WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasmon waveguide interband

  1. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  2. Light-emitting waveguide-plasmon polaritions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Murai, S.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of light in an optical waveguide strongly coupled to a periodic array of metallic nanoantennas. This coupling gives rise to hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons (WPPs), which undergo a transmutation from plasmon to waveguide mode and vice versa as the eigenfrequency

  3. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  4. Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Yunyun; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying...... physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing...... of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions....

  5. Fabrication of plasmonic waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    and thickness-modulated gold strips different waveguide components including reflecting gratings can be realized. For applications where polarization is random or changing, metal nanowire waveguides are shown to be suitable candidates for efficient guiding of arbitrary polarized light. Plasmonic waveguides...

  6. Multilayer cladding with hyperbolic dispersion for plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of plasmonic waveguides with a dielectric core and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings that possess hyperbolic dispersion. The waveguides hyperbolic multilayer claddings show better performance in comparison to conventional plasmonic waveguides. © OSA 2015....

  7. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  8. Surface plasmon polariton propagation in organic nanofiber based plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Jauernik, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic wave packet propagation is monitored in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides realized from para-hexaphenylene nanofibers deposited onto a 60 nm thick gold film. Using interferometric time resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy we are able to determine...

  9. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    of developing new material platforms for integrated plasmonic devices. Furthermore, novel plasmonic materials such as transparent conductive oxides and transition metal nitrides can offer a variety of new opportunities. In particular, they offer adjustable/tailorable and nonlinear optical properties, dynamic...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  10. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  11. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogeniz......Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any...

  12. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  13. Thermal limiting effects in optical plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A.E.; Gerasimov, V.S.; Gavrilyuk, A.P.; Karpov, S.V.; Zakomirnyi, V.I.; Rasskazov, I.L.; Polyutov, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied thermal effects occurring during excitation of optical plasmonic waveguide (OPW) in the form of linear chain of spherical Ag nanoparticles by pulsed laser radiation. It was shown that heating and subsequent melting of the first irradiated particle in a chain can significantly deteriorate the transmission efficiency of OPW that is the crucial and limiting factor and continuous operation of OPW requires cooling devices. This effect is caused by suppression of particle's surface plasmon resonance due to reaching the melting point temperature. We have determined optimal excitation parameters which do not significantly affect the transmission efficiency of OPW. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic model was developed to study thermal effects at nanoscale. • Developed model considers temperature-dependent permittivity of the nanoparticles. • Thermal effects significantly suppress transmission efficiency of plasmonic chains. • Optimal parameters for stable operation of plasmonic chains were defined.

  14. Waveguiding with surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    the diffraction limit, i.e., on the nanoscale, while enhancing local field strengths by several orders of magnitude. This unique feature of SPP modes along with ever increasing demands for miniaturization of photonic components and circuits generates an exponentially growing interest to SPP-mediated radiation...... guiding and SPP-based waveguide components. Here we review the current status of this rapidly developing field, starting with a brief presentation of main planar SPP modes, and then describing in detail various SPP-based waveguide configurations that ensure two-dimensional mode confinement. Excitation...

  15. Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berini, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Three figures of merit are proposed as quality measures for surface plasmon waveguides. They are defined as benefit-to-cost ratios where the benefit is confinement and the cost is attenuation. Three different ways of measuring confinement are considered, leading to three figures of merit. One of the figures of merit is connected to the quality factor. The figures of merit were then used to assess and compare the wavelength response of hree popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. Closed form expressions are given for the figures of merit of the single metal-dielectric interface.

  16. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  17. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  18. A quantitative modeling of the contributions of localized surface plasmon resonance and interband transitions to absorbance of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Y. C.; Liu, Y.; Fung, S.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative modeling of the contributions of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and interband transitions to absorbance of gold nanoparticles has been achieved based on Lorentz–Drude dispersion function and Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximation. The contributions are well modeled with three Lorentz oscillators. Influence of the structural properties of the gold nanoparticles on the LSPR and interband transitions has been examined. In addition, the dielectric function of the gold nanoparticles has been extracted from the modeling to absorbance, and it is found to be consistent with the result yielded from the spectroscopic ellipsometric analysis.

  19. Dispersion characteristics of plasmonic waveguides for THz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markides, Christos; Viphavakit, Charusluk; Themistos, Christos; Komodromos, Michael; Kalli, Kyriacos; Quadir, Anita; Rahman, Azizur

    2013-05-01

    Today there is an increasing surge in Surface Plasmon based research and recent studies have shown that a wide range of plasmon-based optical elements and techniques have led to the development of a variety of active switches, passive waveguides, biosensors, lithography masks, to name just a few. The Terahertz (THz) frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum is located between the traditional microwave spectrum and the optical frequencies, and offers a significant scientific and technological potential in many fields, such as in sensing, in imaging and in spectroscopy. Waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region is a major challenge. Amongst the various THz waveguides suggested, the metal-clad waveguides supporting surface plasmon modes waves and specifically hollow core structures, coated with insulating material are showing the greatest promise as low-loss waveguides for their use in active components and as well as passive waveguides. The H-field finite element method (FEM) based full-vector formulation is used to study the vectorial modal field properties and the complex propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon modes of a hollow-core dielectric coated rectangular waveguide structure. Additionally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to estimate the dispersion parameters and the propagation loss of the rectangular waveguide.

  20. Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    waveguides. We show that the proposed structures support long-range surface plasmon modes, which exist when the permittivity of the core matches the transverse effective permittivity component of the metamaterial cladding. In this regime, the surface plasmon polaritons of each cladding layer are strongly...

  1. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  2. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  3. Terahertz spoof surface-plasmon-polariton subwavelength waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-12-11

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with the features of subwavelength confinement and strong enhancements have sparked enormous interest. However, in the terahertz regime, due to the perfect conductivities of most metals, it is hard to realize the strong confinement of SPPs, even though the propagation loss could be sufficiently low. One main approach to circumvent this problem is to exploit spoof SPPs, which are expected to exhibit useful subwavelength confinement and relative low propagation loss at terahertz frequencies. Here we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz spoof SPP waveguides based on corrugated metal surfaces. The various waveguide components, including a straight waveguide, an S-bend waveguide, a Y-splitter, and a directional coupler, were experimentally demonstrated using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed waveguide indeed enables propagation, bending, splitting, and coupling of terahertz SPPs and thus paves a new way for the development of flexible and compact plasmonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies. (C) 2017 Chinese Laser Press

  4. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  5. Long-range hybrid ridge and trench plasmonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yusheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-23

    We report a class of long-range hybrid plasmon polariton waveguides capable of simultaneously achieving low propagation loss and tight field localization at telecommunication wavelength. The symmetric (quasi-symmetric) hybrid configurations featuring high-refractive-index-contrast near the non-uniform metallic nanostructures enable significantly improved optical performance over conventional hybrid waveguides, exhibiting considerably longer propagation distances and dramatically enhanced figure of merits for similar degrees of confinement. Compared to their traditional long-range plasmonic counterparts, the proposed hybrid waveguides put much less stringent requirements on index-matching conditions, demonstrating nice performance under a wide range of physical dimensions and robust characteristics against certain fabrication imperfections. Studies concerning crosstalk between adjacent identical waveguides further reveal their potential for photonic integrations. In addition, alternative configurations with comparable guiding properties to the structures in our case studies are also proposed, which can potentially serve as attractive prototypes for numerous high-performance nanophotonic components.

  6. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides formed by metal coating of dielectric ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Choudhury, Sajid; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    Bound hybrid plasmon-polariton modes supported by waveguides, which are formed by gold coating of ridges etched into a silica substrate, are analyzed using numerical simulations and investigated experimentally using near-field microscopy at telecom wavelengths (1425-1625 nm). Drastic modification...

  7. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-xian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a type of hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove. A high-permittivity nanowire was placed in the metal channel covered with a dielectric film of lower permittivity. Deeper sub-wavelength confinement and much longer propagation distance were achieved in comparison with conventional channel plasmonic waveguides. The overall performance was improved as compared with the conventional hybrid plasmonic structure based on a flat metal surface. Finite element analysis showed that both the mode propagation and field profile can be adjusted by changing the nanowire radius and film thickness. Some benefits, such as a reduced scattering loss caused by the surface roughness, are also expected owing to the unique mode profile. The proposed approach has potential for application in high-level photonic integration.

  8. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  9. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Shaoxian; Xu, Quan; Tian, Chunxiu; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  10. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  11. Spoof surface plasmons propagating along a periodically corrugated coaxial waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebi, Nahid; Shahabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: n.talebi@ece.ut.ac.i [Photonics Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence for Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-07

    Using the rigorous mode-matching technique, we have investigated a periodically corrugated perfectly conducting coaxial waveguide for the possibility of propagation of localized spoof surface plasmons. To verify our results, the computed band diagram of the structure has been compared with the one obtained using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. The obtained spoof surface plasmon modes have been shown to be highly localized and slowly propagating. Variations of the obtained modal frequencies and mode profiles as a function of the depth and width of the grooves have also been investigated.

  12. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  13. Hybrid dielectric waveguide spectroscopy of individual plasmonic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cuadra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonics is a mature scientific discipline which is now entering the realm of practical applications. Recently, significant attention has been devoted to on-chip hybrid devices where plasmonic nanoantennas are integrated in standard Si3N4 photonic waveguides. Light in these systems is usually coupled at the waveguide apexes by using multiple objectives and/or tapered optical fibers, rendering the analysis of spectroscopic signals a complicated task. Here, we show how by using a grating coupler and a low NA objective, quantitative spectroscopic information similar to standard dark-field spectroscopy can be obtained at the single-nanoparticle level. This technology may be useful for enabling single-nanoparticle studies in non-linear excitation regimes and/or in complex experimental environments, thus enriching the toolbox of nanophotonic methods.

  14. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can beused for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We studyperformance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as atunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metalplates (metal...

  15. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  16. A hybrid plasmonic waveguide terahertz quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degl' Innocenti, Riccardo, E-mail: rd448@cam.ac.uk; Shah, Yash D.; Wallis, Robert; Klimont, Adam; Ren, Yuan; Jessop, David S.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-23

    We present the realization of a quantum cascade laser emitting at around 2.85 THz, based on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a low refractive index dielectric cladding. This hybrid waveguide design allows the performance of a double-metal waveguide to be retained, while improving the emission far-field. A set of lasers based on the same active region material were fabricated with different metal layer thicknesses. A detailed characterization of the performance of these lasers revealed that there is an optimal trade-off that yields the best far-field emission and the maximum temperature of operation. By exploiting the pure plasmonic mode of these waveguides, the standard operation conditions of a double-metal quantum cascade laser were retrieved, such that the maximum operating temperature of these devices is not affected by the process. These results pave the way to realizing a class of integrated devices working in the terahertz range which could be further exploited to fabricate terahertz on-chip circuitry.

  17. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic......Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication...

  18. Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a plasmonic waveguide with semiconductor gain material for optoelectronic integrated circuits. We analyze properties of a finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal (F-MSM) waveguide to be utilized as an ultra-compact and fast plasmonic modulator. The InP-based semiconductor core allows...

  19. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication technolog......Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication...... technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic...

  20. Simulations of the spontaneous emission of a quantum dot near a gap plasmon waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Chamanei S., E-mail: cp.hettiarachchige@qut.edu.au; Vernon, Kristy C.; Mcleod, Angus [Plasmonic Device Group, Queensland University of Technology, GPO box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we modeled a quantum dot at near proximity to a gap plasmon waveguide to study the quantum dot-plasmon interactions. Assuming that the waveguide is single mode, this paper is concerned about the dependence of spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot on waveguide dimensions such as width and height. We compare coupling efficiency of a gap waveguide with symmetric configuration and asymmetric configuration illustrating that symmetric waveguide has a better coupling efficiency to the quantum dot. We also demonstrate that optimally placed quantum dot near a symmetric waveguide with 50 nm × 50 nm cross section can capture 80% of the spontaneous emission into a guided plasmon mode.

  1. Simulations of the spontaneous emission of a quantum dot near a gap plasmon waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Chamanei S.; Vernon, Kristy C.; Mcleod, Angus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we modeled a quantum dot at near proximity to a gap plasmon waveguide to study the quantum dot-plasmon interactions. Assuming that the waveguide is single mode, this paper is concerned about the dependence of spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot on waveguide dimensions such as width and height. We compare coupling efficiency of a gap waveguide with symmetric configuration and asymmetric configuration illustrating that symmetric waveguide has a better coupling efficiency to the quantum dot. We also demonstrate that optimally placed quantum dot near a symmetric waveguide with 50 nm × 50 nm cross section can capture 80% of the spontaneous emission into a guided plasmon mode

  2. Direct optical measurement of light coupling into planar waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, Antti M; Toppari, J Jussi

    2013-01-14

    Coupling of light into a thin layer of high refractive index material by plasmonic nanoparticles has been widely studied for application in photovoltaic devices, such as thin-film solar cells. In numerous studies this coupling has been investigated through measurement of e.g. quantum efficiency or photocurrent enhancement. Here we present a direct optical measurement of light coupling into a waveguide by plasmonic nanoparticles. We investigate the coupling efficiency into the guided modes within the waveguide by illuminating the surface of a sample, consisting of a glass slide coated with a high refractive index planar waveguide and plasmonic nanoparticles, while directly measuring the intensity of the light emitted out of the waveguide edge. These experiments were complemented by transmittance and reflectance measurements. We show that the light coupling is strongly affected by thin-film interference, localized surface plasmon resonances of the nanoparticles and the illumination direction (front or rear).

  3. Propagation Characteristics of Multilayer Hybrid Insulator-Metal-Insulator and Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Talafi Noghani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of symmetrical and asymmetrical multilayer hybrid insulator-metal-insulator (HIMI and metal-insulator-metal (HMIM plasmonic slab waveguides are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Propagation length (Lp and spatial length (Ls are used as two figures of merit to qualitate the plasmonic waveguides. Symmetrical structures are shown to be more performant (having higher Lp and lower Ls, nevertheless it is shown that usage of asymmetrical geometry could compensate for the performance degradation in practically realized HIMI waveguides with different substrate materials. It is found that HMIM slab waveguide could support almost long-range subdiffraction plasmonic modes at dimensions lower than the spatial length of the HIMI slab waveguide.

  4. Selective enhancement of surface-state emission and simultaneous quenching of interband transition in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals using localized plasmon coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan [Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander [Physical Chemistry/Electrochemistry Group, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Bergstr. 66b, Dresden 01062 (Germany)], E-mail: volkan@bilkent.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    We propose and demonstrate the controlled modification and selective enhancement of surface-state emission in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals (NCs) by plasmon-coupling them with proximal metal nanostructures. By carefully designing nano-Ag films to match their localized plasmon resonance spectrally with the surface-state emission peak of CdS NCs, we experimentally show that the surface-state emission is substantially enhanced in the visible wavelength, while the interband (band-edge) transition at the shorter wavelength far away from the plasmon resonance is simultaneously significantly suppressed. With such plasmon tuning and consequent strong plasmon coupling specifically for the surface-state transitions, the surface-state emission is made stronger than the band-edge emission. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 12.7-fold in the ratio of the surface-state peak emission to the band-edge peak emission of the plasmon-coupled film sample compared with that in solution. Such a plasmonic engineering of surface-state emission in trap-rich CdS white nanoluminophors holds great promise for future solid-state lighting.

  5. Selective enhancement of surface-state emission and simultaneous quenching of interband transition in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals using localized plasmon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate the controlled modification and selective enhancement of surface-state emission in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals (NCs) by plasmon-coupling them with proximal metal nanostructures. By carefully designing nano-Ag films to match their localized plasmon resonance spectrally with the surface-state emission peak of CdS NCs, we experimentally show that the surface-state emission is substantially enhanced in the visible wavelength, while the interband (band-edge) transition at the shorter wavelength far away from the plasmon resonance is simultaneously significantly suppressed. With such plasmon tuning and consequent strong plasmon coupling specifically for the surface-state transitions, the surface-state emission is made stronger than the band-edge emission. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 12.7-fold in the ratio of the surface-state peak emission to the band-edge peak emission of the plasmon-coupled film sample compared with that in solution. Such a plasmonic engineering of surface-state emission in trap-rich CdS white nanoluminophors holds great promise for future solid-state lighting

  6. Inelastic plasmon and inter-band electron-scattering potentials for Si from dielectric matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Smith, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of electrons in a crystalline environment may be represented by a complex non-hermitian potential. Completed generalised expressions for this inelastic electron scattering potential matrix, including virtual inelastic scattering, are derived for outer-shell electron and plasmon excitations. The relationship between these expressions and the general anisotropic dielectric response matrix of the solid is discussed. These generalised expressions necessarily include the off-diagonal terms representing effects due to departure from translational invariance in the interaction. Results are presented for the diagonal back structure dependent inelastic and virtual inelastic scattering potentials for Si, from a calculation of the inverse dielectric matrix in the random phase approximation. Good agreement is found with experiment as a function of incident energies from 10 eV to 100 keV. Anisotropy effects and hence the interaction de localisation represented by the off-diagonal scattering potential terms, are found to be significant below 1 keV. 38 refs., 2 figs

  7. Detuned-resonator induced transparency in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Radko, Ilya P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of detuned-resonator induced transparency in the near-infrared (∼800  nm) using two detuned racetrack resonators side-coupled to a bus waveguide. Both resonators and the bus waveguide are in the form of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton...

  8. Nanoscale Plasmonic V-Groove Waveguides for the Interrogation of Single Fluorescent Bacterial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Bar-David, Jonathan; Smith, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the interrogation of an individual Escherichia coli cell using a nanoscale plasmonic V-groove waveguide. Several different configurations were studied. The first involved the excitation of the cell in a liquid environment because it flows on top of the waveguide...

  9. Plasmonic modulator based on thin metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide with gain core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We focus on plasmonic modulators with a gain core to be implemented as active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. In particular, we analyze metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore...

  10. Flexible long-range surface plasmon polariton single-mode waveguide for optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernoux, Christian; Chen, Yiting; Markey, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide arrays with materials, mainly silicones, carefully selected with the aim to be used as mechanically flexible single-mode optical interconnections, the socalled "plasmonic arc" working at 1.55μm...

  11. Long-range propagation of plasmon and phonon polaritons in hyperbolic-metamaterial waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.

    2017-12-01

    We study photonic multilayer waveguides that include layers of materials and metamaterials with a hyperbolic dispersion (HMM). We consider the long-range propagation of plasmon and phonon polaritons at the dielectric-HMM interface in different waveguide geometries (single boundary or different layers of symmetric cladding). In contrast to the traditional analysis of geometrical parameters, we make an emphasis on the optical properties of constituent materials: solving dispersion equations, we analyze how dielectric and HMM permittivities affect propagation length and mode size of waveguide eigenmodes. We derive figures of merit that should be used for each waveguide in a broad range of permittivity values as well as compare them with plasmonic waveguides. We show that the conventional plasmonic quality factor, which is the ratio of real to imaginary parts of permittivity, is not applicable to the case of waveguides with complex structure. Both telecommunication wavelengths and mid-infrared spectral ranges are of interest considering recent advances in van der Waals materials, such as hexagonal boron nitride. We evaluate the performance of the waveguides with hexagonal boron nitride in the range where it possesses hyperbolic dispersion (wavelength 6.3-7.3 μm), and we show that these waveguides with natural hyperbolic properties have higher propagation lengths than metal-based HMM waveguides.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Pulses in Gold Strip Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Olivier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold core on the pulse duration and layer thickness. A comprehensive model for the pulse duration dependence of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is developed on the basis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for plasmonic mode propagation in the waveguides....... The model accounts for the intrinsic delayed (noninstantaneous) nonlinearity of free electrons of gold as well as the thickness of the gold film and is experimentally verified. The obtained results are important for the development of active plasmonic and nanophotonic components....

  13. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  14. Tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiaomeng; Deng, Haidong; Guo, Kangxian

    2014-10-15

    We propose a tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier based on the nonlinear Fano resonance in a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and cavities coupling system. We develop a theoretical model based on the temporal coupled-mode theory to study the device physics of the nanoscale rectifier. We further demonstrate via the finite difference time domain numerical experiment that our idea can be realized in a plasmonic system with an ultracompact size of ~120×800  nm². The tunable plasmonic rectifier could facilitate the all-optical signal processing in nanoscale.

  15. Low-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides at the nanoscale (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Y.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.; Volkov, Valentyn S.

    2016-05-01

    Implementation of optical components in microprocessors can increase their performance by orders of magnitude. However, the size of optical elements is fundamentally limited by diffraction, while miniaturization is one of the essential concepts in the development of high-speed and energy-efficient electronic chips. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are widely considered to be promising candidates for the next generation of chip-scale technology thanks to the ability to break down the fundamental diffraction limit and manipulate optical signals at the truly nometer scale. In the past years, a variety of deep-subwavelength plasmonic structures have been proposed and investigated, including dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides, V-groove waveguides, hybrid plasmonic waveguides and metal nanowires. At the same time, for practical application, such waveguide structures must be integrated on a silicon chip and be fabricated using CMOS fabrication process. However, to date, acceptable characteristics have been demonstrated only with noble metals (gold and silver), which are not compatible with industry-standard manufacturing technologies. On the other hand, alternative materials introduce enormous propagation losses due absorption in the metal. This prevents plasmonic components from implementation in on-chip nanophotonic circuits. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a CMOS compatible process can outperform gold waveguides showing the same level of mode confinement and lower propagation losses. At telecommunication wavelengths, the fabricated ultralow-loss deep-subwavelength hybrid plasmonic waveguides ensure a relatively long propagation length of more than 50 um along with strong mode confinement with the mode size down to lambda^2/70, which is confirmed by direct scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) measurements. These results create the backbone for design and development of high

  16. Nanoscale Plasmonic V-Groove Waveguides for the Interrogation of Single Fluorescent Bacterial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Oren; Bar-David, Jonathan; Smith, Cameron L C; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Kristensen, Anders; Levy, Uriel

    2017-09-13

    We experimentally demonstrate the interrogation of an individual Escherichia coli cell using a nanoscale plasmonic V-groove waveguide. Several different configurations were studied. The first involved the excitation of the cell in a liquid environment because it flows on top of the waveguide nanocoupler, while the obtained fluorescence is coupled into the waveguide and collected at the other nanocoupler. The other two configurations involved the positioning of the bacterium within the nanoscale waveguide and its excitation in a dry environment either directly from the top or through waveguide modes. This is achieved by taking advantage of the waveguide properties not only for light guiding but also as a mechanical tool for trapping the bacteria within the V-grooves. The obtained results are supported by a set of numerical simulations, shedding more light on the mechanism of excitation. This demonstration paves the way for the construction of an efficient bioplasmonic chip for diverse cell-based sensing applications.

  17. Investigations on a nano-scale periodical waveguide structure taking surface plasmon polaritons into consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weihao; Zhong Renbin; Zhou Jun; Zhang Yaxin; Hu Min; Liu Shenggang

    2012-01-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis and computer simulations on the electromagnetic characteristics of a nano-scale periodical waveguide structure, taking surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) into consideration, are carried out in this paper. The results show that SPPs will significantly influence the electromagnetic characteristics of the structure. When the operation frequency is in a certain band—the ‘radial confinement band’, neither radial surface plasmon waves nor guided waves, which both will lead to radial energy loss, can be excited in the structure. And the electromagnetic waves are completely confined within the longitudinal waveguide and propagate along it with little attenuation. The radial energy loss is then significantly reduced. These results are of great significance not only for increasing the efficiency of the radiation sources based on the nano-scale periodical waveguide structure but also for the development of high-efficiency waveguides and wide-band filters in the infrared and visible light regimes. (paper)

  18. Propagation of Channel Plasmons at the Visible Regime in Aluminum V-Groove Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Smith, Cameron; Bar-David, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V-grooves are ......Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V......-grooves are fabricated by a process involving UV-photolithography, crystallographic silicon etching, and metal deposition. Polarization measurements of coupling demonstrate a preference to the TM-aligned mode, as predicted in simulations....

  19. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...

  20. Experimental characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-racetrack resonators at near-infrared wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-racetrack resonators (WRTRs) were designed and fabricated for operating at near-infrared wavelengths (750–850 nm) and characterized using leakage-radiation microscopy. The transmission spectra of the WRTRs are found experimentally and compared to the calculat...

  1. Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of straight dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polaritons waveguides doped with lead-sulfide quantum dots as a near infra-red gain medium. A loss compensation of ~33% (an optical gain of ~143 cm^−1) was observed in the guided mode. The mode propaga...

  2. Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joonhee; Kim, Seungchul; Park, In-Yong; Lee, Dong-Hyub; Han, Seunghwoi; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the possibility of generating attosecond pulses by means of plasmonic field enhancement induced in a nano-structured metallic funnel-waveguide. This study was motivated by our recent experimental demonstration of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses using the same type of three-dimensional waveguides. Here, with emphasis on generation of isolated attosecond pulses, the finite-domain time-difference method was used to analyze the funnel-waveguide with respect to the geometry-dependent plasmonic features such as the field enhancement factor, enhanced plasmonic field profile and hot-spot location. Then an extended semi-classical model of high-order harmonic generation was adopted to predict the EUV spectra generated from the funnel-waveguide in consideration of the spatial inhomogeneity of the plasmonic field within the hot-spot volume. Our simulation finally proved that isolated attosecond pulses can be produced at fast repetition rates directly from a few-cycle femtosecond laser or by synthesizing a two-color laser consisting of two multi-cycle pulses of cross-polarized configuration. (paper)

  3. Data transmission in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharitonov, S.; Kiselev, R.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the data transmission of 10 Gbit/s on-off keying modulated 1550 nm signal through a long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide structure with negligible signal degradation. In the experiment the bit error rate penalties do not exceed 0.6 dB over the 15 nm...

  4. A BIOSENSOR USING COUPLED PLASMON WAVEGUIDE RESONANCE COMBINED WITH HYPERSPECTRAL FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAN DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a biosensor that is capable for simultaneous surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensing and hyperspectral fluorescence analysis in this paper. A symmetrical metal-dielectric slab scheme is employed for the excitation of coupled plasmon waveguide resonance (CPWR in the present work. Resonance between surface plasmon mode and the guided waveguide mode generates narrower full width half-maximum of the reflective curves which leads to increased precision for the determination of refractive index over conventional SPR sensors. In addition, CPWR also offers longer surface propagation depths and higher surface electric field strengths that enable the excitation of fluorescence with hyperspectral technique to maintain an appreciable signal-to-noise ratio. The refractive index information obtained from SPR sensing and the chemical properties obtained through hyperspectral fluorescence analysis confirm each other to exclude false-positive or false-negative cases. The sensor provides a comprehensive understanding of the biological events on the sensor chips.

  5. Analytical study of optimal design and gain parameters of double-slot plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handapangoda, Dayan; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically analyze guided modes in optically active and passive double-slot plasmonic waveguides. We show that for one of the two different mode symmetries supported by the waveguide, a most productive guiding condition can be realized by adjusting the thicknesses of the layers to optimal values. We also derive approximate analytic expressions to calculate the optimal geometrical parameters of the waveguide. Interestingly, our analysis shows that the propagation losses associated with the inverse mode symmetry of the double-slot waveguide are comparatively low, regardless of the dimensions of the waveguide. We further show that the propagation losses become the smallest in the limiting case of a single-slot (metal–dielectric–metal (MDM)) waveguide. For both double- and single-slot waveguides, we show that the gain required to overcome the losses can be reduced by choosing a dielectric with a low refractive index. We also derive accurate analytical expressions to readily estimate the critical gain and modal gain of the waveguides. (paper)

  6. Plasmonic reflectors and high-Q nano-cavities based on coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contra-directional coupling, a composite structure consisting of two coupled metal-insulator-metal (MIM waveguides is proposed to act as an attractive plasmonic reflector. By introducing a defect into one of the MIM waveguides, we show that such a composite structure can be operated as a plasmonic nanocavity with a high quality factor. Both symmetric and anti-symmetric cavity modes are supported in the plasmonic cavity, and their resonance frequencies can be tuned by controlling the defect width. The present structures could have a significant impact for potential applications such as surface plasmon mirrors, filters and solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Finite-element modeling of spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter at nanoscale proximity to plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Gregersen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    of the plasmonic waveguide can be arbitrary. The fraction of the energy coupled to the plasmonic mode can be calculated exactly, which can be used to determine the efficiency with which single optical plasmons are generated. We apply our numerical method to calculate the coupling of a quantum emitter......We develop a self-consistent finite-element method to quantitatively study spontaneous emission from emitters in nanoscale proximity of plasmonic waveguides. In the model, it is assumed that only one guided mode is dominatingly excited by the quantum emitter, while the cross section...

  8. Mode solvers for very thin long-range plasmonic waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francs, G. C.; Hugonin, J. P.; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 8 (2011), s. 557-570 ISSN 0306-8919. [18th International Workshop on Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modelling (OWTNM). Cambridge, 09.04.2010-10.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical waveguide theory * integrated optics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  9. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide-assisted Metal–Insulator–Metal ring resonator for refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M. A.; Khonina, S. N.; Kazanskiy, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    A highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on an integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG) and a Metal-Insulator-Metal (M-I-M) micro-ring resonator is presented. In our design, there are two slot-waveguide-based micro-rings that encircle a gold disc. The outer slot WG is formed by the combination of Silicon-Air-Gold ring and the inner slot-waveguide is formed by Gold ring-Air-Gold disc. The slot-waveguide rings provide an interaction length sufficient to accumulate a detectable wavelength shift. The transmission spectrum and electric field distribution of this sensor structure are simulated using Finite Element Method (FEM). The sensitivity of this micro-ring resonator is achieved at 800 nm/RIU which is about six times higher than that of the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Our proposed sensor design has a potential to find further applications in biomedical science and nano-photonic circuits.

  10. Mapping bound plasmon propagation on a nanoscale stripe waveguide using quantum dots: influence of spacer layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanei S. Perera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we image the highly confined long range plasmons of a nanoscale metal stripe waveguide using quantum emitters. Plasmons were excited using a highly focused 633 nm laser beam and a specially designed grating structure to provide stronger incoupling to the desired mode. A homogeneous thin layer of quantum dots was used to image the near field intensity of the propagating plasmons on the waveguide. We observed that the photoluminescence is quenched when the QD to metal surface distance is less than 10 nm. The optimised spacer layer thickness for the stripe waveguides was found to be around 20 nm. Authors believe that the findings of this paper prove beneficial for the development of plasmonic devices utilising stripe waveguides.

  11. Adiabatic Nanofocusing in Hybrid Gap Plasmon Waveguides on the Silicon-on-Insulator Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michael P; Lafone, Lucas; Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sidiropoulos, Themistoklis P H; Rahmani, Mohsen; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2016-02-10

    We present an experimental demonstration of a new class of hybrid gap plasmon waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Created by the hybridization of the plasmonic mode of a gap in a thin metal sheet and the transverse-electric (TE) photonic mode of an SOI slab, this waveguide is designed for efficient adiabatic nanofocusing simply by varying the gap width. For gap widths greater than 100 nm, the mode is primarily photonic in character and propagation lengths can be many tens of micrometers. For gap widths below 100 nm, the mode becomes plasmonic in character with field confinement predominantly within the gap region and with propagation lengths of a few microns. We estimate the electric field intensity enhancement in hybrid gap plasmon waveguide tapers at 1550 nm by three-photon absorption of selectively deposited CdSe/ZnS quantum dots within the gap. Here, we show electric field intensity enhancements of up to 167 ± 26 for a 24 nm gap, proving the viability of low loss adiabatic nanofocusing on a commercially relevant photonics platform.

  12. Unidirectional reflectionless phenomena in a non-Hermitian quantum system of quantum dots coupled to a plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Cong; Jin, Xing Ri; Zhang, Ying Qiao; Lee, YoungPak

    2018-02-19

    Unidirectional reflectionless phenomena are investigated theoretically in a non-Hermitian quantum system composed of several quantum dots and a plasmonic waveguide. By adjusting the phase shifts between quantum dots, single- and dual-band unidirectional reflectionlessnesses are realized at exceptional points based on two and three quantum dots coupled to a plasmonic waveguide, respectively. In addition, single- and dual-band unidirectional perfect absorptions with high quality factors are obtained at the vicinity of exceptional points.

  13. Experimental demonstration of CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zektzer, Roy; Desiatov, Boris; Mazurski, Noa

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs) that are compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The demonstrated waveguides feature good mode confinement...

  14. Spontaneous decay of a single quantum dot coupled to a metallic slot waveguide in the presence of leaky plasmonic modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2010-01-01

    in which the metallic slot waveguide is embedded. Compared to the ideal case of a homogenous dielectric environment, the coupling efficiency of an emitter to a metallic slot waveguide is significantly reduced. We attribute the reduction to the coupling to leaky plasmonic modes. By increasing the refractive...

  15. Plasmon-mediated Coulomb drag between graphene waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shylau, Artsem A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    We analyze theoretically charge transport in Coulomb coupled graphene waveguides (GWGs). The GWGs are defined using antidot lattices, and the lateral geometry bypasses many technological challenges of earlier designs. The drag resistivity ρD, which is a measure of the many-particle interactions...

  16. Plasmonic nano-sensor based on metal-dielectric-metal waveguide with the octagonal cavity ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Saeed; Dashti, Mohammad Ali; Jabbari, Masoud

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a refractive index plasmonic sensor including a waveguide of metal–insulator–metal with side coupled octagonal cavity ring has been suggested. The sensory and transmission feature of the structure has been analyzed numerically using Finite Element Method numerical solution. The effect of coupling distance and changing the width of metal–insulator–metal waveguide and refractive index of the dielectric located inside octagonal cavity—which are the effective factors in determining the sensory feature—have been examined so completely that the results of the numerical simulation show a linear relation between the resonance wavelength and refractive index of the liquid/gas dielectric material inside the octagonal cavity ring. High sensitivity of the sensor in the resonance wavelength, simplicity and a compact geometry are the advantages of the refractive plasmonic sensor advised which make that possible to use it for designing high performance nano-sensor and bio-sensing devices.

  17. Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons Enhance Transverse Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars E. Kreilkamp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical effects in ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic materials are usually too weak for potential applications. The transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (TMOKE in ferromagnetic films is typically on the order of 0.1%. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the enhancement of TMOKE due to the interaction of particle plasmons in gold nanowires with a photonic waveguide consisting of magneto-optical material, where hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons are excited. We achieve a large TMOKE that modulates the transmitted light intensity by 1.5%, accompanied by high transparency of the system. Our concept may lead to novel devices of miniaturized photonic circuits and switches, which are controllable by an external magnetic field.

  18. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel...... and satellite communication signals. Due to planar structures proposed here, it is easy to integrate in the microwave integrated systems, which can play an important role in the microwave communication circuit and system.......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...

  19. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation, allo...

  20. Plasmon enhanced light amplification in metal–insulator–metal waveguides with gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the loss compensation and light amplification properties of metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides that are doped with gain material in the dielectric core. An analytical approach based on Maxwell’s equations is developed to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the gain coefficient on the loss compensation and light amplification efficiencies of the waveguide under different values of the waveguide width and working wavelengths. The analytical results agree excellently with all-numerical calculations that directly solve Maxwell’s equations. The results show that the light amplification efficiency obeys a strict linear relationship with the gain coefficient, and MIM waveguides with narrower widths and under shorter wavelengths have better efficiencies. In addition, the MIM waveguides have higher light amplification efficiencies than usual dielectric waveguides, which suggests a very positive role of the plasmonic structure in enhancing the light amplification when gain is introduced. These loss and gain behaviors can be well explained by looking at the modal profile of each transport mode and the corresponding light energy confinement effect and slow light effect. (paper)

  1. Characterization of long-range plasmonic waveguides at visible to near-infrared regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ting Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides composed with thin gold stripes embedded in SU-8 polymer cladding with various stripe widths were fabricated. Material properties of the polymer cladding layer, gold thin film, and the device structures were discussed. Optical properties based on modal propagation were characterized at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The measured propagation losses of waveguide widths from 3 to 9 μm at 633, 785, and 1550 nm are 7.5-18.8, 6.8-12.5, and 1.9-3.9 dB/mm, respectively. Guiding mode properties such as overlap integrals between the simulated and the measured fields and the polarization extinction ratios of the waveguides with different stripe widths were investigated at the telecommunication wavelength. Good accordance between the measurement and simulation results was presented.

  2. New surface plasmon polariton waveguide based on GaN nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Lasers are nowadays widely used in industry, in hospitals and in many devices that we have at home. Random laser development is challenging given its high threshold and low integration. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP can improve random laser characteristics because of its ability to control diffraction. In this study, we establish a random laser structural model with silicon-based parcel GaN nanowires. The GaN nanowire gain and enhanced surface plasmon increase population inversion level. Our laser model is based on random particle scattering feedback mechanism, nanowire use, and surface plasmon enhancement effect, which causes stochastic laser emergence. Analysis shows that the SPP mode and nanowire waveguides coupled in the dielectric layer of low refractive index can store light energy like a capacitor under low refractive index clearance. The waveguide mode field area and limiting factors show that the modeled laser can achieve sub-wavelength constraints of the output light field. We also investigate emergent laser performance for a more limited light field capacity and lower threshold. Keywords: Random laser, Surface plasmon polariton, Feedback mechanism, Low threshold, Subwavelength constraints

  3. Influence of the flip-flop interaction on a single plasmon transport in 1D waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myong-Chol; Kim, Nam-Chol; Ho, Nam-Chol; Ryom, Ju-Song; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Li, Jian-Bo; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-12-01

    Transport of a single plasmon in the 1D waveguide coupled to two emitters with the flip-flop interaction is discussed theoretically via the real-space approach. We showed that the transmission and reflection of a single plasmon could be changeable by adjusting the flip-flop coupling strength of the QDs, the interaction of QDs with the metallic nanowaveguide, interparticle distance of the QDs and detuning. Setting the interparticle distances properly results in the switching between the complete transmission and the complete reflection. Especially, our results show that the QDs with the flip-flop interaction play important role in the transport of the propagating single plasmon, which is relevant to the Förster resonance energy transfer from donor QD to acceptor QD.

  4. V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cuesta, I.; Nielsen, R.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication of integra...... of integrated optical devices composed of metal V grooves. This method represents an improvement with respect to previous works, where the V grooves were fabricated by direct milling of the metal, in terms of robustness and throughput. © 2007 American Vacuum Society......Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication...

  5. Waveguide embedded plasmon laser with multiplexing and electrical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ren-min; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-08-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to nanometer scale lasers. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, a line of metal disposed on the substrate, an insulating material disposed on the line of metal, and a line of semiconductor material disposed on the substrate and the insulating material. The line of semiconductor material overlaying the line of metal, disposed on the insulating material, forms a plasmonic cavity.

  6. Photothermal Transport of DNA in Entropy-Landscape Plasmonic Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold

    2017-01-01

    landscapes. Separately, a range of plasmonic configurations have demonstrated active manipulation of nano-objects by harnessing concentrated electric fields. The integration of these two independent techniques promises a range of sophisticated and complementary functions to handle, for example, DNA...... photothermal transport of DNA through the losses of plasmonic modes. The propulsive forces, assisted by in-coupling to propagating channel plasmon polaritons, extend along the V-grooves with a directed motion up to ≈0.5 μm·mW-1 away from the input beam and λ-DNA velocities reaching ≈0.2 μm·s-1·mW-1....... The entropic trapping enables the V-grooves to be flexibly loaded and unloaded with DNA by variation of transverse fluid flow, a process that is selective to biopolymers versus fixed-shape objects and also allows the technique to address the challenges of nanoscale interaction volumes. Our self-aligning, light...

  7. An on-chip polarization splitter based on the radiation loss in the bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengwei; Rong, Kexiu; Gan, Fengyuan; Chu, Saisai; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) are one of the key components in the integrated photonic circuits. To increase the integration density, various complex hybrid plasmonic structures have been numerically designed to shrink the footprints of the PBSs. Here, to decrease the complexity of the small hybrid structures and the difficulty of the hybrid micro-nano fabrications, the radiation losses are utilized to experimentally demonstrate an ultra-small, broadband, and efficient PBS in a simple bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprising a dielectric strip on the metal surface supports both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) waveguide modes. Because of the different field confinements, the TE waveguide mode has larger radiation loss than the TM waveguide mode in the bending hybrid strip waveguide. Based on the different radiation losses, the two incident waveguide modes of orthogonal polarization states are efficiently split in the proposed structure with a footprint of only about 2.2 × 2.2 μm2 on chips. Since there is no resonance or interference in the splitting process, the operation bandwidth is as broad as Δλ = 70 nm. Moreover, the utilization of the strongly confined waveguide modes instead of the bulk free-space light (with the spot size of at least a few wavelengths) as the incident source considerably increases the coupling efficiency, resulting in a low insertion loss of <3 dB.

  8. Terahertz particle-in-liquid sensing with spoof surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a highly sensitive microfluidic sensing technique for the terahertz (THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs. By integrating a microfluidic channel in a spoof SPP waveguide, we take advantage of these highly confined electromagnetic modes to create a platform for dielectric sensing of liquids. Our design consists of a domino waveguide, that is, a series of periodically arranged rectangular metal blocks on top of a metal surface that supports the propagation of spoof SPPs. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the transmission of spoof SPPs along the waveguide is extremely sensitive to the refractive index of a liquid flowing through a microfluidic channel crossing the waveguide to give an interaction volume on the nanoliter scale. Furthermore, by taking advantage of the insensitivity of the domino waveguide’s fundamental spoof SPP mode to the lateral width of the metal blocks, we design a tapered waveguide able to achieve further confinement of the electromagnetic field. Using this approach, we demonstrate the highly sensitive detection of individual subwavelength micro-particles flowing in the liquid. These results are promising for the creation of spoof SPP based THz lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices that are suitable for the analysis of biological liquids such as proteins and circulating tumour cells in buffer solution.

  9. Dye gain gold NW array of surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Plasmon lasers can support ultrasmall mode confinement and ultrafast dynamics with device feature sizes below the diffraction limit. At present in the single visible light frequency, the optical gain method of constraint SPP on metal nanowires structure reported less. We design the gold nanowire array structure, consisting of PMMA and R6G dye molecules as gain, by 488 nm pump in the middle of the nanowires position for wide range of light, use symmetry broken overcome that momentum does not match the photonic and SPP energy conversion. Theoretical analysis shows that dyes provide coherent optical feedback, resulting in nanowires face will observe laser properties of surface plasmons. Feature analysis: the incident light and pump joint strength is greater than the sum of strength which is the incident light, pump respectively. Under the effect of dye molecules gain effective, length of SPP transmission can increase 1 µm. The results achieved in a single optical frequency of stimulated radiation, application of dye optical gain can achieve continuous gain effect. This is for the future development of plasma amplifier and the wavelength laser. Keywords: SPP, Stimulated radiation, Gold nanowires array, Dye molecules

  10. Synergistically Enhanced Performance of Ultrathin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Plasmonically Assisted, Multispectral Luminescent Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Dhar, Purnim; Chen, Huandong; Montenegro, Angelo; Liaw, Lauren; Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Benderskii, Alexander V.; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-04-12

    Ultrathin silicon solar cells fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of single-crystalline wafer materials represent an attractive materials platform that could provide many advantages for realizing high-performance, low-cost photovoltaics. However, their intrinsically limited photovoltaic performance arising from insufficient absorption of low-energy photons demands careful design of light management to maximize the efficiency and preserve the cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Herein we present an integrated flexible solar module of ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells capable of simultaneously exploiting spectral upconversion and downshifting in conjunction with multispectral luminescent waveguides and a nanostructured plasmonic reflector to compensate for their weak optical absorption and enhance their performance. The 8 μm-thick silicon solar cells incorporating a hexagonally periodic nanostructured surface relief are surface-embedded in layered multispectral luminescent media containing organic dyes and NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals as downshifting and upconverting luminophores, respectively, via printing-enabled deterministic materials assembly. The ultrathin nanostructured silicon microcells in the composite luminescent waveguide exhibit strongly augmented photocurrent (~40.1 mA/cm2) and energy conversion efficiency (~12.8%) than devices with only a single type of luminescent species, owing to the synergistic contributions from optical downshifting, plasmonically enhanced upconversion, and waveguided photon flux for optical concentration, where the short-circuit current density increased by ~13.6 mA/cm2 compared with microcells in a nonluminescent medium on a plain silver reflector under a confined illumination.

  11. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in the Strong Coupling Regime: Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng; Cadusch, Jasper; Chakraborty, Debadi; Smith, Trevor A; Roberts, Ann; Sader, John E; Davis, Timothy J; Gómez, Daniel E

    2016-04-13

    Reversible exchange of photons between a material and an optical cavity can lead to the formation of hybrid light-matter states where material properties such as the work function [ Hutchison et al. Adv. Mater. 2013 , 25 , 2481 - 2485 ], chemical reactivity [ Hutchison et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012 , 51 , 1592 - 1596 ], ultrafast energy relaxation [ Salomon et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2009 , 48 , 8748 - 8751 ; Gomez et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 4340 - 4346 ], and electrical conductivity [ Orgiu et al. Nat. Mater. 2015 , 14 , 1123 - 1129 ] of matter differ significantly to those of the same material in the absence of strong interactions with the electromagnetic fields. Here we show that strong light-matter coupling between confined photons on a semiconductor waveguide and localized plasmon resonances on metal nanowires modifies the efficiency of the photoinduced charge-transfer rate of plasmonic derived (hot) electrons into accepting states in the semiconductor material. Ultrafast spectroscopy measurements reveal a strong correlation between the amplitude of the transient signals, attributed to electrons residing in the semiconductor and the hybridization of waveguide and plasmon excitations.

  12. A nonlinear plasmonic waveguide based all-optical bidirectional switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Xiaoqiang; Pang, Xingxing; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Bin; Guo, Yixuan; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an all-optical switching with a nanometer coupled ring resonator is demonstrated based on the nonlinear material. By adjusting the light intensity, we implement the resonance wavelength from 880 nm to 940 nm in the nonlinear material structure monocyclic. In the bidirectional switch structure, the center wavelength (i.e. 880 nm) is fixed. By changing the light intensity from I = 0 to I = 53 . 1 MW /cm2, the function of optical switching can be obtained. The results demonstrate that both the single-ring cavity and the T-shaped double-ring structure can realize the optical switching effect. This work takes advantage of the simple structure. The single-ring cavity plasmonic switches have many advantages, such as nanoscale size, low pumping light intensity, ultrafast response time (femtosecond level), etc. It is expected that the proposed all-optical integrated devices can be potentially applied in optical communication, signal processing, and signal sensing, etc.

  13. Efficient frequency-domain numerical analysis of modified surface plasmon waveguides formed by a metallic sleeve and coaxial rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Xue Wenrui

    2012-01-01

    Some types of modified surface plasmonic waveguides formed by nanometric silver rods with triangular and square cross-section and a coaxial silver sleeve are proposed in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is used to study the propagation properties of the fundamental mode supported by these types of surface plasmonic waveguides. The field distribution of the fundamental mode and the dependences of the propagation properties on the geometrical parameters, working wavelength and gain media are discussed in detail. The results show that the above physical properties can be adjusted by choosing proper structure parameters, working wavelength and gain media. So the advantages of the properties of the modes render these waveguides promising optical components or photonic device integration and sensors that would benefit future plasmonic interconnects and circuits.

  14. Deep-subwavelength light routing in nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: an alternative to the hybrid guiding scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide is an extremely simple structure that can be naturally formed by directly dropping a dielectric cylinder onto a metallic substrate. However, despite the substantial emphasis devoted to its hybrid plasmonic counterparts, this waveguiding structure has been paid little attention to so far. Here in this paper, through comprehensive numerical analysis, we reveal that such a configuration can be leveraged to achieve deep-subwavelength field confinement with mode area more than one order of magnitude smaller than that of the conventional hybrid waveguide, while maintaining a moderate attenuation with propagation distance over tens of microns. Two-dimensional parameter mapping concerning physical dimension, shape and material of the nanowire as well as the refractive index of the cladding has disclosed the wide-range existence nature of this plasmonic mode and the feasibility to further balance its confinement and loss. (paper)

  15. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2006-01-01

    14-nm-thick stripes and a wavelength of 1550 urn, LR-SPP propagation loss is determined for the stripe widths varying from 2 to 12 mu m and is found to be similar to 7 and 5 dB/cm for 10- and 4-mu m-wide stripes, respectively. For the directional couplers based on 14-nm-thick and 8-mu m-wide gold...... stripes and a wavelength of 1570 nm, the coupling lengths of 4.1, 1.9, and 0.8 mm are found for the respective waveguide separations of 8, 4, and 0 mu m. We model the LR-SPP-based directional couplers using the effective-refractive-index method and obtain a good agreement with the experimental results....... The transmission spectra of LR-SPP-based directional couplers are presented demonstrating an efficient (similar to 30 dB) separation of different telecom wavelength bands. Various possibilities for dynamic control of wavelength division/multiplexing with LRSPP-based directional couplers that utilize the thermo...

  16. Design methodology for all-optical bistable switches based on a plasmonic resonator sandwiched between dielectric waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yinxiao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Ying, Cuifeng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    We present a bistable device consisting of a Bragg grating resonator with a Kerr medium sandwiched between two dielectric slab waveguides. The resonator is situated in a nanometer-scaled metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguide. Due to the dimensional confinement from the dielectric waveguide to the nanoscaled plasmonic waveguide, electric fields are enhanced greatly, which will further reduce the threshold value. Moreover, a semi-analytic method, based on the impedance theory and the transfer matrix method, is developed to study the transmission and reflection spectra as well as the bistability loop of such a switch. Our method is fast and accurate, as confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain simulation. (invited paper)

  17. The characterization of GH shifts of surface plasmon resonance in a waveguide using the FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Geum-Yoon; Kim, Doo Gun; Choi, Young-Wan

    2009-11-09

    We have explicated the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in a mum-order Kretchmann-Raether configuration embedded in an optical waveguide structure by using the finite-difference time-domain method. For optical waveguide-type surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices, the precise derivation of the GH shift has become critical. Artmann's equation, which is accurate enough for bulk optics, is difficult to apply to waveguide-type SPR devices. This is because Artmann's equation, based on the differentiation of the phase shift, is inaccurate at the critical and resonance angles where drastic phase changes occur. In this study, we accurately identified both the positive and the negative GH shifts around the incidence angle of resonance. In a waveguide-type Kretchmann-Raether configuration with an Au thin film of 50 nm, positive and negative lateral shifts of -0.75 and + 1.0 microm are obtained on the SPR with the incident angles of 44.4 degrees and 47.5 degrees, respectively, at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  18. Interfacing Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic and Silicon Photonic Waveguides: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Yioultsis, T. V.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical analysis of end-fire coupling between dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton and rib/wire silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is presented. Simulations are based on the 3-D vector finite element method. The geometrical parameters of the interface are varied...... in order to identify the ones leading to optimum performance, i.e., maximum coupling efficiency. Fabrication tolerances about the optimum parameter values are also assessed. In addition, the effect of a longitudinal metallic stripe gap on coupling efficiency is quantified, since such gaps have been...

  19. Dynamically tunable slow light based on plasmon induced transparency in disk resonators coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xu; Wang, Tao; Liu, Bo; He, Yu; Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast and low-power dynamically tunable single channel and multichannel slow light based on plasmon induced transparencies (PITs) in disk resonators coupled to a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide system with a nonlinear optical Kerr medium is investigated both numerically and analytically. A coupled-mode theory (CMT) is introduced to analyze this dynamically tunable single channel slow light structure. Multichannel slow light is realized in this plasmonic waveguide structure based on a bright–dark mode coupling mechanism. In order to reduce the pump intensity and obtain ultrafast response time, the traditional nonlinear Kerr material is replaced by monolayer graphene. It is found that the magnitude of the single PIT window can be controlled between 0.08 and 0.48, while the corresponding group index is controlled between 14.5 and 2.0 by dynamically decreasing pump intensity from 11.7 to 4.4 MW cm −2 . Moreover, the phase shift multiplication effect is found in this structure. This work paves a new way towards the realization of highly integrated optical circuits and networks, especially for wavelength-selective, all-optical storage and nonlinear devices. (paper)

  20. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu

    2018-01-12

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  1. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu; Yanfeng, Li; Chunxiu, Tian; Jiaguang, Han; Quan, Xu; Xueqian, Zhang; Xixiang, Zhang; Ying, Zhang; Weili, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  2. Floating dielectric slab optical interconnection between metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsu; Park, Junghyun; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Byoungho

    2009-01-19

    A simple and effective optical interconnection which connects two distanced single metal-dielectric interface surface plasmon waveguides by a floating dielectric slab waveguide (slab bridge) is proposed. Transmission characteristics of the suggested structure are numerically studied using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and design rules based on the study are given. In the wave-guiding part, if the slab bridge can support more than the fundamental mode, then the transmission efficiency of the interconnection shows strong periodic dependency on the length of the bridge, due to the multi-mode interference (MMI) effect. Otherwise, only small fluctuation occurs due to the Fabry-Pérot effect. In addition, light beating happens when the slab bridge is relatively short. In the wave-coupling part, on the other hand, gap-assisted transmission occurs at each overlapping region as a consequence of mode hybridization. Periodic dependency on the length of the overlap region also appears due to the MMI effect. According to these results, we propose design principles for achieving both high transmission efficiency and stability with respect to the variation of the interconnection distance, and we show how to obtain the transmission efficiency of 68.3% for the 1mm-long interconnection.

  3. Hybrid rib-slot-rib plasmonic waveguide with deep-subwavelength mode confinement and long propagation length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid plasmonic waveguide where a combined rib-slot-rib structure is added on the metal substrate within a low-index gap region. The optical properties of the quasi-TM fundamental mode are numerically calculated using the finite element method. Compared to the traditional hybrid plasmonic waveguide, our designed waveguiding structure can support modes with tighter confinement and longer propagation length, by properly adjusting the geometry of the rib-slot-rib structure and the gap height. In details, it can provide the hybrid mode with mode area λ2/12000 and reasonable propagation distance 23.78 μm, simultaneously. Its excellent optical performance can facilitate potential applications in ultra-compact nanophotonic devices and circuits.

  4. A novel C-shaped, gold nanoparticle coated, embedded polymer waveguide for localized surface plasmon resonance based detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Amit; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2010-12-21

    In this study, a novel embedded optical waveguide based sensor which utilizes localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles coated on a C-shaped polymer waveguide is being reported. The sensor, as designed, can be used as an analysis chip for detection of minor variations in the refractive index of its microenvironment, which makes it suitable for wide scale use as an affinity biosensor. The C-shaped waveguide coupled with microfluidic channel was fabricated by single step patterning of SU8 on an oxidized silicon wafer. The absorbance due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of SU8 waveguide bound gold nano particle (GNP) was found to be linear with refractive index changes between 1.33 and 1.37. A GNP coated C-bent waveguide of 200 μ width with a bend radius of 1 mm gave rise to a sensitivity of ~5 ΔA/RIU at 530 nm as compared to the ~2.5 ΔA/RIU (refractive index units) of the same dimension bare C-bend SU8 waveguide. The resolution of the sensor probe was ~2 × 10(-4) RIU.

  5. Unidirectional plasmonically induced transparency behavior in a compact graphene-based waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengren; Long, Yang; Zang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    A graphene-based waveguide structure is proposed to achieve a unidirectional plasmonically induced transparency (PIT) behavior. In this structure, a standing-wave cavity can be formed in the graphene waveguide by controlling the Fermi energy at a different part of the graphene. Two resonant graphene ribbons are placed at the node and antinode of the standing-wave cavity field, respectively. Its corresponding optical response coming from different incident sides show a unidirectional PIT behavior. This is because the excited bright resonant graphene ribbon located at antinode inhibits the field strength on its downstream side and causes the field redistribution on its upstream side. When the wave propagates along the sequence node-antinode, the redistribution field will excite the dark resonant graphene ribbon, such that both ribbons couple coherently and the PIT behavior appears. In contrast, when the wave propagates along the sequence antinode-node, the dark resonant graphene ribbon remains dark, and no PIT appears. Our results may benefit novel nonreciprocal devices in the future. (paper)

  6. [Research on symmetrical optical waveguide based surface plasmon resonance sensing with spectral interrogation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-long; Liu, Le; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Peng-fei; Guo, Ji-hua; Ma, Hui; He, Yong-hong

    2015-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors with spectral interrogation can adopt fiber to transmit light signals, thus leaving the sensing part separated, which is very convenient for miniaturization, remote-sensing and on-site analysis. Symmetrical optical waveguide (SOW) SPR has the same refractive index of the-two buffer media layers adjacent to the metal film, resulting in longer propagation distance, deeper penetration depth and better performance compared to conventional SPR In the present paper, we developed a symmetrical optical, waveguide (SOW) SPR sensor with wavelength interrogation. In the system, MgF2-Au-MgF2 film was used as SOW module for glucose sensing, and a fiber based light source and detection was used in the spectral interrogation. In the experiment, a refractive index resolution of 2.8 x 10(-7) RIU in fluid protocol was acquired. This technique provides advantages of high resolution and could have potential use in compact design, on-site analysis and remote sensing.

  7. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-10

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  8. The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiong-gan; Wang, Zhi-guo; Tan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide is investigated theoretically using Green's function method. Our result suggests that the gain and loss parameters influence the amplitude and phase of the fields localized in the two cavities. For the case of balanced gain and loss, the fields of the two cavities are always of equi-amplitude but out of phase. A plasmon induced transparency (PIT)-like transmission peak can be achieved by the destructive interference of two fields with anti-phase. For the case of unbalanced gain and loss, some unexpected responses of structure are generated. When the gain is more than the loss, the system response is dissipative at around the resonant frequency of the two cavities, where the sum of reflectance and transmittance becomes less than one. This is because the lossy cavity, with a stronger localized field, makes the main contribution to the system response. When the gain is less than the loss, the reverse is true. It is found that the metal loss dissipates the system energy but facilitates the gain cavity to make a dominant effect on the system response. This mechanism may have a potential application for optical amplification and for a plasmonic waveguide switch. (paper)

  9. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-09

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  10. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  11. Near-field collimation of light carrying orbital angular momentum with bull's-eye-assisted plasmonic coaxial waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-07-10

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, as an emerging hotspot in optics and photonics, introduces many degrees of freedom for applications ranging from optical communication and quantum processing to micromanipulation. To achieve a high degree of integration, optical circuits for OAM light are essential, which are, however, challenging in the optical regime owing to the lack of well-developed theory. Here we provide a scheme to guide and collimate the OAM beam at the micro- and nano-levels. The coaxial plasmonic slit was exploited as a naturally occurring waveguide for light carrying OAM. Concentric grooves etched on the output surface of the coaxial waveguide were utilized as a plasmonic metasurface to couple the OAM beam to free space with greatly increased beam directivity. Experimental results at λ = 532 nm validated the novel transportation and collimating effect of the OAM beam. Furthermore, dynamic tuning of the topological charges was demonstrated by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM).

  12. Ultrashort broadband polarization beam splitter based on a combined hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chien

    2016-01-20

    We propose an ultracompact broadband polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on a combined hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW). The proposed PBS separates transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes using a bent lower HPW with vertical nanoscale gaps and a straight upper HPW with a horizontal nanoscale gap, respectively, without relying on an additional coupling region. This design considerably reduces the length of the PBS to the submicron scale (920 nm, the shortest PBS reported to date) while offering polarization extinction ratios (PERs) of ~19 dB (~18 dB) and insertion losses (ILs) of ~0.6 dB (~0.3 dB) for the TE (TM) mode over an extremely broad band of 400 nm (from λ = 1300 nm to 1700 nm, covering entirely second and third telecom windows). The length of the designed PBS can be reduced further to 620 nm while still offering PERs of 15 dB, realizing a densely photonic integrated circuit. Considering the fabrication tolerance, the designed PBS allows for large geometrical deviations of ± 20 nm while restricting PER variations to within 1 dB, except for those in the nanoscale gaps smaller than 10nm. Additionally, we also address the input and ouput coupling efficiencies of the proposed PBS.

  13. Ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate an ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG, which consists of a metal strip, a silicon core, and a silicon oxide (SiO2 insulator layer between them. When light injected to an HPWG is absorbed by the metal strip, the temperature increases and the resistance of the metal strip changes accordingly due to the photothermal and thermal resistance effects of the metal. Therefore, the optical power variation can be monitored by measuring the resistance of the metal strip on the HPWG. To obtain the electrical signal for the resistance measurement conveniently, a Wheatstone bridge circuit is monolithically integrated with the HPWG on the same chip. As the HPWG has nanoscale light confinement, the present power monitor is as short as ~3 μm, which is the smallest photothermal power monitor reported until now. The compactness helps to improve the thermal efficiency and the response speed. For the present power monitor fabricated with simple fabrication processes, the measured responsivity is as high as about 17.7 mV/mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and the power dynamic range is as large as 35 dB.

  14. Extremely small polarization beam splitter based on a multimode interference coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wu, Hao; Shi, Yaocheng; Dai, Daoxin

    2014-01-15

    A novel polarization beam splitter (PBS) with an extremely small footprint is proposed based on a multimode interference (MMI) coupler with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The MMI section, covered with a metal strip partially, is designed to achieve mirror imaging for TE polarization. On the other hand, for TM polarization, there is almost no MMI effect since the higher-order TM modes are hardly excited due to the hybrid plasmonic effect. With this design, the whole PBS including the 1.1 μm long MMI section as well as the output section has a footprint as small as ∼1.8 μm×2.5 μm. Besides, the fabrication process is simple since the waveguide dimension is relatively large (e.g., the input/output waveguides widths w ≥300 nm and the MMI width w(MMI)=800 nm). Numerical simulations show that the designed PBS has a broad band of ∼80 nm for an ER >10 dB as well as a large fabrication tolerance to allow a silicon core width variation of -30 nm<Δw<50 nm and a metal strip width variation of -200 nm<Δw(m)<0.

  15. Tunable plasmon-induced absorption effects in a graphene-based waveguide coupled with graphene ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Nian; Xia, Sheng-Xuan; Fu, Guang-Lai; Liang, Mei-Zhen; Qin, Meng; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a structure composed of two graphene waveguides and dual coupled graphene ring resonators (GRRs) to achieve a plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) effect. A three-level plasmonic system and a temporal coupled mode theory (CMT) are utilized to verify the simulation results. Moreover, a double-window-PIA effect can be conveniently attained by introducing another GRR with proper parameters to meet more specific acquirement in optical modulation process. The pronounced PIA resonances can be tuned in a number of ways, such as by adjusting the coupling distance between the GRRs and the couplings between the GRR and the waveguide, and tuning the radius and the Fermi energy of the GRRs. Besides, the produced PIA effect shows a high group delay up to - 1 . 87 ps, exhibiting a particularly prominent fast-light feature. Our results have potential applications in the realization of THz-integrated spectral control and graphene plasmonic devices such as sensors, filters, ultra-fast optical switches and so on.

  16. Slow light based on plasmon-induced transparency in dual-ring resonator-coupled MDM waveguide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Shiping; Li, Hongjian; He, Zhihui; Li, Boxun; Yang, Hui; Cao, Guangtao

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical and numerical investigation of the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect in a dual-ring resonator-coupled metal–dielectric–metal waveguide system. A transfer matrix method (TMM) is introduced to analyse the transmission and dispersion properties in the transparency window. A tunable PIT is realized in a constant separation design. The phase dispersion and slow-light effect are discussed in both the resonance and non-resonance conditions. Finally, a propagation constant based on the TMM is derived for the periodic system. It is found that the group index in the transparency window of the proposed structure can be easily tuned by the period p, which provides a new understanding, and a group index ∼51 is achieved. The quality factor of resonators can also be effective in adjusting the dispersion relation. These observations could be helpful to fundamental research and applications for integrated plasmonic devices. (paper)

  17. Theory and Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Mirror, Resonant Waveguide Grating, and Dual Polarization Interferometry Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy W. Day

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors have been used extensively in the scientific community for several purposes, most notably to determine association and dissociation kinetics, protein-ligand, protein-protein, or nucleic acid hybridization interactions. A number of different types of biosensors are available in the field, each with real or perceived benefits over the others. This review discusses the basic theory and operational arrangements of four commercially available types of optical biosensors: surface plasmon resonance, resonant mirror, resonance waveguide grating, and dual polarization interferometry. The different applications these techniques offer are discussed from experiments and results reported in recently published literature. Additionally, recent advancements or modifications to the current techniques are also discussed.

  18. Near-field collimation of light carrying orbital angular momentum with bull’s-eye-assisted plasmonic coaxial waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-07-01

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, as an emerging hotspot in optics and photonics, introduces many degrees of freedom for applications ranging from optical communication and quantum processing to micromanipulation. To achieve a high degree of integration, optical circuits for OAM light are essential, which are, however, challenging in the optical regime owing to the lack of well-developed theory. Here we provide a scheme to guide and collimate the OAM beam at the micro- and nano-levels. The coaxial plasmonic slit was exploited as a naturally occurring waveguide for light carrying OAM. Concentric grooves etched on the output surface of the coaxial waveguide were utilized as a plasmonic metasurface to couple the OAM beam to free space with greatly increased beam directivity. Experimental results at λ = 532 nm validated the novel transportation and collimating effect of the OAM beam. Furthermore, dynamic tuning of the topological charges was demonstrated by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM).

  19. Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Kulkova, Irina V.; Malureanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    . The modulation is achieved by changing the gain of the core that results in different transmittance through the waveguides. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore high modulation speed. Bulk semiconductor, quantum wells and quantum dots, arranged in either horizontal or vertical layout......, are considered as the core of the MSM waveguide. Dependences on the waveguide core size and gain values of various active materials are studied. The designs consider also practical aspects like n- and p-doped layers and barriers in order to obtain results as close to reality. The effective propagation constants...

  20. A highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons excitation achieved with a metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.

  1. Compact and broadband directional coupling and demultiplexing in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhihong; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Han, Zhanghua

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically, numerically, and experimentally demonstrate that a directional coupling function can be realized with a wide bandwidth (greater than 200 nm) in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect. The functional size of the structure...

  2. Processing Interband Cascade Laser for High Temperature CW Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tober, Richard

    2004-01-01

    A narrow ridge-waveguide mid-IR interband cascade laser based on Type-II InAs/GaInSh heterostructures processed with a thick gold heat spreading layer operated CW at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 214.4 K...

  3. Infrared plasmonic nano-lasers based on Metal Insulator Metal waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    We will present our latest results on metal-insulator-metal waveguide devices, in particular reducing the dimensions of devices and distributed feedback lasers. Also we will examine potential useful applications for metal nano-lasers.

  4. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with balanced white emission by minimizing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Zhao, Xin-Dong; Wei, Jian; Xie, Zhong-Zhi; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2017-07-10

    It is challenging in realizing high-performance transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with symmetrical light emission to both sides. Herein, an efficient transparent OLED with highly balanced white emission to both sides is demonstrated by integrating quasi-periodic nanostructures into the organic emitter and the metal-dielectric composite top electrode, which can simultaneously suppressing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss. The power efficiency and external quantum efficiency are raised to 83.5 lm W -1 and 38.8%, respectively, along with a bi-directional luminance ratio of 1.26. The proposed scheme provides a facile route for extending application scope of transparent OLEDs for future transparent displays and lightings.

  5. Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances with Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Ni, Xingjie

    2012-01-01

    Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance.......Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance....

  6. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer...

  7. Integrated graphene based modulators enabled by interfacing plasmonic slot and silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Graphene has offered a new paradigm for extremely fast and active optoelectronic devices due to its unique electronic and optical properties [1]. With the combination of high-index dielectric waveguides/resonators, several integrated graphene-based optical modulators have already been demonstrated...

  8. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  9. FDTD analysis of Aluminum/a-Si:H surface plasmon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Paulo; Fantoni, Alessandro; Fernandes, Miguel; Vygranenko, Yuri; Vieira, Manuela

    2018-02-01

    The large majority of surface plasmon resonance based devices use noble metals, namely gold or silver, in their manufacturing process. These metals present low resistivity, which leads to low optical losses in the visible and near infrared spectrum ranges. Gold shows high environmental stability, which is essential for long-term operation, and silver's lower stability can be overcome through the deposition of an alumina layer, for instance. However, their high cost is a limiting factor if the intended target is large scale manufacturing. In this work, it is considered a cost-effective approach through the selection of aluminum as the plasmonic material and hydrogenated amorphous silicon instead of its crystalline counterpart. This surface plasmon resonance device relies on Fano resonance to improve its response to refractive index deviations of the surrounding environment. Fano resonance is highly sensitive to slight changes of the medium, hence the reason we incorporated this interference phenomenon in the proposed device. We report the results obtained when conducting Finite-Difference Time Domain algorithm based simulations on this metal-dielectric-metal structure when the active metal is aluminum, gold and silver. Then, we evaluate their sensitivity, detection accuracy and resolution, and the obtained results for our proposed device show good linearity and similar parameter performance as the ones obtained when using gold or silver as plasmonic materials.

  10. High efficiency all-optical plasmonic diode based on a nonlinear side-coupled waveguide-cavity structure with broken symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong-Qin; Liu, Bin; Hu, Jin-Feng; He, Xing-Dao

    2018-05-01

    An all-optical plasmonic diode, comprising a metal-insulator-metal waveguide coupled with a stub cavity, is proposed based on a nonlinear Fano structure. The key technique used is to break structural spatial symmetry by a simple reflector layer in the waveguide. The spatial asymmetry of the structure gives rise to the nonreciprocity of coupling efficiencies between the Fano cavity and waveguides on both sides of the reflector layer, leading to a nonreciprocal nonlinear response. Transmission properties and dynamic responses are numerically simulated and investigated by the nonlinear finite-difference time-domain method. In the proposed structure, high-efficiency nonreciprocal transmission can be achieved with a low power threshold and an ultrafast response time (subpicosecond level). A high maximum transmittance of 89.3% and an ultra-high transmission contrast ratio of 99.6% can also be obtained. The device can be flexibly adjusted for working wavebands by altering the stub cavity length.

  11. Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berini, P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Kim, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    referred to as “extraordinary optical transmission.” Surface plasmons are intimately involved in the response of “metamaterials” and “metasurfaces” constructed from deep subwavelength metallic features, producing esoteric macroscopic properties such as a negative refractive index, or a permittivity...... or localized at metal nanostructures. Light suitable for exciting surface plasmons is typically within or near the visible but may extend into the infrared and ultraviolet regions. Metallic structures that support surface plasmons are highly varied, including planar arrangements of metal films, stripes...

  12. Dynamic Dispersal of Surface Layer Biofilm Induced by Nanosized TiO2 Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance and Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Yan, Peng; Chen, You-Peng; Wang, Wei; Dai, You-Zhi; Fang, Fang; Wang, Gui-Xue; Shen, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Pollutant degradation is present mainly in the surface layer of biofilms, and the surface layer is the most vulnerable to impairment by toxic pollutants. In this work, the effects of nanosized TiO 2 (n-TiO 2 ) on the average thicknesses of Bacillus subtilis biofilm and on bacterial attachment on different surfaces were investigated. The binding mechanism of n-TiO 2 to the cell surface was also probed. The results revealed that n-TiO 2 caused biofilm dispersal and the thicknesses decreased by 2.0 to 2.6 μm after several hours of exposure. The attachment abilities of bacteria with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on hydrophilic surfaces were significantly reduced by 31% and 81% under 10 and 100 mg/liter of n-TiO 2 , respectively, whereas those of bacteria without EPS were significantly reduced by 43% and 87%, respectively. The attachment abilities of bacteria with and without EPS on hydrophobic surfaces were significantly reduced by 50% and 56%, respectively, under 100 mg/liter of n-TiO 2 The results demonstrated that biofilm dispersal can be attributed to the changes in the cell surface structure and the reduction of microbial attachment ability. IMPORTANCE Nanoparticles can penetrate into the outer layer of biofilm in a relatively short period and can bind onto EPS and bacterial surfaces. The current work probed the effects of nanosized TiO 2 (n-TiO 2 ) on biofilm thickness, bacterial migration, and surface properties of the cell in the early stage using the surface plasmon resonance waveguide mode. The results demonstrated that n-TiO 2 decreased the adhesive ability of both cell and EPS and induced bacterial migration and biofilm detachment in several hours. The decreased adhesive ability of microbes and EPS worked against microbial aggregation, reducing the effluent quality in the biological wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  14. Interband cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vurgaftman, I; Meyer, J R; Canedy, C L; Kim, C S; Bewley, W W; Merritt, C D; Abell, J; Weih, R; Kamp, M; Kim, M; Höfling, S

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the midwave infrared (IR). The ICL may be considered the hybrid of a conventional diode laser that generates photons via electron–hole recombination, and an intersubband-based quantum cascade laser (QCL) that stacks multiple stages for enhanced current efficiency. Following a brief historical overview, we discuss theoretical aspects of the active region and core designs, growth by molecular beam epitaxy, and the processing of broad-area, narrow-ridge, and distributed feedback (DFB) devices. We then review the experimental performance of pulsed broad area ICLs, as well as the continuous-wave (cw) characteristics of narrow ridges having good beam quality and DFBs producing output in a single spectral mode. Because the threshold drive powers are far lower than those of QCLs throughout the λ = 3–6 µm spectral band, ICLs are increasingly viewed as the laser of choice for mid-IR laser spectroscopy applications that do not require high output power but need to be hand-portable and/or battery operated. Demonstrated ICL performance characteristics to date include threshold current densities as low as 106 A cm −2 at room temperature (RT), cw threshold drive powers as low as 29 mW at RT, maximum cw operating temperatures as high as 118 °C, maximum cw output powers exceeding 400 mW at RT, maximum cw wallplug efficiencies as high as 18% at RT, maximum cw single-mode output powers as high as 55 mW at RT, and single-mode output at λ = 5.2 µm with a cw drive power of only 138 mW at RT. (topical review)

  15. Fabricating plasmonic components for nano-and meta-photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Different fabrication approaches for realization of metal-dielectric structures supporting propagating and localized surface plasmons are described including fabrication of nanophotonic waveguides and plasmonic nanoantennae....

  16. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  17. Comprehensive investigation of noble metal nanoparticles shape, size and material on the optical response of optimal plasmonic Y-splitter waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Golmohammadi, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose of guiding and splitting of optical power at C-band spectrum, we studied Y-shape splitters based on various shapes of nanoparticles as a plasmon waveguide. We applied different configurations of Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) nanoparticles including spheres, rods and rings, to optimize the efficiency and losses of two and four-branch splitters. The best performance in light transportation specifically at telecom wavelength (λ≈1550 nm) is achieved by nanorings, due to an extra degree of freedom in their geometrical components. In addition, comparisons of several values for offset distance (doffset) of examined structures shows that Au nanoring splitters with feasible lower doffset have high quality in guiding and splitting of light through the structure. Finally, we studied four-branch Y-splitters based on Au and Ag nanorings with least possible offset distances to optimize the splitter performance. The power transmission as a key element is calculated for examined structures.

  18. Terahertz plasmon-induced transparency based on asymmetric dual-disk resonators coupled to a semiconductor InSb waveguide and its biosensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahamat, Yadollah; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    An ultracompact double eight-shaped plasmonic structure for the realization of plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in the terahertz (THz) region has been studied. The device consists of a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor bus waveguide coupled to the dual-disk resonators. Indium antimonide is employed to excite SPP in the THz region. The transmission characteristics of the proposed device are simulated numerically by the finite-difference time-domain method. In addition, a theoretical analysis based on the coupled-mode theory for transmission features is presented and compared with the numerical results. Results are in good agreement. Also, the dependence of PIT frequency characteristics on the radius of the outer disk is discussed in detail. In addition, by removing one of the outer disk resonators, double-PIT peaks can be observed in the transmission spectrum, and the physical mechanism of the appeared peaks is investigated. Finally, an application of the proposed structure for distinguishing different states of DNA molecules is discussed. Results show that the maximum sensitivity with 654 GHz/RIU-1 could be obtained for a single PIT structure. The frequency shifts equal to 37 and 99 GHz could be observed for the denatured and the hybridized DNA states, respectively.

  19. Roadmap on plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Mark I.; Kneipp, Katrin; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Saha, Soham; Dutta, Aveek; Ndukaife, Justus; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Reddy, Harsha; Guler, Urcan; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Gholipour, Behrad; Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Soci, Cesare; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Savinov, Vassili; Singh, Ranjan; Groß, Petra; Lienau, Christoph; Vadai, Michal; Solomon, Michelle L.; Barton, David R., III; Lawrence, Mark; Dionne, Jennifer A.; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Esteban, Ruben; Aizpurua, Javier; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Sui; Wang, Danqing; Wang, Weijia; Odom, Teri W.; Accanto, Nicolò; de Roque, Pablo M.; Hancu, Ion M.; Piatkowski, Lukasz; van Hulst, Niek F.; Kling, Matthias F.

    2018-04-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly developing field at the boundary of physical optics and condensed matter physics. It studies phenomena induced by and associated with surface plasmons—elementary polar excitations bound to surfaces and interfaces of good nanostructured metals. This Roadmap is written collectively by prominent researchers in the field of plasmonics. It encompasses selected aspects of nanoplasmonics. Among them are fundamental aspects, such as quantum plasmonics based on the quantum-mechanical properties of both the underlying materials and the plasmons themselves (such as their quantum generator, spaser), plasmonics in novel materials, ultrafast (attosecond) nanoplasmonics, etc. Selected applications of nanoplasmonics are also reflected in this Roadmap, in particular, plasmonic waveguiding, practical applications of plasmonics enabled by novel materials, thermo-plasmonics, plasmonic-induced photochemistry and photo-catalysis. This Roadmap is a concise but authoritative overview of modern plasmonics. It will be of interest to a wide audience of both fundamental physicists and chemists, as well as applied scientists and engineers.

  20. Proposal of a broadband, polarization-insensitive and high-efficiency hot-carrier schottky photodetector integrated with a plasmonic silicon ridge waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Kou, Pengfei; Shen, Jianqi; Lee, El Hang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    We propose a broadband, polarization-insensitive and high-efficiency plasmonic Schottky diode for detection of sub-bandgap photons in the optical communication wavelength range through internal photoemission (IPE). The distinctive features of this design are that it has a gold film covering both the top and the sidewalls of a dielectric silicon ridge waveguide with the Schottky contact formed at the gold–silicon interface and the sidewall coverage of gold can be easily tuned by an insulating layer. An extensive physical model on IPE of hot carriers is presented in detail and is applied to calculate and examine the performance of this detector. In comparison with a diode having only the top gold contact, the polarization sensitivity of the responsivity is greatly minimized in our photodetector with gold film covering both the top and the sidewall. Much higher responsivities for both polarizations are also achieved over a broad wavelength range of 1.2–1.6 μm. Moreover, the Schottky contact is only 4 μm long, leading to a very small dark current. Our design is very promising for practical applications in high-density silicon photonic integration. (paper)

  1. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.; Fasenfest, Benjamin J.; Behymer, Elaine M.

    2014-07-15

    Tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides are presented. Resonances can be observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides can satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors of over 10.sup.3 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  2. Plasmon-modulated photoluminescence from gold nanostructures and its dependence on plasmon resonance, excitation energy, and band structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; Wiedemair, Justyna; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct single-photon plasmon-modulated photoluminescence processes are generated from nanostructured gold surfaces by tuning the spectral overlap of the incident laser source, localized surface plasmon resonance band, and the interband transitions between the d and sp bands, near the X-and

  3. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  4. Effects of interband transitions on Faraday rotation in metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysin, G M; Chikan, Viktor; Young, Nathan; Dani, Raj Kumar

    2013-08-14

    The Faraday rotation in metallic nanoparticles is considered based on a quantum model for the dielectric function ϵ(ω) in the presence of a DC magnetic field B. We focus on effects in ϵ(ω) due to interband transitions (IBTs), which are important in the blue and ultraviolet for noble metals used in plasmonics. The dielectric function is found using the perturbation of the electron density matrix due to the optical field of the incident electromagnetic radiation. The calculation is applied to transitions between two bands (d and p, for example) separated by a gap, as one finds in gold at the L-point of the Fermi surface. The result of the DC magnetic field is a shift in the effective optical frequency causing IBTs by ±μBB/ħ, where opposite signs are associated with left/right circular polarizations. The Faraday rotation for a dilute solution of 17 nm diameter gold nanoparticles is measured and compared with both the IBT theory and a simpler Drude model for the bound electron response. Effects of the plasmon resonance mode on Faraday rotation in nanoparticles are also discussed.

  5. Plasmonic solutions for coupling and modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu

    We present our design results for efficient coupling and modulation in plasmonic structures. Fiber coupling to a plasmonic slot waveguide is significantly increased by a metallic nanoantenna with additional reflectors or by the configuration of several connected antennas. We also show that the pl......We present our design results for efficient coupling and modulation in plasmonic structures. Fiber coupling to a plasmonic slot waveguide is significantly increased by a metallic nanoantenna with additional reflectors or by the configuration of several connected antennas. We also show...... that the plasmonic four-layer waveguide with patterned ITO layer can modulate light with higher transmission and the same modulation depth as a waveguide with a uniform ITO layer....

  6. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  7. Interband coupling and transport interband scattering in s± superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Vladimir [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-04-04

    A two-band model with repulsive interband coupling and interband transport (potential) scattering is considered to elucidate their effects on material properties. In agreement with previous work, we find that the bands order parameters Δ1,2 differ and the large is at the band with a smaller normal density of states (DOS), Nn2 < Nn1. However, the bands energy gaps, as determined by the energy dependence of the DOS, are equal due to scattering. For each temperature, the gaps turn zero at a certain critical interband scattering rate, i.e. for strong enough scattering the model material becomes gappless. In the gapless state, the DOS at the band 2 is close to the normal state value, whereas at the band 1 it has a V-shape with non-zero minimum. When the normal bands DOS' are mismatched, Nn1 6= Nn2, the critical temperature Tc is suppressed even in the absence of interband scattering, Tc(Nn1) has a dome-like shape. With increasing interband scattering, the London penetration depth at low temperatures evolves from being exponentially at to the powerlaw and even to near linear behavior in the gapless state, the latter being easily misinterpreted as caused by order parameter nodes.

  8. Real-time sensing of surface-bound fibrinogen and fibrin interactions using spectroscopy of guided modes in optical waveguide structures, surface plasmon resonance, and monoclonal antibodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyr, J. E.; Tichý, Ivo; Jiroušková, M.; Tobiška, Petr; Slavík, Radan; Homola, Jiří; Suttnar, J.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (1998), s. 675 ISSN 0957-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/96/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : surface plasmons * biosensors * biomedical engineering Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  9. Evaluation of slot-to-slot coupling between dielectric slot waveguides and metal-insulator-metal slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deqing; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2015-07-27

    We numerically analyzed the power-coupling characteristics between a high-index-contrast dielectric slot waveguide and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic slot waveguide as functions of structural parameters. Couplings due mainly to the transfer of evanescent components in two waveguides generated high transmission efficiencies of 62% when the slot widths of the two waveguides were the same and 73% when the waveguides were optimized by slightly different widths. The maximum transmission efficiency in the slot-to-slot coupling was about 10% higher than that in the coupling between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. Large alignment tolerance of the slot-to-slot coupling was also proved. Moreover, a small gap inserted into the interface between two waveguides effectively enhances the transmission efficiency, as in the case of couplings between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. In addition, couplings with very wideband transmissions over a wavelength region of a few hundred nanometers were validated.

  10. Electrical Modulation of Fano Resonance in Plasmonic Nanostructures Using Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Pauli blocking of interband transistions gives rise to tunable optical properties in single layer graphene (SLG). This effect is exploited in a graphene-nanoantenna hybrid device where Fano resonant plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated on top of a graphene sheet. The use of Fano resonant eleme......-element simulations. Our approach can be used for development of next generation of tunable plasmonic and hybrid nanophotonic devices.......Pauli blocking of interband transistions gives rise to tunable optical properties in single layer graphene (SLG). This effect is exploited in a graphene-nanoantenna hybrid device where Fano resonant plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated on top of a graphene sheet. The use of Fano resonant...... elements enhances the interaction of incident radiation with the graphene sheet and enables efficient electrical modulation of the plasmonic resonance. We observe electrically controlled damping in the Fano resonances occurring at approximately 2 μm, and the results are verified by full-wave 3D finite...

  11. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  12. Mesoscopic quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke

    for the spontaneous emission of mesoscopic quantum emitters is developed. The light-matter interaction is in this model modied beyond the dipole expectancy and found to both suppress and enhance the coupling to plasmonic modes in excellent agreement with our measurements. We demonstrate that this mesoscopic effect......This thesis reports research on quantum dots coupled to dielectric and plasmonic nano-structures by way of nano-structure fabrication, optical measurements, and theoretical modeling. To study light-matter interaction, plasmonic gap waveguides with nanometer dimensions as well as samples for studies...... to allow for e- cient plasmon-based single-photon sources. Theoretical studies of coupling and propagation properties of plasmonic waveguides reveal that a high-refractive index of the medium surrounding the emitter, e.g. nGaAs = 3.5, limits the realizability of ecient plasmon-based single-photon sources...

  13. Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....

  14. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  15. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  16. Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Brongersma, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    The development of advanced dielectric photonic structures has enabled tremendous control over the propagation and manipulation of light. Structures such as waveguides, splitters, mixers, and resonators now play a central role in the telecommunications industry. This book will discuss an exciting new class of photonic devices, known as surface plasmon nanophotonic structures. Surface plasmons are easily accessible excitations in metals and semiconductors and involve a collective motion of the conduction electrons. These excitations can be exploited to manipulate electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies ("light") in new ways that are unthinkable in conventional dielectric structures. The field of plasmon nanophotonics is rapidly developing and impacting a wide range of areas including: electronics, photonics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The book will highlight several exciting new discoveries that have been made, while providing a clear discussion of the underlying physics, the nanofabrication issues...

  17. Optimization of metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, N.; Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the optimization of metal-clad waveguides for sensor applications to achieve high sensitivity for adlayer and refractive index measurements. By using the Fresnel reflection coefficients both the angular shift and the width of the resonances in the sensorgrams are taken...... into account. Our optimization shows that it is possible for metal-clad waveguides to achieve a sensitivity improvement of 600% compared to surface-plasmon-resonance sensors....

  18. Distributed feedback interband cascade lasers with top grating and corrugated sidewalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Feng [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Stocker, Michael [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Pham, John [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Towner, Frederick [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Shen, Kun [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA; Wang, Jie [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA; Lascola, Kevin [Thorlabs Quantum Electronics, 10335 Guilford Rd, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA

    2018-03-26

    Distributed feedback (DFB) interband cascade lasers (ICLs) with a 1st order top surface grating were designed and fabricated. Partially corrugated sidewalls were implemented to suppress high order lateral modes. The DFB ICLs have 4 mm long and 4.5 mu m wide ridge waveguides and are mounted epi-up on AlN submounts. We demonstrated a continuous-wave (CW) DFB ICL, from a first wafer which has a large detuning of the gain peak from the DFB wavelength, with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB. With proper matching of grating feedback and the gain peak wavelength for the second wafer, a DFB ICL was demonstrated with a maximum CW output power and a maximum wall plug efficiency reaching 42 mW and 2%, respectively, at 25 degrees C. The lasing wavelengths of both lasers are around 3.3 mu m at 25 degrees C. Published by AIP Publishing.

  19. Ultracompact Pseudowedge Plasmonic Lasers and Laser Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Hsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chang, Chun-Tse; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Huang, Zhen-Ting; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Yang, Jhen-Hong; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Tzy-Rong; Chen, Kuo-Ping; Gwo, Shangjr; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2018-02-14

    Concentrating light at the deep subwavelength scale by utilizing plasmonic effects has been reported in various optoelectronic devices with intriguing phenomena and functionality. Plasmonic waveguides with a planar structure exhibit a two-dimensional degree of freedom for the surface plasmon; the degree of freedom can be further reduced by utilizing metallic nanostructures or nanoparticles for surface plasmon resonance. Reduction leads to different lightwave confinement capabilities, which can be utilized to construct plasmonic nanolaser cavities. However, most theoretical and experimental research efforts have focused on planar surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nanolasers. In this study, we combined nanometallic structures intersecting with ZnO nanowires and realized the first laser emission based on pseudowedge SPP waveguides. Relative to current plasmonic nanolasers, the pseudowedge plasmonic lasers reported in our study exhibit extremely small mode volumes, high group indices, high spontaneous emission factors, and high Purell factors beneficial for the strong interaction between light and matter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that compact plasmonic laser arrays can be constructed, which could benefit integrated plasmonic circuits.

  20. Coupled-resonator-induced plasmonic bandgaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujia; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-10-15

    By drawing an analogy with the conventional photonic crystals, the plasmonic bandgaps have mainly employed the periodic metallic structures, named as plasmonic crystals. However, the sizes of the plasmonic crystals are much larger than the wavelengths, and the large sizes considerably decrease the density of the photonic integration circuits. Here, based on the coupled-resonator effect, the plasmonic bandgaps are experimentally realized in the subwavelength waveguide-resonator structure, which considerably decreases the structure size to subwavelength scales. An analytic model and the phase analysis are established to explain this phenomenon. Both the experiment and simulation show that the plasmonic bandgap structure has large fabrication tolerances (>20%). Instead of the periodic metallic structures in the bulky plasmonic crystals, the utilization of the subwavelength plasmonic waveguide-resonator structure not only significantly shrinks the bandgap structure to be about λ 2 /13, but also expands the physics of the plasmonic bandgaps. The subwavelength dimension, together with the waveguide configuration and robust realization, makes the bandgap structure easy to be highly integrated on chips.

  1. Copper plasmonics and catalysis: role of electron-phonon interactions in dephasing localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-C.; Ding, Yuchen; Goodman, Samuel M.; H. Funke, Hans; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-10-01

    Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain boundary scattering on the decay of localized surface plasmon waves. Using our quantitative analysis and different temperature dependent measurements, we show that electron-phonon interactions dominate over other scattering mechanisms in dephasing plasmon waves. While interband transitions in copper metal contributes substantially to plasmon losses, tuning surface plasmon modes to infrared frequencies leads to a five-fold enhancement in the quality factor. These findings demonstrate that conformal ALD coatings can improve the chemical stability for copper nanoparticles, even at high temperatures (>300 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and nanoscaled copper is a good alternative material for many potential applications in nanophotonics, plasmonics, catalysis and nanoscale electronics.Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain

  2. First-principles study of surface plasmons on Ag(111) and H/Ag(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is used to investigate the relation between molecular bonding and surface plasmons for the model system H/Ag(111). We employ an orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional to obtain a correct description of the Ag 3d band, which...... is crucial to avoid overscreening the plasmon by the s-d interband transitions. For the clean surface, this approach reproduces the experimental plasmon energies and dispersion to within 0.15 eV. Adsorption of hydrogen shifts and damps the Ag(111) surface plasmon and induces a new peak in the loss function...... at 0.6 eV below the Ag(111) plasmon peak. This feature originates from interband transitions between states located on the hydrogen atoms and states on the Ag surface atoms....

  3. Light squeezing through arbitrarily shaped plasmonic channels and sharp bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for optical energy squeezing and anomalous light transmission through arbitrarily-shaped plasmonic ultranarrow channels and bends connecting two larger plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. It is shown how a proper design of subwavelength optical channels at cutoff, patterned by plasmonic implants and connecting larger plasmonic waveguides, may allow enhanced resonant transmission inspired by the anomalous properties of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. The resonant transmission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the channel length and its specific geometry, such as possible presence of abruptions and bends

  4. Simulations of Resonant Intraband and Interband Tunneling Spin Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David; Cartoixa-Soler, Xavier; McGill, T. C.; Smith, Darryl L.; Schulman, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews resonant intraband and interband tunneling spin filters It explores the possibility of building a zero-magnetic-field spin polarizer using nonmagnetic III-V semiconductor heterostructures. It reviews the extensive simulations of quantum transport in asymmetric InAs/GaSb/AlSb resonant tunneling structures with Rashba spin splitting and proposes a. new device concept: side-gated asymmetric Resonant Interband Tunneling Diode (a-RITD).

  5. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses...

  6. Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Horvath, Robert; Thinggaard, S.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of metal-clad waveguide biosensors, so-called dip-type and peak-type, are analyzed and tested. Their performances are benchmarked against the well-known surface-plasmon resonance biosensor, showing improved probe characteristics for adlayer thicknesses above 150-200 nm. The dip-type metal-clad...... waveguide sensor is shown to be the best all-round alternative to the surface-plasmon resonance biosensor. Both metal-clad waveguides are tested experimentally for cell detection, showing a detection linut of 8-9 cells/mm(2). (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Frigerio, Jacopo; Samarelli, Antonio; Gallacher, Kevin; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Sakat, Emilie; Calandrini, Eugenio; Millar, Ross W.; Giliberti, Valeria; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Ortolani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The use of heavily doped semiconductors to achieve plasma frequencies in the mid-IR has been recently proposed as a promising way to obtain high-quality and tunable plasmonic materials. We introduce a plasmonic platform based on epitaxial n-type Ge grown on standard Si wafers by means of low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Due to the large carrier concentration achieved with P dopants and to the compatibility with the existing CMOS technology, SiGe plasmonics hold promises for mid-IR applications in optoelectronics, IR detection, sensing, and light harvesting. As a representative example, we show simulations of mid-IR plasmonic waveguides based on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constants of the grown materials.

  8. Graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Tae Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator is designed based on an asymmetric double-electrode plasmonic waveguide structure. The photonic device consists of a monolayer graphene, a thin metal strip, and a thin dielectric layer that is inserted between the grapheme and the metal strip. By electrically tuning the graphene’s refractive index, the propagation loss of the hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode in the proposed graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switchable, and hence the intensity of the guided modes is modulated. The highest modulation depth is observed at the graphene’s epsilon-near-zero region. The device characteristics are characterized over the entire C-band (1.530–1.565 μm). (paper)

  9. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argyropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  10. Local Plasmon Engineering in Doped Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hage, Fredrik Sydow; Hardcastle, Trevor P.; Gjerding, Morten Niklas

    2018-01-01

    Single-atom B or N substitutional doping in single-layer suspended graphene, realized by low-energy ion implantation, is shown to induce a dampening or enhancement of the characteristic interband π plasmon of graphene through a high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy study using scanning...... tailoring can no longer be detected within experimental uncertainties beyond a distance of approximately 1 nm from the dopant. Ab initio calculations confirm the trends observed experimentally. Our results directly confirm the possibility of tailoring the plasmonic properties of graphene in the ultraviolet...... waveband at the atomic scale, a crucial step in the quest for utilizing graphene's properties toward the development of plasmonic and optoelectronic devices operating at ultraviolet frequencies....

  11. Efficient channel-plasmon excitation by nano-mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Holmgaard Stær, Tobias; Han, Zhanghua

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a configuration for efficient channel-plasmon mode excitation using tapered terminations of V-shaped groove waveguides. The plasmon excitation is achieved by directly illuminating tapers of gold V-grooves with a focused laser beam, incident normally onto the sample surface. For nea...

  12. Design, fabrication and SNOM investigation of plasmonic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon-polaritons are a possible solution for on-chip transportation and manipulation of information. Although there are several possibilities for designing the plasmonic waveguides, the two major caveats for all of them are the coupling to/from external sources and the losses they exhib...

  13. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation i...... for integration with existing insulator-metal-insu lator plasmonic waveguides as well as novel photonic/electronic hybrid circuits...

  14. Plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopic evidence for differential binding of oxidized and reduced rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c(2) to the cytochrome bc(1) complex mediated by the conformation of the rieske iron-sulfur protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, S.; Salamon, Z.; Tollin, G.; Fitch, J.C.; Meyer, T.E.; Berry, E.A.; Cusanovich, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The dissociation constants for the binding of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c2 and its K93P mutant to the cytochrome bc1 complex embedded in a phospholipid bilayer were measured by plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy in the presence and absence of the inhibitor stigmatellin. The reduced form of cytochrome c2 strongly binds to reduced cytochrome bc1 (Kd = 0.02 M) but binds much more weakly to the oxidized form (Kd = 3.1 M). In contrast, oxidized cytochrome c2 binds to oxidized cytochrome bc1 in a biphasic fashion with Kd values of 0.11 and 0.58 M. Such a biphasic interaction is consistent with binding to two separate sites or conformations of oxidized cytochrome c2 and/or cytochrome bc1. However, in the presence of stigmatellin, we find that oxidized cytochrome c2 binds to oxidized cytochrome bc1 in a monophasic fashion with high affinity (Kd = 0.06 M) and reduced cytochrome c2 binds less strongly (Kd = 0.11 M) but ∼30-fold more tightly than in the absence of stigmatellin. Structural studies with cytochrome bc1, with and without the inhibitor stigmatellin, have led to the proposal that the Rieske protein is mobile, moving between the cytochrome b and cytochrome c1 components during turnover. In one conformation, the Rieske protein binds near the heme of cytochrome c1, while the cytochrome c2 binding site is also near the cytochrome c1 heme but on the opposite side from the Rieske site, where cytochrome c2 cannot directly interact with Rieske. However, the inhibitor, stigmatellin, freezes the Rieske protein iron-sulfur cluster in a conformation proximal to cytochrome b and distal to cytochrome c1. We conclude from this that the dual conformation of the Rieske protein is primarily responsible for biphasic binding of oxidized cytochrome c2 to cytochrome c1. This optimizes turnover by maximizing binding of the substrate, oxidized cytochrome c2, when the iron-sulfur cluster is proximal to cytochrome b and minimizing binding of the product, reduced cytochrome c

  15. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George

    2012-01-01

    This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhe...... bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the subwavelength domain....

  16. Plasmonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and popularity of film-based SPR sensing. This review surveys the current plasmonic biosensor landscape with emphasis on the basic operating principles of each plasmonic sensing technique and the practical considerations when developing a sensing platform with the various techniques. The 'gold standard' film SPR technique is reviewed briefly, but special emphasis is devoted to the up-and-coming localized surface plasmon resonance and plasmonically coupled sensor technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 μm)

  18. Experimental verification of ‘waveguide’ plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Filipa R.; Costa, Jorge R.; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Engheta, Nader; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2017-12-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons are collective excitations of an electron gas that occur at an interface between negative-ɛ and positive-ɛ media. Here, we report the experimental observation of such surface waves using simple waveguide metamaterials filled only with available positive-ɛ media at microwave frequencies. In contrast to optical designs, in our setup the propagation length of the surface plasmons can be rather long as low loss conventional dielectrics are chosen to avoid typical losses from negative-ɛ media. Plasmonic phenomena have potential applications in enhancing light-matter interactions, implementing nanoscale photonic circuits and integrated photonics.

  19. Lifshitz Tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC) for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points ...

  20. Magneto-plasmonic nanoantennas: Basics and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S. Maksymov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoantennas are a hot and rapidly expanding research field. Here we overview basic operating principles and applications of novel magneto-plasmonic nanoantennas, which are made of ferromagnetic metals and driven not only by light, but also by external magnetic fields. We demonstrate that magneto-plasmonic nanoantennas enhance the magneto-optical effects, which introduces additional degrees of freedom in the control of light at the nano-scale. This property is used in conceptually new devices such as magneto-plasmonic rulers, ultra-sensitive biosensors, one-way subwavelength waveguides and extraordinary optical transmission structures, as well as in novel biomedical imaging modalities. We also point out that in certain cases ‘non-optical’ ferromagnetic nanostructures may operate as magneto-plasmonic nanoantennas. This undesigned extra functionality capitalises on established optical characterisation techniques of magnetic nanomaterials and it may be useful for the integration of nanophotonics and nanomagnetism on a single chip.

  1. Plasmon hybridization in complex metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng

    resonance and a redshifted and narrowed subradiant bonding plasmon. The electric field enhancement of the subradiant mode is significantly larger compared with its parent plasmon modes. For the nonconcentric ring/disk nanocavity, we showed the symmetry breaking caused the coupling betweem different multipolar plamons which results in a tunable Fano resonance. We also show the subradiant and the Fano resonances could be particularly useful in the LSPR and SERS sensing applications. In the thesis, we also presented an efficient dielectric function of gold and silver that is suitable for the FDTD simulations of the optical properties of various nanoparticles. The new dielectric function is able to account for the interband transition in gold and silver, and provides more precise calculations of the optical spectra compared to the Drude dielectric function that is normally used previously.

  2. Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinsey, N.; Ferrera, M.; Naik, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mu m. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 mu m...

  3. Plasmon polaritons in nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique electronic and optical properties. When graphene is electrically/chemically doped, it can support surface plasmon where the light propagates along the surface with a very short wavelength and an extremely small mode volume. The optical...... properties of graphene can be tuned by electrical gating, thus proving a promising way to realize a tunable plasmonic material. We firstly investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides, and show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided...... that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. Then we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The silicon grating is realized by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self...

  4. Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marell, Milan J H; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Barcones, Beatrix; Koopmans, Bert; Nötzel, Richard; Smit, Meint K; Hill, Martin T

    2011-08-01

    We investigate electrically pumped, distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, based on gap-plasmon mode metallic waveguides. The waveguides have nano-scale widths below the diffraction limit and incorporate vertical groove Bragg gratings. These metallic Bragg gratings provide a broad bandwidth stop band (~500 nm) with grating coupling coefficients of over 5000/cm. A strong suppression of spontaneous emission occurs in these Bragg grating cavities, over the stop band frequencies. This strong suppression manifests itself in our experimental results as a near absence of spontaneous emission and significantly reduced lasing thresholds when compared to similar length Fabry-Pérot waveguide cavities. Furthermore, the reduced threshold pumping requirements permits us to show strong line narrowing and super linear light current curves for these plasmon mode devices even at room temperature.

  5. Interband type-II miniband-to-bound state diode lasers for the midinfrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermelstein, C.; Schmitz, J.; Kiefer, R.; Walther, M.; Wagner, J.

    2004-01-01

    A design for midinfrared diode lasers based on interband type-II miniband-to-bound state transitions is proposed and has been demonstrated experimentally. Type-II miniband-to-bound state laser structures emitting at 3.25 μm with active regions consisting of 5 and 10 W periods were grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy and processed into ridge waveguide lasers. Substrate-side down mounted devices with a 10 period active region and uncoated facets could be operated in continuous-wave (cw) mode up to 185 K and as high as 260 K in pulsed mode. A high characteristic temperature of 100 K has been achieved for heat-sink temperatures below 140 K, decreasing to 33 K for the 140 to 185 K interval. At 110 K, a 5 period laser structure exhibited a threshold current density of 177 A/cm 2 and a slope efficiency of 61 mW/A. Single-ended output powers of 144 mW in cw mode and exceeding 330 mW in pulsed operation were obtained for a substrate-side down mounted 5 period diode laser with high-reflection/antireflection coated mirror facets, operated at 110 K

  6. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  7. Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang; Gao, H.; Zâ rbo, Liviu P.; Vý borný , K.; Wang, Xuhui; Garate, Ion; Dogan, Fatih; Čejchan, A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.

  8. Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2015-04-01

    Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.

  9. Interaction Driven Interband Tunneling of Bosons in the Triple Well

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Lushuai; Brouzos, Ioannis; Zöllner, Sascha; Schmelcher, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We study the tunneling of a small ensemble of strongly repulsive bosons in a one-dimensional triple-well potential. The usual treatment within the single-band approximation suggests suppression of tunneling in the strong interaction regime. However, we show that several windows of enhanced tunneling are opened in this regime. This enhanced tunneling results from higher band contributions, and has the character of interband tunneling. It can give rise to various tunneling processes, such as si...

  10. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  11. Tunable high-channel-count bandpass plasmonic filters based on an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hua; Liu Xueming; Wang Guoxi; Mao Dong

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed a novel type of bandpass plasmonic filter consisting of metal–insulator–metal bus waveguides coupled with a series of side-coupled cavities and stub waveguides. The theoretical modeling demonstrates that our waveguide-resonator system performs a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems, as is confirmed by numerical experiments. The plasmonic EIT-like response enables the realization of nanoscale bandpass filters with multiple channels. Additionally, the operating wavelengths and bandwidths of our filters can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters such as the lengths of stub waveguides and the coupling distances between the cavities and stub waveguides. The ultracompact configurations contribute to the achievement of wavelength division multiplexing systems for optical computing and communications in highly integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  12. Mode conversion in metal-insulator-metal waveguide with a shifted cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueke; Yan, Xin

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method, which is utilized to achieve the plasmonic mode conversion in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide, theoretically. Our proposed structure is composed of bus waveguides and a shifted cavity. The shifted cavity can choose out a plasmonic mode (a- or s-mode) when it is in Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance. The length of the shifted cavity L is carefully chosen, and our structure can achieve the mode conversion between a- and s-mode in the communication region. Besides, our proposed structure can also achieve plasmonic mode-division multiplexing. All the numerical simulations are carried on by the finite element method to verify our design.

  13. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  14. Quantum waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.

  15. Tunable Multilayer Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz/Infrared Waveguide Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, Irina; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    regimes of multilayer graphene-dielectric artificial metamaterials. The interplay between interband and intraband transitions in graphene allows converting the structure into a transparent and/or electromagnetically dense artificial medium. The gate voltage can be used to electrically control...... the concentration of carriers in the graphene sheets and, thus, efficiently change the dispersion of the whole structure. Placed inside a hollow waveguide, a multilayer graphene/dielectric metamaterial provides high-speed modulation and tunable bandpass filtering. The absence of scattered radiation enables dense...... the latter to shift its central frequency by 1:25% per every meV graphene Fermi energy change. We believe that graphene-dielectric multilayer metamaterials will constitute the functional platform for THz-IR waveguide-integrated devices....

  16. Mechanism of plasmon-mediated enhancement of photovoltaic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, W; Jacak, J; Donderowicz, W; Jacak, L; Krasnyj, J

    2011-01-01

    Metallic nanospheres (Au, Ag, Cu) deposited on a photovoltaic (PV)-active semiconductor surface can act as light converters, collecting energy of incident photons in plasmon oscillations. This energy can be next transferred to a semiconductor substrate via a near-field channel, in a more efficient manner in comparison with the direct photo-effect. We explain this enhancement by inclusion of indirect interband transitions in a semiconductor layer due to the near-field coupling with plasmon radiation in nanoscale of the metallic components, where the momentum is not conserved as the system is not translationally invariant. The model of the nanosphere plasmons is developed (random phase approximation, analytical version, adjusted to description of large metallic clusters, with a radius of 10-60 nm) including surface and volume modes. Damping of plasmons is analysed via Lorentz friction, and irradiation losses in the far- and near-field regimes. Resulting resonance shifts are verified experimentally for Au and Ag colloidal water solutions with respect to particle size. Probability of the electron interband transition (within the Fermi golden rule) in the substrate semiconductor induced by coupling to plasmons in the near-field regime turns out to be significantly larger than for coupling of electrons to planar-wave photons. This is of practical importance for enhancement of thin-film solar cell efficiency, both for semiconductor type (such as III-V semiconductor based cells) and for conjugate-polymer-based or dye organic plastic cells, intensively developed at present. We have described also a non-dissipative collective mode of surface plasmons in a chain of near-field-coupled metallic nanospheres, for particular size, separation parameters and wavelengths. This would find an application in sub-diffraction electro-photonic circuit arrangement and for possible energy transport in solar cells, in particular in organic materials with low mobility of carriers.

  17. Genetic organization of interphase chromosome bands and interbands in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimulev, Igor F; Zykova, Tatyana Yu; Goncharov, Fyodor P; Khoroshko, Varvara A; Demakova, Olga V; Semeshin, Valeriy F; Pokholkova, Galina V; Boldyreva, Lidiya V; Demidova, Darya S; Babenko, Vladimir N; Demakov, Sergey A; Belyaeva, Elena S

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes display specific banding pattern; the underlying genetic organization of this pattern has remained elusive for many years. In the present paper, we analyze 32 cytology-mapped polytene chromosome interbands. We estimated molecular locations of these interbands, described their molecular and genetic organization and demonstrate that polytene chromosome interbands contain the 5' ends of housekeeping genes. As a rule, interbands display preferential "head-to-head" orientation of genes. They are enriched for "broad" class promoters characteristic of housekeeping genes and associate with open chromatin proteins and Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) components. In two regions, 10A and 100B, coding sequences of genes whose 5'-ends reside in interbands map to constantly loosely compacted, early-replicating, so-called "grey" bands. Comparison of expression patterns of genes mapping to late-replicating dense bands vs genes whose promoter regions map to interbands shows that the former are generally tissue-specific, whereas the latter are represented by ubiquitously active genes. Analysis of RNA-seq data (modENCODE-FlyBase) indicates that transcripts from interband-mapping genes are present in most tissues and cell lines studied, across most developmental stages and upon various treatment conditions. We developed a special algorithm to computationally process protein localization data generated by the modENCODE project and show that Drosophila genome has about 5700 sites that demonstrate all the features shared by the interbands cytologically mapped to date.

  18. Interband superconductivity: Contrasts between Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and Eliashberg theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, Oleg V.; Mazin, Igor I.; Parker, David; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2009-01-01

    recently discovered iron pnictide superconductors apparently present an unusual case of interband-channel pairing superconductivity. Here we show that in the limit where the pairing occurs within the interband channel, several surprising effects occur quite naturally and generally: different density

  19. Genetic organization of interphase chromosome bands and interbands in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F Zhimulev

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes display specific banding pattern; the underlying genetic organization of this pattern has remained elusive for many years. In the present paper, we analyze 32 cytology-mapped polytene chromosome interbands. We estimated molecular locations of these interbands, described their molecular and genetic organization and demonstrate that polytene chromosome interbands contain the 5' ends of housekeeping genes. As a rule, interbands display preferential "head-to-head" orientation of genes. They are enriched for "broad" class promoters characteristic of housekeeping genes and associate with open chromatin proteins and Origin Recognition Complex (ORC components. In two regions, 10A and 100B, coding sequences of genes whose 5'-ends reside in interbands map to constantly loosely compacted, early-replicating, so-called "grey" bands. Comparison of expression patterns of genes mapping to late-replicating dense bands vs genes whose promoter regions map to interbands shows that the former are generally tissue-specific, whereas the latter are represented by ubiquitously active genes. Analysis of RNA-seq data (modENCODE-FlyBase indicates that transcripts from interband-mapping genes are present in most tissues and cell lines studied, across most developmental stages and upon various treatment conditions. We developed a special algorithm to computationally process protein localization data generated by the modENCODE project and show that Drosophila genome has about 5700 sites that demonstrate all the features shared by the interbands cytologically mapped to date.

  20. Interband coding extension of the new lossless JPEG standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Nasir D.; Wu, Xiaolin; Sippy, V.; Miller, G.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the perceived inadequacy of current standards for lossless image compression, the JPEG committee of the International Standards Organization (ISO) has been developing a new standard. A baseline algorithm, called JPEG-LS, has already been completed and is awaiting approval by national bodies. The JPEG-LS baseline algorithm despite being simple is surprisingly efficient, and provides compression performance that is within a few percent of the best and more sophisticated techniques reported in the literature. Extensive experimentations performed by the authors seem to indicate that an overall improvement by more than 10 percent in compression performance will be difficult to obtain even at the cost of great complexity; at least not with traditional approaches to lossless image compression. However, if we allow inter-band decorrelation and modeling in the baseline algorithm, nearly 30 percent improvement in compression gains for specific images in the test set become possible with a modest computational cost. In this paper we propose and investigate a few techniques for exploiting inter-band correlations in multi-band images. These techniques have been designed within the framework of the baseline algorithm, and require minimal changes to the basic architecture of the baseline, retaining its essential simplicity.

  1. High-Speed Operation of Interband Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Wright, Malcom W.; Farr, William H.; Yang, Rui Q.; Liu, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Optical sources operating in the atmospheric window of 3-5 microns are of particular interest for the development of free-space optical communication link. It is more advantageous to operate the free-space optical communication link in 3-5-microns atmospheric transmission window than at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 m due to lower optical scattering, scintillation, and background radiation. However, the realization of optical communications at the longer wavelength has encountered significant difficulties due to lack of adequate optical sources and detectors operating in the desirable wavelength regions. Interband Cascade (IC) lasers are novel semiconductor lasers that have a great potential for the realization of high-power, room-temperature optical sources in the 3-5-microns wavelength region, yet no experimental work, until this one, was done on high-speed direct modulation of IC lasers. Here, highspeed interband cascade laser, operating at wavelength 3.0 m, has been developed and the first direct measurement of the laser modulation bandwidth has been performed using a unique, highspeed quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The developed laser has modulation bandwidth exceeding 3 GHz. This constitutes a significant increase of the IC laser modulation bandwidth over currently existing devices. This result has demonstrated suitability of IC lasers as a mid-IR light source for multi-GHz free-space optical communications links

  2. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  3. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  4. Current-induced massless mode of the interband phase difference in two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kato, G.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A current induces an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. • By controlling the boundary conditions, we can trap this phase difference. • A phase difference soliton is observed after switching off the current. - Abstract: There is a current-induced massless mode of an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. For a thin wire, the externally applied current always invokes a finite interband phase difference when the end of the wire is terminated by a natural boundary condition, i.e., where the total current is specified but the other parameters are left as free and a finite interband phase difference is allowed. This condition can be realized by the normal state region formed by the shrinking of a cross section of the wire where the critical current density is lower than that of the other region of the wire. The interband interaction in the wire cannot completely prevent the emergence of the interband phase difference, though it reduces it somewhat. Instead, boundary conditions determine the presence of the interband phase difference. By reverting the normal state into the superconducting state at the shrunken region by decreasing the current, we may trap a rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians of the interband phase difference in the wire. After switching off the current, this rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians, which continuously spreads over the whole wire, is separated into several interband phase difference solitons (i-solitons), where one i-soliton locally generates a 2π interband phase difference

  5. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  6. Efficient channel-plasmon excitation by nano-mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Han, Zhanghua

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a configuration for efficient channel-plasmon mode excitation using tapered terminations of V-shaped groove waveguides. The plasmon excitation is achieved by directly illuminating tapers of gold V-grooves with a focused laser beam, incident normally onto the sample surface. For near......-infrared wavelengths, we find experimentally as well as numerically, by conducting three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations, that the efficiency of channel-plasmon mode excitation exceeds 10% in the optimum configuration, which is the highest experimentally observed efficiency of coupling from free-propagation...

  7. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R ... in the plasmon band. This is demonstrated by using the strong nucleophiles, cyanide and cysteamine, as ligands. The “dissolution paths” in terms of peak wavelength and amplitude shifts differ significantly between different types of analytes, which are suggested as a means to obtain selectivity of the detection...... that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free electron density...

  8. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  9. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  10. Photonic crystals with plasmonic patterns: novel type of the heterostructures for enhanced magneto-optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, N E; Belotelov, V I; Prokopov, A R; Shaposhnikov, A N; Berzhansky, V N; Kozhaev, M A; Andreev, S N; Zvezdin, A K; Ravishankar, Ajith P; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Bykov, D A

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer structure consisting of a magnetophotonic crystal with a rare-earth iron garnet microresonator layer and plasmonic grating deposited on it was fabricated and studied in order to combine functionalities of photonic and plasmonic crystals. The plasmonic pattern allows excitation of the hybrid plasmonic-waveguide modes localized in dielectric Bragg mirrors of the magnetophotonic crystal or waveguide modes inside its microresonator layer. These modes give rise to the additional resonances in the optical spectra of the structure and to the enhancement of the magneto-optical effects. The Faraday effect increases by about 50% at the microresonator modes while the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect demonstrates pronounced peculiarities at both hybrid waveguide modes and microresonator modes and increases by several times with respect to the case of the bare magnetophotonic crystal without the metal grating. (paper)

  11. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale......, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons...... in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron...

  12. Tunable Fano Resonance in Asymmetric MIM Waveguide Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zhidong; Yan, Shubin

    2017-06-25

    A plasmonic waveguide coupled system that uses a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide with two silver baffles and a coupled ring cavity is proposed in this study. The transmission properties of the plasmonic system were investigated using the finite element method. The simulation results show a Fano profile in the transmission spectrum, which was caused by the interaction of the broadband resonance of the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity and the narrow band resonance of the ring cavity. The Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity in this case was formed by two silver baffles dividing the MIM waveguide. The maximum sensitivity of 718 nm/RIU and the maximum figure of merit of 4354 were achieved. Furthermore, the effects of the structural parameters of the F-P cavity and the ring cavity on the transmission properties of the plasmonic system were analyzed. The results can provide a guide for designing highly sensitive on-chip sensors based on surface plasmon polaritons.

  13. Nanoimprinted reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Johansen, Dan Mario

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel design, fabrication, and characterization of reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. LR-SPP waveguides consisting of a thin (12 nm) gold film embedded in a thick (45 μm) layer of dielectric polymer cladding are structured...

  14. Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, M.; Khosropanah, P.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Barbieri, S.; Dhillon, S.; Filloux, P.; Sirtori, C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Beere, H. E.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize a heterodyne receiver based on a surface-plasmon waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.84 THz as a local oscillator, and an NbN hot electron bolometer as a mixer. We find that the envelope of the far-field pattern of the QCL is diffraction-limited and superimposed onto

  15. A silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Robert J.; van Loon, Rob V.A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Polman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at low temperatures using silicon nanocrystal doped alumina within a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide geometry. The fabrication method uses established microtechnology processes

  16. Tunable plasmonic filter with circular metal–insulator– metal ring ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mechanism based on circular ring resonators with narrow gaps may provide a novel method for designing all-optical integrated components in optical communication and computing. Keywords. Metal–insulator–metal waveguide; surface plasmon; optical filters; ring resonator. PACS Nos 42.79.−e; 73.20.Mf; 78.20.Bh. 1.

  17. Effect of Interband Interaction on Isotope Effect Coefficient of Mg B2 Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsamuthirun, P.; Kumvongsa, C.; Burakorn, A.; Changkanarth, P.; Maneeratanakul, S.

    2005-10-01

    In this research, the exact formula of Tc s equation and the isotope effect coefficient of two-band s-wave superconductors in weak-coupling limit are derived by considering the influence of interband interaction .In each band ,our model consist of two paring interactions : the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction . According to the numerical calculation, we find that the isotope effect coefficient of MgB 2 , α=3 . 0 with T c 40 K can be found in the weak coupling regime and interband interaction of electron-phonon show more effect on isotope effect coefficient than interband interaction of non-phonon-electron

  18. Introducing nanoresonators into a metal–dielectric–metal waveguide array to allow beam manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Gaige; Xu, Linhua; Chen, Yunyun; Wu, Yigen; Liu, Yuzhu

    2013-01-01

    Stub and circular ring-shaped plasmonic resonators are introduced into a metal–dielectric–metal (MDM) waveguide array to allow light transmission control. Light focusing and splitting effects are verified by the finite difference time domain method; the simulation results reveal that the resonators can be used for modulating the superposition phase of the interference between the surface plasmon wave (SPW) from the end of the resonator and the passing SPW in the waveguide array. Furthermore, a structure utilizing a stub cavity with nonlinear material to control the phase of the transmitted SPW is proposed; the deflection angle of the light can be controlled by means of the intensity of the incident light. The proposed MDM waveguide array with plasmonic resonators, with its compact size, ease of integration, and high output, certainly has potential for application in nanophotonic circuits. (paper)

  19. Optical Nano-antennae as Compact and Efficient Couplers from Free-space to Waveguide Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Vladimir A.; Malureanu, Radu; Volkov, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    Optical nano-antennae are one of the possible solutions for coupling free-space radiation into subwavelength waveguides. Our efforts were concentrated on coupling between an optical fibre and a plasmonic slot waveguide. Such coupling is still an issue to be solved in order to advance the use...... of plasmonic waveguides for optical interconnects. During the talk, we will present our modelling optimisation, fabrication and measurement of the nano-antennae functionality. For the modelling part, we used CST Microwave studio for optimising the antenna geometry. Various antennae were modelled and fabricated....... The fabrication was based on electron beam lithography and lift-off processes. The measurements were performed with scattering scanning near-field microscope and allowed the retrieval of both amplitude and phase of the propagating plasmon. The obtained values agree very well with the theoretically predicted ones...

  20. Feasibility of graphene CRLH metamaterial waveguides and leaky wave antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Derrick A.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); NG NEXT Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Laboratory, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States); Williams, Benjamin S., E-mail: bswilliams@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The feasibility of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial waveguides based upon graphene plasmons is demonstrated via numerical simulation. Designs are presented that operate in the terahertz frequency range along with their various dimensions. Dispersion relations, radiative and free-carrier losses, and free-carrier based tunability are characterized. Finally, the radiative characteristics are evaluated, along with its feasibility for use as a leaky-wave antenna. While CRLH waveguides are feasible in the terahertz range, their ultimate utility will require precise nanofabrication, and excellent quality graphene to mitigate free-carrier losses.

  1. Epi-Side-Down Mounting of Interband Cascade Lasers for Army Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, M. S; Monroy, C. J; Oliver, K. A; Tober, R. L; Bradshaw, J. L; Bruno, J. D; Towner, F. J

    2006-01-01

    The interband cascade laser, based on the type II energy band alignment in the InAs/GaSb material system, has great potential to meet the power and the wall plug efficiency requirements of many Army applications...

  2. The influence of interband tunneling on leakage current in manganite/titanate heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Peng; Jia Jinfeng

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of leakage current at reverse bias in p-La 0.9 Sr 0.1 MnO 3 /n-SrNb 0.01 Ti 0.99 O 3 heterojunction has been theoretically studied by calculating interband tunneling current with various doping densities and temperatures. Our results reveal that the reduction of leakage current with decrease of doping density and increase of temperature originates from properties of interband tunneling

  3. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  4. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  5. On-chip plasmon-induced transparency based on plasmonic coupled nanocavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-17

    On-chip plasmon-induced transparency offers the possibility of realization of ultrahigh-speed information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made to date because it is difficult to obtain on-chip plasmon-induced transparency using only a single meta-molecule in plasmonic circuits. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy to realize on-chip plasmon-induced transparency in a nanoscale U-shaped plasmonic waveguide side-coupled nanocavity pair. High tunability in the transparency window is achieved by covering the pair with different organic polymer layers. It is possible to realize ultrafast all-optical tunability based on pump light-induced refractive index change of a graphene cover layer. Compared with previous reports, the overall feature size of the plasmonic nanostructure is reduced by more than three orders of magnitude, while ultrahigh tunability of the transparency window is maintained. This work also provides a superior platform for the study of the various physical effects and phenomena of nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  6. Silicon as a virtual plasmonic material: Acquisition of its transient optical constants and the ultrafast surface plasmon-polariton excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I., E-mail: sikudr@sci.lebedev.ru; Makarov, S. V.; Rudenko, A. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Saltuganov, P. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation); Seleznev, L. V.; Yurovskikh, V. I.; Zayarny, D. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Apostolova, T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energetics (Bulgaria)

    2015-06-15

    Ultrafast intense photoexcitation of a silicon surface is complementarily studied experimentally and theoretically, with its prompt optical dielectric function obtained by means of time-resolved optical reflection microscopy and the underlying electron-hole plasma dynamics modeled numerically, using a quantum kinetic approach. The corresponding transient surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves of the photo-excited material were simulated as a function of the electron-hole plasma density, using the derived optical dielectric function model, and directly mapped at several laser photon energies, measuring spatial periods of the corresponding SPP-mediated surface relief nanogratings. The unusual spectral dynamics of the surface plasmon resonance, initially increasing with the increase in the electron-hole plasma density but damped at high interband absorption losses induced by the high-density electron-hole plasma through instantaneous bandgap renormalization, was envisioned through the multi-color mapping.

  7. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  8. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications

  9. Optical waveguide demultiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.O.; Maslyukyivs'kij, R.M.; Sirota, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    For channels division in fibre-optical networks with wavelength multiplexing, the planar waveguide together with a prism coupler is offered for using. The planar waveguide fulfils a role of a dispersing unit, and prism coupler is the selector of optical channels. The parameters of the planar waveguide which provide maximal space division of adjacent information channels in networks with coarse wavelength multiplexing are calculated

  10. Experiences with rectangular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Sepulveda, J. J.; Navarro, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and didactic experimental arrangement is presented to show wave propagation along a structure with translational symmetry, particularly the rectangular waveguide. Parameters of this waveguide as cutoff frequency, guide wavelength and field distribution of fundamental mode can be measured. For this purpose a large paralelepipedical waveguide structure is designed and built, its dimensions can be varied in order to change its parameters. (Author) 9 refs

  11. Efficient waveguide coupler based on metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Huanyu

    2015-10-01

    Because of the diffraction limit of light, the scale of optical element stays in the order of wavelength, which makes the interface optics and nano-electronic components cannot be directly matched, thus the development of photonics technology encounters a bottleneck. In order to solve the problem that coupling of light into the subwavelength waveguide, this paper proposes a model of coupler based on metal materials. By using Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) wave, incident light can be efficiently coupled into waveguide of diameter less than 100 nm. This paper mainly aims at near infrared wave band, and tests a variety of the combination of metal materials, and by changing the structural parameters to get the maximum coupling efficiency. This structure splits the plane incident light with wavelength of 864 nm, the width of 600 nm into two uniform beams, and separately coupled into the waveguide layer whose width is only about 80 nm, and the highest coupling efficiency can reach above 95%. Using SPPs structure will be an effective method to break through the diffraction limit and implement photonics device high-performance miniaturization. We can further compress the light into small scale fiber or waveguide by using the metal coupler, and to save the space to hold more fiber or waveguide layer, so that we can greatly improve the capacity of optical communication. In addition, high-performance miniaturization of the optical transmission medium can improve the integration of optical devices, also provide a feasible solution for the photon computer research and development in the future.

  12. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbasli, M. Cengiz; Okyay, Ali K.

    2010-08-01

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement and high integration density are key features that make metal-insulator-metal waveguides (MIM) utilizing plasmonic modes attractive for applications in on-chip optical signal processing. Size-mismatch between two fundamental components (micron-size fibers and a few hundred nanometers wide waveguides) demands compact coupling methods for implementation of large scale on-chip optoelectronic device integration. Existing solutions use waveguide tapering, which requires more than 4λ-long taper distances. We demonstrate that nanoantennas can be integrated with MIM for enhancing coupling into MIM plasmonic modes. Two-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulations of antennawaveguide structures for TE and TM incident plane waves ranging from λ = 1300 to 1600 nm were done. The same MIM (100-nm-wide Ag/100-nm-wide SiO2/100-nm-wide Ag) was used for each case, while antenna dimensions were systematically varied. For nanoantennas disconnected from the MIM; field is strongly confined inside MIM-antenna gap region due to Fabry-Perot resonances. Major fraction of incident energy was not transferred into plasmonic modes. When the nanoantennas are connected to the MIM, stronger coupling is observed and E-field intensity at outer end of core is enhanced more than 70 times.

  13. Molecular plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique ""molecular perspective"" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot field as well as for experienced researchers and practitioners. It begins by introducing readers to the optical effects that occur at the nanoscale and particularly their modification in the presence of biomolecules, followed by a concise yet thorough overview of the different methods for the actual fabrication of nanooptical materials. Further chapters address the relevant nanooptics, as well as

  14. Plasmonic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Mangelson, B. F.; Schatz, G. C.; and Mirkin, C. A. “ Silver -based Nanodisk Codes,” ACS Nano, 2010, 9, 5446-5452. 6. Zhang, J.; Langille, M. R...Wei, W. D.; Zhang, H.; Schatz, G.; Boey, F.; Mirkin, C. A. “Free Standing Bimetallic Nanorings and Nanoring Arrays Made by On-Wire Lithography (OWL...Mirkin, C. A.; Marks, L. D.; Van Duyne, R. P. “Correlating the Structure and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Single Silver Right Bipyramids

  15. Evanescent waves in optics an introduction to plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Mario; M Guzman, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an introductory discussion of evanescent waves and plasmons, describes their properties and uses, and shows how they are fundamental when operating with nanoscale optics. Far field optics is not suitable for the design, description, and operation of devices at this nanometre scale. Instead one must work with models based on near-field optics and surface evanescent waves. The new discipline of plasmonics has grown to encompass the generation and application of plasmons both as a travelling excitation in a nanostructure and as a stationary enhancement of the electrical field near metal nanosurfaces. The book begins with a brief review of the basic concepts of electromagnetism, then introduces evanescent waves through reflection and refraction, and shows how they appear in diffraction problems, before discussing the role that they play in optical waveguides and sensors. The application of evanescent waves in super-resolution devices is briefly presented, before plasmons are introduced. Th...

  16. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying...... EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5...... mode exploited in plasmonic waveguides with extreme light confinement is a very important factor that should be taken into account in the design of nanoplasmonic circuits and devices....

  17. Electrochemical surface plasmon spectroscopy-Recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Schweiss, Ruediger; Zong, Yun; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on recent developments and applications of electrochemical techniques combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPS) and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy make use of evanescent waves on metal-dielectric interfaces and can be conveniently combined with electrochemical methods. Selected examples of applications of high-pressure surface electrochemical plasmon resonance spectroscopy to study supramolecular architectures such as layer-by-layer films of conducting polymers or thin composite films will be presented. Then a combination of SPS with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) will be introduced and illustrated with a study on doping/de-doping process of a conducting polymer. This combination allows for simultaneous electrochemical, optical and microgravimetric characterization of interfaces. Finally, new technical developments including integration of SPS into microfluidic devices using a grating coupler and surface plasmon enhanced diffraction will be discussed

  18. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.; Tuccio, S.; Giugni, A.; Toma, A.; Liberale, Carlo; Das, G.; Angelis, F.D.; Fabrizio, E.D.; Zaccaria, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  19. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.

    2013-10-25

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  20. On-Chip Single-Plasmon Nanocircuit Driven by a Self-Assembled Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Jiang, Ping; Razinskas, Gary; Huo, Yongheng; Zhang, Hongyi; Kamp, Martin; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G; Hecht, Bert; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus

    2017-07-12

    Quantum photonics holds great promise for future technologies such as secure communication, quantum computation, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. An outstanding challenge for quantum photonics is to develop scalable miniature circuits that integrate single-photon sources, linear optical components, and detectors on a chip. Plasmonic nanocircuits will play essential roles in such developments. However, for quantum plasmonic circuits, integration of stable, bright, and narrow-band single photon sources in the structure has so far not been reported. Here we present a plasmonic nanocircuit driven by a self-assembled GaAs quantum dot. Through a planar dielectric-plasmonic hybrid waveguide, the quantum dot efficiently excites narrow-band single plasmons that are guided in a two-wire transmission line until they are converted into single photons by an optical antenna. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fully on-chip plasmonic nanocircuits for quantum optical applications.

  1. Imaging surface plasmon polaritons using proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, Gregor; Schraml, Konrad; Blauth, Mäx; Wierzbowski, Jakob; López, Nicolás Coca; Bichler, Max; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J.; Kaniber, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Kaniber@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching, Germany and Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    We present optical investigations of hybrid plasmonic nanosystems consisting of lithographically defined plasmonic Au-waveguides or beamsplitters on GaAs substrates coupled to proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. We designed a sample structure that enabled us to precisely tune the distance between quantum dots and the sample surface during nano-fabrication and demonstrated that non-radiative processes do not play a major role for separations down to ∼10 nm. A polarized laser beam focused on one end of the plasmonic nanostructure generates propagating surface plasmon polaritons that, in turn, create electron-hole pairs in the GaAs substrate during propagation. These free carriers are subsequently captured by the quantum dots ∼25 nm below the surface, giving rise to luminescence. The intensity of the spectrally integrated quantum dot luminescence is used to image the propagating plasmon modes. As the waveguide width reduces from 5 μm to 1 μm, we clearly observe different plasmonic modes at the remote waveguide end, enabling their direct imaging in real space. This imaging technique is applied to a plasmonic beamsplitter facilitating the determination of the splitting ratio between the two beamsplitter output ports as the interaction length L{sub i} is varied. A splitting ratio of 50:50 is observed for L{sub i}∼9±1 μm and 1 μm wide waveguides for excitation energies close to the GaAs band edge. Our experimental findings are in good agreement with mode profile and finite difference time domain simulations for both waveguides and beamsplitters.

  2. Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2008-01-01

    Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling...... of in-plane curved or helically wound waveguides with use of available simulators for straight waveguides without the restrictions of the known approximate equivalent-index formulas....

  3. High Excitation Efficiency of Channel Plasmon Polaritons in Tailored, UV-Lithography-Defined V-Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate >50% conversion of light to V-groove channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) via compact waveguide-termination mirrors. Devices are fabricated using UV-lithography and crystallographic silicon etching. The V-shape is tailored by thermal oxidation to support confined CPPs.......We demonstrate >50% conversion of light to V-groove channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) via compact waveguide-termination mirrors. Devices are fabricated using UV-lithography and crystallographic silicon etching. The V-shape is tailored by thermal oxidation to support confined CPPs....

  4. Exceptional enhancement of H{sub 2} production in alkaline environment over plasmonic Au/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xianguang; Liu, Guigao [Graduate School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Environmental Remediation Materials Unit and International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yu, Qing [Graduate School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Wang, Tao; Chang, Kun; Li, Peng [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit and International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Liu, Lequan, E-mail: Jinhua.YE@nims.go.jp, E-mail: Lequan.Liu@tju.edu.cn [TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ye, Jinhua, E-mail: Jinhua.YE@nims.go.jp, E-mail: Lequan.Liu@tju.edu.cn [Graduate School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Environmental Remediation Materials Unit and International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-10-01

    A reaction environment modulation strategy was employed to promote the H{sub 2} production over plasmonic Au/semiconductor composites. It is shown that the fast consumption of the holes in plasmonic Au nanoparticles by methanol in alkaline reaction environment remarkably increases H{sub 2} generation rate under visible light. The photocatalytic reaction is mainly driven by the interband transition of plasmonic Au nanoparticles, and the apparent quantum efficiency of plasmon-assisted H{sub 2} production at pH 14 reaches 6% at 420 nm. The reaction environment control provides a simple and effective way for the highly efficient solar fuel production from biomass reforming through plasmonic photocatalysis in future.

  5. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  6. Design and characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Chen, Zhuo; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    Ultracompact directional couplers (DCs) based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are analyzed using the effective index method (EIM), with the coupling, both in the parallel interaction region and in- and out-coupling regions, being taken into account. Near-field...... characterization of fabricated DCs performed with a scanning near-field optical microscope verifies the applicability of the EIM in the analysis and design of DLSPPW-based wavelength-selective DCs. The design approach applicable to a large variety of integrated optical waveguides is developed, enabling...

  7. Multi-mode interference revealed by two photon absorption in silicon rich SiO2 waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ramiro-Manzano, F.; Mancinelli, M.; Turri, F.; Pavesi, L.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pucker, G.

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) from Si nanocrystals (NCs) excited by two-photon absorption (TPA) has been observed in Si nanocrystal-based waveguides fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The TPA excited photoluminescence emission resembles the one-photon excited photoluminescence arising from inter-band transitions in the quantum confined Si nanocrystals. By measuring the non-linear transmission of waveguides, a large TPA coefficient of β up to 10 −8  cm/W has been measured at 1550 nm. These values of β depend on the Si NCs size and are two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk silicon value. Here, we propose to use the TPA excited visible PL emission as a tool to map the spatial intensity profile of the 1550 nm propagating optical modes in multimode waveguides. In this way, multimode interference has been revealed experimentally and confirmed through a finite element simulation

  8. Reviews in plasmonics 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2010, the first volume of the new book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonic

  9. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  10. Performance Analysis of Downlink Inter-band Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    CC can be different. In this paper, we investigate the downlink resource allocation for inter-band CA, i.e., how to assign carrier(s) to different UEs. A simple yet effective G-factor based carrier selection algorithm, which takes both traffic load and radio channel characteristics......Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the most distinct features for LTE-Advanced systems, which can support a much wider transmission bandwidth up to 100 MHz by aggregating two or more individual component carriers (CCs) belonging to the same (intra-band) or different (inter-band) frequency bands....... With CA, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple CCs simultaneously. From radio resource management (RRM) perspective, CC selection plays an important role in optimizing the system performance, especially in the case of inter-band CA where the radio propagation characteristics of each...

  11. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  12. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  13. Hot Hole Collection and Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction with Plasmonic Au/p-GaN Photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuChene, Joseph S; Tagliabue, Giulia; Welch, Alex J; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Atwater, Harry A

    2018-04-11

    Harvesting nonequilibrium hot carriers from plasmonic-metal nanostructures offers unique opportunities for driving photochemical reactions at the nanoscale. Despite numerous examples of hot electron-driven processes, the realization of plasmonic systems capable of harvesting hot holes from metal nanostructures has eluded the nascent field of plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we fabricate gold/p-type gallium nitride (Au/p-GaN) Schottky junctions tailored for photoelectrochemical studies of plasmon-induced hot-hole capture and conversion. Despite the presence of an interfacial Schottky barrier to hot-hole injection of more than 1 eV across the Au/p-GaN heterojunction, plasmonic Au/p-GaN photocathodes exhibit photoelectrochemical properties consistent with the injection of hot holes from Au nanoparticles into p-GaN upon plasmon excitation. The photocurrent action spectrum of the plasmonic photocathodes faithfully follows the surface plasmon resonance absorption spectrum of the Au nanoparticles and open-circuit voltage studies demonstrate a sustained photovoltage during plasmon excitation. Comparison with Ohmic Au/p-NiO heterojunctions confirms that the vast majority of hot holes generated via interband transitions in Au are sufficiently hot to inject above the 1.1 eV interfacial Schottky barrier at the Au/p-GaN heterojunction. We further investigated plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical CO 2 reduction with the Au/p-GaN photocathodes and observed improved selectivity for CO production over H 2 evolution in aqueous electrolytes. Taken together, our results offer experimental validation of photoexcited hot holes more than 1 eV below the Au Fermi level and demonstrate a photoelectrochemical platform for harvesting hot carriers to drive solar-to-fuel energy conversion.

  14. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  15. Ultrashort hybrid metal-insulator plasmonic directional coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noghani, Mahmoud Talafi; Samiei, Mohammad Hashem Vadjed

    2013-11-01

    An ultrashort plasmonic directional coupler based on the hybrid metal-insulator slab waveguide is proposed and analyzed at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. It is first analyzed using the supermode theory based on mode analysis via the transfer matrix method in the interaction region. Then the 2D model of the coupler, including transition arms, is analyzed using a commercial finite-element method simulator. The hybrid slab waveguide is composed of a metallic layer of silver and two dielectric layers of silica (SiO2) and silicon (Si). The coupler is optimized to have a minimum coupling length and to transfer maximum power considering the layer thicknesses as optimization variables. The resulting coupling length in the submicrometer region along with a noticeable power transfer efficiency are advantages of the proposed coupler compared to previously reported plasmonic couplers.

  16. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  17. CW all optical self switching in nonlinear chalcogenide nano plasmonic directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Leila; Hatami, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we obtain the coupling coefficient of plasmonic directional coupler (PDC) made up of two parallel monolayer waveguides filled with high nonlinear chalcogenide material for TM mode in continues wave (CW) regime. In addition, we assume each waveguides acts as a perturbation to other waveguide. Four nonlinear-coupled equations are derived. Transfer distances are numerically calculated and used for deriving length of all optical switch. The length of designed switch is in the range of 10-1000 μm, and the switching power is in the range of 1-100 W/m. Obtained values are suitable for designing all optical elements in the integrated optical circuits.

  18. Flatland Photonics: Circumventing Diffraction with Planar Plasmonic Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Jennifer Anne

    On subwavelength scales, photon-matter interactions are limited by diffraction. The diffraction limit restricts the size of optical devices and the resolution of conventional microscopes to wavelength-scale dimensions, severely hampering our ability to control and probe subwavelength-scale optical phenomena. Circumventing diffraction is now a principle focus of integrated nanophotonics. Surface plasmons provide a particularly promising approach to sub-diffraction-limited photonics. Surface plasmons are hybrid electron-photon modes confined to the interface between conductors and transparent materials. Combining the high localization of electronic waves with the propagation properties of optical waves, plasmons can achieve extremely small mode wavelengths and large local electromagnetic field intensities. Through their unique dispersion, surface plasmons provide access to an enormous phase space of refractive indices and propagation constants that can be readily tuned with material or geometry. In this thesis, we explore both the theory and applications of dispersion in planar plasmonic architectures. Particular attention is given to the modes of metallic core and plasmon slot waveguides, which can span positive, near-zero, and even negative indices. We demonstrate how such basic plasmonic geometries can be used to develop a suite of passive and active plasmonic components, including subwavelength waveguides, color filters, negative index metamaterials, and optical MOS field effect modulators. Positive index modes are probed by near- and far-field techniques, revealing plasmon wavelengths as small as one-tenth of the excitation wavelength. Negative index modes are characterized through direct visualization of negative refraction. By fabricating prisms comprised of gold, silicon nitride, and silver multilayers, we achieve the first experimental demonstration of a negative index material at visible frequencies, with potential applications for sub

  19. Induced transparencies in metamaterial waveguides doped with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R; Brzozowski, Marek; Racknor, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The light-mater interaction in quantum dots doped artificial electromagnetic materials such as metamaterial waveguides has been studied. The effect of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the absorption coefficient of quantum dots in metamaterial waveguides is investigated. The waveguides are made by sandwiching a metamaterial slab between two dielectric material layers. An ensemble of quantum dots are deposited near the waveguide interfaces. The transfer matrix method is used to calculate the SSPs in the waveguide and the density matrix method and Schrödinger equation method are used to calculate the absorption spectrum. It is found that when the thickness of the metamaterial slab is greater than the SPP wavelength the SPP energy is degenerate. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength the degeneracy of SPP state splits into odd and even SPP modes due the surface mode interaction (SMI) of the waveguide. We also found that the absorption spectrum has a minima (transparent state) which is due to strong coupling between excitons in quantum dots and SPPs in the waveguide. This transparent state is called the SPP induced transparency. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength one transparent state in the absorption spectrum split into two transparent states due to the surface mode interaction. This type of transparency is called the SMI induced transparency. Transparent states can be achieved by applying pulse stress field or an intense laser pulse field. Hence present findings can be used to fabricate the metamaterial optical sensors and switches. (paper)

  20. Polarization-dependent plasmonic splitter based on low-loss polymer optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guang; Fu, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Tong

    2018-01-01

    A polarization-dependent optical beam splitter consisting of a straight long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) waveguide and an S-bend polymer waveguide was designed, fabricated and measured in this paper. At the splitting section, the two different waveguides are vertically coupled. The measurenment results show that the splitter operated in dual-channel mode at TM polarization, and single-channel mode at TE polarization. In addition, the polymer waveguide and LRSPP waveguide in the splitter exhibit low propagation loss of 0.51 dB/cm and 1.7 dB/cm, respectively. The hybrid beam splitter has wide potential applications in three dimensional (3D) multilayer photonic integrated circuits (PICs).

  1. Plasmon-Assisted Selective and Super-Resolving Excitation of Individual Quantum Emitters on a Metal Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2018-03-14

    Hybrid systems composed of multiple quantum emitters coupled with plasmonic waveguides are promising building blocks for future integrated quantum nanophotonic circuits. The techniques that can super-resolve and selectively excite contiguous quantum emitters in a diffraction-limited area are of great importance for studying the plasmon-mediated interaction between quantum emitters and manipulating the single plasmon generation and propagation in plasmonic circuits. Here we show that multiple quantum dots coupled with a silver nanowire can be controllably excited by tuning the interference field of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Because of the period of the interference pattern is much smaller than the diffraction limit, we demonstrate the selective excitation of two quantum dots separated by a distance as short as 100 nm. We also numerically demonstrate a new kind of super-resolution imaging method that combines the tunable surface plasmon interference pattern on the NW with the structured illumination microscopy technique. Our work provides a novel high-resolution optical excitation and imaging method for the coupled systems of multiple quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides, which adds a new tool for studying and manipulating single quantum emitters and single plasmons for quantum plasmonic circuitry applications.

  2. Multi-level multi-thermal-electron FDTD simulation of plasmonic interaction with semiconducting gain media: applications to plasmonic amplifiers and nano-lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Bhola, B; Huang, Y; Ho, S T

    2010-08-02

    Interactions between a semiconducting gain medium and confined plasmon-polaritons are studied using a multilevel multi-thermal-electron finite-difference time-domain (MLMTE-FDTD) simulator. We investigated the amplification of wave propagating in a plasmonic metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) waveguide filled with semiconductor gain medium and obtained the conditions required to achieve net optical gain. The MSM gain waveguide is used to form a plasmonic semiconductor nano-ring laser(PSNRL) with an effective mode volume of 0.0071 microm3, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the smallest demonstrated integrated photonic crystal based laser cavities. The simulation shows a lasing threshold current density of 1kA/cm2 for a 300 nm outer diameter ring cavity with 80 nm-wide ring. This current density can be realistically achieved in typical III-V semiconductor, which shows the experimental feasibility of the proposed PSNRL structure.

  3. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  4. Effect of interband interaction on isotope effect exponent of MgB2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interband interaction of the electron–phonon interaction shows more effect on the isotope exponent than on the non-phonon interaction. Acknowledgement. The authors would like to thank Thailand Research Fund for financial support and the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce for partial financial support and.

  5. Theory of direct-interband-transition line shapes based on Mori's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam Nyung Yi; Jai Yon Ryu; Ok Hee Chung; Joung Young Sug; Sang Don Choi; Yeon Choon Chung

    1987-01-01

    A theory of direct interband optical transition in the electron-phonon system is introduced on the basis of the Kubo formalism and by using Mori's method of calculation. The line shape functions are introduced in two different ways and are compared with those obtained by Choi and Chung based on Argyres and Sigel's projection technique

  6. Temperature dependence of the interband critical points of bulk Ge and strained Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nalin S.; Nunley, T. Nathan; Ghosh, Ayana; Nelson, Cayla M.; Cooke, Jacqueline A.; Medina, Amber A.; Zollner, Stefan; Xu, Chi; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers on a Si substrate experience a tensile biaxial stress due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the Ge epilayer and the Si substrate, which can be measured using asymmetric X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. This stress depends on temperature and affects the band structure, interband critical points, and optical spectra. This manuscripts reports careful measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical point parameters of bulk Ge and Ge epilayers on Si using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 80 to 780 K and from 0.8 to 6.5 eV. The authors find a temperature-dependent redshift of the E1 and E1 + Δ1 critical points in Ge on Si (relative to bulk Ge). This redshift can be described well with a model based on thermal expansion coefficients, continuum elasticity theory, and the deformation potential theory for interband transitions. The interband transitions leading to E0‧ and E2 critical points have lower symmetry and therefore are not affected by the stress.

  7. Devices Based on Parallel-Plate Waveguides for Terahertz Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.

    a PPWG. EOT is an effect where at a particular frequency 100% of the light is transmitted through an array of holes with diameters much smaller than the wavelength. We demonstrate that the output resonant frequency depends strongly on the input mode of the waveguide, where excitation with the TEM waveguide mode mimics EOT in a 2D array in free space, while the TE1 waveguide mode is vastly different. Through this disparity of outcomes between the two different waveguide excitation modes, we can better understand the resonant transmission process. We show that the surface plasmon theoretical description is invalid for the TE1 resonance, and instead use impedance matching to properly predict the resonances in both TE1 and TEM. Additionally, we show that the device can be used as a tunable filter fat THz frequencies by simply changing the separation between the two waveguide plates. Third, we demonstrate a THz variable power splitter based on a PPWG T-junction excited by the TE1 waveguide mode. By integrating a small triangular septum into the waveguide plate, we are able to direct the THz light down to either one of the two output channels with precise control over the coupling ratio between the waveguide outputs. We find good agreement between experiment and simulation in both amplitude and phase. We show that the coupling ratio varies exponentially with the septum translation offset and that nearly 100% transmission can be achieved. The splitter operates over almost the entire range in which the waveguide is single mode, providing a sensitive and broadband method for power splitting. By incorporating our innovations along the already propagating path of THz waves inside a waveguide, we establish multiple functional capabilities into one universal platform. The hope of this work is that these devices will ultimately serve as fundamental building blocks to make everyday THz applications a reality.

  8. Experimental demonstration of subwavelength domino plasmon devices for compact high-frequency circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y G; Lan, L; Zhong, S M; Ong, C K

    2011-10-24

    In optical frequency, surface plasmons of metal provide us a prominent way to build compact photonic devices or circuits with non-diffraction limit. It is attributed by their extraordinary electromagnetic confining effect. But in the counterpart of lower frequencies, plasmonics behavior of metal is screened by eddy current induced in a certain skin depth. To amend this, spoof plasmons engineered by artificial structures have been introduced to mimic surface plasmons in these frequencies. But it is less useful for practical application due to their weak field confinement as manifested by large field decaying length in the upper dielectric space. Recently, a new type of engineered plasmons, domino plasmon was theoretically proposed to produce unusual field confinement and waveguiding capabilities that make them very attractive for ultra-compact device applications [Opt. Exp. 18, 754-764 (2010)]. In this work, we implemented these ideas and built three waveguiding devices based on domino plasmons. Their strong capabilities to produce versatile and ultra-compact devices with multiple electromagnetic functions have been experimentally verified in microwaves. And that can be extended to THz regime to pave the way for a new class of integrated wave circuits. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Reviews in plasmonics 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2016, the third volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  10. Reviews in plasmonics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Reviews in Plasmonics 2015, the second volume of the new book series from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of Plasmonics and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in surface plasmon phenomena and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews in sufficient detail to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of Plasmonics. Reviews in Plasmonics offers an essential source of reference material for any lab working in the Plasmonics field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of Plasmonics will find it an invaluable resource.

  11. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic...... colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances...... and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk–hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large...

  12. Hot Carrier Generation and Extraction of Plasmonic Alloy Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Marco; Venugopal, Anirudh; Tordera, Daniel; Jonsson, Magnus P; Biskos, George; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Smith, Wilson A

    2017-05-17

    The conversion of light to electrical and chemical energy has the potential to provide meaningful advances to many aspects of daily life, including the production of energy, water purification, and optical sensing. Recently, plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) have been increasingly used in artificial photosynthesis (e.g., water splitting) devices in order to extend the visible light utilization of semiconductors to light energies below their band gap. These nanoparticles absorb light and produce hot electrons and holes that can drive artificial photosynthesis reactions. For n-type semiconductor photoanodes decorated with PNPs, hot charge carriers are separated by a process called hot electron injection (HEI), where hot electrons with sufficient energy are transferred to the conduction band of the semiconductor. An important parameter that affects the HEI efficiency is the nanoparticle composition, since the hot electron energy is sensitive to the electronic band structure of the metal. Alloy PNPs are of particular importance for semiconductor/PNPs composites, because by changing the alloy composition their absorption spectra can be tuned to accurately extend the light absorption of the semiconductor. This work experimentally compares the HEI efficiency from Ag, Au, and Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles to TiO 2 photoanodes for the photoproduction of hydrogen. Alloy PNPs not only exhibit tunable absorption but can also improve the stability and electronic and catalytic properties of the pure metal PNPs. In this work, we find that the Ag/Au alloy PNPs extend the stability of Ag in water to larger applied potentials while, at the same time, increasing the interband threshold energy of Au. This increasing of the interband energy of Au suppresses the visible-light-induced interband excitations, favoring intraband excitations that result in higher hot electron energies and HEI efficiencies.

  13. Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Han, Yunxin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Xu, Siyu

    2018-06-03

    As a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) has drawn more attention due to its potential of realizing on-chip sensing, slow light and nonlinear effect enhancement. However, the performance of a plasmonic system is always limited by the metal ohmic loss. Here, we numerically report a PIT system with gain materials based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide. The corresponding phenomenon can be theoretically analyzed by coupled mode theory (CMT). After filling gain material into a disk cavity, the system intrinsic loss can be compensated by external pump beam, and the PIT can be greatly fueled to achieve a dramatic enhancement of slow light performance. Finally, a double-channel enhanced slow light is introduced by adding a second gain disk cavity. This work paves way for a potential new high-performance slow light device, which can have significant applications for high-compact plasmonic circuits and optical communication.

  14. Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.

  15. Sub-micron silicon nitride waveguide fabrication using conventional optical lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Kamyab, Lobna; Rostami, Ali; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate sub-micron silicon nitride waveguides using conventional contact lithography with MEMS-grade photomasks. Potassium hydroxide anisotropic etching of silicon facilitates line reduction and roughness smoothing and is key to the technique. The fabricated waveguides is measured to have a propagation loss of 0.8dB/cm and nonlinear coefficient of γ = 0.3/W/m. A low anomalous dispersion of <100ps/nm/km is also predicted. This type of waveguide is highly suitable for nonlinear optics. The channels naturally formed on top of the waveguide also make it promising for plasmonics and quantum efficiency enhancement in sensing applications.

  16. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P.; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J.; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  17. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  18. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  19. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.

  20. Collapse and revival in inter-band oscillations of a two-band Bose-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Wimberger, Sandro [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Madronero, Javier, E-mail: ploetz@thphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-04-28

    We study the effect of a many-body interaction on inter-band oscillations in a two-band Bose-Hubbard model with an external Stark force. Weak and strong inter-band oscillations are observed, where the latter arise from a resonant coupling of the bands. These oscillations collapse and revive due to a weak two-body interaction between the atoms. Effective models for oscillations in and out of resonance are introduced that provide predictions for the system's behaviour, particularly for the time scales for the collapse and revival of the resonant inter-band oscillations. (fast track communication)

  1. Multiple plasmonically induced transparency for chip-scale bandpass filters in metallic nanowaveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Yue, Zengqi; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new kind of bandpass filters based on the plasmonically induced transparency (PIT) effect in a special metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide system. The finite element method (FEM) simulations illustrate that the obvious PIT response can be generated in the metallic nanostructure with the stub and coupled cavities. The lineshape and position of the PIT peak are particularly dependent on the lengths of the stub and coupled cavities, the waveguide width, as well as the coupling distance between the stub and coupled cavities. The numerical simulations are in accordance with the results obtained by the temporal coupled-mode theory. The multi-peak PIT effect can be achieved by integrating multiple coupled cavities into the plasmonic waveguide. This PIT response contributes to the flexible realization of chip-scale multi-channel bandpass filters, which could find crucial applications in highly integrated optical circuits for signal processing.

  2. Apodized coupled resonator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Muñoz, P; Domenech, J D; Muriel, M A

    2007-08-06

    In this paper we propose analyse the apodisation or windowing of the coupling coefficients in the unit cells of coupled resonator waveguide devices (CROWs) as a means to reduce the level of secondary sidelobes in the bandpass characteristic of their transfer functions. This technique is regularly employed in the design of digital filters and has been applied as well in the design of other photonic devices such as corrugated waveguide filters and fiber Bragg gratings. The apodisation of both Type-I and Type-II structures is discussed for several windowing functions.

  3. Resonant scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by dressed quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong; Cardimona, Dave [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Easter, Michelle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point Terrace, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Maradudin, A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Lin, Shawn-Yu [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Zhang, Xiang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3112 Etcheverry Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    The resonant scattering of surface plasmon-polariton waves (SPP) by embedded semiconductor quantum dots above the dielectric/metal interface is explored in the strong-coupling regime. In contrast to non-resonant scattering by a localized dielectric surface defect, a strong resonant peak in the spectrum of the scattered field is predicted that is accompanied by two side valleys. The peak height depends nonlinearly on the amplitude of SPP waves, reflecting the feedback dynamics from a photon-dressed electron-hole plasma inside the quantum dots. This unique behavior in the scattered field peak strength is correlated with the occurrence of a resonant dip in the absorption spectrum of SPP waves due to the interband photon-dressing effect. Our result on the scattering of SPP waves may be experimentally observable and applied to spatially selective illumination and imaging of individual molecules.

  4. Novel plasmon nano-lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Marell, M.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We will discuss some of the latest developments in metallic and plasmonic nano-lasers. Furthermore we will present our latest results on further miniaturization of electrically pumped plasmonic nano-lasers and also DFB Plasmon mode devices.

  5. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  6. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other...... materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP: Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons...... excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above...

  7. Photothermal Transport of DNA in Entropy-Landscape Plasmonic Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold

    2017-01-01

    The ability to handle single, free molecules in lab-on-a-chip systems is key to the development of advanced biotechnologies. Entropic confinement offers passive control of polymers in nanofluidic systems by locally asserting a molecule's number of available conformation states through structured......-driven actuator provides a convenient platform to filter, route, and manipulate individual molecules and may be realized wholly by wafer-scale fabrication suitable for parallelized investigation....

  8. Low-loss intersection of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    and resonant-tunnelling effect, we design two types of compact cavity-based structures. Our results show that the crosstalk is eliminated and the throughput reaches the unity on resonance. Simulation results are in agreement with those from coupled-mode theory. Taking material loss into account, the symmetry...

  9. The spectral analysis and threshold limits of quasi-supercontinuum self-assembled quantum dot interband lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon; Wang, Yang; Djie, Hery Susanto; Ooi, Boon S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model to explain the quasi-supercontinuum interband emission from InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot lasers by accounting for both inhomogeneous and homogeneous optical gain broadening

  10. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  11. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  12. Inter-band phase fluctuations in macroscopic quantum tunneling of multi-gap superconducting Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Hidehiro, E-mail: hd-asai@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ota, Yukihiro [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Kawabata, Shiro [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nori, Franco [CEMS, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate.

  13. Interband quasiparticle scattering in superconducting LiFeAs reconciles photoemission and tunneling measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christian; Sykora, Steffen; Hänke, Torben; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr B; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; van den Brink, Jeroen; Büchner, Bernd

    2013-01-04

    Several angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies reveal a poorly nested Fermi surface of LiFeAs, far away from a spin density wave instability, and clear-cut superconducting gap anisotropies. On the other hand a very different, more nested Fermi surface and dissimilar gap anisotropies have been obtained from quasiparticle interference (QPI) data, which were interpreted as arising from intraband scattering within holelike bands. Here we show that this ARPES-QPI paradox is completely resolved by interband scattering between the holelike bands. The resolution follows from an excellent agreement between experimental quasiparticle scattering data and T-matrix QPI calculations (based on experimental band structure data), which allows disentangling interband and intraband scattering processes.

  14. Demonstration of forward inter-band tunneling in GaN by polarization engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Park, Pil Sung; Rajan, Siddharth

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of GaN interband tunnel junction showing forward tunneling characteristics. We have achieved very high forward tunneling currents (153 mA/cm 2 at 10 mV, and 17.7 A/cm 2 peak current) in polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN heterojunction diodes grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We also report the observation of repeatable negative differential resistance in interband III-Nitride tunnel junctions, with peak-valley current ratio of 4 at room temperature. The forward current density achieved in this work meets the typical current drive requirements of a multi-junction solar cell.

  15. Inter-band phase fluctuations in macroscopic quantum tunneling of multi-gap superconducting Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Hidehiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate

  16. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  17. Plasmonic Band-Pass Microfilters for LWIR Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Banks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption spectroscopy in the long wave infrared provides an effective method for identification of various hazardous chemicals. We present a theoretical design for plasmonic band-pass filters that can be used to provide wavelength selectivity for uncooled microbolometer sensors. The microfilters consist of a pair of input reflection gratings that couple light into a plasmonic waveguide with a central resonant waveguide cavity. An output transmission grating on the other side of the structure pulls light out of the waveguide where it is detected by a closely spaced sensor. Fabrication of the filters can be performed using standard photolithography procedures. A spectral bandpass with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM of 100 nm can be obtained with a center wavelength spanning the entire 8–12 μm atmospheric transmission window by simple geometric scaling of only the lateral dimensions. This allows the simultaneous fabrication of all the wavelength filters needed for a full spectrometer on a chip.

  18. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  19. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  20. Graphene-on-silicon hybrid plasmonic-photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting-Hui; Cheng, Zhenzhou; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-06-16

    Graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) have shown great potential in biochemical sensing, thermal imaging, and optoelectronics. To excite GSPs, several methods based on the near-field optical microscope and graphene nanostructures have been developed in the past few years. However, these methods suffer from their bulky setups and low GSP-excitation efficiency due to the short interaction length between free-space vertical excitation light and the atomic layer of graphene. Here we present a CMOS-compatible design of graphene-on-silicon hybrid plasmonic-photonic integrated circuits that achieve the in-plane excitation of GSP polaritons as well as localized surface plasmon (SP) resonance. By employing a suspended membrane slot waveguide, our design is able to excite GSP polaritons on a chip. Moreover, by utilizing a graphene nanoribbon array, we engineer the transmission spectrum of the waveguide by excitation of localized SP resonance. Our theoretical and computational study paves a new avenue to enable, modulate, and monitor GSPs on a chip, potentially applicable for the development of on-chip electro-optic devices.

  1. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on interband optical transitions in InAs/GaAs vertically coupled double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghramyan, H M; Barseghyan, M G; Kirakosyan, A A

    2012-01-01

    We consider the effect of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and the variations of structure's sizes on interband transition energy and absorption coefficient in InAs/GaAs vertically coupled double quantum dots. The threshold energy of interband optical transitions is examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and temperature for the different geometries of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the interband light absorption coefficient on the incident photon energy.

  2. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  3. Strong Coupling and Entanglement of Quantum Emitters Embedded in a Nanoantenna-Enhanced Plasmonic Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, Matthias [Institut; Heilpern, Tal [Center; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Pfeiffer, Walter [Fakultät

    2017-10-12

    Establishing strong coupling between spatially separated and thus selectively addressable quantum emitters is a key ingredient to complex quantum optical schemes in future technologies. Insofar as many plasmonic nanostructures are concerned, however, the energy transfer and mutual interaction strength between distant quantum emitters can fail to provide strong coupling. Here, based on mode hybridization, the longevity and waveguide character of an elliptical plasmon cavity are combined with intense and highly localized field modes of suitably designed nanoantennas. Based on FDTD simulations a quantum emitter-plasmon coupling strength hg = 16.7 meV is reached while simultaneously keeping a small plasmon resonance line width h gamma(s) = 33 meV. This facilitates strong coupling, and quantum dynamical simulations reveal an oscillatory exchange of excited state population arid a notable degree of entanglement between the quantum emitters spatially separated by 1.8 mu m, i.e., about twice the operating wavelength.

  4. Experimental Verification of Guided-Wave Lumped Circuits Using Waveguide Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-04-01

    Through the construction and characterization in microwave frequencies, we experimentally demonstrate our recently developed theory of waveguide lumped circuits, i.e., waveguide metatronics [Sci. Adv. 2, e1501790 (2016), 10.1126/sciadv.1501790], as a method to design subwavelength-scaled analog circuits. In the paradigm of waveguide metatronics, numbers of lumped inductors and capacitors are easily integrated functionally inside the waveguide, which is an irreplaceable transmission line in millimeter-wave and terahertz systems with the advantages of low radiation loss and low crosstalk. An example of multiple-ordered metatronic filters with layered structures is fabricated utilizing the technique of substrate integrated waveguides, which can be easily constructed by the printed-circuit-board process. The materials used in the construction are also typical microwave materials with positive permittivity, low loss, and negligible dispersion, imitating the plasmonic materials with negative permittivity in the optical domain. The results verify the theory of waveguide metatronics, which provides an efficient platform of functional lumped circuit design for guided-wave processing.

  5. Low crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Cascaded Waveguide Grating Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yang; Liu Yuan; Gao Dingshan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a highly compact and low crosstalk arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with cascaded waveguide grating (CWGF). The side lobes of the silicon nanowire AWG, which are normally introduced by fabrication errors, can be effectively suppressed by the CWGF. And the crosstalk can be improved about 15dB.

  6. Plasmonics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume summarizes recent theoretical developments in plasmonics and its applications in physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and medicine. It focuses on recent advances in several major areas of plasmonics including plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, light scattering, many-body effects, nonlinear optics, and ultrafast dynamics. The theoretical and computational methods used in these investigations include electromagnetic calculations, density functional theory calculations, and nonequilibrium electron dynamics calculations. The book presents a comprehensive overview of these methods as well as their applications to various current problems of interest.

  7. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  8. Dominance of Plasmonic Resonant Energy Transfer over Direct Electron Transfer in Substantially Enhanced Water Oxidation Activity of BiVO4 by Shape-Controlled Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Gyoung; Moon, Cheon Woo; Park, Hoonkee; Sohn, Woonbae; Kang, Sung Bum; Lee, Sanghan; Choi, Kyoung Jin; Jang, Ho Won

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasmonic Au nanostructure/metal oxide heterointerface shows great promise in enhancing photoactivity, due to its ability to confine light to the small volume inside the semiconductor and modify the interfacial electronic band structure. While the shape control of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial for moderate bandgap semiconductors, because plasmonic resonance by interband excitations overlaps above the absorption edge of semiconductors, its critical role in water splitting is still not fully understood. Here, first, the plasmonic effects of shape-controlled Au NPs on bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ) are studied, and a largely enhanced photoactivity of BiVO 4 is reported by introducing the octahedral Au NPs. The octahedral Au NP/BiVO 4 achieves 2.4 mA cm -2 at the 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is the threefold enhancement compared to BiVO 4 . It is the highest value among the previously reported plasmonic Au NPs/BiVO 4 . Improved photoactivity is attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance; direct electron transfer (DET), plasmonic resonant energy transfer (PRET). The PRET can be stressed over DET when considering the moderate bandgap semiconductor. Enhanced water oxidation induced by the shape-controlled Au NPs is applicable to moderate semiconductors, and shows a systematic study to explore new efficient plasmonic solar water splitting cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High intersubband absorption in long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector based on waveguide resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanliao; Chen, Pingping; Ding, Jiayi; Yang, Heming; Nie, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xiaohao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    A hybrid structure consisting of periodic gold stripes and an overlaying gold film has been proposed as the optical coupler of a long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector. Absorption spectra and field distributions of the structure at back-side normal incidence are calculated by the finite difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the intersubband absorption can be greatly enhanced based on the waveguide resonance as well as the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode. With the optimized structural parameters of the periodic gold stripes, the maximal intersubband absorption can exceed 80%, which is much higher than the SPP-enhanced intersubband absorption (the one of the standard device. The relationship between the structural parameters and the waveguide resonant wavelength is derived. Other advantages of the efficient optical coupling based on waveguide resonance are also discussed.

  10. Design of nanoring resonators made of metal-insulator-metal nanostrip waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun-Hwa; Lee, Hyun-Shik; O, Beom-Hoan; Lee, Seung-Gol; Park, Se-Geun; Lee, El-Hang

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design of nanoring resonators made of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanostrip waveguides. The characteristics of the lightwave propagation through the silver-based MIM plasmonic waveguides with an air superstrate are examined. The effective refractive indices, the propagation losses, the bending losses, and the beat lengths are analyzed by using 2D and 3D finite element methods (FEMs). For the optimization of the nanoring resonators, we examined the resonant mode power and the Q factor with respect to the width of the MIM nanostrip and the separation between the ring resonator and the straight waveguide. We obtained an optimized nanoring resonator that had submicron diameters (R = 399 nm) and 3 rd -order resonances at a 1550-nm wavelength. These nanoring resonators will play an important role as the basic building blocks for the realization of nanoscale photonic integrated circuits.

  11. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  12. Harvesting multiple electron-hole pairs generated through plasmonic excitation of Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Smith, Jeremy G; Jain, Prashant K

    2018-05-07

    Multi-electron redox reactions, although central to artificial photosynthesis, are kinetically sluggish. Amidst the search for synthetic catalysts for such processes, plasmonic nanoparticles have been found to catalyse multi-electron reduction of CO 2 under visible light. This example motivates the need for a general, insight-driven framework for plasmonic catalysis of such multi-electron chemistry. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the extraction of multiple redox equivalents from a plasmonic photocatalyst. We measure the kinetics of electron harvesting from a gold nanoparticle photocatalyst as a function of photon flux. Our measurements, supported by theoretical modelling, reveal a regime where two-electron transfer from the excited gold nanoparticle becomes prevalent. Multiple electron harvesting becomes possible under continuous-wave, visible-light excitation of moderate intensity due to strong interband transitions in gold and electron-hole separation accomplished using a hole scavenger. These insights will help expand the utility of plasmonic photocatalysis beyond CO 2 reduction to other challenging multi-electron, multi-proton transformations such as N 2 fixation.

  13. Efficient Excitation of Channel Plasmons in Tailored, UV-Lithography-Defined V-Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron L. C.; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the highly efficient (>50%) conversion of freely propagating light to channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) in gold V-groove waveguides using compact 1.6 μm long waveguide-termination coupling mirrors. Our straightforward fabrication process, involving UV-lithography and crystallographic...... silicon etching, forms the coupling mirrors innately and ensures exceptional-quality, wafer-scale device production. We tailor the V-shaped profiles by thermal silicon oxidation in order to shift initially wedge-located modes downward into the V-grooves, resulting in well-confined CPPs suitable...

  14. Epi-Side-Down Mounting of Interband Cascade Lasers for Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    retain the principal advantage of electron recycling . However, unlike the QCL, the ICL relies on the cascading of interband optical transitions as...9.0 Cu 393 17 SiC 120 4 AlN 230 (high grade –Tsekoun 2006) 4.5, 4.3 Indium 83.7 24.8@ 20C 2 device ridge and an effective heat spreader ...65.3 K/W M271 epi-side down 8-μm x 1-mm mesa TmaxCW= 212K 4 were vital and survived multiple cryogenic to room temperature recyclings . Fig. 4

  15. Strong interband Faraday rotation in 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnoutek, L; Hakl, M; Veis, M; Piot, B A; Faugeras, C; Martinez, G; Yakushev, M V; Martin, R W; Drašar, Č; Materna, A; Strzelecka, G; Hruban, A; Potemski, M; Orlita, M

    2016-01-11

    The Faraday effect is a representative magneto-optical phenomenon, resulting from the transfer of angular momentum between interacting light and matter in which time-reversal symmetry has been broken by an externally applied magnetic field. Here we report on the Faraday rotation induced in the prominent 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3 due to bulk interband excitations. The origin of this non-resonant effect, extraordinarily strong among other non-magnetic materials, is traced back to the specific Dirac-type Hamiltonian for Bi2Se3, which implies that electrons and holes in this material closely resemble relativistic particles with a non-zero rest mass.

  16. Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajenius, M; Khosropanah, P; Hovenier, J N; Gao, J R; Klapwijk, T M; Barbieri, S; Dhillon, S; Filloux, P; Sirtori, C; Ritchie, D A; Beere, H E

    2008-02-15

    We characterize a heterodyne receiver based on a surface-plasmon waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.84 THz as a local oscillator, and an NbN hot electron bolometer as a mixer. We find that the envelope of the far-field pattern of the QCL is diffraction-limited and superimposed onto interference fringes, which are similar to those found in narrow double-metal waveguide QCLs. Compared to the latter, a more directional beam allows for better coupling of the radiation power to the mixer. We obtain a receiver noise temperature of 1050 K when the mixer is at 2 K, which, to our knowledge, is the highest sensitivity reported at frequencies beyond 2.5 THz.

  17. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaee Panah, Mohammad Esmail; Semenova, Elizaveta S; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2017-06-08

    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP:Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above a dielectric substrate. Low losses in InP:Si result in a big propagation length. The induced deflection can be detected by measuring the phase change of the light when passing through the waveguide, which enables all-optical functioning, and paves the way towards integration and miniaturization of micro-cantilevers. In addition, tunability of the ENZ and the SPP excitation wavelength ranges, via adjusting the carrier concentration, provides an extra degree of freedom for designing MEMS devices.

  18. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Lesina, Antonino Calà; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and alumin...

  19. Highly nonlinear sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguide coated with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Sharac, Nicholas; Ragan, Regina; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a highly nonlinear sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguide coated with gold nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement. The average enhancement effect is evaluated by measuring the spectral broadening effect caused by self-phase-modulation. The nonlinear refractive index n2 was measured to be 7.0917×10-19 m2/W for a waveguide whose Wopen is 5 μm. Several waveguides at different locations on one wafer were measured in order to take the randomness of the nanoparticle distribution into consideration. The largest enhancement is measured to be as high as 10 times. Fabrication of this waveguide started with a MEMS grade photomask. By using conventional optical lithography, the wide linewidth was transferred to a wafer. Then the wafer was etched anisotropically by potassium hydroxide (KOH) to engrave trapezoidal trenches with an angle of 54.7º. Side wall roughness was mitigated by KOH etching and thermal oxidation that was used to generate a buffer layer for silicon nitride waveguide. The guiding material silicon nitride was then deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The waveguide was then patterned with a chemical template, with 20 nm gold particles being chemically attached to the functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) domains. Since the particles attached only to the PMMA domains, they were confined to localized regions, therefore forcing the nanoparticles into clusters of various numbers and geometries. Experiments reveal that the waveguide has negligible nonlinear absorption loss, and its nonlinear refractive index can be greatly enhanced by gold nano clusters. The silicon nitride trench waveguide has large nonlinear refractive index, rendering itself promising for nonlinear applications.

  20. Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton nanowaveguides fabricated by two-photon polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hao; Li, Yan; Cui, Hai-Bo; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qi-Huang [Peking University, State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2009-11-15

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton nanowave-guides on a gold film are presented. The nanostructures are produced by two-photon polymerization with femtosecond laser pulses, and the minimum ridge height is {proportional_to}170 nm. Leakage radiation microscopy shows that these surface plasmon-polariton waveguides are single mode with strong mode confinement at the wavelength of 830 nm. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation by the effective-index method. (orig.)

  1. Stacked optical antennas for plasmon propagation in a 5 nm-confined cavity

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, A.; Panaro, S.; Zaccaria, R. Proietti; Raja, W.; Liberale, Carlo; Dipalo, M.; Messina, G. C.; Wang, H.; De Angelis, F.; Toma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The sub-wavelength concentration and propagation of electromagnetic energy are two complementary aspects of plasmonics that are not necessarily co-present in a single nanosystem. Here we exploit the strong nanofocusing properties of stacked optical antennas in order to highly concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a 5nm metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and convert free radiation into guided modes. The proposed nano-architecture combines the concentration properties of optical nanoantennas with the propagation capability of MIM systems, paving the way to highly miniaturized on-chip plasmonic waveguiding. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  2. Stacked optical antennas for plasmon propagation in a 5 nm-confined cavity

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, A.

    2015-06-09

    The sub-wavelength concentration and propagation of electromagnetic energy are two complementary aspects of plasmonics that are not necessarily co-present in a single nanosystem. Here we exploit the strong nanofocusing properties of stacked optical antennas in order to highly concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a 5nm metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and convert free radiation into guided modes. The proposed nano-architecture combines the concentration properties of optical nanoantennas with the propagation capability of MIM systems, paving the way to highly miniaturized on-chip plasmonic waveguiding. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling the plasmonic surface waves of metallic nanowires by transformation optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yichao; Yuan, Jun; Yin, Ge; Ma, Yungui, E-mail: yungui@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Sailing [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Electromagnetic Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-06

    In this letter, we introduce the technique of using transformation optics to manipulate the mode states of surface plasmonic waves of metallic nanowire waveguides. As examples we apply this technique to design two optical components: a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic mode rotator and a mode convertor. The rotator can rotate the polarization state of the surface wave around plasmonic nanowires by arbitrarily desired angles, and the convertor can transform the surface wave modes from one to another. Full-wave simulation is performed to verify the design and efficiency of our devices. Their potential application in photonic circuits is envisioned.

  4. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  5. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  6. Multi-layered dielectric cladding plasmonic microdisk resonator filter and coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cheng, Bo; Lan, Yung-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    This work develops the plasmonic microdisk filter/coupler, whose effectiveness is evaluated by finite-difference time-domain simulation and theoretical analyses. Multi-layer dielectric cladding is used to prevent the scattering of surface plasmons (SPs) from a silver microdisk. This method allows devices that efficiently perform filter/coupler functions to be developed. The resonant conditions and the effective refractive index of bounded SP modes on the microdisk are determined herein. The waveguide-to-microdisk distance barely influences the resonant wavelength but it is inversely related to the bandwidth. These findings are consistent with predictions made using the typical ring resonator model.

  7. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    to its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic......Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin......-film semiconducting material. For a particular case, we show that coupling to the same type of localized slab-waveguide modes can be obtained by a surface modulation consisting of purely dielectric strips. The purely dielectric device turns out to have a significantly higher broadband enhancement factor compared...

  9. Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single-photon...... emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of 20 ± 5 μm for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate, and 58% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode...

  10. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons

  11. Freeform Phononic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gkantzounis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We employ a recently introduced class of artificial structurally-disordered phononic structures that exhibit large and robust elastic frequency band gaps for efficient phonon guiding. Phononic crystals are periodic structures that prohibit the propagation of elastic waves through destructive interference and exhibit large band gaps and ballistic propagation of elastic waves in the permitted frequency ranges. In contrast, random-structured materials do not exhibit band gaps and favour localization or diffusive propagation. Here, we use structures with correlated disorder constructed from the so-called stealthy hyperuniform disordered point patterns, which can smoothly vary from completely random to periodic (full order by adjusting a single parameter. Such amorphous-like structures exhibit large band gaps (comparable to the periodic ones, both ballistic-like and diffusive propagation of elastic waves, and a large number of localized modes near the band edges. The presence of large elastic band gaps allows the creation of waveguides in hyperuniform materials, and we analyse various waveguide architectures displaying nearly 100% transmission in the GHz regime. Such phononic-circuit architectures are expected to have a direct impact on integrated micro-electro-mechanical filters and modulators for wireless communications and acousto-optical sensing applications.

  12. Temperature dependence of interband recombination energy in symmetric (In,Ga)N spherical quantum dot-quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE, 267 Quartier complémentaire Ennahda 1, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential barrier, single particle and ground-state interband recombination energies in Core|well|shell based on GaN|(In,Ga)N|GaN spherical QDQW are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The temperature dependency of effective-mass, band-gap energy and potential barrier is taken into account. Particle eigenvalue and band-gap energy competing effects are speculated to explain our numerical results which show that the interband recombination energy increases when the temperature increases. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the findings.

  13. Temperature dependence of interband recombination energy in symmetric (In,Ga)N spherical quantum dot-quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential barrier, single particle and ground-state interband recombination energies in Core|well|shell based on GaN|(In,Ga)N|GaN spherical QDQW are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The temperature dependency of effective-mass, band-gap energy and potential barrier is taken into account. Particle eigenvalue and band-gap energy competing effects are speculated to explain our numerical results which show that the interband recombination energy increases when the temperature increases. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the findings

  14. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  15. Photothermal modification of plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a method for geometrically modifying plasmonic structures on a support structure, such as for printing or recording, said method comprising changing a geometry specifically of plasmonic structures, wherein said changing the geometry is carried out by photothermally melting...... at least a portion of each of the plasmonic structures within the second plurality of plasmonic structures by irradiating, the plasmonic structures with incident electromagnetic radiation having an incident intensity in a plane of the second plurality of plasmonic structures, wherein said incident...... intensity is less than an incident intensity required to melt a film of a corresponding material and a corresponding thickness as the plasmonic structures within the second plurality of plasmonic structures....

  16. Grating-Coupled Waveguide Cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia-Fu; Qu Shao-Bo; Ma Hua; Wang Cong-Min; Wang Xin-Hua; Zhou Hang; Xu Zhuo; Xia Song

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a grating-coupled waveguide (GCW), a new strategy for realizing EM cloaking is presented. Using metallic grating, incident waves are firstly coupled into the effective waveguide and then decoupled into free space behind, enabling EM waves to pass around the obstacle. Phase compensation in the waveguide keeps the wave-front shape behind the obstacle unchanged. Circular, rectangular and triangular cloaks are presented to verify the robustness of the GCW cloaking. Electric field animations and radar cross section (RCS) comparisons convincingly demonstrate the cloaking effect

  17. Searching for better plasmonic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, P.; Ishii, S.; Naik, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics is a research area merging the fields of optics and nanoelectronics by confining light with relatively large free-space wavelength to the nanometer scale - thereby enabling a family of novel devices. Current plasmonic devices at telecommunication and optical frequencies face significan...... for realizing optimal plasmonic material properties for specific frequencies and applications, thereby providing a reference for those searching for better plasmonic materials....

  18. Metal Nitrides for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Schroeder, Jeremy; Guler, Urcan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications.......Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications....

  19. Two types of fundamental luminescence of ionization-passive electrons and holes in optical dielectrics—Intraband-electron and interband-hole luminescence (theoretical calculation and comparison with experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisburd, D. I.; Kharitonova, S. V.

    1997-11-01

    A short high-power pulse of ionizing radiation creates a high concentration of nonequilibrium electrons and holes in a dielectric. They quickly lose their energy, generating a multiplicity of secondary quasiparticles: electron—hole pairs, excitons, plasmons, phonons of all types, and others. When the kinetic energy of an electron becomes less that some value EΔ≈(1.3-2)Eg it loses the ability to perform collisional ionization and electron excitations of the dielectric medium. Such an electron is said to be ionization-passive. It relaxes to the bottom of the lower conduction band by emitting phonons. Similarly a hole becomes ionization-passive when it “floats up” above some level EH and loses the ability for Auger ionization of the dielectric medium. It continues to float upward to the ceiling of the upper valance band only by emitting phonons. The concentrations of ionization-passive electrons and holes are larger by several orders of magnitude than those of the active electrons and holes and consequently make of a far larger contribution to many kinetic processes such as luminescence. Intraband and interband quantum transitions make the greatest contribution to the fundamental (independent of impurities and intrinsic defects) electromagnetic radiation of ionization-passive electrons and holes. Consequently the brightest types of purely fundamental luminescence of strongly nonequilibrium electrons and holes are intraband and interband luminescence. These forms of luminescence, discovered relatively recently, carry valuable information on the high-energy states of the electrons in the conduction band and of the holes in the valence band of a dielectric. Experimental investigations of these types of luminescence were made, mainly on alkali halide crystals which were excited by nanoseconal pulses of high-current-density electrons and by two-photon absorption of the ultraviolet harmonics of pulsed laser radiation beams of nanosecond and picosecond duration. The

  20. Controlling surface plasmon polaritons by a static and/or time-dependent external magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Eyderman, Sergey; Vanwolleghem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 045403 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) MP0702 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : one-way electromegnetic waveguide * magneto-optic photonic crystal * surface plasmon polarirton Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  1. Controlling surface plasmon polaritons by a static and/or time-dependent external magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Eyderman, Sergey; Vanwolleghem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 045403 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) MP0702 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : one-way electromegnetic waveguide * magneto- optic photonic crystal * surface plasmon polarirton Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  2. Plasmon-exciton-polariton lasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, M.; Halpin, A.; Fernández-Dominguez, A.I.; Feist, J.; Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Gómez-Rivas, J.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Strong coupling of Frenkel excitons with surface plasmons leads to the formation of bosonic quasi-particles known as plasmon-exciton-polaritons (PEPs).Localized surface plasmons in nanoparticles are lossy due to radiative and nonradiative decays, which has hampered the realization of polariton

  3. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W

    1983-01-01

    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  4. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Delvan A.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  5. Interband coherence response to electric fields in crystals: Berry-phase contributions and disorder effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culcer, Dimitrie; Sekine, Akihiko; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2017-07-01

    In solid state conductors, linear response to a steady electric field is normally dominated by Bloch state occupation number changes that are correlated with group velocity and lead to a steady state current. Recently it has been realized that, for a number of important physical observables, the most important response even in conductors can be electric-field induced coherence between Bloch states in different bands, such as that responsible for screening in dielectrics. Examples include the anomalous and spin-Hall effects, spin torques in magnetic conductors, and the minimum conductivity and chiral anomaly in Weyl and Dirac semimetals. In this paper we present a general quantum kinetic theory of linear response to an electric field which can be applied to solids with arbitrarily complicated band structures and includes the interband coherence response and the Bloch-state repopulation responses on an equal footing. One of the principal aims of our work is to enable extensive transport theory applications using computational packages constructed in terms of maximally localized Wannier functions. To this end we provide a complete correspondence between the Bloch and Wannier formulations of our theory. The formalism is based on density-matrix equations of motion, on a Born approximation treatment of disorder, and on an expansion in scattering rate to leading nontrivial order. Our use of a Born approximation omits some physical effects and represents a compromise between comprehensiveness and practicality. The quasiparticle bands are treated in a completely general manner that allows for arbitrary forms of the spin-orbit interaction and for the broken time reversal symmetry of magnetic conductors. We demonstrate that the interband response in conductors consists primarily of two terms: an intrinsic contribution due to the entire Fermi sea that captures, among other effects, the Berry curvature contribution to wave-packet dynamics, and an anomalous contribution caused

  6. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  7. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  8. Quantum theory of plasmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2014-01-01

    Since very early works on plasma oscillations in solids, it was known that in collective excitations (fluctuations of the charge density) of the electron gas there exists the resonance appearing as a quasiparticle of a special type called the plasmon. The elaboration of the quantum theory of plasmon in the framework of the canonical formalism is the purpose of the present work. We start from the establishment of the Lagrangian of the system of itinerant electrons in metal and the definition of the generalized coordinates and velocities of this system. Then we determine the expression of the Hamiltonian and perform the quantization procedure in the canonical formalism. By means of this rigorous method we can derive the expressions of the Hamiltonians of the interactions of plasmon with photon and all quasiparticles in solid from the first principles. (papers)

  9. Unique lasing mechanism of localized dispersive nanostructures in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dash broad interband laser

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, C. L.; Djie, H. S.; Tan, C. K.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the nanowires-like and nanodots-like lasing behaviors in addition to multiple-wavelength interband transitions from InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dash (Qdash) lasers in the range of ~1550 nm. The presence of lasing actions

  10. Spectral resampling based on user-defined interband correlation filter: C3 and C4 grass species classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adjorlolo, C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available dependence information between a chosen band-centre and its shorter and longer wavelength neighbours. Weighting threshold of inter-band correlation (WTC, Pearson’s r) was calculated, whereby r = 1 at the band-centre. Various WTC (r = 0.99, r = 0.95 and r = 0...

  11. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  12. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  13. Terahertz plasmonic Bessel beamformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnai, Yasuaki; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Jahn, David; Koch, Martin; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate terahertz Bessel beamforming based on the concept of plasmonics. The proposed planar structure is made of concentric metallic grooves with a subwavelength spacing that couple to a point source to create tightly confined surface waves or spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Concentric scatterers periodically incorporated at a wavelength scale allow for launching the surface waves into free space to define a Bessel beam. The Bessel beam defined at 0.29 THz has been characterized through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This approach is capable of generating Bessel beams with planar structures as opposed to bulky axicon lenses and can be readily integrated with solid-state terahertz sources

  14. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  15. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  16. A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chenran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a three-waveguide electro-optic switch for compact photonic integrated circuits and data routing applications. The device features a plasmonic metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS mode for enhanced light-matter-interactions. The switching mechanism originates from a capacitor-like design where the refractive index of the active medium, indium-tin-oxide, is altered via shifting the plasma frequency due to carrier accumulation inside the waveguide-based MOS structure. This light manipulation mechanism controls the transmission direction of transverse magnetic polarized light into either a CROSS or BAR waveguide port. The extinction ratio of 18 (7 dB for the CROSS (BAR state, respectively, is achieved via a gating voltage bias. The ultrafast broadband fJ/bit device allows for seamless integration with silicon-on-insulator platforms for low-cost manufacturing.

  17. Low-loss integrated electrical surface plasmon source with ultra-smooth metal film fabricated by polymethyl methacrylate ‘bond and peel’ method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Hu, Xiaolong; Zou, Qiushun; Wu, Shaoying; Jin, Chongjun

    2018-06-01

    External light sources are mostly employed to functionalize the plasmonic components, resulting in a bulky footprint. Electrically driven integrated plasmonic devices, combining ultra-compact critical feature sizes with extremely high transmission speeds and low power consumption, can link plasmonics with the present-day electronic world. In an effort to achieve this prospect, suppressing the losses in the plasmonic devices becomes a pressing issue. In this work, we developed a novel polymethyl methacrylate ‘bond and peel’ method to fabricate metal films with sub-nanometer smooth surfaces on semiconductor wafers. Based on this method, we further fabricated a compact plasmonic source containing a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide with an ultra-smooth metal surface on a GaAs-based light-emitting diode wafer. An increase in propagation length of the SPP mode by a factor of 2.95 was achieved as compared with the conventional device containing a relatively rough metal surface. Numerical calculations further confirmed that the propagation length is comparable to the theoretical prediction on the MIM waveguide with perfectly smooth metal surfaces. This method facilitates low-loss and high-integration of electrically driven plasmonic devices, thus provides an immediate opportunity for the practical application of on-chip integrated plasmonic circuits.

  18. Optimizing the active region of interband cascade lasers for passive mode-locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryczko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work proposes possible designs of active regions for a mode-locked interband cascade laser emitting in the mid infrared. For that purpose we investigated the electronic structure properties of respectively modified GaSb-based type II W-shaped quantum wells, including the effect of external bias in order to simultaneously fulfil the requirements for both the absorber as well as the gain sections of a device. The results show that introducing multiple InAs layers in type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells or introducing a tensely-strained GaAsSb layer into “W-shaped” type II QWs offers significant difference in optical transitions’ oscillator strengths (characteristic lifetimes of the two oppositely polarized parts of such a laser, being promising for utilization in mode-locked devices.

  19. Interband cascade lasers with >40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Kim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Broad-area 10-stage interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting at λ = 3.0–3.2 μm are shown to maintain continuous-wave (cw) wallplug efficiencies exceeding 40% at temperatures up to 125 K, despite having a design optimized for operation at ambient and above. The cw threshold current density at 80 K is only 11 A/cm 2 for a 2 mm cavity with anti-reflection/high-reflection coatings on the two facets. The external differential quantum efficiency for a 1-mm-long cavity with the same coatings is 70% per stage at 80 K, and still above 65% at 150 K. The results demonstrate that at cryogenic temperatures, where free carrier absorption losses are minimized, ICLs can convert electrical to optical energy nearly as efficiently as the best specially designed intersubband-based quantum cascade lasers

  20. Inter-band B(E2) transitions strengths in 160-170Dy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E; Lerma, Sergio; Velázquez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The rare earth region of the nuclear landscape is characterized by a large collectivity observed. The microscopic studies are difficult to perform in the region due to the enormous size of the valence spaces. The use of symmetries based models avoids that problem, because the symmetry allows to choose the most relevant degrees of freedom for the system under consideration. We present theoretical results for electromagnetic properties in 160-168 Dy isotopes employing the pseudo-SU(3) model. In particular, we study the B(E2) inter-band transition strengths between the ground state, γ and, β-bands. The model succesfully describes in a systematic way rotational features in these nuclei and allows to extrapolate toward the midshell nucleus 170 Dy

  1. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  2. Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper, which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required.

  3. Plasmonics light modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are waves propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric and, due to their tight confinement, may be used for nanoscale control of the light propagation. Thus, photonic integrated circuits can benefit from devices using SPPs because of their highly...

  4. Graphene-induced modulation effects on magnetic plasmon in multilayer metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daimin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Yuhang; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xinpeng; Yi, Juemin; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by the increasing interest in active control of the optical response in magnetic metamaterials, we theoretically demonstrate that monolayer graphene, even only a single atom thick, can provide an efficient modulation on the magnetic plasmon (MP) resonance, including over 10 meV resonance shift and over 25% modulation of resonance absorption intensity. We show that the resonance shift is distinctly different from the graphene-induced change in electrically excited surface plasmon resonances in plasmonic systems. Our analysis based on the equivalent nanocircuit method reveals that the MP resonance shift is governed by both the real and imaginary parts of graphene permittivity. Importantly, we find that an additional dissipation channel relevant to the graphene-induced resistance governs the MP absorption and that even the dissipation channel of interband transition is blocked. The interplay between both channels results in a pronounced modification of MP absorption intensities. The findings will offer a promising way to realize the dynamic control of the magnetic response, which holds great potential applications in graphene-based active metamaterials.

  5. Bloch-Surface-Polariton-Based Hybrid Nanowire Structure for Subwavelength, Low-Loss Waveguiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs have been thoroughly studied in the past decades for not only sensing but also waveguiding applications. Various plasmonic device structures have been explored due to their ability to confine their optical mode to the subwavelength level. However, with the existence of metal, the large ohmic loss limits the propagation distance of the SPP and thus the scalability of such devices. Therefore, different hybrid waveguides have been proposed to overcome this shortcoming. Through fine tuning of the coupling between the SPP and a conventional waveguide mode, a hybrid mode could be excited with decent mode confinement and extended propagation distance. As an effective alternative of SPP, Bloch surface waves have been re-investigated more recently for their unique advantages. As is supported in all-dielectric structures, the optical loss for the Bloch surface wave is much lower, which stands for a much longer propagating distance. Yet, the confinement of the Bloch surface wave due to the reflections and refractions in the multilayer structure is not as tight as that of the SPP. In this work, by integrating a periodic multilayer structure that supports the Bloch surface wave with a metallic nanowire structure, a hybrid Bloch surface wave polariton could be excited. With the proposed hybrid nanowire structure, a hybrid mode is demonstrated with the deep subwavelength mode confinement and a propagation distance of tens of microns.

  6. Scattering of surface plasmons on graphene by a discontinuity in surface conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejaei, Behzad; Khavasi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The scattering of graphene surface plasmons from an arbitrary, one-dimensional discontinuity in graphene surface conductivity is treated analytically by an exact solution of the quasi-static integral equation for surface current density in the spectral domain. It is found that the reflection and transmission coefficients are not governed by the Fresnel formulas obtained by means of the effective medium approach. Furthermore, the reflection coefficient generally exhibits an anomalous reflection phase, which has so far only been reported for the particular case of reflection from abrupt edges. This anomalous phase becomes frequency-independent in the regime where the effect of inter-band transitions on graphene conductivity is negligible. The results are in excellent agreement with full-wave electromagnetic simulations, and can serve as a basis for the analysis of inhomogeneous graphene layers with a piecewise-constant conductivity profile. (paper)

  7. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission...... is heavily dependent on the lattice position of the waveguide and its direction. Our experiments of defect inscription by 2-photon polymerization for the production of straight and bent waveguides in opal templates are reported....

  8. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  9. Coherent interaction of single molecules and plasmonic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Grotz, Bernhard; Siyushev, Petr; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    Quantum plasmonics opens the option to integrate complex quantum optical circuitry onto chip scale devices. In the past, often external light sources were used and nonclassical light was coupled in and out of plasmonic structures, such as hole arrays or waveguide structures. Another option to launch single plasmonic excitations is the coupling of single emitters in the direct proximity of, e.g., a silver or gold nanostructure. Here, we present our attempts to integrate the research of single emitters with wet-chemically grown silver nanowires. The emitters of choice are single organic dye molecules under cryogenic conditions, which are known to act as high-brightness and extremely narrow-band single photon sources. Another advantage is their high optical nonlinearity, such that they might mediate photon-photon interactions on the nanoscale. We report on the coupling of a single molecule fluorescence emission through the wire over the length of several wavelengths. The transmission of coherently emitted photons is proven by an extinction type experiment. As for influencing the spectral properties of a single emitter, we are able to show a remote change of the line-width of a single terrylene molecule, which is in close proximity to the nanowire.

  10. Novel Plasmonic Materials and Nanodevices for Integrated Quantum Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.

    Light-matter interaction is the foundation for numerous important quantum optical phenomena, which may be harnessed to build practical devices with higher efficiency and unprecedented functionality. Nanoscale engineering is seen as a fruitful avenue to significantly strengthen light-matter interaction and also make quantum optical systems ultra-compact, scalable, and energy efficient. This research focuses on color centers in diamond that share quantum properties with single atoms. These systems promise a path for the realization of practical quantum devices such as nanoscale sensors, single-photon sources, and quantum memories. In particular, we explored an intriguing methodology of utilizing nanophotonic structures, such as hyperbolic metamaterials, nanoantennae, and plasmonic waveguides, to improve the color centers performance. We observed enhancement in the color center's spontaneous emission rate, emission directionality, and cooperativity over a broad optical frequency range. Additionally, we studied the effect of plasmonic environments on the spin-readout sensitivity of color centers. The use of CMOS-compatible epitaxially grown plasmonic materials in the design of these nanophotonic structures promises a new level of performance for a variety of integrated room-temperature quantum devices based on diamond color centers.

  11. Plasmonic Organic Photovoltaics: Unraveling Plasmonic Enhancement for Realistic Cell Geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating plasmonic nanoparticles in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices can increase the optical thickness of the organic absorber layer while keeping its physical thickness small. However, trade-offs between various structure parameters have caused contradictions regarding the effectiveness...... of plasmonics in the literature, that have somewhat stunted the progressing of a unified theoretical understanding for practical applications. We examine the optical enhancement mechanisms of practical PCDTBT:PC70BM OPV cells incorporating metal nanoparticles. The plasmonic near- and far-field contributions...... show that an already optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM cell can be further optically enhanced by plasmonic effects by at least 20% with the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles....

  12. Theoretical study of the folded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.; Owens, T.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have applied a three-dimensional (3-D) algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations to the analysis of foleded waveguides used for fusion plasma heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency. A rigorous analysis of the magnetic field structure in the folded waveguide is presented. The results are compared to experimenntal measurements. Optimum conditions for the folded waveguide are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs

  13. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  14. Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Xiaorui; Wang, Zhuoxian; Cong, Fengzi; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2011-02-09

    We show that the local electric field distribution of propagating plasmons along silver nanowires can be imaged by coating the nanowires with a layer of quantum dots, held off the surface of the nanowire by a nanoscale dielectric spacer layer. In simple networks of silver nanowires with two optical inputs, control of the optical polarization and phase of the input fields directs the guided waves to a specific nanowire output. The QD-luminescent images of these structures reveal that a complete family of phase-dependent, interferometric logic functions can be performed on these simple networks. These results show the potential for plasmonic waveguides to support compact interferometric logic operations.

  15. Polymer waveguide couplers based on metal nanoparticle–polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoretto, M; Suárez, I; Chirvony, V S; Martínez-Pastor, J; Abargues, R; Rodríguez-Cantó, P J

    2015-01-01

    In this work Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) are incorporated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) waveguides to develop optical couplers that are compatible with planar organic polymer photonics. A method for growing AuNPs (of 10 to 100 nm in size) inside the commercially available Novolak resist is proposed with the intention of tuning the plasmon resonance and the absorption/scattering efficiencies inside the patterned structures. The refractive index of the MNP–Novolak nanocomposite (MNPs: noble metal nanoparticles) is carefully analysed both experimentally and numerically in order to find the appropriate fabrication conditions (filling factor and growth time) to optimize the scattering cross section at a desired wavelength. Then the nanocomposite is patterned inside a PMMA waveguide to exploit its scattering properties to couple and guide a normal incident laser light beam along the polymer. In this way, light coupling is experimentally demonstrated in a broad wavelength range (404–780 nm). Due to the elliptical shape of the MNPs the nanocomposite demonstrates a birefringence, which enhances the coupling to the TE mode up to efficiencies of around 1%. (paper)

  16. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  17. Long-wavelength stimulated emission and carrier lifetimes in HgCdTe-based waveguide structures with quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumyantsev, V. V., E-mail: rumyantsev@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Fadeev, M. A.; Morozov, S. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Kadykov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Tuzov, I. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU) (Russian Federation); Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Teppe, F. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C) (France)

    2016-12-15

    The interband photoconductivity and photoluminescence in narrow-gap HgCdTe-based waveguide structures with quantum wells (QWs) (designed for long-wavelength stimulated emission under optical pumping) are investigated. The photoconductivity relaxation times in n-type structures reach several microseconds, due to which stimulated emission at a wavelength of 10.2 μm occurs at a low threshold pump intensity (~100 W/cm{sup 2}) at 20 K. In the p-type structures obtained by annealing (to increase the mercury vacancy concentration), even spontaneous emission from the QWs is not detected because of a dramatic decrease in the carrier lifetime with respect to Shockley–Read–Hall nonradiative recombination.

  18. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet......Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex...

  19. Energy transfer in plasmonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, Vitaliy N; Urbas, Augustine M; Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    We present our results on energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules or quantum dots near a plasmonic nanoparticle. In such systems, the Förster resonance energy transfer is strongly modified due to plasmon-mediated coupling between donors and acceptors. The transfer efficiency is determined by a competition between transfer, radiation and dissipation that depends sensitively on system parameters. When donor and accepror spectral bands overlap with dipole surface plasmon resonance, the dominant transfer mechanism is through plasmon-enhanced radiative coupling. When transfer takes place from an ensemble of donors to an acceptor, a cooperative amplification of energy transfer takes place in a wide range of system parameters. (paper)

  20. An Introduction to Graphene Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P.A.D.; Peres, N. M. R.

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving...... the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field....

  1. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  2. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  3. Coupled nanopillar waveguides: optical properties and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    , while guided modes dispersion is strongly affected by the waveguide structure. We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of coupled nanopillar waveguides and discuss their possible applications for integrated optics. (C) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim......In this paper we review basic properties of coupled periodic and aperiodic nanopillar waveguides. A coupled nanopillar waveguide consists of several rows of periodically or aperiodically placed dielectric rods (pillars). In such a waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection...

  4. Bloch surface wave structures for high sensitivity detection and compact waveguiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umar; Corbett, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Resonant propagating waves created on the surface of a dielectric multilayer stack, called Bloch surface waves (BSW), can be designed for high sensitivity monitoring of the adjacent refractive index as an alternative platform to the metal-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. The resonant wavelength and polarization can be designed by engineering of the dielectric layers unlike the fixed resonance of SPR, while the wide bandwidth low loss of dielectrics permits sharper resonances, longer propagation lengths and thus their use in waveguiding devices. The transparency of the dielectrics allows the excitation and monitoring of surface-bound fluorescent molecules. We review the recent developments in this technology. We show the advantages that can be obtained by using high index contrast layered structures. Operating at 1550 nm wavelengths will allow the BSW sensors to be implemented in the silicon photonics platform where active waveguiding can be used in the realization of compact planar integrated circuits for multi-parameter sensing.

  5. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  6. Plasmon-plasmon coupling in nested fullerenes: photoexcitation of interlayer plasmonic cross modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, Mathew A; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T

    2011-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of a two-layer fullerene-onion system, C 60 -C 240 , strong plasmonic couplings between the nested fullerenes are demonstrated. The resulting hybridization produces four cross-over plasmons generated from the bonding and antibonding mixing of excited charge clouds of individual fullerenes. This suggests the possibility of designing buckyonions exhibiting plasmon resonances with specified properties and may motivate future research to modify the resonances with encaged atoms, molecules or clusters. (fast track communication)

  7. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  8. Graphene plasmonics: physics and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shenyang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmon in graphene possesses many unique properties. It originates from the collective motion of massless Dirac fermions, and the carrier density dependence is distinctively different from conventional plasmons. In addition, graphene plasmon is highly tunable and shows strong energy confinement capability. Most intriguingly, as an atom-thin layer, graphene and its plasmon are very sensitive to the immediate environment. Graphene plasmons strongly couple to polar phonons of the substrate, molecular vibrations of the adsorbates, and lattice vibrations of other atomically thin layers. In this review, we present the most important advances in graphene plasmonics field. The topics include terahertz plasmons, mid-infrared plasmons, plasmon-phonon interactions, and potential applications. Graphene plasmonics opens an avenue for reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces; it is an exciting and promising new subject in the nanophotonics and plasmonics research field.

  9. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  10. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  11. Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015

  12. Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Têtu, Amélie; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index se...

  13. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  14. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  15. Interband optical pulse injection locking of quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J

    2008-07-21

    We experimentally demonstrate optical clock recovery from quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor lasers by interband optical pulse injection locking. The passively mode-locked slave laser oscillating on the ground state or the first excited state transition is locked through the injection of optical pulses generated via the opposite transition bands, i.e. the first excited state or the ground state transition from the hybridly mode-locked master laser, respectively. When an optical pulse train generated via the first excited state from the master laser is injected to the slave laser oscillating via ground state, the slave laser shows an asymmetric locking bandwidth around the nominal repetition rate of the slave laser. In the reverse injection case of, i.e. the ground state (master laser) to the first excited state (slave laser), the slave laser does not lock even though both lasers oscillate at the same cavity frequency. In this case, the slave laser only locks to higher injection rates as compared to its own nominal repetition rate, and also shows a large locking bandwidth of 6.7 MHz.

  16. Interband emission energy in a dilute nitride quaternary semiconductor quantum dot for longer wavelength applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageshwari, P. Uma; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo; Duque, C. A.

    2016-07-01

    Excitonic properties are studied in a strained Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs cylindrical quantum dot. The optimum condition for the desired band alignment for emitting wavelength 1.55 μm is investigated using band anticrossing model and the model solid theory. The band gap and the band discontinuities of a Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs quantum dot on GaAs are computed with the geometrical confinement effect. The binding energy of the exciton, the oscillator strength and its radiative life time for the optimum condition are found taking into account the spatial confinement effect. The effects of geometrical confinement and the nitrogen incorporation on the interband emission energy are brought out. The result shows that the desired band alignment for emitting wavelength 1.55 μm is achieved for the inclusion of alloy contents, y=0.0554% and x=0.339% in Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs quantum dot. And the incorporation of nitrogen and indium shows the red-shift and the geometrical confinement shows the blue-shift. And it can be applied for fibre optical communication networks.

  17. Effect of surface parameter of interband surface mode frequencies of finite diatomic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puszkarski, H.

    1982-07-01

    The surface modes of a finite diatomic chain of alternating atoms (M 1 not= M 2 ) are investigated. The surface force constants are assumed to differ from the bulk ones, with the resulting surface parameter a-tilde identical on both ends of the chain. Criteria, governing the existence of interband surface (IBS) modes with frequencies lying in the forbidden gap between acoustical and optical bulk bands for natural (a = 1) as well as non-natural (a not= 1) surface defect, are analysed by the difference equation method. It is found that the IBS modes localize, depending on the value of the surface parameter a, either at the surface of lighter atoms (if a-tilde is positive), or at that of heavier atoms (if a-tilde is negative). Two, one of no IBS modes are found to exist in the chain depending on the relation between the mass ratio and surface parameter - quantities on which the surface localization increment t-tilde depends. If two modes are present (one acoustical and the other optical), their frequencies are disposed symmetrically with respect to the middle of the forbidden gap, provided the surface defect is natural, or asymmetrically - if it is other than natural. If the localization of the IBS mode exceeds a well defined critical value tsub(c), the mode frequency becomes complex, indicating that the mode undergoes a damping. A comparison of the present results and those obtained by Wallis for the diatomic chain with natural surface defect is also given. (author)

  18. Photocurrent enhancement of graphene photodetectors by photon tunneling of light into surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Alireza; Cumming, Benjamin P.; Gu, Min; Downes, James E.; Coutts, David W.; Dawes, Judith M.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate that surface plasmon resonances excited by photon tunneling through an adjacent dielectric medium enhance the photocurrent detected by a graphene photodetector. The device is created by overlaying a graphene sheet over an etched gap in a gold film deposited on glass. The detected photocurrents are compared for five different excitation wavelengths, ranging from {λ }0=570 {{nm}} to {λ }0=730 {{nm}}. Although the device is not optimized, the photocurrent excited with incident p-polarized light (which excites resonant surface plasmons) is significantly amplified in comparison with that for s-polarized light (without surface plasmon resonances). We observe that the photocurrent is greater for shorter wavelengths (for both s- and p-polarizations) with increased photothermal current. Position-dependent Raman spectroscopic analysis of the optically-excited graphene photodetector indicates the presence of charge carriers in the graphene near the metallic edge. In addition, we show that the polarity of the photocurrent reverses across the gap as the incident light spot moves across the gap. Graphene-based photodetectors offer a simple architecture which can be fabricated on dielectric waveguides to exploit the plasmonic photocurrent enhancement of the evanescent field. Applications for these devices include photodetection, optical sensing and direct plasmonic detection.

  19. Ultrasmooth metallic films with buried nanostructures for backside reflection-mode plasmonic biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, N.C.; Johnson, T.W.; Jose, J.; Otto, L.M. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Biosensing, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Oh, S.H. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Biosensing, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A new plasmonic device architecture based on ultrasmooth metallic surfaces with buried plasmonic nanostructures is presented. Using template-stripping techniques, ultrathin gold films with less than 5 Aa surface roughness are optically coupled to an arbitrary arrangement of buried metallic gratings, rings, and nanodots. As a prototypical example, linear plasmonic gratings buried under an ultrasmooth 20 nm thick gold surface for biosensing are presented. The optical illumination and collection are completely decoupled from the microfluidic delivery of liquid samples due to the backside, reflection-mode geometry. This allows for sensing with opaque or highly scattering liquids. With the buried nanostructure design, high sensitivity and decoupled backside (reflective) optical access are maintained, as with traditional prism-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. In addition, the benefits offered by nanoplasmonic sensors such as spectral tunability and high-resolution, wide-field SPR imaging with normal-incidence epi-illumination that is simple to construct and align are gained as well. Beyond sensing, the buried plasmonic nanostructures with ultrasmooth metallic surfaces can benefit nanophotonic waveguides, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, nanolithography, and optical trapping. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Plasmon-exciton-polariton lasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, M.; Halpin, A.; Fernandez, A. I.; Feist, J.; Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; J. Gomez Rivas,

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanostructures provide a toolkit for the generation of coherent light below the diffraction limit. Plasmonic-based lasing relies on the population inversion of emitters (such as organic fluorophores) along with feedback provided by plasmonic resonances. In this regime, known as weak

  1. Interference effects with surface plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Nikolay Victorovich

    2008-01-01

    A surface plasmon is a purely two-dimensional electromagnetic excitation bound to the interface between metal and dielectric and quickly decaying away from it. A surface plasmon is able to concentrate light on sub-wavelength scales – a feature that is attractive for nano-photonics and integrated

  2. Plasmon holographic experiments: theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeeck, J.; Dyck, D. van; Lichte, H.; Potapov, P.; Schattschneider, P.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical framework is described to understand the results of plasmon holography experiments leading to insight in the meaning of the experimental results and pointing out directions for future experiments. The framework is based on the formalism of mutual intensity to describe how coherence is transferred through an optical system. For the inelastic interaction with the object, an expression for the volume plasmon excitations in a free electron gas is used as a model for the behaviour of aluminium. The formalism leads to a clear graphical intuitive tool for understanding the experiments. It becomes evident that the measured coherence is solely related to the angular distribution of the plasmon scattering in the case of bulk plasmons. After describing the framework, the special case of coherence outside a spherical particle is treated and the seemingly controversial idea of a plasmon with a limited coherence length obtained from experiments is clarified

  3. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  4. Active multiple plasmon-induced transparencies with detuned asymmetric multi-rectangle resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Jicheng; Lu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    The phenomenon of plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) is realized in surface plasmon polariton waveguide at the visible and near-infrared ranges. By adding one and two resonant cavities, the PIT peak(s) was (were) achieved due to destructive interference between the side-coupled rectangle cavity and the bus waveguide. The proposed structures were demonstrated by the finite element method. The simulation results showed that for three rectangle resonators system, not only can we manipulate each single PIT window, but also the double PIT windows simultaneously by adjusting one of the geometrical parameters of the system; for four rectangle resonators system, by changing the widths, the lengths and the refractive index of three cavities simultaneously, we would realize treble PIT peaks and induce an off-to-on PIT optical response. Our novel plasmonic structures and the findings pave the way for new design and engineering of highly integrated optical circuit such as nanoscale optical switching, nanosensor and wavelength-selecting nanostructure.

  5. Design of a compact high-speed optical modulator based on a hybrid plasmonic nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Mehdi; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid plasmonic electro-optic modulator based on a polymer-filled one dimensional photonic crystal nanobeam (1D PhCNB) cavity is proposed here. In the proposed structure the optical intensity modulation is realized by shifting the resonant wavelength of the cavity through electrically tuning the refractive index of the electro-optic polymer in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide. As a result of the subwavelength light confinement in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide and the compact footprint of the 1D PhCNB cavity, the designed modulator has the small overall footprint of 3 . 6 μm2 and the required wavelength shift can be achieved by applying very small actuating power. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations show that the modulation depth of 10.9 dB, and insertion loss of 1.14 dB, along with very high modulation speed of 224 GHz can be achieved in the proposed modulator with very low modulation energy of 0.75 fJ/bit. A comparison between the performance parameters of the proposed modulator and those of previously reported PhCNB based modulators reveals the superior performance of the proposed structure in terms of modulation speed, energy consumption and overall footprint.

  6. Plasmonic percolation: Plasmon-manifested dielectric-to-metal transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huanjun

    2012-08-28

    Percolation generally refers to the phenomenon of abrupt variations in electrical, magnetic, or optical properties caused by gradual volume fraction changes of one component across a threshold in bicomponent systems. Percolation behaviors have usually been observed in macroscopic systems, with most studies devoted to electrical percolation. We report on our observation of plasmonic percolation in Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures. When the Pd volume fraction in the shell consisting of palladium and water approaches the plasmonic percolation threshold, ∼70%, the plasmon of the nanostructure transits from red to blue shifts with respect to that of the unshelled Au nanorod. This plasmonic percolation behavior is also confirmed by the scattering measurements on the individual core-shell nanostructures. Quasistatic theory and numerical simulations show that the plasmonic percolation originates from a positive-to-negative transition in the real part of the dielectric function of the shell as the Pd volume fraction is increased. The observed plasmonic percolation is found to be independent of the metal type in the shell. Moreover, compared to the unshelled Au nanorods with similar plasmon wavelengths, the Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures exhibit larger refractive index sensitivities, which is ascribed to the expulsion of the electric field intensity from the Au nanorod core by the adsorbed Pd nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.

    2016-03-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  8. Plasmonic percolation: Plasmon-manifested dielectric-to-metal transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huanjun; Wang, Feng; Li, Kun; Woo, Katchoi; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Quan; Sun, Ling Dong; Zhang, Xixiang; Lin, Haiqing; YAN, Chunhua

    2012-01-01

    Percolation generally refers to the phenomenon of abrupt variations in electrical, magnetic, or optical properties caused by gradual volume fraction changes of one component across a threshold in bicomponent systems. Percolation behaviors have usually been observed in macroscopic systems, with most studies devoted to electrical percolation. We report on our observation of plasmonic percolation in Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures. When the Pd volume fraction in the shell consisting of palladium and water approaches the plasmonic percolation threshold, ∼70%, the plasmon of the nanostructure transits from red to blue shifts with respect to that of the unshelled Au nanorod. This plasmonic percolation behavior is also confirmed by the scattering measurements on the individual core-shell nanostructures. Quasistatic theory and numerical simulations show that the plasmonic percolation originates from a positive-to-negative transition in the real part of the dielectric function of the shell as the Pd volume fraction is increased. The observed plasmonic percolation is found to be independent of the metal type in the shell. Moreover, compared to the unshelled Au nanorods with similar plasmon wavelengths, the Au nanorod core-Pd shell nanostructures exhibit larger refractive index sensitivities, which is ascribed to the expulsion of the electric field intensity from the Au nanorod core by the adsorbed Pd nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-02-11

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  10. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Yang, Ying-Wei; Jensen, Lasse; Fang, Lei; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Flood, Amar H.; Weiss, Paul S.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  11. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...... index of the waveguide substrate less than the refractive index of the medium covering the waveguiding film (n(water) = 1.33). This is opposed to the conventional waveguide geometry, where the substrate is usually glass or polymers with refractive indices of approximate to1.5. The reverse configuration...... are combined with air-grooved polymer supports to form freestanding single-material polymer waveguides of reverse symmetry capable of guiding light....

  12. Metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina

    This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing applications, with the focus on deep-probe sensing for micron-scale biological objects like bacteria and whole cells. In the last two decades planar metal-clad waveguides have been brieflyintroduced in the literature applied...... for various biosensing applications, however a thorough study of the sensor configurations has not been presented, but is the main subject of this thesis. Optical sensors are generally well suited for bio-sensing asthey show high sensitivity and give an immediate response for minute changes in the refractive...... index of a sample, due to the high sensitivity of optical bio-sensors detection of non-labeled biological objects can be performed. The majority of opticalsensors presented in the literature and commercially available optical sensors are based on evanescent wave sensing, however most of these sensors...

  13. EDITORIAL: Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-03-01

    relationship between plasma electrochemical synthesis and the plasmonic properties of nanoparticles have been limited until now. Yet Kostya Ostrikov and colleagues place particular emphasis on the potential of research at 'the intersection of reactive plasma chemistry and plasmonics'. While navigating the maze of intertwining disciplines that feed into nanotechnology research can be daunting, as this research highlights, great insights and advances may be gained where the different strands of research connect. References [1] Huang X Z, Zhong X X, Lu Y, Li Y S, Rider A E, Furman S A and Ostrikov K 2013 Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles via environment-benign atmospheric microplasma electrochemistry Nanotechnology 24 095604 [2] Sun Y and Xia Y 2002 Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles Science 298 2176-9 [3] Hulteen J C, Treichel D A, Smith M T, Duval M L, Jensen T R and Van Duyne R P 1999 Nanosphere lithography: size-tunable silver nanoparticle and surface cluster arrays J. Phys. Chem. B 103 3854-63 [4] Huang J et al 2007 Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf Nanotechnology 18 105104 [5] Ma K, Cui Q, Liu G, Wu F, Xu S and Shao Y 2011 DNA abasic site-directed formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters for selective nucleobase recognition Nanotechnology 22 305502 [6] Ali M E, Hashim U, Mustafa S, Che Man Y B, Yusop M H M, Bari M F, Islam Kh N and Hasan M F 2011 Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples Nanotechnology 22 195503 [7] Berini P, Olivieri A and Chen C 2012 Thin Au surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detectors on p-Si Nanotechnology 23 444011 [8] Reilly T H III, Van De Lagemaat J, Tenent R C, Morfa A J and Rowlen K L 2008 Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 243304 [9] Bialiayeu A, Bottomley A, Prezgot D, Ianoul A and Albert J 2012 Plasmon-enhanced refractometry using silver nanowire coatings on tilted

  14. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available for waveguides excited by piezoelectric patch actuators. The waveguide is modelled using specially developed waveguide finite elements. These elements are formulated using a complex exponential to describe the wave propagation along the structure and finite...

  15. Plasmonic enhancement of electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Gaponenko, S. V.; Demir, H. V.

    2018-01-01

    Here plasmonic effect specifically on electroluminescence (EL) is studied in terms of radiative and nonradiative decay rates for a dipole near a metal spherical nanoparticle (NP). Contribution from scattering is taken into account and is shown to play a decisive role in EL enhancement owing to pronounced size-dependent radiative decay enhancement and weak size effect on non-radiative counterpart. Unlike photoluminescence where local incident field factor mainly determines the enhancement possibility and level, EL enhancement is only possible by means of quantum yield rise, EL enhancement being feasible only for an intrinsic quantum yield Q0 red-orange range only. Independently of positive effect on quantum yield, metal nanoparticles embedded in an electroluminescent device will improve its efficiency at high currents owing to enhanced overall recombination rate which will diminish manifestation of Auger processes. The latter are believed to be responsible for the known undesirable efficiency droop in semiconductor commercial quantum well based LEDs at higher current. For the same reason plasmonics can diminish quantum dot photodegradation from Auger process induced non-radiative recombination and photoionization thus opening a way to avoid negative Auger effects in emerging colloidal semiconductor LEDs.

  16. Active Plasmonics: Principles, Structures, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nina; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2018-03-28

    Active plasmonics is a burgeoning and challenging subfield of plasmonics. It exploits the active control of surface plasmon resonance. In this review, a first-ever in-depth description of the theoretical relationship between surface plasmon resonance and its affecting factors, which forms the basis for active plasmon control, will be presented. Three categories of active plasmonic structures, consisting of plasmonic structures in tunable dielectric surroundings, plasmonic structures with tunable gap distances, and self-tunable plasmonic structures, will be proposed in terms of the modulation mechanism. The recent advances and current challenges for these three categories of active plasmonic structures will be discussed in detail. The flourishing development of active plasmonic structures opens access to new application fields. A significant part of this review will be devoted to the applications of active plasmonic structures in plasmonic sensing, tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering, active plasmonic components, and electrochromic smart windows. This review will be concluded with a section on the future challenges and prospects for active plasmonics.

  17. Numerical investigation of a tunable band-pass plasmonic filter with a hollow-core ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Amir; Mirnaziry, S. Reza; Sadegh Abrishamian, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a compact nanoscale plasmonic filter which consists of two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a rectangular ring resonator is presented and investigated numerically. The propagating modes of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are studied in this structure. By replacing a portion of the ring core with air, while the outer dimensions of the structure are kept constant, we illustrate the possibility of the redshift of resonant wavelengths in order to tune the resonance modes. This feature is useful for integrated circuits in which we have limitations on the outer dimensions of the filter structure and it is not possible to enlarge the dimension of the ring resonator to reach longer resonant wavelengths. The corresponding results are illustrated by the 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structure has potential applications in plasmonic integrated circuits and can be simply fabricated.

  18. Numerical investigation of a tunable band-pass plasmonic filter with a hollow-core ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setayesh, Amir; Mirnaziry, S Reza; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a compact nanoscale plasmonic filter which consists of two metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a rectangular ring resonator is presented and investigated numerically. The propagating modes of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are studied in this structure. By replacing a portion of the ring core with air, while the outer dimensions of the structure are kept constant, we illustrate the possibility of the redshift of resonant wavelengths in order to tune the resonance modes. This feature is useful for integrated circuits in which we have limitations on the outer dimensions of the filter structure and it is not possible to enlarge the dimension of the ring resonator to reach longer resonant wavelengths. The corresponding results are illustrated by the 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structure has potential applications in plasmonic integrated circuits and can be simply fabricated

  19. Tailored Surfaces/Assemblies for Molecular Plasmonics and Plasmonic Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Pascal; Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2017-06-12

    Molecular plasmonics uses and explores molecule-plasmon interactions on metal nanostructures for spectroscopic, nanophotonic, and nanoelectronic devices. This review focuses on tailored surfaces/assemblies for molecular plasmonics and describes active molecular plasmonic devices in which functional molecules and polymers change their structural, electrical, and/or optical properties in response to external stimuli and that can dynamically tune the plasmonic properties. We also explore an emerging research field combining molecular plasmonics and molecular electronics.

  20. Pulsed Laser Deposition: passive and active waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 438-449 ISSN 0268-1900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PLD * pulsed laser deposition * laser ablation * passive waveguides * active waveguides * waveguide laser * sensors * thin films * butane detection Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  1. All silicon waveguide spherical microcavity coupler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, E; Domenech, J D; Fenollosa, R; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J; Meseguer, F

    2011-02-14

    A coupler based on silicon spherical microcavities coupled to silicon waveguides for telecom wavelengths is presented. The light scattered by the microcavity is detected and analyzed as a function of the wavelength. The transmittance signal through the waveguide is strongly attenuated (up to 25 dB) at wavelengths corresponding to the Mie resonances of the microcavity. The coupling between the microcavity and the waveguide is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically modeled with the help of FDTD calculations.

  2. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  3. Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Li; Hai-Feng, Zhou; Jian-Yi, Yang; Xiao-Qing, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Guided modes in silicene-based waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengzhuo; He, Ying; Yang, Yanfang; Zhang, Huifang

    2018-02-01

    Silicene is a new Dirac-type electron system similar to graphene. A monolayer silicene sheet forms a quantum well induced by an electrostatic potential, which acts as an electron waveguide. The guided modes in the silicene waveguide have been investigated. Electron waves can propagate in the silicene-based waveguide in the cases of Klein tunneling and classical motion. The behavior of the wave function depends on the spin and valley indices. The amplitude of the electron wave function in the silicene waveguide can be controlled by the external electric field. These phenomena may be helpful for the potential applications of silicene-based electronic devices.

  5. Plasmonic Horizon in Gold Nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cynthia; Sivun, Dmitry; Ziegler, Johannes; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Hrelescu, Calin; Klar, Thomas A

    2018-02-14

    An electromagnetic wave impinging on a gold nanosponge coherently excites many electromagnetic hot-spots inside the nanosponge, yielding a polarization-dependent scattering spectrum. In contrast, a hole, recombining with an electron, can locally excite plasmonic hot-spots only within a horizon given by the lifetime of localized plasmons and the speed carrying the information that a plasmon has been created. This horizon is about 57 nm, decreasing with increasing size of the nanosponge. Consequently, photoluminescence from large gold nanosponges appears unpolarized.

  6. Coupled plasmon modes and their localization in graded plasmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.J.; Yakubo, K.; Yu, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmonic waves occur in the subwavelength scale with transverse confinement below the diffraction limit. In this work, we report results of longitudinal localization-delocalization transitions of coupled plasmon modes in graded chains of metallic nanodots. Two graded models are studied: graded index of refraction in the host medium and incremental spacing between the nanoparticles. The coupled plasmon modes in these graded systems exhibit strong localization, showing a tunable passband in finite size systems. These localized modes survive in presence of weak loss in the nanodots. To understand the localization mechanism, we construct equivalent systems of one-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, whose coupling strength or masses are gradually varied from one end to the other, with additional on-site potentials. Confining and transmitting electromagnetic energy in these structures may pave new way for many fruitful applications in plasmonics

  7. Sensing performance analysis on Fano resonance of metallic double-baffle contained MDM waveguide coupled ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Liu, Xiaofei; Di, Yuanjian; Han, Shuaitao; Cui, Xingning; He, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Based on the transmission property and the photon localization characteristic of the surface plasmonic sub-wavelength structure, a metallic double-baffle contained metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide coupled ring resonator is proposed. Like the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), the Fano resonance can be achieved by the interference between the metallic double-baffle resonator and the ring resonator. Based on the coupled mode theory, the transmission property is analyzed. Through the numerical simulation by the finite element method (FEM), the quantitative analysis on the influences of the radius R of the ring and the coupling distance g between the metallic double-baffle resonator and the ring resonator for the figure of merit (FOM) is performed. And after the structure parameter optimization, the sensing performance of the waveguide structure is discussed. The simulation results show that the FOM value of the optimized structure can attain to 5.74 ×104 and the sensitivity of resonance wavelength with refractive index drift is about 825 nm/RIU. The range of the detected refractive index is suitable for all gases. The waveguide structure can provide effective theoretical references for the design of integrated plasmonic devices.

  8. Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.O.

    1993-08-01

    Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder in the presence of the electron-LO-phonon resonance is investigated theoretically. The electron-LO-phonon resonance occurs when the energy spacing between adjacent Stark-ladder levels coincides with the LO-phonon energy. We propose a model describing the polaron effect in a superlattice. Calculations show that the absorption line shape is strongly modified due to the polaron effect under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition. We consider optical phenomena in a normal magnetic field that leads to enhancement of polaron effects. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs

  9. Plasmonic band-stop filter with asymmetric rectangular ring for WDM networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhad, Vahid Foroughi; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh; Abaslou, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a simple asymmetric rectangular band-stop filter based on metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguides. It is shown that the performance of the structure as a filter strongly depends on the asymmetry of the rectangular structure. An analytical model based on the analogy between MDM waveguides and the microwave transmission line is used to calculate the resonance wavelengths and explain the behavior of the filter. The bandwidth of spectra can be easily manipulated by adjusting the topological parameters of the filter. It is also demonstrated that by adjusting the bandwidth, the filter can be used for CWDM standard channels. The filter behavior is verified using the numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The filter is compact and has a footprint of 1 μm × 0.5 μm, which is suitable for integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  10. Regularized quasinormal modes for plasmonic resonators and open cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen; Hughes, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Optical mode theory and analysis of open cavities and plasmonic particles is an essential component of optical resonator physics, offering considerable insight and efficiency for connecting to classical and quantum optical properties such as the Purcell effect. However, obtaining the dissipative modes in normalized form for arbitrarily shaped open-cavity systems is notoriously difficult, often involving complex spatial integrations, even after performing the necessary full space solutions to Maxwell's equations. The formal solutions are termed quasinormal modes, which are known to diverge in space, and additional techniques are frequently required to obtain more accurate field representations in the far field. In this work, we introduce a finite-difference time-domain technique that can be used to obtain normalized quasinormal modes using a simple dipole-excitation source, and an inverse Green function technique, in real frequency space, without having to perform any spatial integrations. Moreover, we show how these modes are naturally regularized to ensure the correct field decay behavior in the far field, and thus can be used at any position within and outside the resonator. We term these modes "regularized quasinormal modes" and show the reliability and generality of the theory by studying the generalized Purcell factor of dipole emitters near metallic nanoresonators, hybrid devices with metal nanoparticles coupled to dielectric waveguides, as well as coupled cavity-waveguides in photonic crystals slabs. We also directly compare our results with full-dipole simulations of Maxwell's equations without any approximations, and show excellent agreement.

  11. An introduction to graphene plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, P A D

    2016-01-01

    This book is meant as an introduction to graphene plasmonics and aims at the advanced undergraduate and graduate students entering the field of plasmonics in graphene. In it different theoretical methods are introduced, starting with an elementary description of graphene plasmonics and evolving towards more advanced topics. This book is essentially self-contained and brings together a number of different topics about the field that are scattered in the vast literature. The text is composed of eleven chapters and of a set of detailed appendices. It can be read in two different ways: Reading only the chapters to get acquainted with the field of plasmonics in graphene or reading the chapters and studying the appendices to get a working knowledge of the topic. The study of the material in this book will bring the students to the forefront of the research in this field.

  12. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Iorsh, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials...

  13. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  14. Excitation of plasmonic waves in metal-dielectric structures by a laser beam using holography principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, A. I.; Merzlikin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    A method for development of gratings for effective excitation of surface plasmonic waves using holography principles has been proposed and theoretically analyzed. For the case of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal, the proposed volume hologram is 1.7 times more effective than the simple grating of slits in the dielectric layer with the optimized period and slits' width. The advantage of the hologram over the optimized grating is in the refractive index distribution that accounts phase relationships between an exciting and an excited waves more correctly. The proposed holographic method is universal. As expected, this can be extended for effective excitation of different types of optical surface waves and modes of optical waveguides.

  15. Design and implementation of optical switches based on nonlinear plasmonic ring resonators: Circular, square and octagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadrdan, Majid; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, all-optical plasmonic switches (AOPS) based on various configurations of circular, square and octagon nonlinear plasmonic ring resonators (NPRR) were proposed and numerically investigated. Each of these configurations consisted of two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a ring resonator (RR). Nonlinear Kerr effect was used to show switching performance of the proposed NPRR. The result showed that the octagon switch structure had lower threshold power and higher transmission ratio than square and circular switch structures. The octagon switch structure had a low threshold power equal to 7.77 MW/cm2 and the high transmission ratio of approximately 0.6. Therefore, the octagon switch structure was an appropriate candidate to be applied in optical integration circuits as an AOPS.

  16. Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor with High Figure of Merit Based on Concentric-Rings Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Han, Yunxin

    2018-01-01

    A plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide coupled with concentric double rings resonator (CDRR) is proposed and investigated numerically. Utilizing the novel supermodes of the CDRR, the FWHM of the resonant wavelength can be modulated, and a sensitivity of 1060 nm/RIU with high figure of merit (FOM) 203.8 is realized in the near-infrared region. The unordinary modes, as well as the influence of structure parameters on the sensing performance, are also discussed. Such plasmonic sensor with simple framework and high optical resolution could be applied to on-chip sensing systems and integrated optical circuits. Besides, the special cases of bio-sensing and triple rings are also discussed. PMID:29300331

  17. Aberration correction in photoemission microscopy and applications in photonics and plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenenkamp, Rolf [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-28

    We report on the design, assembly, operation and application of an aberration-corrected photoemission electron microscope. The instrument used novel hyperbolic mirror-correctors with two and three electrodes that allowed simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. A spatial resolution of 5.4nm was obtained with this instrument in 2009, and 4.7nm in subsequent years. New imaging methodology was introduced involving interferometric imaging of light diffraction. This methodology was applied in nano-photonics and in the characterization of surface-plasmon polaritons. Photonic crystals and waveguides, optical antennas and new plasmonic devices such as routers, localizers and filters were designed and demonstrated using the new capabilities offered by the microscope.

  18. Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Fan; Liang, Gaofeng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L Jay

    2017-10-24

    In this work, a special hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) metamaterial is investigated for plasmonic lithography of period reduction patterns. It is a type II HMM (ϵ ∥ 0) whose tangential component of the permittivity ϵ ∥ is close to zero. Due to the high anisotropy of the type II epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) HMM, only one plasmonic mode can propagate horizontally with low loss in a waveguide system with ENZ HMM as its core. This work takes the advantage of a type II ENZ HMM composed of aluminum/aluminum oxide films and the associated unusual mode to expose a photoresist layer in a specially designed lithography system. Periodic patterns with a half pitch of 58.3 nm were achieved due to the interference of third-order diffracted light of the grating. The lines were 1/6 of the mask with a period of 700 nm and ∼1/7 of the wavelength of the incident light. Moreover, the theoretical analyses performed are widely applicable to structures made of different materials such as silver as well as systems working at deep ultraviolet wavelengths including 193, 248, and 365 nm.

  19. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling

    2015-01-01

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices

  20. Graphene surface plasmon polaritons with opposite in-plane electron oscillations along its two surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Huawei; Ruan, Shuangchen, E-mail: scruan@szu.edu.cn; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong; Li, Irene Ling [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Laser Engineering, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We predict the existence of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode that can be guided by a graphene monolayer, regardless of the sign of the imaginary part of its conductivity. In this mode, in-plane electron oscillations along two surfaces of graphene are of opposite directions, which is very different from conventional SPPs on graphene. Significantly, coating graphene with dielectric films yields a way to guide the SPPs with both sub-wavelength mode widths and ultra-long propagation distances. In particular, the mode characteristics are very sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene, so the graphene-based waveguide can find applications in many optoelectronic devices.

  1. Semiconductors for plasmonics and metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, G.V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals with semiconduct......Plasmonics has conventionally been in the realm of metal-optics. However, conventional metals as plasmonic elements in the near-infrared (NIR) and visible spectral ranges suffer from problems such as large losses and incompatibility with semiconductor technology. Replacing metals...... with semiconductors can alleviate these problems if only semiconductors could exhibit negative real permittivity. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a low loss semiconductor that can show negative real permittivity in the NIR. A comparative assessment of AZO-based plasmonic devices such as superlens and hyperlens...... with their metal-based counterparts shows that AZO-based devices significantly outperform at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. This provides a strong stimulus in turning to semiconductor plasmonics at the telecommunication wavelengths. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)....

  2. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  3. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  4. Systematic Design of Slow Light Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen

    it is vulnerable to manufacturing disorders. This thesis aims to design novel waveguides to alleviate signal distortions and propagation loss using optimization methodologies, and to explore the design robustness with respect to manufacturing imperfections. To alleviate the signal distortions in waveguides...

  5. Discontinuities during UV writing of waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour.......UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour....

  6. Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior

  7. Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was

  8. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  9. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  10. Mass production compatible fabrication techniques of single-crystalline silver metamaterials and plasmonics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Ilya A.; Baburin, Alexander S.; Zverev, Alexander V.; Philippov, Ivan A.; Gabidulin, Aidar R.; Dobronosova, Alina A.; Ryzhova, Elena V.; Vinogradov, Alexey P.; Ivanov, Anton I.; Maklakov, Sergey S.; Baryshev, Alexander V.; Trofimov, Igor V.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.; Orlikovsky, Nikolay A.; Rizhikov, Ilya A.

    2017-08-01

    During last 20 years, great results in metamaterials and plasmonic nanostructures fabrication were obtained. However, large ohmic losses in metals and mass production compatibility still represent the most serious challenge that obstruct progress in the fields of metamaterials and plasmonics. Many recent research are primarily focused on developing low-loss alternative materials, such as nitrides, II-VI semiconductor oxides, high-doped semiconductors, or two-dimensional materials. In this work, we demonstrate that our perfectly fabricated silver films can be an effective low-loss material system, as theoretically well-known. We present a fabrication technology of plasmonic and metamaterial nanodevices on transparent (quartz, mica) and non-transparent (silicon) substrates by means of e-beam lithography and ICP dry etch instead of a commonly-used focused ion beam (FIB) technology. We eliminate negative influence of litho-etch steps on silver films quality and fabricate square millimeter area devices with different topologies and perfect sub-100 nm dimensions reproducibility. Our silver non-damage fabrication scheme is tested on trial manufacture of spasers, plasmonic sensors and waveguides, metasurfaces, etc. These results can be used as a flexible device manufacture platform for a broad range of practical applications in optoelectronics, communications, photovoltaics and biotechnology.

  11. Sub-wavelength plasmonic readout for direct linear analysis of optically tagged DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsanik, Jonathan; Teynor, William; LeBlanc, John; Clark, Heather; Krogmeier, Jeffrey; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This work describes the development and fabrication of a novel nanofluidic flow-through sensing chip that utilizes a plasmonic resonator to excite fluorescent tags with sub-wavelength resolution. We cover the design of the microfluidic chip and simulation of the plasmonic resonator using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software. The fabrication methods are presented, with testing procedures and preliminary results. This research is aimed at improving the resolution limits of the Direct Linear Analysis (DLA) technique developed by US Genomics [1]. In DLA, intercalating dyes which tag a specific 8 base-pair sequence are inserted in a DNA sample. This sample is pumped though a nano-fluidic channel, where it is stretched into a linear geometry and interrogated with light which excites the fluorescent tags. The resulting sequence of optical pulses produces a characteristic "fingerprint" of the sample which uniquely identifies any sample of DNA. Plasmonic confinement of light to a 100 nm wide metallic nano-stripe enables resolution of a higher tag density compared to free space optics. Prototype devices have been fabricated and are being tested with fluorophore solutions and tagged DNA. Preliminary results show evanescent coupling to the plasmonic resonator is occurring with 0.1 micron resolution, however light scattering limits the S/N of the detector. Two methods to reduce scattered light are presented: index matching and curved waveguides.

  12. Plasmonic Nanostructure for Enhanced Light Absorption in Ultrathin Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinna He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of thin film solar cells are considerably limited by the low light absorption. Plasmonic nanostructures have been introduced in the thin film solar cells as a possible solution around this issue in recent years. Here, we propose a solar cell design, in which an ultrathin Si film covered by a periodic array of Ag strips is placed on a metallic nanograting substrate. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed structure gives rise to 170% light absorption enhancement over the full solar spectrum with respect to the bared Si thin film. The excited multiple resonant modes, including optical waveguide modes within the Si layer, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR of Ag stripes, and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP arising from the bottom grating, and the coupling effect between LSPR and SPP modes through an optimization of the array periods are considered to contribute to the significant absorption enhancement. This plasmonic solar cell design paves a promising way to increase light absorption for thin film solar cell applications.

  13. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...

  14. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  15. Disorder-driven metal-insulator-transition assisted by interband Coulomb repulsion in a surface transfer doped electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Sánchez-Royo, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The two-dimensional conducting properties of the Si(111) \\sqrt {3} \\times \\sqrt {3} surface doped by the charge surface transfer mechanism have been calculated in the frame of a semiclassical Drude-Boltzmann model considering donor scattering mechanisms. To perform these calculations, the required values of the carrier effective mass were extracted from reported angle-resolved photoemission results. The calculated doping dependence of the surface conductance reproduces experimental results reported and reveals an intricate metallization process driven by disorder and assisted by interband interactions. The system should behave as an insulator even at relatively low doping due to disorder. However, when doping increases, the system achieves to attenuate the inherent localization effects introduced by disorder and to conduct by percolation. The mechanism found by the system to conduct appears to be connected with the increasing of the carrier effective mass observed with doping, which seems to be caused by interband interactions involving the conducting band and deeper ones. This mass enhancement reduces the donor Bohr radius and, consequently, promotes the screening ability of the donor potential by the electron gas.

  16. Combined influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on interband emission energy of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com

    2016-11-01

    We explore the profiles of interband emission energy (IEE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) and in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In this regard, modulation of IEE by the variation of several other relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential and aluminium concentration has also been investigated. Gradual alteration of HP and T affects IEE discernibly. Inclusion of noise has been found to enhance or deplete the IEE depending upon its mode of application. Moreover, under given conditions of temperature and pressure, the difference between the impurity-free ground state energy and the binding energy appears to be crucial in determining whether or not the profiles of IEE would resemble that of binding energy. The findings reveal fascinating role played by noise in tailoring the IEE of doped QD system under conspicuous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature. - Highlights: • Interband emission energy (IEE) of doped quantum dot is studied. • Hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) affect IEE. • The dot is subjected to Gaussian white noise. • Noise amplifies and suppresses IEE depending on particular condition.

  17. Photonic waveguides theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the principles of non-linear integrated optics. The first objective is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of integrated optics so that they may be able to develop the theoretical and experimental tools to study and control the linear and non-linear optical properties of waveguides.The potential use of these structures can then be determined in order to realize integrated optical components for light modulation and generation. The theoretical models are accompanied by experimental tools and their setting in order to characterize the studied phenomenon. Th

  18. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  19. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  20. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...

  1. Silicon Photonic Waveguides for Near- and Mid-Infrared Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, S.; Milosevic, M.; Timotijevic, B.; Yang, P. Y.; Teo, E. J.; Crnjanski, J.; Matavulj, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2007-11-01

    The basic building block of every photonic circuit is a waveguide. In this paper we investigate the most popular silicon waveguide structures in the form of a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. We also analyse two structures that can find applications in mid- and long-wave infrared regions: free-standing and hollow core omnidirectional waveguides.

  2. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen Ben

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  3. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-15

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  4. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-01

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  5. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  6. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-04-13

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.

  7. Near field plasmon and force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hollander, R.B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A scanning plasmon near field optical microscope (SPNM) is presented which combines a conventional far field surface plasmon microscope with a stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM). Near field plasmon and force images are recorded simultaneously both with a lateral resolution limited by the

  8. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  9. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  10. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-06-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ( E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ( E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  11. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ(E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ(E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  12. Nonlinear optical waveguides produced by MeV ion implantation in LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, S.S.; Curley, M.J.; Williams, E.K.; Ila, D.; Svetchnikov, V.L.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Zykov, G.A.; Banks, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze microstructure, linear and nonlinear optical properties of planar waveguides produced by implantation of MeV Ag ions into LiNbO 3 . Linear optical properties are described by the parameters of waveguide propagation modes and optical absorption spectra. Nonlinear properties are described by the nonlinear refractive index. Operation of the implanted crystal as an optical waveguide is due to modification of the linear refractive index of the implanted region. The samples as implanted do not show any light-guiding. The implanted region has amorphous and porous microstructure with the refractive index lower than the substrate. Heat treatment of the implanted samples produces planar light-guiding layer near the implanted surface. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals re-crystallization of the host between the surface and the nuclear stopping region in the form of randomly oriented crystalline grains. They make up a light-guiding layer isolated from the bulk crystal by the nuclear stopping layer with low refractive index. Optical absorption of the sample as implanted has a peak at 430 nm. This peak is due to the surface plasmon resonance in nano-clusters of metallic silver. Heat treatment of the samples shifts the absorption peak to 545 nm. This is more likely due to the increase of the refractive index back to the value for the crystalline LiNbO 3 . The nonlinear refractive index of the samples at 532 nm (of the order of 10 -10 cm 2 W -1 ) was measured with the Z-scan technique using a picosecond laser source. Possible applications of the waveguides include ultra-fast photonic switches and modulators

  13. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  14. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity ε and permeability μ are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide

  15. A self-repairing polymer waveguide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young J; Peters, Kara J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental demonstrations of a self-repairing strain sensor waveguide created by self-writing in a photopolymerizable resin system. The sensor is fabricated between two multi-mode optical fibers via lightwaves in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range and operates as a sensor through interrogation of the power transmitted through the waveguide in the infrared (IR) wavelength range. After failure of the sensor occurs due to loading, the waveguide re-bridges the gap between the two optical fibers through the UV resin. The response of the original sensor and the self-repaired sensor to strain are measured and show similar behaviors

  16. The waveguide Free-Electron Laser. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The general characteristics of free-electron lasers (FELs) which employ a waveguiding structure to confine electromagnetic fields and to couple them to the electron beam is discussed. The mode structure of the basic parallel plate waveguide and its adaptation via quasi-optical techniques to FEL resonator design are considered in detail. A summary of the theory of FEL systems which depend intrinsically on a guide structure (micro-undulator, Cerenkov and metal-grating FELs) and a review of progress on waveguide FEL experiments are also presented. (author). 44 refs.; 16 figs

  17. Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing

    2010-04-01

    Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.

  18. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered...... with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic...

  19. Active resonance tuning of stretchable plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Active resonance tuning is highly desired for the applications of plasmonic structures, such as optical switches and surface enhanced Raman substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the active tunable plasmonic structures, which composed of monolayer arrays of metallic semishells with dielectric...... cores on stretchable elastic substrates. These composite structures support Bragg-type surface plasmon resonances whose frequencies are sensitive to the arrangement of the metallic semishells. Under uniaxial stretching, the lattice symmetry of these plasmonic structures can be reconfigured from...... applications of the stretch-tunable plasmonic structures in sensing, switching, and filtering....

  20. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  1. Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvik, Jan; Dolnak, Ivan; Dado, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Grating couplers are one of the most used elements for coupling of light between optical fibers and photonic integrated components. Silicon-on-insulator platform provides strong confinement of light and allows high integration. In this work, using simulations we have designed a broadband silicon nitride surface grating coupler. The Fourier-eigenmode expansion and finite difference time domain methods are utilized in design optimization of grating coupler structure. The fully, single etch step grating coupler is based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer with 0.55 μm waveguide Si3N4 layer. The optimized structure at 1550 nm wavelength yields a peak coupling efficiency -2.6635 dB (54.16%) with a 1-dB bandwidth up to 80 nm. It is promising way for low-cost fabrication using complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor fabrication process.

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina GRIDINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Performed in this paper is numerical modeling of the angular dependence for light reflectivity R(F in surface plasmon-polariton resonance (SPR realized in Kretschmann geometry when studying the interface gold/suspension of spherical particles (cells in the assumption that the dielectric permittivity of particles suspension is described by the theory of effective medium. It has been shown that availability of suspended particles in solution inevitably results in appearance of an intermediate layer with the ε gradient between gold surface and suspension bulk, as a result of which the SPR angle shifts to lower values. Near the critical angle, the first derivative dR/dF demonstrates a clearly pronounced peak, which allows determining the value for suspension bulk and the gradient in the intermediate layer. Obtained in our experiments were SPR curves for two suspensions of erythrocytes – the dense one (erythrocyte mass after centrifuging and loose solution (whole blood. In the case of erythrocyte mass, fitting the experimental and calculated curves enabled us to quantitatively determine the bulk value for this erythrocyte mass (εb =1.96, thickness of the intermediate layer dm (300…400 nm and gradient in the intermediate layer. On the contrary, the SPR curve for whole blood appeared to be close to that of pure plasma. This fact allows only estimation of the thickness dm~2000...3000 nm as well as minimum ε value in the intermediate layer, which is close to that of plasma (ε = 1.79. Also, discussed is the mechanism of influence of the cell shape near the gold surface on the SPR effect.

  3. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A V; Valov, P M; Sukhanov, V L; Tuchkevich, V V; Shmidt, N M [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1980-05-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO/sub 2/-laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO/sub 2/-laser irradiation.

  4. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.V.; Valov, P.M.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Tuchkevich, V.V.; Shmidt, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO 2 -laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO 2 -laser irradiation

  5. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Aleksandr [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    Next generation ultrabright light sources will operate at megahertz repetition rates with temporal resolution in the attosecond regime. For an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) to operate at such repetition rate requires a high quantum efficiency (QE) cathode to produce electron bunches of 300 pC per 1.5 μJ incident laser pulse. Semiconductor photocathodes have sufficient QE in the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible spectrum, however, they produce picosecond electron pulses due to the electron-phonon scattering. On the other hand, metals have two orders of magnitude less QE, but can produce femtosecond pulses, that are required to form the optimum electron distribution for high efficiency FEL operation. In this work, a novel metallic photocathode design is presented, where a set of nano-cavities is introduced on the metal surface to increase its QE to meet the FEL requirements, while maintaining the fast time response. Photoemission can be broken up into three steps: (1) photon absorption, (2) electron transport to the surface, and (3) crossing the metal-vacuum barrier. The first two steps can be improved by making the metal completely absorbing and by localizing the fields closer to the metal surface, thereby reducing the electron travel distance. Both of these effects can be achieved by coupling the incident light to an electron density wave on the metal surface, represented by a quasi-particle, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The photoemission then becomes a process where the photon energy is transferred to an SPP and then to an electron. The dispersion relation for the SPP defines the region of energies where such process can occur. For example, for gold, the maximum SPP energy is 2.4 eV, however, the work function is 5.6 eV, therefore, only a fourth order photoemission process is possible. In such process, four photons excite four plasmons that together excite only one electron. The yield of such non-linear process depends strongly on the light intensity. In

  6. Ultraconfined Plasmonic Hotspots Inside Graphene Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Foley, J J; Gannett, W; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Ni, G X; Zettl, A; Fogler, M M; Wiederrecht, G P; Gray, S K; Basov, D N

    2016-12-14

    We report on a nanoinfrared (IR) imaging study of ultraconfined plasmonic hotspots inside graphene nanobubbles formed in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. The volume of these plasmonic hotspots is more than one-million-times smaller than what could be achieved by free-space IR photons, and their real-space distributions are controlled by the sizes and shapes of the nanobubbles. Theoretical analysis indicates that the observed plasmonic hotspots are formed due to a significant increase of the local plasmon wavelength in the nanobubble regions. Such an increase is attributed to the high sensitivity of graphene plasmons to its dielectric environment. Our work presents a novel scheme for plasmonic hotspot formation and sheds light on future applications of graphene nanobubbles for plasmon-enhanced IR spectroscopy.

  7. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  8. Progress on erbium-doped waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Berendt, Martin Ole; Broeng, Jes

    1997-01-01

    The recent development in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and fiber lasers is reviewed. Also the latest results on planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and high erbium concentration characterisation methods are presented...

  9. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  10. Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Marchewka, Astrid; Kurz, Heinrich

    2006-10-01

    A new type of dielectric THz waveguide based on recent approaches in the field of integrated optics is presented with theoretical and experimental results. Although the guiding mechanism of the low-index discontinuity (LID) THz waveguide is total internal reflection, the THz wave is predominantly confined in the virtually lossless low-index air gap within a high-index dielectric waveguide due to the continuity of electric flux density at the dielectric interface. Attenuation, dispersion and single-mode confinement properties of two LID structures are discussed and compared with other THz waveguide solutions. The new approach provides an outstanding combination of high mode confinement and low transmission losses currently not realizable with any other metal-based or photonic crystal approach. These exceptional properties might enable the breakthrough of novel integrated THz systems or endoscopy applications with sub-wavelength resolution.

  11. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  12. Unique lasing mechanism of localized dispersive nanostructures in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dash broad interband laser

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, C. L.

    2010-02-11

    The authors report on the nanowires-like and nanodots-like lasing behaviors in addition to multiple-wavelength interband transitions from InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dash (Qdash) lasers in the range of ~1550 nm. The presence of lasing actions simultaneously from two different dash ensembles, after postgrowth intermixing for crystalline quality improvement, indicate the absence of optical phonon emission due to the small variation in quantized interband transition energies. This effect is reproducible and shows different lasing characteristics from its quantum dot and quantum wire laser counterparts. Furthermore, the small energy spacing of only 25 nm (at center lasing wavelength of ~1550 nm) and the subsequent quenching of higher energy transition states at higher bias level in Qdash lasers suggest the absence of excited-state transition in highly inhomogeneous self-assembled Qdash structures. However, the appearance of a second lasing line in a certain range of high injection level, which is due to the presence of different sizes of dash assembles, corresponds to the transition from smaller size of Qdash ensembles in different planar active medium. This unique transition mechanism will affect the carrier dynamics, relaxation process in particular and further indicates localized finite carrier lifetime in all sizes of Qdash ensembles. These phenomena will lead to important consequences for the ground-state lasing efficiency and frequency modulation response of Qdash devices. In addition, these imply that proper manipulation of the Qdash ensembles will potentially result in localized nanolasers from individual ensemble and thus contributing towards enormously large envelope lasing coverage from semiconductor devices.

  13. Hybrid numerical calculation method for bend waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier , Lucas; Saavedra , C.; Castro-Beltran , Rigoberto; Lucio , José Luis; Bêche , Bruno

    2017-01-01

    National audience; The knowledge of how the light will behave in a waveguide with a radius of curvature becomes more and more important because of the development of integrated photonics, which include ring micro-resonators, phasars, and other devices with a radius of curvature. This work presents a numerical calculation method to determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of curved waveguides. This method is a hybrid method which uses at first conform transformation of the complex plane gene...

  14. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  15. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  16. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  17. Light trapping with plasmonic back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2013-02-08

    intuitive perspective of geometrical optics as well as from the perspective of leaky waveguides. The obtained excellent agreement between the measured and simulated spectral response of the prototype solar cells allowed a simulation based optimization of the geometric parameters of the plasmonic reflection grating back contact. An additional large improvement potential for thin-film silicon solar cells with plasmonic reflection grating back contacts is shown. It shall be highlighted that the demonstrated light-trapping effect of plasmonic reflection grating back contacts is the first experimental proof that plasmonic nanostructures can induce a light-trapping effect competitive with the state-of-the-art random texture for light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. Improved plasmonic reflection grating back contacts are expected to induce a further improved light-trapping effect which leads to significantly improved energy conversion efficiencies.

  18. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  19. Concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    1994-01-01

    A critical key point of the ITER IC antenna is ceramics support of an internal conductor of a coaxial antenna feeder close to the plasma, because dielectric loss tangent of ceramics enhanced due to neutron irradiation limits significantly the antenna injection power. This paper presents a ceramics-free waveguide to overcome this problem by a T-shaped ridged waveguide with arms for the mechanical support. This ridged waveguide has a low cutoff frequency for its small cross section, which has been proposed for the conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) IC system and the high frequency supplementary IC system for ITER. This paper presents the concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide consisting of the coaxial-line and the ridged waveguide. This paper also presents the cutoff frequency and the electric field distribution of the ridged waveguide calculated by a finite element method and an approximate method. The power handling capability more than 3 MW is evaluated by using the transmission-line theory and the optimized antenna impedance considering the ITER plasma parameters. We verify this transmission-line model by one-tenth scale models experimentally. (author)

  20. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...