70028, 67083 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: vsv@sense.sdu.dk

    2009-11-15

    Channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs) propagating along the bottom of V-grooves cut into a metal were recently shown to exhibit strong confinement combined with low propagation loss, a feature that makes this guiding configuration very promising for the realization of ultracompact photonic components. Here, we present a comprehensive study of radiation nanofocusing with CCPs propagating along subwavelength metal grooves that are terminated with various types of tapers of different lengths. Tapered V-grooves are fabricated in a gold film using a focused ion beam milling technique, with the tapering being realized by gradually decreasing the groove width and/or depth (in different way for different structures), and characterized at telecom wavelengths with a collection scanning near-field optical microscope. Efficient CPP nanofocusing is directly demonstrated featuring a field intensity enhancement of up to {approx}130 for optimal taper configurations. Experimental observations are found to be concurrent with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic simulations, predicting the possibility of reaching an intensity enhancement of {approx}1200 and opening thereby exciting perspectives for practical applications of CPP nanofocusing.

  6. Plasmonic propagations distances for interferometric surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Lepage Dominic; Carrier Dominic; Jiménez Alvaro; Beauvais Jacques; Dubowski Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme is proposed in which the local phase modulations of the coupled plasmons can interfere and yield phase-sensitive intensity modulations in the measured signal. The result is an increased traceability of the SPR shifts for biosensing applications. The main system limitation is the propagation distance of the coupled plasmon modes. This aspect is therefore studied for thin film microstructures operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral r...

  7. Tapered dielectric structure in metal as a wavelength-selective surface plasmon polariton focuser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Zhao Qing; Liao Zhi-Min; Yu Da-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Symmetric tapered dielectric structures in metal have demonstrated applications such as the nanofocusing of surface plasmon polaxitons, as well as the waveguiding of V-channel polaxitons. Yet the fabrication of smooth-surfaced tapered structure remains an obstacle to most researchers. We have successfully developed a handy method to fabricate metal-sandwiched tapered nanostructures simply with electron beam lithography. Though these structures are slightly different from conventional symmetric V-shaped structures, systematic simulations show that similar functionality of surface plasmon polaxiton nanofocusing can still be achieved, When parameters are properly selected, wavelengthselective nanofocusing of surface plasmon polaritons can be obtained.

  8. Efficient Coupling and Transport of a Surface Plasmon at 780 nm in a Gold Nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-08-28

    We studied plasmonic nanostructures in single-crystal gold with scanning electron and femtosecond photoemission electron microscopies. We designed an integrated laser coupling and nanowire waveguide structure by focused ion beam lithography in single-crystal gold flakes. The photoemission results show that the laser field is efficiently coupled into a propagating surface plasmon by a simple hole structure and propagates efficiently in an adjacent nano-bar waveguide. A strong local field is created by the propagating surface plasmon at the nano-bar tip. A similar structure, with a decreased waveguide width and thickness, displayed significantly more intense photoemission indicating enhanced local electric field at the sharper tip.

  9. Plasmon enhanced optical tweezers with gold-coated black silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsifaki, D. G.; Kandyla, M.; Lagoudakis, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    Plasmonic optical tweezers are a ubiquitous tool for the precise manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules at low photon flux, while femtosecond-laser optical tweezers can probe the nonlinear optical properties of the trapped species with applications in biological diagnostics. In order to adopt plasmonic optical tweezers in real-world applications, it is essential to develop large-scale fabrication processes without compromising the trapping efficiency. Here, we develop a novel platform for continuous wave (CW) and femtosecond plasmonic optical tweezers, based on gold-coated black silicon. In contrast with traditional lithographic methods, the fabrication method relies on simple, single-step, maskless tabletop laser processing of silicon in water that facilitates scalability. Gold-coated black silicon supports repeatable trapping efficiencies comparable to the highest ones reported to date. From a more fundamental aspect, a plasmon-mediated efficiency enhancement is a resonant effect, and therefore, dependent on the wavelength of the trapping beam. Surprisingly, a wavelength characterization of plasmon-enhanced trapping efficiencies has evaded the literature. Here, we exploit the repeatability of the recorded trapping efficiency, offered by the gold-coated black silicon platform, and perform a wavelength-dependent characterization of the trapping process, revealing the resonant character of the trapping efficiency maxima. Gold-coated black silicon is a promising platform for large-scale parallel trapping applications that will broaden the range of optical manipulation in nanoengineering, biology, and the study of collective biophotonic effects.

  10. Plasmon enhanced optical tweezers with gold-coated black silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsifaki, D G; Kandyla, M; Lagoudakis, P G

    2016-05-19

    Plasmonic optical tweezers are a ubiquitous tool for the precise manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules at low photon flux, while femtosecond-laser optical tweezers can probe the nonlinear optical properties of the trapped species with applications in biological diagnostics. In order to adopt plasmonic optical tweezers in real-world applications, it is essential to develop large-scale fabrication processes without compromising the trapping efficiency. Here, we develop a novel platform for continuous wave (CW) and femtosecond plasmonic optical tweezers, based on gold-coated black silicon. In contrast with traditional lithographic methods, the fabrication method relies on simple, single-step, maskless tabletop laser processing of silicon in water that facilitates scalability. Gold-coated black silicon supports repeatable trapping efficiencies comparable to the highest ones reported to date. From a more fundamental aspect, a plasmon-mediated efficiency enhancement is a resonant effect, and therefore, dependent on the wavelength of the trapping beam. Surprisingly, a wavelength characterization of plasmon-enhanced trapping efficiencies has evaded the literature. Here, we exploit the repeatability of the recorded trapping efficiency, offered by the gold-coated black silicon platform, and perform a wavelength-dependent characterization of the trapping process, revealing the resonant character of the trapping efficiency maxima. Gold-coated black silicon is a promising platform for large-scale parallel trapping applications that will broaden the range of optical manipulation in nanoengineering, biology, and the study of collective biophotonic effects.

  11. Nanomanipulation and controlled self-assembly of metal nanoparticles and nanocrystals for plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Chen, Hung-Ying; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-10-21

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) associated with metallic nanostructures offer unique possibilities for light concentration beyond the diffraction limit, which can lead to strong field confinement and enhancement in deep subwavelength regions. In recent years, many transformative plasmonic applications have emerged, taking advantage of the spectral and spatial tunability of LSPRs enabled by near-field coupling between constituent metallic nanostructures in a variety of plasmonic metastructures (dimers, metamolecules, metasurfaces, metamaterials, etc.). For example, the "hot spot" formed at the interstitial site (gap) between two coupled metallic nanostructures in a plasmonic dimer can be spectrally tuned via the gap size. Capitalizing on these capabilities, there have been significant advances in plasmon enhanced or enabled applications in light-based science and technology, including ultrahigh-sensitivity spectroscopies, light energy harvesting, photocatalysis, biomedical imaging and theranostics, optical sensing, nonlinear optics, ultrahigh-density data storage, as well as plasmonic metamaterials and metasurfaces exhibiting unusual linear and nonlinear optical properties. In this review, we present two complementary approaches for fabricating plasmonic metastructures. We discuss how meta-atoms can be assembled into unique plasmonic metastructures using a variety of nanomanipulation methods based on single- or multiple-probes in an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical tweezers, and focused electron-beam nanomanipulation. We also provide a few examples of nanoparticle metamolecules with designed properties realized in such well-controlled plasmonic metastructures. For the spatial controllability on the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, we show that controlled self-assembly is the method of choice to realize scalable two-dimensional, and three-dimensional plasmonic metastructures. In the section of applications

  12. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x = Ax2α + Bx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al Sdran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x = Ax2α + Bx2, (A>0, B<0, with (α = 2 for quadratic, (α =3 for sextic and (α =4 for octic anharmonic oscillators. The Airy function approach is based on the replacement of the real potential V(x by a piecewise-linear potential v(x, while, the Numerov method is based on the discretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It’s found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  13. Plasmon-Exciton-Polariton Lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I; Feist, Johannes; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J; Gómez-Rivas, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Strong coupling of Frenkel excitons with surface plasmons leads to the formation of bosonic quasi-particles known as plasmon-exciton-polaritons (PEPs).Localized surface plasmons in nanoparticles are lossy due to radiative and nonradiative decays, which has hampered the realization of polariton lasing in a plasmonic system, i.e., PEP lasing. These losses can be reduced in collective plasmonic resonances supported by arrays of nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate PEP lasing in arrays of silver nanoparticles by showing the emergence of a threshold in the photoluminescence accompanied by both a superlinear increase of the emission and spectral narrowing. We also observe a reduction of the threshold by increasing the coupling between the molecular excitons and the resonances supported by the array despite the reduction of the quantum efficiency of the emitters. The coexistence of bright and dark collective modes in this plasmonic system allows for a 90?-change of polarization in the emission beyond the threshold.

  14. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Jin, M. L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized surface plasmon resonance effect is obtained. These plasmonic microcapsules can be engineered and modified by nanoparticle size and the metal film thickness. Repeatable Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scatte...

  15. Searching for better plasmonic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, P.; Ishii, S.; Naik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics is a research area merging the fields of optics and nanoelectronics by confining light with relatively large free-space wavelength to the nanometer scale - thereby enabling a family of novel devices. Current plasmonic devices at telecommunication and optical frequencies face significant...... challenges due to losses encountered in the constituent plasmonic materials. These large losses seriously limit the practicality of these metals for many novel applications. This paper provides an overview of alternative plasmonic materials along with motivation for each material choice and important aspects...

  16. An Introduction to Graphene Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P.A.D.; Peres, N. M. R.

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving...... the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field....

  17. Nonlinear plasmonic antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeeb Bin Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications.

  18. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  19. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individ...

  20. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P.; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C.; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Capretti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the present Thesis, the electromagnetic properties of metal nanostructures are theoretically and experimentally investigated, for applications ranging from chemical sensing to integrated optical devices. Collective resonances of the conduction electrons occur on the surface of metal particles with nanoscale sizes, if visible or infrared light interacts with them. These resonances, usually referred to as Localized Surface Plasmons (LSPs), are able to confine the incident light into regions...

  2. On the plasmonic photovoltaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen, Syed; Lee, Joun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Singh, Nirala; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2014-06-24

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics is currently a mature science and the foundation of a lucrative industry. In conventional excitonic solar cells, electron-hole pairs are generated by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the "built in" potential resulting from charge transfer accompanying Fermi-level equalization either at a p-n or a Schottky junction, followed by carrier collection at appropriate electrodes. Here we report a stable, wholly plasmonic photovoltaic device in which photon absorption and carrier generation take place exclusively in the plasmonic metal. The field established at a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction separates charges. The negative carriers are high-energy (hot) electrons produced immediately following the plasmon's dephasing. Some of the carriers are energetic enough to clear the Schottky barrier or quantum mechanically tunnel through it, thereby producing the output photocurrent. Short circuit photocurrent densities in the range 70-120 μA cm(-2) were obtained for simulated one-sun AM1.5 illumination with devices based on arrays of parallel gold nanorods, conformally coated with 10 nm TiO2 films and fashioned with a Ti metal collector. For the device with short circuit currents of 120 μA cm(-2), the internal quantum efficiency is ∼2.75%, and its wavelength response tracks the absorption spectrum of the transverse plasmon of the gold nanorods indicating that the absorbed photon-to-electron conversion process resulted exclusively in the Au, with the TiO2 playing a negligible role in charge carrier production. Devices fabricated with 50 nm TiO2 layers had open-circuit voltages as high as 210 mV, short circuit current densities of 26 μA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.3. For these devices, the TiO2 contributed a very small but measurable fraction of the charge carriers.

  3. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  4. Terahertz plasmonic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat-Nasser, Syrus C; Amirkhizi, Alireza V; Padilla, Willie J; Basov, Dimitri N; Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Bruzewicz, Derek; Whitesides, George

    2007-03-01

    The dielectric response of a polymer matrix composite can be substantially modified and tuned within a broad frequency band by integrating within the material an artificial plasmon medium composed of periodically distributed, very thin, electrically conducting wires. In the microwave regime, such plasmon/polymer composites have been studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. This work reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of similar composites for operation at terahertz frequencies. Such composites require significant reduction in the thickness and spacing of the wires. We used numerical modeling to design artificial effective plasmonic media with turn-on frequencies in the terahertz range. Prototype samples were produced by lithographically embedding very thin gold strips into a PDMS [poly(dimethylsiloxane)] matrix. These samples were characterized with a Fourier-transform infrared interferometer using the frequency-dependent transmission and Kramers-Kronig relations to determine the electromagnetic properties. We report the characterization results for a sample, demonstrating excellent agreement between theory, computer design, and experiment. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the possibility of creating composites with tuned dielectric response at terahertz frequencies.

  5. Graphene plasmonics: physics and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shenyang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmon in graphene possesses many unique properties. It originates from the collective motion of massless Dirac fermions, and the carrier density dependence is distinctively different from conventional plasmons. In addition, graphene plasmon is highly tunable and shows strong energy confinement capability. Most intriguingly, as an atom-thin layer, graphene and its plasmon are very sensitive to the immediate environment. Graphene plasmons strongly couple to polar phonons of the substrate, molecular vibrations of the adsorbates, and lattice vibrations of other atomically thin layers. In this review, we present the most important advances in graphene plasmonics field. The topics include terahertz plasmons, mid-infrared plasmons, plasmon-phonon interactions, and potential applications. Graphene plasmonics opens an avenue for reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces; it is an exciting and promising new subject in the nanophotonics and plasmonics research field.

  6. Polarization interferometry for real-time spectroscopic plasmonic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Lauren M.; Mohr, Daniel A.; Johnson, Timothy W.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Lindquist, Nathan C.

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative, spectroscopic polarization interferometry phase measurements on plasmonic surfaces for sensing applications. By adding a liquid crystal variable wave plate in our beam path, we are able to measure phase shifts due to small refractive index changes on the sensor surface. By scanning in a quick sequence, our technique is extended to demonstrate real-time measurements. While this optical technique is applicable to different sensor geometries--e.g., nanoparticles, nanogratings, or nanoapertures--the plasmonic sensors we use here consist of an ultrasmooth gold layer with buried linear gratings. Using these devices and our phase measurement technique, we calculate a figure of merit that shows improvement over measuring only surface plasmon resonance shifts from a reflected intensity spectrum. To demonstrate the general-purpose versatility of our phase-resolved measurements, we also show numerical simulations with another common device architecture: periodic plasmonic slits. Since our technique inherently measures both the intensity and phase of the reflected or transmitted light simultaneously, quantitative sensor device characterization is possible.We present quantitative, spectroscopic polarization interferometry phase measurements on plasmonic surfaces for sensing applications. By adding a liquid crystal variable wave plate in our beam path, we are able to measure phase shifts due to small refractive index changes on the sensor surface. By scanning in a quick sequence, our technique is extended to demonstrate real-time measurements. While this optical technique is applicable to different sensor geometries--e.g., nanoparticles, nanogratings, or nanoapertures--the plasmonic sensors we use here consist of an ultrasmooth gold layer with buried linear gratings. Using these devices and our phase measurement technique, we calculate a figure of merit that shows improvement over measuring only surface plasmon resonance shifts from a reflected intensity

  7. Tunable Omnidirectional Surface Plasmon Resonance in Cylindrical Plasmonic Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; WANG Bing; ZHOU Zhi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ The tunable omnidirectional surface plasmon resonance in the optical range is theoretically demonstrated in a cylindrical plasmonic crystal by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis.The cylindrical plasmonic crystal consists of an infinite chain of two-dimensional cylindrical metal-dielectric-dielectric-metal structures.The dispersion relation of the cylindrical plasmonic crystal is obtained by calculating the absorptance as a function of a TM-polarized incident plane wave and its in-plane wave vector.The omnidirectional surface plasmon resonance can be tuned from UV region to visible region by adjusting the thickness of the cylindrical dielectric layers.The absorption spectrum of the infinite chain of nanocylinders is also investigated for comparison.

  8. Nonlinear plasmonic amplification via dissipative soliton-plasmon resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we introduce a strategy for the compensation of plasmonic losses based on a recently proposed nonlinear mechanism: the resonant interaction between surface plasmon polaritons and spatial solitons propagating in parallel along a metal/dielectric/Kerr structure. This mechanism naturally leads to the generation of a quasiparticle excitation, the so-called soliplasmon resonance. We analyze the role played by the effective nonlinear coupling inherent to this system and how this can be used to provide a mechanism of quasiresonant nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. We will pay particular attention to the introduction of asymmetric linear gain in the Kerr medium. The unique combination of nonlinear propagation, nonlinear coupling, and gain give rise to a scenario for the excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons with distinguishing characteristics. The connection between plasmonic losses and soliplasmon resonances in the presence of gain will be discussed.

  9. Volume plasmon of bismuth nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Su, Dong; Spence, John C. H.; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the measurements of the bulk plasmon of Bi nanoparticles supported by a SiO 2 matrix using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The blue shifts of plasmon peak in small particles were observed. However, the degree of shift was much smaller than the previous study in the literature and cannot be interpreted by the quantum confinement.

  10. Interference effects with surface plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Nikolay Victorovich

    2008-01-01

    A surface plasmon is a purely two-dimensional electromagnetic excitation bound to the interface between metal and dielectric and quickly decaying away from it. A surface plasmon is able to concentrate light on sub-wavelength scales – a feature that is attractive for nano-photonics and integrated

  11. Photothermal modification of plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a method for geometrically modifying plasmonic structures on a support structure, such as for printing or recording, said method comprising changing a geometry specifically of plasmonic structures, wherein said changing the geometry is carried out by photothermally melting...

  12. Polarization-sensitive surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Ho, Ho Pui; Wu, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is reported. We show that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan , cos and ellipse orientation angle , can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals at the f......A surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is reported. We show that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan , cos and ellipse orientation angle , can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals...

  13. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  14. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.;

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  15. Directional Nanoslit-Bump Coupler for Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Liang; ZHAO De-Yin; ZHOU Chuan-Hong; JIANG Xun-Ya

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a p-polarized plane wave transmitted through a metallic slit-bump nanostructure using the finite difference time domain simulation.It is found that narrow bumps with suitable separation can diffract surface plasmons into highly directional collimating beams,The number and directionality of the beams can be controlled by adjusting the geometry parameters of the nanostructure.The structure with optimized parameters may be interesting for practical applications as directional nanoslit SPP-light coupler in integrated photonic devices.

  16. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered...... with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic...... waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics....

  17. Guiding light by plasmonic resonant solitons in metallic nanosuspensions (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Trevor S.; Samadi, Akbar; Bezryadina, Anna; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-09-01

    In typical colloidal suspensions, the corresponding optical polarizability is positive, and thus enhanced scattering takes place as optical beams tend to catastrophically collapse during propagation. Recently, light penetration deep inside scattering suspensions has been realized by engineering dielectric or plasmonic nanoparticle polarizibilities. In particular, we have previously demonstrated two types of soft-matter systems with tunable optical nonlinearities - the dielectric and metallic colloidal suspensions, in which the effects of diffraction and scattering were overcome, hence achieving deep penetration of a light needle through the suspension. In this work, we show that waveguides can be established in soft matter systems such as metallic nanosuspensions through the formation of plasmonic resonant solitons. First, we show that, due to plasmonic resonance, a 1064nm laser beam (probe) would not experience appreciable nonlinear self-action while propagating through 4cm cuvette containing the metallic nanosuspension of gold spheres (40nm), whereas a 532nm laser beam (pump) can readily form a spatial soliton due to nonlinear self-trapping. Second, we demonstrate effective guidance of the probe beam, which would otherwise diffract significantly through the nanosuspensions, due to the soliton-induced waveguide from the pump beam. Such guidance was observed when the power of the probe beam was varied from 20mW to 500mW at constant pump beam power, with more pronounced guidance realized from lower to higher probe beam power. Interestingly, due to the presence of the probe beam, the pump beam undergoes self-trapping at an even lower power. These results may bring about the possibility of engineering plasmonic soliton-based waveguides for many applications.

  18. Energy Harvesting From Sea Waves With Consideration of Airy and JONSWAP Theory and Optimization of Energy Harvester Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Mirab; Reza Fathi; Vahid Jahangiri; Mir Mohammad Ettefagh; Reza Hassannejad

    2015-01-01

    One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices at sea is a wave energy harvesting system. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on avoiding a battery charging system. Studies have been done on energy harvesting from sea waves, however, considering energy harvesting with random JONSWAP wave theory, then determining the optimum values of energy harvested is new. This paper does that by implementing the JONSWAP wave model, calculating produced power, and realistically showing that output power is decreased in comparison with the more simple Airy wave model. In addition, parameters of the energy harvester system are optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm, yielding increased produced power.

  19. Airy-like pulses in models of large molecular chains, and conservative numerical methods for quasi-linear Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    LeMesurier, Brenton

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of coherent energetic pulse propagation in macromolecular chains such as $\\alpha$-helix protein is studied using the Davydov-Scott model, with both numerical studies using a new unconditionally stable fourth order accurate energy-momentum conserving time discretization, and with analysis based on ideas of center manifold theory. It is shown that for physically natural impulsive initial data, the coherent traveling pulses seen have a form related to the Airy function, but with rapid variation of phase along the chain. This can be explained in terms of a new continuum limit approximation by the third derivative nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, which differs from the previous continuum limit approximations related to the standard NLS equation. A theorem is given describing the construction of such conservative time discretizations for a large class of Hamiltonian systems.

  20. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x) = Ax2α + Bx2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sdran, N.; Maiz, F.

    2016-06-01

    The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x) = Ax2α + Bx2, (A>0, Bdiscretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It's found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  1. Plasmonic percolation: Plasmon-manifested dielectric-to-metal transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huanjun

    2012-08-28

    Percolation generally refers to the phenomenon of abrupt variations in electrical, magnetic, or optical properties caused by gradual volume fraction changes of one component across a threshold in bicomponent systems. Percolation behaviors have usually been observed in macroscopic systems, with most studies devoted to electrical percolation. We report on our observation of plasmonic percolation in Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures. When the Pd volume fraction in the shell consisting of palladium and water approaches the plasmonic percolation threshold, ∼70%, the plasmon of the nanostructure transits from red to blue shifts with respect to that of the unshelled Au nanorod. This plasmonic percolation behavior is also confirmed by the scattering measurements on the individual core-shell nanostructures. Quasistatic theory and numerical simulations show that the plasmonic percolation originates from a positive-to-negative transition in the real part of the dielectric function of the shell as the Pd volume fraction is increased. The observed plasmonic percolation is found to be independent of the metal type in the shell. Moreover, compared to the unshelled Au nanorods with similar plasmon wavelengths, the Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures exhibit larger refractive index sensitivities, which is ascribed to the expulsion of the electric field intensity from the Au nanorod core by the adsorbed Pd nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Plasmonic-Enhanced Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    photocurrent on a chemically modified gold thin film of metal- semiconductor (TiO2) Schottky diodes. • Intrinsic correlation between the hot electron flow...Surface Plasmon-Driven Hot Electron Flow Probed with Metal- semiconductor Nanodiodes,” Y. K. Lee, C. H. Jung, J. Park, H. Seo, G. A. Somorjai, J. Park. Nano... Photocatalytic Activity of Iron Oxide on Gold Nanopillars,” H. Gao, C. Liu, H. E. Jeong, P. Yang, ACS Nano. 6, 234, 2012. “Ag Nanoparticle-Alumina Hybrid

  3. Structural and plasmonic properties of gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Sean T.

    The design of gold nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and plasmonic enhanced fluorescence are more involved than simply maximizing the local field enhancement. The enhancement is a function of the excitation wavelength relative to the plasmon resonance as well as the distance of the reporter molecules from the nanoparticles' surface. For suspension based measurements, additional considerations must also be made regarding absorption and scattering effects as light propagates through the sample. These effects are in addition to the other more commonly observed effects such as nanocrystal shape. With such a wide number of variables in play, a series of studies breaking down each of these components and their contribution to the observed enhancement is warranted. In this thesis, a series of experiments were undertaken using a platform based on polyelectrolyte coating of gold nanoparticles by layer-by-layer deposition. The reporter molecules are bound onto the surface of polyelectrolyte coated nanoparticles before trap coating them with an additional oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer. By etching away the gold nanoparticle using potassium cyanide, we are then able to quantify the number of reporter molecule per nanoparticle using mass spectrometry. With this quantitative approach, we can the directly compare the effects of the aforementioned enhancement mechanisms on the observed signal intensity. This method overcomes some of the disparities in literature between reported values of enhancement due to assumption in the number of reporter molecules contribution to the signal intensity. Using our group's expertise, we synthesized gold nanoparticle libraries of nanorods, cubes, trisoctahedra and spheres of different sizes. Each geometric configuration was characterized using a recently developed TEM technique---nano-beam coherent area diffraction. The as-synthesized were exposed to a coherent electron beam with probe size similar to that of

  4. Chiral near fields generated from plasmonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic fields are usually considered non-chiral because of the transverse magnetic polarization of surface plasmon modes. We however show here that plasmonic lattices built from coherent superpositions of surface plasmons can generate optical chirality in the interfering near field. We reveal in particular the emergence of plasmonic potentials relevant to the generation of near-field chiral forces. This draws promising perspectives for performing enantiomeric separation schemes within the near field.

  5. Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2-Au nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Sina; Mlayah, Adnen; Arbouet, Arnaud; Girard, Christian; Léotin, Jean; Lou, Jun

    2014-12-23

    We report on the fabrication of monolayer MoS2-coated gold nanoantennas combining chemical vapor deposition, e-beam lithography surface patterning, and a soft lift-off/transfer technique. The optical properties of these hybrid plasmonic-excitonic nanostructures are investigated using spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Off- and in-resonance plasmonic pumping of the MoS2 excitonic luminescence showed distinct behaviors. For plasmonically mediated pumping, we found a significant enhancement (∼65%) of the photoluminescence intensity, clear evidence that the optical properties of the MoS2 monolayer are strongly influenced by the nanoantenna surface plasmons. In addition, a systematic photoluminescence broadening and red-shift in nanoantenna locations is observed which is interpreted in terms of plasmonic enhanced optical absorption and subsequent heating of the MoS2 monolayers. Using a temperature calibration procedure based on photoluminescence spectral characteristics, we were able to estimate the local temperature changes. We found that the plasmonically induced MoS2 temperature increase is nearly four times larger than in the MoS2 reference temperatures. This study shines light on the plasmonic-excitonic interaction in these hybrid metal/semiconductor nanostructures and provides a unique approach for the engineering of optoelectronic devices based on the light-to-current conversion.

  6. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-02-11

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  7. Surface plasmon polariton propagation in organic nanofiber based plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Jauernik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic wave packet propagation is monitored in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides realized from para-hexaphenylene nanofibers deposited onto a 60 nm thick gold film. Using interferometric time resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy we are able to determine...... phase and group velocity of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguiding mode (0.967c and 0.85c at λLaser = 812nm) as well as the effective propagation length (39 μm) along the fiber-gold interface. We furthermore observe that the propagation properties of the SPP waveguiding mode are governed...

  8. Photoexcitation of volume plasmons in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhold, Katja; Goesele, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Christiansen, Silke [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It has long been known that a vanishing permittivity enables longitudinal electromagnetic waves. The corresponding collective eigenmodes called volume plasmons should not be dipole excitable in classical electrodynamics. Thus, the typical volume modes are known to be excitable via particle beams solely. We investigated typical scattering problems for an incident plane wave determined via the Helmholtz-equation which can be solved analytically for special geometries. The analytical solution for a spherical scatterer by Gustav Mie was extended to spherical core-shell structures by Aden. Remarkably, in the case of metallic nanoshell structures the Mie extinction efficiencies have a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency corresponding to the photoexcitation of a volume plasmon. This volume mode is independent of both the shell's aspect ratio and the core material. For explanation we present a simple physical picture which is supported by analytical examples on silver and gold shells. Additionally we use finite element simulations to show a potpourri of particles which likewise enable the photoexcitation of volume modes.

  9. Plasmonic color tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  10. Imaging through plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Sobhani, Ali; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Cui, Yao; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Samaniego, Adam; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J.

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with plasmon resonances have been studied extensively, typically by measuring the transmission of light, as a function of wavelength, through a nanoparticle suspension. One question that has not yet been addressed, however, is how an image is transmitted through such a suspension of absorber-scatterers, in other words, how the various spatial frequencies are attenuated as they pass through the nanoparticle host medium. Here, we examine how the optical properties of a suspension of plasmonic nanoparticles affect the transmitted image. We use two distinct ways to assess transmitted image quality: the structural similarity index (SSIM), a perceptual distortion metric based on the human visual system, and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which assesses the resolvable spatial frequencies. We show that perceived image quality, as well as spatial resolution, are both dependent on the scattering and absorption cross-sections of the constituent nanoparticles. Surprisingly, we observe a nonlinear dependence of image quality on optical density by varying optical path length and nanoparticle concentration. This work is a first step toward understanding the requirements for visualizing and resolving objects through media consisting of subwavelength absorber-scatterer structures, an approach that should also prove useful in the assessment of metamaterial or metasurface-based optical imaging systems.

  11. Electrically driven surface plasmon nanosources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth; Wang, Tao; Le Moal, Eric; Dujardin, Gérald

    2015-03-01

    Electrical nanosources of surface plasmons will be an integral part of any future plasmonic circuits. Three different types of such nanosources (based on inelastic electron tunneling, high energy electron bombardment, and the electrical injection of a semiconductor device) are briefly described here. An example of a fundamental experiment using an electrical nanosource consisting of the tunnel junction formed between a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a metallic sample is given. In this experiment, the temporal coherence of the broadband STM-plasmon source is probed using a variant of Young's double slit experiment, and the coherence time of the broadband source is estimated to be about 5-10 fs.

  12. Multimodal Plasmonics in Fused Colloidal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Teulle, Alexandre; Girard, C; Gurunatha, Kargal L; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen; Dujardin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the optical properties of noble metals down to the nanometer-scale is a key step towards fast and low-dissipative information processing. At the 10-nm length scale, metal crystallinity and patterning as well as probing of surface plasmon (SP) properties must be controlled with a challenging high level of precision. Here, we demonstrate that ultimate lateral confinement and delocalization of SP modes are simultaneously achieved in extended self-assembled networks comprising linear chains of partially fused gold nanoparticles. The spectral and spatial distributions of the SP modes associated with the colloidal superstructures are evidenced by performing monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy with a nanometer-sized electron probe. We prepare the metallic bead strings by electron beam-induced interparticle fusion of nanoparticle networks. The fused superstructures retain the native morphology and crystallinity but develop very low energy SP modes that are capable of supporting long range and s...

  13. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  14. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y.-J.; Ansell, D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thackray, B.; Britnell, L.; Belle, B. D.; Withers, F.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics. PMID:24980150

  15. Controlling light in Airy and higher-order caustic photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannotti, Alessandro; Diebel, Falko; Rüschenbaum, Matthias; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-06-01

    Caustics form geometrically stable structures in light and are hierarchically categorized by the catastrophe theory. We embed higher-order cusp and swallowtail catastrophes in paraxial beams and investigate their dynamics. Utilizing high-intensity caustics that propagate on curved trajectories, we realize photonic caustic lattices in photosensitive media, and demonstrate waveguiding with a rich diversity of light guiding paths.

  16. High Sensitivity Terahertz Detection through Large-Area Plasmonic Nano-Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic photoconductive antennas have great promise for increasing responsivity and detection sensitivity of conventional photoconductive detectors in time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. However, operation bandwidth of previously demonstrated plasmonic photoconductive antennas has been limited by bandwidth constraints of their antennas and photoconductor parasitics. Here, we present a powerful technique for realizing broadband terahertz detectors through large-area plasmonic photoconductive nano-antenna arrays. A key novelty that makes the presented terahertz detector superior to the state-of-the art is a specific large-area device geometry that offers a strong interaction between the incident terahertz beam and optical pump at the nanoscale, while maintaining a broad operation bandwidth. The large device active area allows robust operation against optical and terahertz beam misalignments. We demonstrate broadband terahertz detection with signal-to-noise ratio levels as high as 107 dB. PMID:28205615

  17. High Sensitivity Terahertz Detection through Large-Area Plasmonic Nano-Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic photoconductive antennas have great promise for increasing responsivity and detection sensitivity of conventional photoconductive detectors in time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. However, operation bandwidth of previously demonstrated plasmonic photoconductive antennas has been limited by bandwidth constraints of their antennas and photoconductor parasitics. Here, we present a powerful technique for realizing broadband terahertz detectors through large-area plasmonic photoconductive nano-antenna arrays. A key novelty that makes the presented terahertz detector superior to the state-of-the art is a specific large-area device geometry that offers a strong interaction between the incident terahertz beam and optical pump at the nanoscale, while maintaining a broad operation bandwidth. The large device active area allows robust operation against optical and terahertz beam misalignments. We demonstrate broadband terahertz detection with signal-to-noise ratio levels as high as 107 dB.

  18. Compact antenna for efficient and unidirectional launching and decoupling of surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas; Lalanne, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the launching efficiencies and the directionality of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and their decoupling to freely propagating light is a major goal for the development of plasmonic devices and systems. Here, we report on the design and experimental observation of a highly efficient unidirectional surface plasmon launcher composed of eleven subwavelength grooves, each with a distinct depth and width. Our observations show that, under normal illumination by a focused Gaussian beam, unidirectional SPP launching with an efficiency of at least 52% is achieved experimentally with a compact device of total length smaller than 8 \\mu m. Reciprocally, we report that the same device can efficiently convert SPPs into a highly directive light beam emanating perpendicularly to the sample.

  19. Asymmetric transmission of surface plasmon polaritons on planar gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmiak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We describe a surface structure consisting of a metal-air interface where the metallic part consists of two metallic segments with a periodic modulation of the interface between them. Such a structure possesses a different transmissivity for a surface plasmon polariton incident on it from one side of it than it has for a surface plasmon polariton incident on it from the opposite side. This asymmetric transmission of a surface plasmon polariton is based on the suppression of the zero-order Bragg beam which, for a certain value of the modulation depth, is not transmitted through the structure, while the diffraction efficiencies of the +1 and -1 Bragg beams can be modified by varying the period of grating and/or the angle of incidence. For a certain range of the incidence angle one can observe asymmetry in transmittance for the -1 mode while the +1 mode is completely suppressed. By varying the material and geometrical parameters of the diffractive structure one can control the contrast transmission that characte...

  20. Laser-driven parametric instability and generation of entangled photon-plasmon states in graphene and topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Tokman, Mikhail; Oladyshkin, Ivan; Kutayiah, A Ryan; Belyanin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    We show that a strong infrared laser beam obliquely incident on graphene can experience a parametric instability with respect to decay into lower-frequency (idler) photons and THz surface plasmons. The instability is due to a strong in-plane second-order nonlinear response of graphene which originates from its spatial dispersion. The parametric decay leads to efficient generation of THz plasmons and gives rise to quantum entanglement of idler photons and surface plasmon states. A similar process can be supported by surface states of topological insulators such as Bi$_2$Se$_3$.

  1. An introduction to graphene plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, P A D

    2016-01-01

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving towards more advanced topics. This book is essentially self-contained and brings together a number of different topics about the field that are scattered in the vast literature. The text is composed of eleven chapters and of a set of detailed appendices. It can be read in two different ways: Reading only the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field.

  2. Dispersion engineering of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Isroel M; Bendoym, Igor; Jung, Young U; Golovin, Andrii B; Crouse, David T

    2013-12-30

    In this work, it is shown how the shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be engineered by manipulating the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in multilayer structures, which themselves are controlled by the free electron density in metal-like materials, such as doped semiconductors in the THz spectral range. By having a nonuniform free electron density profile, reduced relative to that in typical bulk metals, the electromagnetic fields of surface plasmons are distributed in different metallic materials that have different complex dielectric permittivities. As the in-plane component of surface plasmon's wave-vector increases, they become more confined to a particular layer of the multilayer structure and have energies that are predictable by considering the permittivity of the layer in which the fields are most concentrated. Unusual and arbitrary shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be designed, including stair steps and dovetails shapes.

  3. Photoluminescence of a Plasmonic Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da; Byers, Chad P; Wang, Lin-Yung; Hoggard, Anneli; Hoener, Ben; Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Chen, Sishan; Chang, Wei-Shun; Landes, Christy F; Link, Stephan

    2015-07-28

    Photoluminescent Au nanoparticles are appealing for biosensing and bioimaging applications because of their non-photobleaching and non-photoblinking emission. The mechanism of one-photon photoluminescence from plasmonic nanostructures is still heavily debated though. Here, we report on the one-photon photoluminescence of strongly coupled 50 nm Au nanosphere dimers, the simplest plasmonic molecule. We observe emission from coupled plasmonic modes as revealed by single-particle photoluminescence spectra in comparison to correlated dark-field scattering spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the dimers is found to be surprisingly similar to the constituent monomers, suggesting that the increased local electric field of the dimer plays a minor role, in contradiction to several proposed mechanisms. Aided by electromagnetic simulations of scattering and absorption spectra, we conclude that our data are instead consistent with a multistep mechanism that involves the emission due to radiative decay of surface plasmons generated from excited electron-hole pairs following interband absorption.

  4. An Introduction to Graphene Plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, P A D

    2016-01-01

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving towards more advanced topics. This book is essentially self-contained and brings together a number of different topics about the field that are scattered in the vast literature. The text is composed of eleven chapters and of a set of detailed appendices. It can be read in two different ways: Reading only the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field.

  5. Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Frigerio, Jacopo; Samarelli, Antonio; Gallacher, Kevin; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Sakat, Emilie; Calandrini, Eugenio; Millar, Ross W.; Giliberti, Valeria; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Ortolani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The use of heavily doped semiconductors to achieve plasma frequencies in the mid-IR has been recently proposed as a promising way to obtain high-quality and tunable plasmonic materials. We introduce a plasmonic platform based on epitaxial n-type Ge grown on standard Si wafers by means of low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Due to the large carrier concentration achieved with P dopants and to the compatibility with the existing CMOS technology, SiGe plasmonics hold promises for mid-IR applications in optoelectronics, IR detection, sensing, and light harvesting. As a representative example, we show simulations of mid-IR plasmonic waveguides based on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constants of the grown materials.

  6. Semiconductors for Plasmonics and Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, Gururaj V; 10.1002/pssr.201004269

    2011-01-01

    Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals with semiconductors can alleviate these problems if only semiconductors could exhibit negative real permittivity. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a low loss semiconductor that can show negative real permittivity in the NIR. A comparative assessment of AZO-based plasmonic devices such as superlens and hyperlens with their metal-based counterparts shows that AZO-based devices significantly outperform at a wavelength of 1.55 um. This provides a strong stimulus in turning to semiconductor plasmonics at the telecommunication wavelengths.

  7. Waveguiding with surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic modes propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces. Various SPP modes can be supported by flat and curved, single and multiple surfaces, exhibiting remarkable properties, including the possibility of concentrating electromagnetic fields beyond...

  8. Infrared Topological Plasmons in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dafei; Christensen, Thomas; Soljačić, Marin; Fang, Nicholas X.; Lu, Ling; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    We propose a two-dimensional plasmonic platform—periodically patterned monolayer graphene—which hosts topological one-way edge states operable up to infrared frequencies. We classify the band topology of this plasmonic system under time-reversal-symmetry breaking induced by a static magnetic field. At finite doping, the system supports topologically nontrivial band gaps with mid-gap frequencies up to tens of terahertz. By the bulk-edge correspondence, these band gaps host topologically protected one-way edge plasmons, which are immune to backscattering from structural defects and subject only to intrinsic material and radiation loss. Our findings reveal a promising approach to engineer topologically robust chiral plasmonic devices and demonstrate a realistic example of high-frequency topological edge states.

  9. Fully interferometric controllable anomalous refraction efficiency using cross modulation with plasmonic metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaocheng; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Jianxiong; Cheng, Hua; Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Yu, Ping; Xia, Ji; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-12-01

    We present a method of fully interferometric, controllable anomalous refraction efficiency by introducing cross-modulated incident light based on plasmonic metasurfaces. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the anomalous and ordinary refracted beams generated from two opposite-helicity incident beams and following the generalized Snell's law will have a superposition for certain incident angles, and the anomalous refraction efficiency can be dynamically controlled by changing the relative phase of the incident sources. As the incident wavelength nears the resonant wavelength of the plasmonic metasurfaces, two equal-amplitude incident beams with opposite helicity can be used to control the anomalous refraction efficiency. Otherwise, two unequal-amplitude incident beams with opposite helicity can be used to fully control the anomalous refraction efficiency. This Letter may offer a further step in the development of controllable anomalous refraction.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance phenomenon of the insulating state polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umiati, Ngurah Ayu Ketut, E-mail: ngurahayuketutumiati@gmail.com [Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UGM, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas Diponegoro, Jalan Prof. Soedarto, SH Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Triyana, Kuwat; Kamsul [Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UGM, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenon of the insulating polyaniline (PANI) is has been observed. Surface Plasmon (SP) is the traveled electromagnetic wave that passes through the interface of dielectric metal and excited by attenuated total reflection (ATR) method in Kretschmannn configuration (Au-PANI prism). The resonance condition is observed through the angle of SPR in such condition that SP wave is coupled by the evanescent constant of laser beam. In this research, the laser beam was generated by He–Ne and its wavelength (λ) was 632,8 nm. SPR curve is obtained through observation of incidence angles of the laser beam in prism. SPR phenomenon at the boundary between Au – PANI layer has showed by reflection dip when the laser beam passes through the prism. In this early study, the observation was carried out through simulation Winspall 3.02 software and preliminary compared with some experimental data reported in other referred literatures. The results shows that the optimum layer of Au and polyaniline are 50 and 1,5 nm thick respectively. Our own near future experimental work would be further performed and reported elsewhere.

  11. Particle plasmons: Why shape matters

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, William L

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytic expressions for the polarizability of metallic nanoparticles are in wide use in the field of plasmonics, but their origins are not obvious. In this article, expressions for the polarizability of a particle are derived in the quasistatic limit in a manner that allows the physical origin of the terms to be clearly seen. The discussion is tutorial in nature, with particular attention given to the role of particle shape since this is a controlling factor in particle plasmon resonances.

  12. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Iorsh, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a new wave of interest in layered media - namely, plasmonic multilayers - in several emerging applications ranging from transparent metals to hyperbolic metamaterials. In this paper, we review the optical properties of such subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayered...... metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials...

  13. Plasmonic response of nanoscale spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jed I; Haglund, Richard F

    2010-08-11

    The Archimedean spiral geometry presents a platform for exploration of complex plasmonic mechanisms and applications. Here we show both through simulations and experiment that more complex plasmonic modes with unique near-field structure and larger mode volumes can be realized within a single, topologically robust structure. In the spiral, complex polarization response, resonant interactions and symmetry-breaking features are defined by the width and spacing of the spiral tracks and by the winding number of the spiral.

  14. Semiconductors for plasmonics and metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, G.V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals with semiconduct......Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals...... with semiconductors can alleviate these problems if only semiconductors could exhibit negative real permittivity. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a low loss semiconductor that can show negative real permittivity in the NIR. A comparative assessment of AZO-based plasmonic devices such as superlens and hyperlens...... with their metal-based counterparts shows that AZO-based devices significantly outperform at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. This provides a strong stimulus in turning to semiconductor plasmonics at the telecommunication wavelengths. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)....

  15. Plasmonic nanoantennas for multipurpose particle manipulation and enhanced optical magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxworthy, Brian James

    This dissertation explores the near-field enhancement and confinement properties of arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas (BNAs) for plasmonic optical trapping. Using BNAs as a model system, the delicate interplay between optical and thermally induced forces in plasmonic nanotweezers is investigated over a broad parameter spacing including bowtie array spacing, adhesion layer materials, nanostructure orientation, composition of the fluid trapping media, optical polarization, input optical power, and trapped-particle diameter. Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that plasmon-induced convection drives experimentally observed phase-like behavior in plasmonic nanotweezers, and further, that this process can be used to engineer trapping tasks including dexterous single-particle trapping, trapping and manipulation of large self-assembled particle clusters using a single input beam, and particle sorting. The crucial role of an optically-absorptive substrate material for developing the requisite micron-per-second fluid flows for these phenomena is confirmed both theoretically and experimentally. In addition, this dissertation details the first experimental demonstration of plasmonic nanotweezers using an ultrafast, femtosecond (fs) pulsed input source. The fs pulses are shown to increase trapping performance in both the Rayleigh and Mie size regimes, where particle diameters are much smaller and greater than the incident illumination wavelength, respectively. This augmentation of forces enables plasmonic trapping of 80 nm to 1.2 mum diameter, metallic and dielectric particles with as little as 50 muW of input optical power. Moreover, the nonlinear optical response of trapped species can be probed during the trapping event, which opens doors for increased particle diagnostics in plasmonic optical trapping. An interesting particle fusing behavior is described whereby above a 60--75 muW power threshold, both metallic and dielectric particles spontaneously fuse to the BNA

  16. Altering Plasmonic Nanoparticle Size Through Thermal Annealing for Improved Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    electron beam causes atoms from the target to transform into the gaseous phase. These atoms then precipitate into solid form, coating everything that is...Springer Science: Plasmonics 2009, 147–148. 6. Okumu, J.; Dahmen, C.; Luysberg, M.; Wuttig, M. Photochromic Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated by

  17. Giant enhancement of sum-frequency yield by surface-plasmon excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Vrehen, Q. H. F.; Eliel, E. R.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Valieva, E. V.; Kuzik, L. A.; Petrov, J. E.; Sychugov, V. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    We show experimentally that the radiation generated in infrared-visible sum-frequency mixing at an air-silver interface can be greatly enhanced when the visible input beam excites a surface plasmon-polariton at the interface. With either a prism or a grating used to couple the visible radiation with

  18. High Brightness Plasmon-Enhanced Nanostructured Gold Photoemitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Kong, Lingmei; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-30

    Plasmonic nanohole arrays are fabricated in gold thin films by focused ion beam (FIB) lithography. Subsequent heat treatment creates sub 100 nm nanometric structures including tips, rods and flakes, all localized in the nanohole array region. The combined nanohole array and nanostructured surface comprise an efficient photoemitter. High brightness photoemission is observed from this construct using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), following 780 nm femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. By comparing our observables to results of finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations, we demonstrate that photoemission from the sub-100 nm structures is enhanced in the region of propagating surface plasmons launched from the nanohole arrays. Additionally, by tuning hole diameter and separation in the nanohole array, the photoemission intensity of nanostructured photoemitters can be controlled. We observe a photoemission enhancement of over 108, relative to photoemission from the flat region of the gold substrate at laser intensities well below the ablation threshold.

  19. Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.; Geisler, P.; Bruening, C.; Kern, J.; Prangsma, J.C.; Wu, X.; Feichtner, Thorsten; Ziegler, J.; Weinmann, P.; Kamp, M.; Forchel, A.; Hecht, B. [Wilhelm-Conrad-Roentgen-Center for Complex Material Systems, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Biagioni, P. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Deep subwavelength integration of high-definition plasmonic nano-structures is of key importance for the development of future optical nanocircuitry. So far the experimental realization of proposed extended plasmonic networks remains challenging, mainly due to the multi-crystallinity of commonly used thermally evaporated gold layers. Resulting structural imperfections in individual circuit elements drastically reduce the yield of functional integrated nanocircuits. Here we demonstrate the use of very large but thin chemically grown single-crystalline gold flakes. After immobilization on any arbitrary surface, they serve as an ideal basis for focused-ion beam milling. We present high-definition ultra-smooth gold nanostructures with reproducible nanosized features over micrometer lengthscales. By comparing multi- and single-crystalline optical antennas we prove that the latter have superior optical properties which are in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  20. Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jer-Shing; Geisler, Peter; Brüning, Christoph; Kern, Johannes; Prangsma, Jord C; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Sennhauser, Urs; Hecht, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Deep subwavelength integration of high-definition plasmonic nanostructures is of key importance for the development of future optical nanocircuitry for high-speed communication, quantum computation and lab-on-a-chip applications. So far the experimental realization of proposed extended plasmonic networks consisting of multiple functional elements remains challenging, mainly due to the multi-crystallinity of commonly used thermally evaporated gold layers. Resulting structural imperfections in individual circuit elements will drastically reduce the yield of functional integrated nanocircuits. Here we demonstrate the use of very large (>100 micron^2) but thin (<80 nm) chemically grown single-crystalline gold flakes, which, after immobilization, serve as an ideal basis for focused-ion beam milling and other top-down nanofabrication techniques on any desired substrate. Using this methodology we obtain high-definition ultrasmooth gold nanostructures with superior optical properties and reproducible nano-sized fe...

  1. Symmetry selective third harmonic generation from plasmonic metacrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shumei; Zeuner, Franziska; Wong, Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zentgraf, Thomas; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhang, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear processes are often governed by selection rules imposed by the symmetries of the molecular configurations. The most well-known examples include the role of mirror symmetry breaking for the generation of even harmonics, and the selection rule related to the rotation symmetry in harmonic generation for fundamental beams with circular polarizations. While the role of mirror symmetry breaking in second harmonic generation has been extensively studied in plasmonic systems, the investigation on selection rules pertaining to circular polarization states of harmonic generation has been limited to crystals, i.e. symmetries at the atomic level. Here we demonstrate the rotational symmetry dependent third harmonic generation from nonlinear plasmonic metacrystals. We show that the selection rule can be imposed by the rotational symmetry of meta-crystals embedded into an isotropic organic nonlinear thin film. The results presented here may open new avenues for designing symmetry-dependent nonlinear optical respon...

  2. Broadband circularly polarizing dichroism with high efficient plasmonic helical surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Li, Ruibin; Zhu, Aijiao; Chen, Linghua; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Zhu, Xiaojun; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-05-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband and high efficient circularly polarizing dichroism using a simple single-cycle and single-helical plasmonic surface array arranged in square lattice. Two types of helical surface structures (partially or completely covered with a gold film) are investigated. It is shown that the circular polarization dichroism in the mid-IR range (3µm - 5µm) can reach 80% (when the surface is partially covered with gold) or 65% (when the surface is completely covered with gold) with a single-cycle and single-helical surface. Experimental fabrications of the proposed helical plasmonic surface are implemented with direct 3D laser writing followed by electron beam evaporation deposition of gold. The experimental evaluations of the circular polarization dichroism are in excellent agreement with the simulation. The proposed helical surface structure is of advantages of easy-fabrication, high-dichroism and scalable to other frequencies as a high efficient broadband circular polarizer.

  3. Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Albrektsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic color printing with subwavelength resolution using circular gap-plasmon resonators (GPRs) arranged in 340 nm period arrays of square unit cells and fabricated with single-step electron-beam lithography. We develop a printing procedure resulting in correct single-pixel color...... reproduction, high color uniformity of colored areas, and high reproduction fidelity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, due to inherent stability of GPRs with respect to surfactants, the fabricated color print can be protected with a transparent dielectric overlay for ambient use without destroying its...... coloring. Using finite-element simulations, we uncover the physical mechanisms responsible for color printing with GPR arrays and suggest the appropriate design procedure minimizing the influence of the protection layer....

  4. The role of the plasmon resonance for enhanced optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploschner, Martin

    Optical manipulation of nanoscale objects is studied with particular emphasis on the role of plasmon resonance for enhancement of optical forces. The thesis provides an introduction to plasmon resonance and its role in confinement of light to a sub-diffraction volume. The strong light confinement and related enhancement of optical forces is then theoretically studied for a special case of nanoantenna supporting plasmon resonances. The calculation of optical forces, based on the Maxwell stress tensor approach, reveals relatively weak optical forces for incident powers that are used in typical realisations of trapping with nanoantenna. The optical forces are so weak that other non-optical effects should be considered to explain the observed trapping. These effects include heating induced convection, thermoporesis and chemical binding. The thesis also studies the optical effects of plasmon resonances for a fundamentally different application - size-based optical sorting of gold nanoparticles. Here, the plasmon resonances are not utilised for sub-diffraction light confinement but rather for their ability to increase the apparent cross-section of the particles for their respective resonant sizes. Exploiting these resonances, we realise sorting in a system of two counter-propagating evanescent waves, each at different wavelength that selectively guide gold nanoparticles of different sizes in opposite directions. The method is experimentally demonstrated for bidirectional sorting of gold nanoparticles of either 150 or 130 nm in diameter from those of 100 nm in diameter within a mixture. We conclude the thesis with a numerical study of the optimal beam-shape for optical sorting applications. The developed theoretical framework, based on the force optical eigenmode method, is able to find an illumination of the back-focal plane of the objective such that the force difference between nanoparticles of various sizes in the sample plane is maximised.

  5. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR FIXED-FIXED ANISOTROPIC BEAM SUBJECTED TO UNIFORM LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hao-jiang; HUANG De-jin; WANG Hui-ming

    2006-01-01

    The analytical solutions of the stresses and displacements were obtained for fixed-fixed anisotropic beams subjected to uniform load. A stress function involving unknown coefficients was constructed, and the general expressions of stress and displacement were obtained by means of Airy stress function method. Two types of the description for the fixed end boundary condition were considered. The introduced unknown coefficients in stress function were determined by using the boundary conditions. The analytical solutions for stresses and displacements were finally obtained. Numerical tests show that the analytical solutions agree with the FEM results. The analytical solution supplies a classical example for the elasticity theory.

  6. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Michael [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Oh, Sang-Hyun [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  7. Photoconductive metamaterials with giant plasmonic photogalvanic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Evlyuknin, Andrey B.;

    2014-01-01

    and photocurrent without any external potential. This is the direct analogue of the photogalvanic effect existing in ferroelectric or piezoelectric crystals, e.g., bismuth ferrite. The reported plasmonic photogalvanic effect is valuable for characterizing photoconductive properties of plasmonic nanostructures...

  8. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive...

  9. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  10. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  11. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  12. Plasmonic Nanostructures: Tailoring Light-matter Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    2012-01-01

    The flow of light can be molded by plasmonic structures within the nanoscale. In this talk, plasmonic nanostructures for suppressing light transmission, improving light absorption and enhancing photoemissions are to be presented....

  13. Plasmonics: Manipulating Light at the Subwavelength Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yuan Zhu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of light to collective oscillation of electrons on the metal surface allows the creation of surface plasmon-polariton wave. This surface wave is of central interest in the field of plasmonics. In this paper, we will present a brief review of this field, focusing on the plasmonic waveguide and plasmonic transmission. In the plasmonic waveguide, the light can be guided along the metal surface with subwavelength lateral dimensions, enabling the possibility of high-density integration of the optical elements. On the other hand, in the plasmonic transmission, the propagation of light through a metal surface can be tailored with the subwavelength holes, leading to the anomalous transmission behaviors which have received extensive investigations in recent years. In addition, as a supplement to plasmonics in the visible and near-infrared region, the study of THz plasmonics has also been discussed.

  14. Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaramwong, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, D. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andonian, G. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piot, P. [Fermilab

    2017-03-07

    The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have open new possibilities such as enhancing quantum eciency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated to this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes.We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.

  15. Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangaramwong, A.; Mihalcea, D.; Andonian, G.; Piot, P.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have opened new possibilities such as enhancing quantum efficiency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper, we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated with this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes. We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.

  16. Surface plasmon engineering in graphene functionalized with organic molecules: a multiscale theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jierong; Wang, Wei Li; Mosallaei, Hossein; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2014-01-08

    Graphene was recently shown to support deep subwavelength surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies characterized by low energy loss and strong field localization, both highly desirable. The properties of graphene can be locally tuned by applying an external gate voltage or by the adsorption of organic molecules that lead to doping through charge transfer. Local tuning of the electronic features of graphene opens the possibility to realize any desired gradient index profile and thus brings large flexibility to control and manipulate the propagation of surface plasmons. Here, we explore this possibility created by functionalizing graphene with organic molecules. We employ a multiscale theoretical approach that combines first-principles electronic structure calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations coupled by surface conductivity. We show that by patterning two types of organic molecules on graphene, a plasmonic metasurface can be realized with any gradient effective refractive index profile to manipulate surface plasmon beams as desired. The special properties of such devices based on functionalized graphene are compared to the similar metamaterials based on metallic films on top of a gradient index dielectric substrate. Using this idea, we design and analyze an ultrathin broadband THz plasmonic lens as proof-of-concept, while more sophisticated index profiles can also be realized and various plasmonic applications are readily accessible.

  17. Nanoscale photonics using coupled hybrid plasmonic architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charles; Su, Yiwen; Helmy, Amr S.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmonic waveguides, which support surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, offer strong field confinement and are ideal for the design of integrated nano-scale photonic devices. However, due to free-carrier absorption in the metal, the enhanced mode confinement inevitably entails an increase in the waveguide loss. This lowers the device figure-of-merit achievable with passive plasmonic components and in turn hinders the performance of active plasmonic components such as optical modulators.

  18. Controlling noise in plasmonic structures with gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnevyy, A. A.; Fedyanin, D. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Loss compensation by gain medium gives the possibility to exploit subwavelength confinement of light in plasmonic nanostructures and construct nanoscale plasmonic circuits. However, due to fundamentally unavoidable spontaneous emission from the gain medium, lossless waveguides suffer from strong photonic noise, which limits their practical applications. Here we demonstrate the possibility of significant decrease of the noise level while preserving physical dimensions of lossless plasmonic waveguides with gain. Our findings are aimed at extending the communication capabilities of on-chip plasmonic networks.

  19. Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances with Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Ni, Xingjie

    2012-01-01

    Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance.......Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance....

  20. Integrated Plasmonic Nanocircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    parabolas ’ focus to a plane wave propagating parallel to parabola’s axis, and vice versa. In a classical three-dimensional parabola the emitted light... parabola , an array of individual scatterers placed in a parabolic arrangement will also generate a parallel beam of light in the far-field. In fact, a

  1. A spiral plasmonic lens with directional excitation of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingrui; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xinhua

    2016-08-26

    Conventional plasmonic lenses are composed of curved slits carved through metallic films. Here, we propose a new plasmonic lens based on a metallic slit with an auxiliary groove. When the lens is illumined normally, only inward surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be generated and then focused into a hot spot at the center of the lens. The focusing effect is theoretically investigated by varying the groove parameters and incident polarizations. It is found that this phenomenon exists for both the circular and linear polarizations of incidence. Under optimal groove parameters, the intensity of the focal spot in our lens can be 2.5 times of that in one without grooves for both linearly and circularly polarized illuminations.

  2. Periodic and aperiodic plasmon lattice lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by seminal proposals for surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission, we conduct experiments on 2D plasmonic particle arrays in waveguiding layers that provide gain. We find that purely periodic plasmonic particle systems provide lasing characteristics similar to DFB lasers, yet

  3. Anti-coalescence of bosons on a lossy beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Benjamin; Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Éloïse; Baron, Alexandre; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2017-06-01

    Two-boson interference, a fundamentally quantum effect, has been extensively studied with photons through the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and observed with guided plasmons. Using two freely propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) interfering on a lossy beam splitter, we show that the presence of loss enables us to modify the reflection and transmission factors of the beam splitter, thus revealing quantum interference paths that do not exist in a lossless configuration. We investigate the two-plasmon interference on beam splitters with different sets of reflection and transmission factors. Through coincidence-detection measurements, we observe either coalescence or anti-coalescence of SPPs. The results show that losses can be viewed as a degree of freedom to control quantum processes.

  4. Implementation of Plasmonics in VLSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents the idea of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI using Plasmonic Waveguides.Current VLSI techniques are facing challenges with respect to clock frequencies which tend to scale up, making it more difficult for the designers to distribute and maintain low clock skew between these high frequency clocks across the entire chip. Surface Plasmons are light waves that occur at a metal/dielectric interface, where a group of electrons is collectively moving back and forth. These waves are trapped near the surface as they interact with the plasma of electrons near the surface of the metal. The decay length of SPs into the metal is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of the light in air. This feature of SPs provides the possibility of localization and the guiding of light in sub wavelength metallic structures, and it can be used to construct miniaturized optoelectronic circuits with sub wavelength components. In this paper, various methods of doing the same have been discussed some of which include DLSPPW’s, Plasmon waveguides by self-assembly, Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides etc. Hence by using Plasmonic chips, the speed, size and efficiency of microprocessor chips can be revolutionized thus bringing a whole new dimension to VLSI design.

  5. Implementation of Plasmonics in VLSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents the idea of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI using Plasmonic Waveguides. Current VLSI techniques are facing challenges with respect to clock frequencies which tend to scale up, making it more difficult for the designers to distribute and maintain low clock skew between these high frequency clocks across the entire chip. Surface Plasmons are light waves that occur at a metal/dielectric interface, where a group of electrons is collectively moving back and forth. These waves are trapped near the surface as they interact with the plasma of electrons near the surface of the metal. The decay length of SPs into the metal is two orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength of the light in air. This feature of SPs provides the possibility of localization and the guiding of light in sub wavelength metallic structures, and it can be used to construct miniaturized optoelectronic circuits with sub wavelength components. In this paper, various methods of doing the same have been discussed some of which include DLSPPW’s, Plasmon waveguides by self-assembly, Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides etc. Hence by using Plasmonic chips, the speed, size and efficiency of microprocessor chips can be revolutionized thus bringing a whole new dimension to VLSI design.

  6. The Goos-Hänchen effect for surface plasmon polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerkamp, Felix; Leskova, Tamara A; Maradudin, Alexei A; Baumeier, Björn

    2011-08-01

    By means of an impedance boundary condition and numerical solution of integral equations for the scattering amplitudes to which its use gives rise, we study as a function of its angle of incidence the reflection of a surface plasmon polariton beam propagating on a metal surface whose dielectric function is ɛ1(ω) when it is incident on a planar interface with a coplanar metal surface whose dielectric function is ɛ2(ω). When the surface of incidence is optically more dense than the surface of scattering, i.e. when |ɛ2(ω)|≫|ɛ1(ω)|, the reflected beam undergoes a lateral displacement whose magnitude is several times the wavelength of the incident beam. This displacement is the surface plasmon polariton analogue of the Goos-Hänchen effect. Since this displacement is sensitive to the dielectric properties of the surface, this effect can be exploited to sense modifications of the dielectric environment of a metal surface, e.g. due to adsorption of atomic or molecular layers on it.

  7. Plasmonic antenna effects on photochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuyan; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2011-04-19

    , from visible to near-infrared wavelengths. In this Account, we describe our recent work in using metallic nanostructures to assist photochemical reactions for augmenting photoexcitation efficiency. These studies investigate the optical antenna effects of coupled plasmonic gold nanoblocks, which were fabricated with electron-beam lithography and a lift-off technique to afford high resolution and nanometric accuracy. The two-photon photoluminescence of gold and the resulting nonlinear photopolymerization on gold nanoblocks substantiate the existence of enhanced optical field domains. Local two-photon photochemical reactions due to weak incoherent light sources were identified. The optical antenna effects support the unprecedented realization of (i) direct photocarrier injection from the gold nanorods into TiO(2) and (ii) efficient and stable photocurrent generation in the absence of electron donors from visible (450 nm) to near-infrared (1300 nm) wavelengths.

  8. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility

    CERN Document Server

    Renger, Jan; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The key challenge in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry, with dielectric structures superposed on a mirror. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this to control plasmonic coupling and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at the wavelength 800 nm.

  9. Plasmon polaritons in nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique electronic and optical properties. When graphene is electrically/chemically doped, it can support surface plasmon where the light propagates along the surface with a very short wavelength and an extremely small mode volume. The optical...... properties of graphene can be tuned by electrical gating, thus proving a promising way to realize a tunable plasmonic material. We firstly investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides, and show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided...... that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. Then we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The silicon grating is realized by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self...

  10. Plasmon polaritons in nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique electronic and optical properties. When graphene is electrically/chemically doped, it can support surface plasmon where the light propagates along the surface with a very short wavelength and an extremely small mode volume. The optical...... properties of graphene can be tuned by electrical gating, thus proving a promising way to realize a tunable plasmonic material. We firstly investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides, and show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided...... that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. Then we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The silicon grating is realized by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self...

  11. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings.

  12. Propagation of light in serially coupled plasmonic nanowire dimer: Geometry dependence and polarization control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Danveer; Raghuwanshi, Mohit; Pavan Kumar, G. V. [Photonics and Optical Nanoscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune 411008 (India)

    2012-09-10

    We experimentally studied plasmon-polariton-assisted light propagation in serially coupled silver nanowire (Ag-NW) dimers and probed their dependence on bending-angle between the nanowires and polarization of incident light. From the angle-dependence study, we observed that obtuse angles between the nanowires resulted in better transmission than acute angles. From the polarization studies, we inferred that light emission from junction and distal ends of Ag-NW dimers can be systematically controlled. Further, we applied this property to show light routing and polarization beam splitting in obtuse-angled Ag-NW dimer. The studied geometry can be an excellent test-bed for plasmonic circuitry.

  13. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, E. L.; Gurevich, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  14. Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures induced by surface plasmons coupled via roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, E.L., E-mail: gurevich@lat.rub.de [Chair of Applied Laser Technology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Gurevich, S.V., E-mail: gurevics@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 9, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the formation mechanisms of the femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are discussed. One of the most frequently used theories explains the structures by interference between the incident laser beam and surface plasmon-polariton waves. The latter is most commonly attributed to the coupling of the incident laser light to the surface roughness. We demonstrate that this excitation of surface plasmons contradicts the results of laser-ablation experiments. As an alternative approach to the excitation of LIPSS we analyse development of hydrodynamic instabilities in the melt layer.

  15. Non-radiative energy transfer in quantum dot ensemble mediated by localized surface plasmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyamkina, A. A.; Dmitriev, D. V.; Toropov, A. I.; Moshchenko, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    Exciton-plasmon interaction was studied experimentally in structures with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) and indium nanoclusters grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a strong enhancement of low energy QDs was observed that resulted in a new peak. This effect is explained with the plasmon-assisted energy transfer from an ensemble of donor QDs located under a metal cluster to a low energy acceptor QD. The dependence of the integrated PL signal of the low new peak on the QD number under an individual metal cluster changed from linear to quadratic and revealed the transition from a single to many interacting QDs.

  16. Surface plasmonic lightening characteristics through liquid crystal microlens arrays controlled electrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingle

    2015-12-01

    An approach for representing and evaluating surface plasmonic lightening through cylindrical liquid crystal microlens arrays (CLCMAs) of 128×128, is proposed. The CLCMAs are typical sandwiched structures, in which the LC materials with a thickness of ~20μm is fully filled into a preshaped microcavity with a pair of parallel electrodes fabricated by silica wafers coated by an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film. The top electrode is patterned using an arrayed micro-rectangle-hole with a size of 200×60μm2 and a minimum spacing of 50μm. The surface plasmonic radiation is excited and further participates the focusing of incident beams in the visible range. The output light fields involving the plasmonic radiation are investigated. Rising the voltage signal from ~1.4 to ~5.5VRMS, the excited plasmonic radiation will sequentially present typical states including the beam converging state, focusing together with partial incident beams, and lightening mainly along the edge of individual ITO micro-rectangle-hole.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Early-Stage Dynamics of Electron Bunches Emitted from Plasmonic Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lueangaramwong, Anusorn; Andonian, Gerard; Piot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    High-brightness electron sources are a key ingredient to the development of compact accelerator-based light sources. The electron sources are commonly based on (linear) a photoemission process where a laser pulse with proper wavelength impinges on the surface of a metallic or semiconductor cathode. Very recently the use of plasmonic cathodes--cathodes with a nano-patterned surface--have demonstrated great enhancement in quantum efficiencies [1]. Alternatively, this cathode type could support the formation of structured beams composed of transversely separated beamlets. In this paper we discuss numerical simulations of the early-stage beam dynamics of the emission process from plasmonic cathodes using the Warp [2] framework. The model is used to investigate the properties of beams emitted from this type of cathode and combined with PIC simulation to explore the imaging of cathode pattern after acceleration in a radiofrequency gun.

  18. Direct imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-09-01

    In this Letter, we report on dark field imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by plasmonic coupled cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white-light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations.

  19. Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Yunyun; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying...... physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing...... of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions....

  20. On Nature of Plasmonic Drag Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Durach, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Light-matter momentum transfer in plasmonic materials is theoretically discussed in context of the modified plasmonic pressure mechanism, taking into account electron thermalization process. We show that our approach explains the observed in experiments relationship between the photoinduced electromotive force and absorption, emphasizes the quantum nature of plasmon-electron interaction, and allows one to correctly calculate the magnitude of the plasmon drag emf in flat metal films for the first time. We extend our theory on the films with modulated profiles and show that simple relationship between plasmonic energy and momentum transfer holds for the case of laminar electron drift and relatively small amplitudes of height modulation.

  1. Delocalization of nonlinear optical responses in plasmonic nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Viarbitskaya, Sviatlana; Cluzel, Benoit; Francs, Gérard Colas des; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Remote excitation and emission of two-photon luminescence and second-harmonic generation are observed in micrometer long gold rod optical antennas upon local illumination with a tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam. We show that the nonlinear radiations can be emitted from the entire antenna and the measured far-field angular patterns bear the information regarding the nature and origins of the respective nonlinear processes. We demonstrate that the nonlinear responses are transported by the propagating surface plasmon at excitation frequency, enabling thereby polariton-mediated tailoring and design of nonlinear responses.

  2. Plasmonic Bloch oscillations in cylindrical metal-dielectric waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ruei-Cheng; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Chen, Chin-Min

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates plasmonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in cylindrical metal-dielectric waveguide arrays (MDWAs) by performing numerical simulations and theoretical analyses. Optical conformal mapping is used to transform cylindrical MDWAs into equivalent chirped structures with permittivity and permeability gradients across the waveguide arrays, which is caused by the curvature of the cylindrical waveguide. The PBOs are attributed to the transformed structure. The period of oscillation increases with the wavelength of the incident Gaussian beam. However, the amplitude of oscillation is almost independent of wavelength.

  3. Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour Ashkavandi, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    -photon emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of 20 ± 5 μm for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate, and 58% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode...... is achieved, indicating significant mode confinement. Finally, we demonstrate routing of single plasmons with DLSPPW-based directional couplers, revealing the potential of our approach for on-chip realization of quantum optical networks....

  4. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika, E-mail: yuika@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kawata, Satoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumamoto, Yasuaki [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  5. Ultraconfined Plasmonic Hotspots Inside Graphene Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Foley, J J; Gannett, W; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Ni, G X; Zettl, A; Fogler, M M; Wiederrecht, G P; Gray, S K; Basov, D N

    2016-12-14

    We report on a nanoinfrared (IR) imaging study of ultraconfined plasmonic hotspots inside graphene nanobubbles formed in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. The volume of these plasmonic hotspots is more than one-million-times smaller than what could be achieved by free-space IR photons, and their real-space distributions are controlled by the sizes and shapes of the nanobubbles. Theoretical analysis indicates that the observed plasmonic hotspots are formed due to a significant increase of the local plasmon wavelength in the nanobubble regions. Such an increase is attributed to the high sensitivity of graphene plasmons to its dielectric environment. Our work presents a novel scheme for plasmonic hotspot formation and sheds light on future applications of graphene nanobubbles for plasmon-enhanced IR spectroscopy.

  6. Atomically localized plasmon enhancement in monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wu [Vanderbilt University; Lee, Jaekwang [Vanderbilt University; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Plasmons in graphene can be tuned by using electrostatic gating or chemical doping, and the ability to confine plasmons in very small regions could have applications in optoelectronics, plasmonics and transformation optics. However, little is known about how atomic-scale defects influence the plasmonic properties of graphene. Moreover, the smallest localized plasmon resonance observed in any material to date has been limited to around 10 nm. Here, we show that surface plasmon resonances in graphene can be enhanced locally at the atomic scale. Using electron energy-loss spectrum imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, we find that a single point defect can act as an atomic antenna in the petahertz (10{sup 15} Hz) frequency range, leading to surface plasmon resonances at the subnanometer scale.

  7. Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Roichman, Yael; Arie, Ady

    2016-01-01

    The diffraction limited resolution of light focused by a lens was derived in 1873 by Ernst Abbe. Later in 1952, a method to reach sub-diffraction light spots was proposed by modulating the wavefront of the focused beam. In a related development, super-oscillating functions, i.e. band limited functions that locally oscillate faster than their highest Fourier component, were introduced and experimentally applied for super-resolution microscopy. Up till now, only simple Gaussian-like sub-diffraction spots were used. Here we show that the amplitude and phase profile of these sub-diffraction spots can be arbitrarily controlled. In particular we utilize Hermite-Gauss, Laguerre-Gauss and Airy functions to structure super-oscillating beams with sub-diffraction lobes. These structured beams are then used for high resolution trapping and manipulation of nanometer-sized particles. The trapping potential provides unprecedented localization accuracy and stiffness, significantly exceeding those provided by standard diffrac...

  8. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Aleksandr [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    Next generation ultrabright light sources will operate at megahertz repetition rates with temporal resolution in the attosecond regime. For an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) to operate at such repetition rate requires a high quantum efficiency (QE) cathode to produce electron bunches of 300 pC per 1.5 μJ incident laser pulse. Semiconductor photocathodes have sufficient QE in the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible spectrum, however, they produce picosecond electron pulses due to the electron-phonon scattering. On the other hand, metals have two orders of magnitude less QE, but can produce femtosecond pulses, that are required to form the optimum electron distribution for high efficiency FEL operation. In this work, a novel metallic photocathode design is presented, where a set of nano-cavities is introduced on the metal surface to increase its QE to meet the FEL requirements, while maintaining the fast time response. Photoemission can be broken up into three steps: (1) photon absorption, (2) electron transport to the surface, and (3) crossing the metal-vacuum barrier. The first two steps can be improved by making the metal completely absorbing and by localizing the fields closer to the metal surface, thereby reducing the electron travel distance. Both of these effects can be achieved by coupling the incident light to an electron density wave on the metal surface, represented by a quasi-particle, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The photoemission then becomes a process where the photon energy is transferred to an SPP and then to an electron. The dispersion relation for the SPP defines the region of energies where such process can occur. For example, for gold, the maximum SPP energy is 2.4 eV, however, the work function is 5.6 eV, therefore, only a fourth order photoemission process is possible. In such process, four photons excite four plasmons that together excite only one electron. The yield of such non-linear process depends strongly on the light intensity. In

  9. Core-Shell Structured Dielectric-Metal Circular Nanodisk Antenna: Gap Plasmon Assisted Magnetic Toroid-like Cavity Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Han, Dezhuan; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoantennas, the properties of which are essentially determined by their resonance modes, are of interest both fundamentally and for various applications. Antennas with various shapes, geometries and compositions have been demonstrated, each possessing unique properties and potential applications. Here, we propose the use of a sidewall coating as an additional degree of freedom to manipulate plasmonic gap cavity modes in strongly coupled metallic nanodisks. It is demonstrated that for a dielectric middle layer with a thickness of a few tens of nanometers and a sidewall plasmonic coating of more than ten nanometers, the usual optical magnetic resonance modes are eliminated, and only magnetic toroid-like modes are sustainable in the infrared and visible regime. All of these deep-subwavelength modes can be interpreted as an interference effect from the gap surface plasmon polaritons. Our results will be useful in nanoantenna design, high-Q cavity sensing, structured light-beam generation, and photon e...

  10. Mapping bound plasmon propagation on a nanoscale stripe waveguide using quantum dots: influence of spacer layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanei S. Perera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we image the highly confined long range plasmons of a nanoscale metal stripe waveguide using quantum emitters. Plasmons were excited using a highly focused 633 nm laser beam and a specially designed grating structure to provide stronger incoupling to the desired mode. A homogeneous thin layer of quantum dots was used to image the near field intensity of the propagating plasmons on the waveguide. We observed that the photoluminescence is quenched when the QD to metal surface distance is less than 10 nm. The optimised spacer layer thickness for the stripe waveguides was found to be around 20 nm. Authors believe that the findings of this paper prove beneficial for the development of plasmonic devices utilising stripe waveguides.

  11. Optical vortex beam generator at nanoscale level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoli, Denis; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can find tremendous applications in several fields. In order to apply these particular beams in photonic integrated devices innovative optical elements have been proposed. Here we are interested in the generation of OAM-carrying beams at the nanoscale level. We design and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic optical vortex emitter, based on a metal-insulator-metal holey plasmonic vortex lens. Our plasmonic element is shown to convert impinging circularly polarized light to an orbital angular momentum state capable of propagating to the far-field. Moreover, the emerging OAM can be externally adjusted by switching the handedness of the incident light polarization. The device has a radius of few micrometers and the OAM beam is generated from subwavelength aperture. The fabrication of integrated arrays of PVLs and the possible simultaneous emission of multiple optical vortices provide an easy way to the large-scale integration of optical vortex emitters for wide-ranging applications. PMID:27404659

  12. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; Garcia de Abajo, Javier F.

    2016-09-01

    The combination of graphene's intrinsically-high nonlinear optical response with its ability to support long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that couple strongly with light has generated great expectations for application of the atomically-thin material to nanophotonic devices. These expectations are mainly reinforced by classical analyses performed using the response derived from extended graphene, neglecting finite-size and nonlocal effects that become important when the carbon layer is structured on the nanometer scale in actual device designs. Based on a quantum-mechanical description of graphene using tight-binding electronic states combined with the random-phase approximation, we show that finite-size effects produce large contributions that increase the nonlinear response associated with plasmons in nanostructured graphene to significantly higher levels than previously thought, particularly in the case of Kerr-type optical nonlinearities. Motivated by this finding, we discuss and compare saturable absorption in extended and nanostructured graphene, with or without plasmonic enhancement, within the context of passive mode-locking for ultrafast lasers. We also explore the possibility of high-harmonic generation in doped graphene nanoribbons and nanoislands, where illumination by an infrared pulse of moderate intensity, tuned to a plasmon resonance, is predicted to generate light at harmonics of order 13 or higher, extending over the visible and UV regimes. Our atomistic description of graphene's nonlinear optical response reveals its complex nature in both extended and nanostructured systems, while further supporting the exceptional potential of this material for nonlinear nanophotonic devices.

  13. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  14. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jin, M.L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den A.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized su

  15. Plasmonics Meets Biology through Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano De Sio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metallic nanoparticles (NPs represent a relevant class of nanomaterials, which is able to achieve light localization down to nanoscale by exploiting a phenomenon called Localized Plasmon Resonance. In the last few years, NPs have been proposed to trigger DNA release or enhance ablation of diseased tissues, while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. In view of the therapeutic relevance of such plasmonic NPs; a detailed characterization of the electrostatic interaction between positively charged gold nanorods (GNRs and a negatively charged whole-genome DNA solution is reported. The preparation of the hybrid biosystem has been investigated as a function of DNA concentration by means of ζ-potential; hydrodynamic diameter and gel electrophoresis analysis. The results have pointed out the specific conditions to achieve the most promising GNRs/DNA complex and its photo-thermal properties have been investigated. The overall study allows to envisage the possibility to ingeniously combine plasmonic and biological materials and, thus, enable design and development of an original non invasive all-optical methodology for monitoring photo-induced temperature variation with high sensitivity.

  16. Complementary magnetic localized surface plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field.

  17. Subwavelength vortical plasmonic lattice solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangwei; Mihalache, Dumitru; Hu, Bambi; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2011-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of vortical plasmonic lattice solitons, which form in two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into nonlinear media with both focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are investigated in detail.

  18. Bimetallic structure fabricated by laser interference lithography for tuning surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Hong, M H; Cheung, H W; Zhang, F; Huang, Z Q; Tan, L S; Hor, T S A

    2008-07-07

    Tuning of surface plasmon resonance by gold and silver bimetallic thin film and bimetallic dot array is investigated. Laser interference lithography is applied to fabricate the nanostructures. A bimetallic dot structure is obtained by a lift-off procedure after gold and silver thin film deposition by an electron beam evaporator. Surface plasmon behaviors of these films and nanostructures are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is observed that for gold thin film on quartz substrate, the optical spectral peak is blue shifted when a silver thin film is coated over it. Compared to the plasmon band in single metal gold dot array, the bimetallic nanodot array shows a similar blue shift in its spectral peak. These shifts are both attributed to the interaction between gold and silver atoms. Electromagnetic interaction between gold and silver nanostructures is discussed using a simplified spring model.

  19. Lasing in dark and bright modes of a finite-sized plasmonic lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Hakala, T K; Väkeväinen, A I; Martikainen, J -P; Moilanen, A J; Törmä, P

    2016-01-01

    Lasing at the nanometer scale promises strong light-matter interactions and ultrafast operation. The first realizations of nanoscale lasing have been achieved but suffer from losses and lack of beam directionality. Band-edge lasing in periodic plasmonic structures offered an improvement but radiative losses remained high. Intriguingly, plasmonic nanoparticle arrays support also non-radiative dark modes that offer longer life-times but are inaccessible to far field radiation. Here, we show lasing both in dark and bright modes of an array of silver nanoparticles combined with optically pumped dye molecules. Linewidths of 0.2 nanometers at visible wavelengths and room temperature are observed. Access to the dark modes is provided by a coherent out-coupling mechanism based on the finite size of the array. The results open a route to utilize all modes of plasmonic lattices, also the high-Q ones, for studies of strong light-matter interactions, condensation and photon fluids.

  20. Tunable plasmonic response of metallic nanoantennna heterodimer arrays modified by atomic-layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambold, Raymond A.; Borst, Benjamin D.; Qi, Jie; Weisel, Gary J.; Willis, Brian G.; Zimmerman, Darin T.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of tunable, plasmon extinction characteristics of arrays of nanoscale antennas that have potential use as sensors, energy-harvesting devices, catalytic converters, in near-field optical microscopy, and in surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Each device is composed of a palladium triangular-prism antenna and a flat counter-electrode. Arrays of devices are fabricated on silica using electron-beam lithography, followed by atomic-layer deposition of copper. Optical extinction is measured by employing a broadband light source in a confocal, transmission arrangement. We characterize the plasmon resonance behavior by examining the dependence on device length, the gap spacing between the electrodes, material properties, and the device array density, all of which contribute in varying degrees to the measured response. We employ finite-difference time-domain simulations to demonstrate good qualitative agreement between experimental trends and theory and use scanning electron microscopy to correlate plasmonic extinction characteristics with changes in morphology.

  1. Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.

    2011-10-12

    We perform spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging nanoscopy using a 30 keV electron beam to identify the resonant modes of an ultrathin (20 nm), laterally tapered plasmonic Ag nanostrip antenna. We resolve with deep-subwavelength resolution four antenna resonances (resonance orders m = 2-5) that are ascribed to surface plasmon polariton standing waves that are confined on the strip. We map the local density of states on the strip surface and show that it has contributions from symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes, each with a very different mode index. This work illustrates the power of CL experiments that can visualize hidden modes that for symmetry reasons have been elusive in optical light scattering experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-09-08

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.

  3. Diffraction limited focusing and routing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Brian S; Haftel, Michael I; Lopez, Daniel; Blumberg, Girsh; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Passive optical elements can play key roles in photonic applications such as plasmonic integrated circuits. Here we experimentally demonstrate passive gap-plasmon focusing and routing in two-dimensions. This is accomplished using a high numerical-aperture metal-dielectric-metal lens incorporated into a planar-waveguide device. Fabrication via metal sputtering, oxide deposition, electron- and focused-ion- beam lithography, and argon ion-milling is reported on in detail. Diffraction-limited focusing is optically characterized by sampling out-coupled light with a microscope. The measured focal distance and full-width-half-maximum spot size agree well with the calculated lens performance. The surface plasmon polariton propagation length is measured by sampling light from multiple out-coupler slits.

  4. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  5. High-Q band edge mode of plasmonic crystals studied by cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the quality factor (Q-factor) of the band edge modes in the plasmonic crystal by a cathodoluminescence technique. We have found that the Q-factor at the Γ point depends on the terrace width (D)/period (P) ratio of the plasmonic crystal. The finite-difference time-domain methods predict that the band edge mode at D/P = 3/4 has a high-Q-factor (Q ˜ 250 by Palik's permittivity data and Q ˜ 530 by Johnson and Christy's data). The beam-scan spectral images allowed us to visualize the standing surface plasmon polariton waves at the band edge energies, and a high-Q-factor of ˜200 was observed at D/P ˜ 3/4.

  6. High-Q band edge mode of plasmonic crystals studied by cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoki, E-mail: nyamamot@phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-02-24

    We have investigated the quality factor (Q-factor) of the band edge modes in the plasmonic crystal by a cathodoluminescence technique. We have found that the Q-factor at the Γ point depends on the terrace width (D)/period (P) ratio of the plasmonic crystal. The finite-difference time-domain methods predict that the band edge mode at D/P = 3/4 has a high-Q-factor (Q ∼ 250 by Palik's permittivity data and Q ∼ 530 by Johnson and Christy's data). The beam-scan spectral images allowed us to visualize the standing surface plasmon polariton waves at the band edge energies, and a high-Q-factor of ∼200 was observed at D/P ∼ 3/4.

  7. Diffraction limited focusing and routing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B. S.; Czaplewski, David A.; Haftel, Michael I.; Lopez, Daniel; blumberg, girsh; aksyuk, vladimir

    2015-08-24

    Passive optical elements can play key roles in photonic applications such as plasmonic integrated circuits. Here we experimentally demonstrate passive gap-plasmon focusing and routing in two-dimensions. This is accomplished using a high numerical-aperture metal-dielectric-metal lens incorporated into a planar-waveguide device. Fabrication via metal sputtering, oxide deposition, electron-and focused-ion-beam lithography, and argon ion-milling is reported on in detail. Diffraction-limited focusing is optically characterized by sampling out-coupled light with a microscope. The measured focal distance and full-width-half-maximum spot size agree well with the calculated lens performance. The surface plasmon polariton propagation length is measured by sampling light from multiple out-coupler slits. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America

  8. Quantum interference of highly-dispersive surface plasmons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokpanov, Yury S.; Fakonas, James S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Previous experiments have shown that surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) preserve their entangled state and do not cause measurable decoherence. However, essentially all of them were done using SPPs whose dispersion was in the linear "photon-like" regime. We report in this presentation on experiments showing how transition to "true-plasmon" non-linear dispersion regime, which occurs near SPP resonance frequency, will affect quantum coherent properties of light. To generate a polarization-entangled state we utilize type-I parametric down-conversion, occurring in a pair of non-linear crystals (BiBO), glued together and rotated by 90 degrees with respect to each other. For state projection measurements, we use a pair of polarizers and single-photon avalanche diode coincidence count detectors. We interpose a plasmonic hole array in the path of down-converted light before the polarizer. Without the hole array, we measure visibility V=99-100% and Bell's number S=2.81±0.03. To study geometrical effects we fabricated plasmonic hole arrays (gold on optically polished glass) with elliptical holes (axes are 190nm and 240nm) using focused ion beam. When we put this sample in our system we measured the reduction of visibility V=86±5% using entangled light. However, measurement using classical light gave exactly the same visibility; hence, this reduction is caused only by the difference in transmission coefficients of different polarizations. As samples with non-linear dispersion we fabricated two-layer (a-Si - Au) and three-layer (a-Si - Au - a-Si) structures on optically polished glass with different pitches and circular holes. The results of measurements with these samples will be discussed along with the theoretical investigations.

  9. Multiresonant layered plasmonic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Bernacki, Bruce E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States

    2017-01-01

    Multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films have numerous applications in areas such as nonlinear optics, sensing, and tamper indication. While techniques such as focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography can produce high-quality multi-resonant films, these techniques are expensive, serial processes that are difficult to scale at the manufacturing level. Here, we present the fabrication of multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films using a layered stacking technique. Periodically-spaced gold nanocup substrates were fabricated using self-assembled polystyrene nanospheres followed by oxygen plasma etching and metal deposition via magnetron sputter coating. By adjusting etch parameters and initial nanosphere size, it was possible to achieve an optical response ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. Singly resonant, flexible films were first made by performing peel-off using an adhesive-coated polyolefin film. Through stacking layers of the nanofilm, we demonstrate fabrication of multi-resonant films at a fraction of the cost and effort as compared to top-down lithographic techniques.

  10. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  11. Invited Article: Plasmonic growth of patterned metamaterials with fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takeyasu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale metallic three-dimensional (3D structures composed of sub-wavelength fine details, called metamaterials, have attracted optical scientists and materials scientists because of their unconventional and extraordinary optical properties that are not seen in nature. However, existing nano-fabrication technologies including two-photon fabrication, e-beam, focused ion-beam, and probe microscopy are not necessarily suitable for fabricating such large-scale 3D metallic nanostructures. In this article, we propose a different method of fabricating metamaterials, which is based on a bottom-up approach. We mimicked the generation of wood forest under the sunlight and rain in nature. In our method, a silver nano-forest is grown from the silver seeds (nanoparticles placed on the glass substrate in silver-ion solution. The metallic nano-forest is formed only in the area where ultraviolet light is illuminated. The local temperature increases at nano-seeds and tips of nano-trees and their branches due to the plasmonic heating as a result of UV light excitation of localized mode of surface plasmon polaritons. We have made experiments of growth of metallic nano-forest patterned by the light distribution. The experimental results show a beautiful nano-forest made of silver with self-similarity. Fractal dimension and spectral response of the grown structure are discussed. The structures exhibit a broad spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared, which was used for surface-enhanced Raman detection of molecules.

  12. Invited Article: Plasmonic growth of patterned metamaterials with fractal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyasu, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Natsuo; Nishimura, Naoki; Cheng, Bo Han; Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale metallic three-dimensional (3D) structures composed of sub-wavelength fine details, called metamaterials, have attracted optical scientists and materials scientists because of their unconventional and extraordinary optical properties that are not seen in nature. However, existing nano-fabrication technologies including two-photon fabrication, e-beam, focused ion-beam, and probe microscopy are not necessarily suitable for fabricating such large-scale 3D metallic nanostructures. In this article, we propose a different method of fabricating metamaterials, which is based on a bottom-up approach. We mimicked the generation of wood forest under the sunlight and rain in nature. In our method, a silver nano-forest is grown from the silver seeds (nanoparticles) placed on the glass substrate in silver-ion solution. The metallic nano-forest is formed only in the area where ultraviolet light is illuminated. The local temperature increases at nano-seeds and tips of nano-trees and their branches due to the plasmonic heating as a result of UV light excitation of localized mode of surface plasmon polaritons. We have made experiments of growth of metallic nano-forest patterned by the light distribution. The experimental results show a beautiful nano-forest made of silver with self-similarity. Fractal dimension and spectral response of the grown structure are discussed. The structures exhibit a broad spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared, which was used for surface-enhanced Raman detection of molecules.

  13. Plasmonic interferometry: probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mollet, O; Genet, C; Huant, S; Drezet, A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using near-field scanning optical sources. We compare our approach to Young double hole interferometry experiments using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) discussed in the literature and realize experiments with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) source positioned near a ring like aperture slit milled in a thick gold film. In both cases the agreement between experiments and model is very good. We emphasize the role of dipole orientations and discuss the role of magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the imaging process as well as the directionality of the effective dipoles associated with the various optical and plasmonic sources.

  14. Plasmonics From Basics to Advanced Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bonod, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with all aspects of plasmonics, basics, applications and advanced developments. Plasmonics is an emerging field of research dedicated to the resonant interaction of light with metals. The light/matter interaction is strongly enhanced at a nanometer scale which sparks a keen interest of a wide scientific community and offers promising applications in pharmacology, solar energy, nanocircuitry or also light sources. The major breakthroughs of this field of research originate from the recent advances in nanotechnology, imaging and numerical modelling.  The book is divided into three main parts: extended surface plasmons polaritons propagating on metallic surfaces, surface plasmons localized on metallic particles, imaging and nanofabrication techniques. The reader will find in the book: Principles and recent advances of plasmonics, a complete description of the physics of surface plasmons, a historical survey with emphasize on the emblematic topic of Wood's anomaly, an overview of modern applicati...

  15. Quantum theory of plasmons in nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kirsten Trøstrup

    . For a theoretical description of plasmon in such materials, where the electrons are heavily confined in one or more directions, a quantum mechanical description of the electrons in the material is necessary. In this thesis, the ab initio methods Density functional theory (DFT) and linear response time-dependent DFT......In this thesis, ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations are used to study the properties of plasmons in nanostructures that involve atomic length-scales. The plasmon is an electronic excitation that corresponds to oscillations in the electron charge density in metals, often visualized as water...... are applied to calculate the properties of plasmons in nanostructures in different dimensions. In order to identify and visualize localized plasmon modes, a method for calculating plasmon eigenmodes within the ab initio framework has been developed. In the studied materials, quantum mechanical effects...

  16. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    -compatible materials, both passive and active plasmonic waveguide components are important. Among other proposed plasmonic waveguides and modulators, the structures where the dielectric core is sandwiched between metal plates have been shown as one of the most compact and efficient layout. Because of the tight mode...... confinement that can be achieved in metal-insulator-metal structures, they provide a base for extremely fast and efficient ultracompact plasmonic devices, including modulators, photodetectors, lasers and amplifiers. The main result of this thesis is a systematic study of various designs of plasmonic......Metal-dielectric interfaces can support the waves known as surface plasmon polaritons, which are tightly coupled to the interface and allow manipulation of light at the nanoscale. Plasmonics as a subject which studies such waves enables the merge between two major technologies: nanometer...

  17. Ultralow-Loss CMOS Copper Plasmonic Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I; Kirtaev, Roman V; Volkov, Valentyn S

    2016-01-13

    Surface plasmon polaritons can give a unique opportunity to manipulate light at a scale well below the diffraction limit reducing the size of optical components down to that of nanoelectronic circuits. At the same time, plasmonics is mostly based on noble metals, which are not compatible with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which can outperform gold plasmonic waveguides simultaneously providing long (>40 μm) propagation length and deep subwavelength (∼λ(2)/50, where λ is the free-space wavelength) mode confinement in the telecommunication spectral range. These results create the backbone for the development of a CMOS plasmonic platform and its integration in future electronic chips.

  18. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, P A D; Xiao, Sanshui; Vasilevskiy, M I; Mortensen, N Asger; Peres, N M R

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively guide electromagnetic radiation below the diffraction limit is of the utmost importance in the prospect of all-optical plasmonic circuitry. Here, we propose an alternative solution to conventional metal-based plasmonics by exploiting the deep subwavelength confinement and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmons counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system's geometry is contained. We believe our results pave the way for the development of novel custom-tailored photonic devices for subwavelength waveg...

  19. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  20. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016......)]. The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication...

  1. Gold nanodisk array surface plasmon resonance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xueli

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated for sensing applications over the last decade. The resonance wavelengths of the nanostructures are usually measured in the transmission or reflection spectrum for chemical and biological sensing. In this thesis, I introduce a nanoscale gap mediated surface plasmon resonance nanodisk array for displacement sensing and a super-period gold nanodisk grating enabled surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor. The super-period gold nanodisk grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD). A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  2. Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weihua; Mortensen, N Asger; Christensen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons are confined collective oscillations of electrons in metallic nanoparticles. When driven by light, the optical response is dictated by geometrical parameters and the dielectric environment and plasmons are therefore extremely important for sensing applications. Plasmons in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters, such as molecules, for future nanophotonic devices.

  3. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surfa...

  4. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on hybrid plasmonic systems has shown the existence of a loss channel for energy transfer between organic materials and plasmonic/metallic structured substrates. This work focuses on the exciton-plasmon coupling between para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers (ONFs) and surfa...

  5. Highly efficient plasmonic tip design for plasmon nanofocusing in near-field optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakoshi, Takayuki; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

    2016-03-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) combined with plasmon nanofocusing is a powerful nano-analytical tool due to its attractive feature of efficient background suppression as well as light energy compression to the nanoscale. In plasmon nanofocusing-based NSOM, the metallic tip plays an important role in inducing plasmon nanofocusing. It is, however, very challenging to control plasmonic properties of tips for plasmon nanofocusing with existing tip fabrication methods, even though the plasmonic properties need to be adjusted to experimental environments such as the sample or excitation wavelength. In this study, we propose an efficient tip design and fabrication which enable one to actively control plasmonic properties for efficient plasmon nanofocusing. Because our method offers flexibility in the material and structure of tips, one can easily modify the plasmonic properties depending on the requirements. Importantly, through optimization of the plasmonic properties, we achieve almost 100% reproducibility in plasmon nanofocusing in our experiments. This new approach of tip fabrication makes plasmon nanofocusing-based NSOM practical and reliable, and opens doors for many scientists working in related fields.

  6. Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Edson P; Rossouw, David; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-06-01

    Energy resolution is one of the most important parameters in electron energy-loss spectroscopy. This is especially true for measurement of surface plasmon resonances, where high-energy resolution is crucial for resolving individual resonance peaks, in particular close to the zero-loss peak. In this work, we improve the energy resolution of electron energy-loss spectra of surface plasmon resonances, acquired with a monochromated beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, by the use of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. We test the performance of the algorithm in a simulated spectrum and then apply it to experimental energy-loss spectra of a lithographically patterned silver nanorod. By reduction of the point spread function of the spectrum, we are able to identify low-energy surface plasmon peaks in spectra, more localized features, and higher contrast in surface plasmon energy-filtered maps. Thanks to the combination of a monochromated beam and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, we improve the effective resolution down to 30 meV, and evidence of success up to 10 meV resolution for losses below 1 eV. We also propose, implement, and test two methods to limit the number of iterations in the algorithm. The first method is based on noise measurement and analysis, while in the second we monitor the change of slope in the deconvolved spectrum.

  7. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x) = Ax{sup 2α} + Bx{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sdran, N. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Najran University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Thermal Process Laboratory Research and Technologies Centre of Energy, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x) = Ax{sup 2α} + Bx{sup 2}, (A>0, B<0), with (α = 2) for quadratic, (α =3) for sextic and (α =4) for octic anharmonic oscillators. The Airy function approach is based on the replacement of the real potential V(x) by a piecewise-linear potential v(x), while, the Numerov method is based on the discretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It’s found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  8. Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....

  9. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  10. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  11. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. Baryshnikova; M. I. Petrov; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation result...

  12. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-01

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 μm thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  13. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Dias, E. J. C.; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    and electric-field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmon counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system’s geometry is contained. We...... and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential...

  14. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  15. Shaping the longitudinal intensity pattern of Cartesian beams in lossless and lossy media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Corato-Zanarella, Henrique; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2017-09-01

    Several applications, such as optical tweezers and atom guiding, benefit from techniques that allow the engineering of spatial field profiles, in particular their longitudinal intensity patterns. In cylindrical coordinates, methods such as frozen waves allow an advanced control of beam characteristics, but in Cartesian coordinates there is no analogous technique. Since Cartesian beams may also be useful in applications, we develop here a method to modulate on demand the longitudinal intensity pattern of any (initially) unidimensional Cartesian beam with concentrated angular spectrum (thus encompassing all unidimensional paraxial beams) in lossless and lossy media. To this end, we write the total beam as a product of two unidimensional beams and explore the degree of freedom provided by the additional Cartesian coordinate. While in the plane where this coordinate is zero the chosen unidimensional beam keeps its structure with the additional desired intensity modulation, a sinusoidal-like oscillation appears in the direction of this variable and creates a spot whose size is tunable. Examples with Gaussian and Airy beams are presented and their corresponding experimental demonstrations in free-space are performed to show the validity of the method.

  16. Integrated Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Spectropolarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei Ting; Foreman, Matthew R; Liao, Chun Yen; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Wu, Pei Ru; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic metasurfaces, i.e. nano-structured thin metallic films, are promising candidates for development of compact nanoscale photonic devices, since they afford simultaneous control over the phase, momentum, amplitude and polarization of incident light. Integration of multiple metasurfaces affords optical functionality unrealisable with conventional planar photonic devices. In this work we demonstrate the principle of an integrated plasmonic metasurface (IPM) device by designing a spectropolarimeter that diffracts light with given polarization states into well-defined spatial domains. By capturing the diffracted light, the polarization state of the incident light can be fully determined using a single IPM avoiding the need for many optical components. The dispersive nature of the device provides simultaneous access to both polarization and spectral information. Our proposed IPM is robust, compact and fully compatible with today's semiconductor manufacturing technology, promising many applications in polari...

  17. Slow plasmons in grating cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Atilla; Karademir, Ertugrul; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2016-03-01

    Recent research on surface plasmon polaritons and their applications have brought forward a wealth of information and continues to be of interest to many. In this report, we concentrate on propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and their interaction with matter. Using grating based metallic structures, it is possible to control the electrodynamics of propagating SPPs. Biharmonic gratings loaded with periodic Si stripes allow excitation of SPPs that are localized inside the band gap with grating coupling. The cavity state is formed due to periodic effective index modulation obtained by one harmonic of the grating and loaded Si stripes. More complicated grating structures such as metallic Moiré surfaces have also been shown to form a localized state inside the band gap when excited with Kretschmann configuration.

  18. Nano-plasmonic exosome diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyungsoon; Shao, Huilin; Weissleder, Ralph; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes have emerged as a promising biomarker. These vesicles abound in biofluids and harbor molecular constituents from their parent cells, thereby offering a minimally-invasive avenue for molecular analyses. Despite such clinical potential, routine exosomal analysis, particularly the protein assay, remains challenging, due to requirements for large sample volumes and extensive processing. We have been developing miniaturized systems to facilitate clinical exosome studies. These systems can be categorized into two components: microfluidics for sample preparation and analytical tools for protein analyses. In this report, we review a new assay platform, nano-plasmonic exosome, in which sensing is based on surface plasmon resonance to achieve label-free exosome detection. Looking forward, we also discuss some potential challenges and improvements in exosome studies.

  19. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B; Ku, Jessie C; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A; Schatz, George C

    2016-04-13

    Mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

  20. Slanted gold mushroom array: a switchable bi/tridirectional surface plasmon polariton splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Fang, Guisheng; Cerjan, Alexander; Chi, Zhenguo; Fan, Shanhui; Jin, Chongjun

    2016-08-25

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) show great promise in providing an ultracompact platform for integrated photonic circuits. However, challenges remain in easily and efficiently coupling light into and subsequently routing SPPs. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a switchable bi/tridirectional beam splitter which can simultaneously perform both tasks. The photonic device consists of a periodic array of slanted gold 'mushrooms' composed of angled dielectric pillars with gold caps extruding from a periodic array of perforations in a gold film. The unidirectional coupling results from the interference of the in-plane guided modes scattered by a pair of dislocated gold gratings, while the output channel is determined by the polarization of the incident beam. This device, in combination with dynamic polarization modulation techniques, has the potential to serve as a router or switch in plasmonic integrated circuits.